Science.gov

Sample records for electric impedance

  1. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  2. Electrical impedance of FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. S.

    1972-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of FCC are investigated in the context of multiple transmission lines theory. Analytical expressions for the coefficients of capacitance of conductors in a single cable are obtained. Numerical values calculated with these expressions are in good agreement with experimental data. Crosstalk, attenuation constants and phase angles of the current and voltage in flat conductor cable are also calculated.

  3. Calibration of electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    2000-05-01

    Over the past 10 years we have developed methods for imaging the electrical resistivity of soil and rock formations. These technologies have been called electrical resistance tomography of ERT (e.g. Daily and Owen, 1991). Recently we have been striving to extend this capability to include images of electric impedance--with a new nomenclature of electrical impedance tomography or EIT (Ramirez et al., 1999). Electrical impedance is simply a generalization of resistance. Whereas resistance is the zero frequency ratio of voltage and current, impedance includes both the magnitude and phase relationship between voltage and current at frequency. This phase and its frequency behavior is closely related to what in geophysics is called induced polarization or (Sumner, 1976). Why is this phase or IP important? IP is known to be related to many physical phenomena of importance so that image of IP will be maps of such things as mineralization and cation exchange IP (Marshall and Madden, 1959). Also, it is likely that IP, used in conjunction with resistivity, will yield information about the subsurface that can not be obtained by either piece of information separately. In order to define the accuracy of our technologies to image impedance we have constructed a physical model of known impedance that can be used as a calibration standard. It consists of 616 resistors, along with some capacitors to provide the reactive response, arranged in a three dimensional structure as in figure 1. Figure 2 shows the construction of the network and defines the coordinate system used to describe it. This network of components is a bounded and discrete version of the unbounded and continuous medium with which we normally work (the subsurface). The network has several desirable qualities: (1) The impedance values are known (to the accuracy of the component values). (2) The component values and their 3D distribution is easily controlled. (3) Error associated with electrode noise is eliminated. (4

  4. Noncontact scanning electrical impedance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongze; Hawkins, Aaron; Schultz, Stephen; Oliphant, Travis E

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in applying electrical impedance imaging to a single cell because it has potential to reveal both cell anatomy and cell function. Unfortunately, classic impedance imaging techniques are not applicable to this small scale measurement due to their low resolution. In this paper, a different method of impedance imaging is developed based on a noncontact scanning system. In this system, the imaging sample is immersed in an aqueous solution allowing for the use of various probe designs. Among those designs, we discuss a novel shield-probe design that has the advantage of better signal-to-noise ratio with higher resolution compared to other probes. Images showing the magnitude of current for each scanned point were obtained using this configuration. A low-frequency linear physical model helps to relate the current to the conductivity at each point. Line-scan data of high impedance contrast structures can be shown to be a good fit to this model. The first two-dimensional impedance image of biological tissues generated by this technique is shown with resolution on the order of 100 mum. The image reveals details not present in the optical image. PMID:17271930

  5. Electrical Impedance Tomography of Electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to explore the hypothesis that changes in pH during electrolysis can be detected with Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). The study has relevance to real time control of minimally invasive surgery with electrolytic ablation. To investigate the hypothesis, we compare EIT reconstructed images to optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar gel phantom treated with electrolysis. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E.Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of EIT to image pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E.coli model. The results are promising, and invite further experimental explorations. PMID:26039686

  6. Possibilities of electrical impedance tomography in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Trokhanova O.; A, Chijova Y.; B, Okhapkin M.; V, Korjenevsky A.; S, Tuykin T.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes results of comprehensive EIT diagnostics of mammary glands and cervix. The data were obtained from examinations of 170 patients by EIT system MEM (multi-frequency electrical impedance mammograph) and EIT system GIT (gynecological impedance tomograph). Mutual dependence is discussed.

  7. Measurements of electrical impedance of biomedical objects.

    PubMed

    Frączek, Marcin; Kręcicki, Tomasz; Moron, Zbigniew; Krzywaźnia, Adam; Ociepka, Janusz; Rucki, Zbigniew; Szczepanik, Zdzisław

    2016-01-01

    Some basic problems related to measurements of electrical impedance of biological objects (bioimpedance) have been presented in this paper. Particularly problems arising from impedance occurring at the sensor-tissue interface (interfacial impedances) in contact measuring methods have been discussed. The influence of finite values of impedances of the current source and voltage measuring device has also been taken into consideration. A model of the impedance sensor for the four-electrode measurement method containing the interfacial, source and measuring device impedances has been given and its frequency characteristics obtained by the computer simulation have been presented. The influence of these impedances on the shape of frequency characteristic of the sensor model has been discussed. Measurements of bioimpedance of healthy and anomalous soft tissues have been described. Some experimental results, particularly the frequency characteristics of bioimpedance, have been shown. The presented results of measurement show that bioimpedance can be a valuable source of information about the tissues, so measurement of bioimpedance can be a useful supplement to other medical diagnostic methods. PMID:27151250

  8. Non-contact scanning electrical impedance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongze; Hawkins, Aaron; Schultz, Stephen; Oliphant, Travis

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in applying electrical impedance imaging to a single cell because it has potential to reveal both cell anatomy and cell function. Unfortunately, classic impedance imaging techniques are not applicable to this small scale measurement due to their low resolution. In this paper, a different method of impedance imaging is developed based on a non-contact scanning system. In this system, the imaging sample is immersed in an aqueous solution allowing for the use of various probe designs. Among those designs, we discuss a novel shield-probe design that has the advantage of better signal-to-noise ratio with higher resolution compared to other probes. Images showing the magnitude of current for each scanned point were obtained using this configuration. A low-frequency linear physical model helps to relate the current to the conductivity at each point. Line-scan data of high impedance contrast structures can be shown to be a good fit to this model. The first two-dimensional impedance image of biological tissues generated by this technique is shown with resolution on the order of 100 mum. The image reveals details not present in the optical image. PMID:17271931

  9. Arts of electrical impedance tomographic sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mi; Wang, Qiang; Karki, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews governing theorems in electrical impedance sensing for analysing the relationships of boundary voltages obtained from different sensing strategies. It reports that both the boundary voltage values and the associated sensitivity matrix of an alternative sensing strategy can be derived from a set of full independent measurements and sensitivity matrix obtained from other sensing strategy. A new sensing method for regional imaging with limited measurements is reported. It also proves that the sensitivity coefficient back-projection algorithm does not always work for all sensing strategies, unless the diagonal elements of the transformed matrix, ATA, have significant values and can be approximate to a diagonal matrix. Imaging capabilities of few sensing strategies were verified with static set-ups, which suggest the adjacent electrode pair sensing strategy displays better performance compared with the diametrically opposite protocol, with both the back-projection and multi-step image reconstruction methods. An application of electrical impedance tomography for sensing gas in water two-phase flows is demonstrated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185968

  10. Arts of electrical impedance tomographic sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mi; Wang, Qiang; Karki, Bishal

    2016-06-28

    This paper reviews governing theorems in electrical impedance sensing for analysing the relationships of boundary voltages obtained from different sensing strategies. It reports that both the boundary voltage values and the associated sensitivity matrix of an alternative sensing strategy can be derived from a set of full independent measurements and sensitivity matrix obtained from other sensing strategy. A new sensing method for regional imaging with limited measurements is reported. It also proves that the sensitivity coefficient back-projection algorithm does not always work for all sensing strategies, unless the diagonal elements of the transformed matrix, A(T)A, have significant values and can be approximate to a diagonal matrix. Imaging capabilities of few sensing strategies were verified with static set-ups, which suggest the adjacent electrode pair sensing strategy displays better performance compared with the diametrically opposite protocol, with both the back-projection and multi-step image reconstruction methods. An application of electrical impedance tomography for sensing gas in water two-phase flows is demonstrated. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185968

  11. Electrical impedance tomography: so close to touching the holy grail

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is a new technology giving us lung imaging that may allow lung function to be monitored at the bedside. Several applications have been studied to guide mechanical ventilation at the bedside with electrical impedance tomography. Positive end-expiratory pressure trials guided by electrical impedance tomography are relevant in terms of recruited volume or homogeneity of the lung. Tidal impedance variation is a new parameter of electrical impedance tomography that may help physicians with ventilator settings in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. This parameter is able to identify the onset of overdistention in the nondependent part and recruitment in the dependent part. Electrical impedance tomography presents a big step forward in mechanical ventilation. PMID:25041593

  12. Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenru; Wang, Huaxiang; Xue, Qian; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L1 norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts. PMID:27036798

  13. Protein Aggregation Measurement through Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affanni, A.; Corazza, A.; Esposito, G.; Fogolari, F.; Polano, M.

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology to measure the fibril formation in protein solutions. We designed a bench consisting of a sensor having interdigitated electrodes, a PDMS hermetic reservoir and an impedance meter automatically driven by calculator. The impedance data are interpolated with a lumped elements model and their change over time can provide information on the aggregation process. Encouraging results have been obtained by testing the methodology on K-casein, a protein of milk, with and without the addition of a drug inhibiting the aggregation. The amount of sample needed to perform this measurement is by far lower than the amount needed by fluorescence analysis.

  14. Diagnostic criteria for mass lesions differentiating in electrical impedance mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karpov; M, Korotkova

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the diagnostic criteria for differentiating volumetric lesions in the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography. The research was carried out utilizing the electrical impedance computer mammograph llMEIK v.5.6gg®, which enables to acquire images of 3-D conductivity distribution layers within mamma's tissues up to 5 cm depth. The weighted reciprocal projection method was employed to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. The results of 3,710 electrical impedance examinations were analyzed. The analysis of a volumetric lesion included assessment of its shape, contour, internal electrical structure and changes of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, mammary gland status was evaluated with the help of comparative and age-related electrical conductivity curves. The diagnostic chart is provided. Each criterion is measured in points. Using the numerical score for evaluation of mass and non-volumetric lesions within the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography allowed comparing this information to BI-RADS categories developed by American College of Radiology experts. The article is illustrated with electrical impedance mammograms and tables.

  15. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional tomographic imaging of the human body using impedance mapping. This technology can be developed to evaluate health risks and provide appropriate medical care on the ISS, during space travel and on the ground.

  16. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  17. Statistical Properties of Antenna Impedance in an Electrically Large Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    WARNE,LARRY K.; LEE,KELVIN S.H.; HUDSON,H. GERALD; JOHNSON,WILLIAM A.; JORGENSON,ROY E.; STRONACH,STEPHEN L.

    2000-12-13

    This paper presents models and measurements of antenna input impedance in resonant cavities at high frequencies.The behavior of input impedance is useful in determining the transmission and reception characteristics of an antenna (as well as the transmission characteristics of certain apertures). Results are presented for both the case where the cavity is undermoded (modes with separate and discrete spectra) as well as the over moded case (modes with overlapping spectra). A modal series is constructed and analyzed to determine the impedance statistical distribution. Both electrically small as well as electrically longer resonant and wall mounted antennas are analyzed. Measurements in a large mode stirred chamber cavity are compared with calculations. Finally a method based on power arguments is given, yielding simple formulas for the impedance distribution.

  18. Impedance analysis of fibroblastic cell layers measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chun-Min; Ferrier, Jack

    1998-06-01

    Impedance measurements of cell layers cultured on gold electrode surfaces obtained by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing provide morphological information such as junctional resistance and cell-substrate separation. Previously, a model that assumes that cells have a disklike shape and that electric currents flow radially underneath the ventral cell surface and then through the paracellular space has been used to theoretically calculate the impedance of the cell-covered electrode. In this paper we propose an extended model of impedance analysis for cell layers where cellular shape is rectangular. This is especially appropriate for normal fibroblasts in culture. To verify the model, we analyze impedance data obtained from four different kinds of fibroblasts that display a long rectangular shape. In addition, we measure the average cell-substrate separation of human gingival fibroblasts at different temperatures. At temperatures of 37, 22, and 4 °C, the average separation between ventral cell surface and substratum are 46, 55, and 89 nm, respectively.

  19. Microbial Sulfate Reduction Measured by an Automated Electrical Impedance Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical impedance measurements are used to investigate the rates of sulfate reduction by pure cultures of and sediments containing sulfur-reducing bacteria. Changes in the electrical impedance ratios of pure cultures of Desulfovibrio aestuarii and samples of reduced sediments from San Francisco Bay were measured by a Bactometer 32, and sulfate reduction was followed by measuring the incorporation of (S-35) sulfate into metal sulfides. The growth of the bacteria in pure culture is found to result in an increase of 0.2200 in the impedance ratio within 24 h, accompanied by increases in protein, ATP, sulfide and absorptance at 660 nm, all of which are inhibited by the addition of molybdate. Similar responses were observed in the sediments, although impedance ratio responses were not completely inhibited upon the addition of molybdate, due to the presence of nonsulfate-respiring microorganisms. Experiments conducted with sterile media and autoclaved sediments indicate that the presence of H2S together with iron is responsible for the impedance effect, and sulfate reduction rates ranging between 0.85 and 1.78 mmol/l per day are estimated for the sediments by the impedance technique.

  20. The development of algorithms in electrical impedance computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Shie, J R; Li, C J; Lin, J T

    2000-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Computerized Tomography (EICT) is an imaging method to reconstruct the impedance distribution inside of domain through the boundary injected current and display the impedance contrast ratio as an image. This paper concentrates on developing two algorithms to enhance the quality of the conductivity image. The two algorithms are "Fine-Mesh Conversion Method" and "Sub-Domain EICT Method". "Fine-Mesh Conversion Method" is a numerical calibration process to find a coarse mesh impedance network that behaves like a fine mesh network in terms of giving similar voltages under the same current excitations. "Sub-Domain EICT" solves a higher resolution EICT with the cost of a lower resolution EICT by combining "Fine-Mesh Conversion Method", and a Fuzzy Logic Inference Systems (FLIS) classifier. PMID:10834231

  1. Electrical impedance imaging of water distribution in the root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newill, P.; Karadaglić, D.; Podd, F.; Grieve, B. D.; York, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes a technique that is proposed for imaging water transport in and around the root zone of plants using distributed measurements of electrical impedance. The technique has the potential to analyse sub-surface phenotypes, for instance drought tolerance traits in crop breeding programmes. The technical aim is to implement an automated, low cost, instrument for high-throughput screening. Ultimately the technique is targeted at in-field, on-line, measurements. For demonstration purposes the present work considers measurements on laboratory scale rhizotrons housing growing maize plants. Each rhizotron is fitted with 60 electrodes in a rectangular array. To reduce electrochemical effects the capacitively coupled contactless conductivity (C4D) electrodes have an insulating layer on the surface and the resistance of the bulk material is deduced from spectroscopic considerations. Electrical impedance is measured between pairs of electrodes to build up a two-dimensional map. A modified electrical model of such electrodes is proposed which includes the resistive and reactive components of both the insulating layer and the bulk material. Measurements taken on a parallel-plate test cell containing water confirm that the C4D technique is able to measure electrical impedance. The test cell has been used to explore the effects of water content, compaction and temperature on measurements in soil. Results confirm that electrical impedance measurements are very sensitive to moisture content. Impedance fraction changes up to 20% are observed due to compaction up to a pressure of 0.21 kg cm-2 and a temperature fraction sensitivity of about 2%/°C. The effects of compaction and temperature are most significant under dry conditions. Measurements on growing maize reveal the changes in impedance across the rhizotron over a period of several weeks. Results are compared to a control vessel housing only soil.

  2. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline.

  3. Electrical-Impedance-Based Ice-Thickness Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Langley Research Center has developed electrical-impedance-based ice-thickness gauges and is seeking partners and collaborators to commercialize them. When used as parts of active monitoring and diagnostic systems, these gauges make it possible to begin deicing or to take other protective measures before ice accretes to dangerous levels. These gauges are inexpensive, small, and simple to produce. They can be adapted to use on a variety of stationary and moving structures that are subject to accumulation of ice. Examples of such structures include aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, buildings, towers, power lines (see figure), power-generating equipment, water pipes, freezer compartments, and cooling coils. A gauge of this type includes a temperature sensor and two or more pairs of electrically insulated conductors embedded in a surface on which ice could accumulate. The electrical impedances of the pairs of conductors vary with the thickness of any ice that may be present. Somewhat more specifically, when the pairs of conductors are spaced appropriately, the ratio between their impedances is indicative of the thickness of the ice. Therefore, the gauge includes embedded electronic circuits that measure the electrical impedances, plus circuits that process the combination of temperature and impedance measurements to determine whether ice is present and, if so, how thick it is. Of course, in the processing of the impedance measurements, the temperature measurements help the circuitry to distinguish between liquid water and ice. The basic design of a gauge of this type can be adapted to local conditions. For example, if there is a need to monitor ice over a wide range of thickness, then the gauge can include more than two sets of conductors having various spacings.

  4. Cervical cancer detection by electrical impedance in a Colombian setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical properties of normal and neoplastic cervical tissues in a heterogeneous group of 56 Colombian women were studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and a model based on the Generalized Effective-Medium Theory of Induced Polarization (GEMTIP). Differences between the electrical bioimpedance spectra were correlated with cellular and tissue parameters. The analysis performed by the proposed model suggest that the number of different types of cellular layers that form the biological tissue, the intracellular and extracellular conductivity could be used to explain the differences between electrical bioimpedance spectra in normal and neoplastic tissues.

  5. Clinical implementation of electrical impedance tomography with hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, M J; Ryan, T P; Paulsen, K D; Mitchell, S E

    1995-01-01

    We describe the use of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for non-invasive thermal imaging in conjunction with a clinical treatment of a superficial scalp lesion utilizing a spiral microstrip antenna. This is our first reported use of EIT with a clinical hyperthermia treatment and perhaps the first world-wide. The thermal measurements recorded during treatment compare favourably with the images reconstructed from impedance data gathered during heating. A linear relation, measured in phantom material, between the change in temperature with the change in reconstructed impedance was assumed. The average discrepancy between the measured temperature changes with the temperatures reconstructed from the impedance changes was 1.4 degrees C, with the maximum being 8.9 degrees C. These preliminary data suggest that impedance changes can be measured during hyperthermia delivery and temperature estimates based on these observed changes are possible in the clinical setting. These findings also point to the complex, yet critical nature of the impedance versus temperature relationship for tissue in vivo. The reconstructed thermal images may provide complementary information about the overall thermal damage imposed during heating. Based on this initial clinical experience we feel that EIT has great potential as a viable clinical aid in imaging the temperature changes imposed during hyperthermia. PMID:7790730

  6. Damage Diagnosis in Semiconductive Materials Using Electrical Impedance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Richard W.; Hinton, Yolanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent aerospace industry trends have resulted in an increased demand for real-time, effective techniques for in-flight structural health monitoring. A promising technique for damage diagnosis uses electrical impedance measurements of semiconductive materials. By applying a small electrical current into a material specimen and measuring the corresponding voltages at various locations on the specimen, changes in the electrical characteristics due to the presence of damage can be assessed. An artificial neural network uses these changes in electrical properties to provide an inverse solution that estimates the location and magnitude of the damage. The advantage of the electrical impedance method over other damage diagnosis techniques is that it uses the material as the sensor. Simple voltage measurements can be used instead of discrete sensors, resulting in a reduction in weight and system complexity. This research effort extends previous work by employing finite element method models to improve accuracy of complex models with anisotropic conductivities and by enhancing the computational efficiency of the inverse techniques. The paper demonstrates a proof of concept of a damage diagnosis approach using electrical impedance methods and a neural network as an effective tool for in-flight diagnosis of structural damage to aircraft components.

  7. A mathematical model for electrical impedance spectroscopy of zwitterionic hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Feicht, Sarah E; Khair, Aditya S

    2016-08-17

    We report a mathematical model for ion transport and electrical impedance in zwitterionic hydrogels, which possess acidic and basic functional groups that carry a net charge at a pH not equal to the isoelectric point. Such hydrogels can act as an electro-mechanical interface between a relatively hard biosensor and soft tissue in the body. For this application, the electrical impedance of the hydrogel must be characterized to ensure that ion transport to the biosensor is not significantly hindered. The electrical impedance is the ratio of the applied voltage to the measured current. We consider a simple model system, wherein an oscillating voltage is applied across a hydrogel immersed in electrolyte and sandwiched between parallel, blocking electrodes. We employ the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations coupled with acid-base dissociation reactions for the charge on the hydrogel backbone to model the ionic transport across the hydrogel. The electrical impedance is calculated from the numerical solution to the PNP equations and subsequently analyzed via an equivalent circuit model to extract the hydrogel capacitance, resistance, and the capacitance of electrical double layers at the electrode-hydrogel interface. For example, we predict that an increase in pH from the isoelectric point, pH = 6.4 for a model PCBMA hydrogel, to pH = 8 reduces the resistance of the hydrogel by ∼40% and increases the double layer capacitance by ∼250% at an electrolyte concentration of 0.1 mM. The significant impact of charged hydrogel functional groups to the impedance is damped at higher electrolyte concentration. PMID:27464763

  8. Electrical Impedance of Ionic Polymeric Metal Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the use of ionic polymer metal composites such as Nafion-based platinum ionomers have emerged as electroactive polymer materials with great potential for robotics and other applications. An effective activation of these materials requires understanding of their mechanism of operation. Generally, the material needs to be maintained hydrated to assure its electromechanical activity. To allow the control of the response of the material, a study is underway to investigate the electrical response. Particular emphasis is placed on possible electrochemical reactions and deviations from linear dielectric behavior. Currently, efforts are made to determine the necessary drive characteristics of the source to allow low power operation (< or = 1.0 W) of the material as an actuator.

  9. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging.

  10. Bladder Cancer Detection Using Electrical Impedance Technique (Tabriz Mark 1)

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar, Ahmad; Salehnia, Zeinab; Keshtkar, Asghar; Shokouhi, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm in men and the eighth in women. Bladder pathology is usually investigated visually by cystoscopy. In this technique, biopsies are obtained from the suspected area and then, after needed procedure, the diagnostic information can be taken. This is a relatively difficult procedure and is associated with discomfort for the patient and morbidity. Therefore, the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a minimally invasive screening technique, can be used to separate malignant areas from nonmalignant areas in the urinary bladder. The feasibility of adapting this technique to screen for bladder cancer and abnormalities during cystoscopy has been explored and compared with histopathological evaluation of urinary bladder lesions. Ex vivo studies were carried out in this study by using a total of 30 measured points from malignant and 100 measured points from non-malignant areas of patients bladders in terms of their biopsy reports matching to the electrical impedance measurements. In all measurements, the impedivity of malignant area of bladder tissue was significantly higher than the impedivity of non-malignant area this tissue (P < 0.005). PMID:22567538

  11. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years advanced measurement methods have facilitated outstanding achievements not only in medical instrumentation but also in biotechnology. Impedance measurement is a simple and innocuous way to characterize materials. For more than 40 years biological materials, most of them based on cells, have been characterized by means of electrical impedance for quality control of agricultural products, monitoring of biotechnological or food processes or in health care. Although the list of possible applications is long, very few applications successfully entered the market before the turn of the century. This was, on the one hand, due to the low specificity of electrical impedance with respect to other material properties because it is influenced by multiple factors. On the other hand, equipment and methods for many potential applications were not available. With the appearance of microcontrollers that could be easily integrated in applications at the beginning of the 1980s, impedance measurement advanced as a valuable tool in process optimization and lab automation. However, established methods and data processing were mostly used in a new environment. This has changed significantly during the last 10 years with a dramatic growth of the market for medical instrumentation and also for biotechnological applications. Today, advanced process monitoring and control require fast and highly parallel electrical characterization which in turn yields incredible data volumes that must be handled in real time. Many newer developments require miniaturized but precise sensing methods which is one of the main parts of Lab-on-Chip technology. Moreover, biosensors increasingly use impedometric transducers, which are not compatible with the large expensive measurement devices that are common in the laboratory environment. Following the achievements in the field of bioimpedance measurement, we will now witness a dramatic development of new electrode structures and electronics

  12. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years advanced measurement methods have facilitated outstanding achievements not only in medical instrumentation but also in biotechnology. Impedance measurement is a simple and innocuous way to characterize materials. For more than 40 years biological materials, most of them based on cells, have been characterized by means of electrical impedance for quality control of agricultural products, monitoring of biotechnological or food processes or in health care. Although the list of possible applications is long, very few applications successfully entered the market before the turn of the century. This was, on the one hand, due to the low specificity of electrical impedance with respect to other material properties because it is influenced by multiple factors. On the other hand, equipment and methods for many potential applications were not available. With the appearance of microcontrollers that could be easily integrated in applications at the beginning of the 1980s, impedance measurement advanced as a valuable tool in process optimization and lab automation. However, established methods and data processing were mostly used in a new environment. This has changed significantly during the last 10 years with a dramatic growth of the market for medical instrumentation and also for biotechnological applications. Today, advanced process monitoring and control require fast and highly parallel electrical characterization which in turn yields incredible data volumes that must be handled in real time. Many newer developments require miniaturized but precise sensing methods which is one of the main parts of Lab-on-Chip technology. Moreover, biosensors increasingly use impedometric transducers, which are not compatible with the large expensive measurement devices that are common in the laboratory environment. Following the achievements in the field of bioimpedance measurement, we will now witness a dramatic development of new electrode structures and electronics

  13. Some Nonlinear Reconstruction Algorithms for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2001-03-09

    An impedance camera [Henderson and Webster, 1978; Dines and Lytle, 1981]--or what is now more commonly called electrical impedance tomography--attempts to image the electrical impedance (or just the conductivity) distribution inside a body using electrical measurements on its boundary. The method has been used successfully in both biomedical [Brown, 1983; Barber and Brown, 1986; J. C. Newell, D. G. Gisser, and D. Isaacson, 1988; Webster, 1990] and geophysical applications [Wexler, Fry, and Neurnan, 1985; Daily, Lin, and Buscheck, 1987], but the analysis of optimal reconstruction algorithms is still progressing [Murai and Kagawa, 1985; Wexler, Fry, and Neurnan, 1985; Kohn and Vogelius, 1987; Yorkey and Webster, 1987; Yorkey, Webster, and Tompkins, 1987; Berryman and Kohn, 1990; Kohn and McKenney, 1990; Santosa and Vogelius, 1990; Yorkey, 1990]. The most common application is monitoring the influx or efflux of a highly conducting fluid (such as brine in a porous rock or blood in the human body) through the volume being imaged. For biomedical applications, this met hod does not have the resolution of radiological methods, but it is comparatively safe and inexpensive and therefore provides a valuable alternative when continuous monitoring of a patient or process is desired. The following discussion is intended first t o summarize the physics of electrical impedance tomography, then to provide a few details of the data analysis and forward modeling requirements, and finally to outline some of the reconstruction algorithms that have proven to be most useful in practice. Pointers to the literature are provided throughout this brief narrative and the reader is encouraged to explore the references for more complete discussions of the various issues raised here.

  14. Single cell electric impedance topography: mapping membrane capacitance.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sameera; Ayliffe, Harold E; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    Single-cell electric impedance topography (sceTopo), a technique introduced here, maps the spatial distribution of capacitance (i.e. displacement current) associated with the membranes of isolated, living cells. Cells were positioned in the center of a circular recording chamber surrounded by eight electrodes. Electrodes were evenly distributed on the periphery of the recording chamber. Electric impedance measured between adjacent electrode pairs (10 kHz-5 MHz) was used to construct topographical maps of the spatial distribution of membrane capacitance. Xenopus Oocytes were used as a model cell to develop sceTopo because these cells consist of two visually distinguishable hemispheres, each with distinct membrane composition and structure. Results showed significant differences in the imaginary component of the impedance between the two oocyte hemispheres. In addition, the same circumferential array was used to map the size of the extracellular electrical shunt path around the cell, providing a means to estimate the location and shape of the cell in the recording chamber. PMID:19904403

  15. Electrical impedance tomography with an optimized calculable square sensor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang; Wang, Huaxiang; Xu, Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is a technique that reconstructs the medium distribution in a region of interest through electrical measurements on its boundary. In this paper, an optimized square sensor was designed for electrical impedance tomography in order to obtain maximum information over the cross section of interest, e.g., circulating fluidized beds, in the sense of Shannon information entropy. An analytical model of the sensor was obtained using the conformal transformation. The model indicates that the square sensor possesses calculable property, which allows the calculation of standard values of the sensor directly from a single dimensional measurement that can be made traceable to the SI unit of length. Based on the model, the sensitivity maps and electrical field lines can be calculated in less than a second. Two model based algorithms for image reconstruction, i.e., back projection algorithm based on electrical field lines and iterative Lavrentiev regularization algorithm based on the sensitivity map, were introduced. Simulated results and experimental results validate the feasibility of the algorithms. PMID:19044722

  16. Preliminary Results on Different Impedance Contrast Agents for Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging with Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Kosobrodov, R.; Barry, M. A.; Chik, W.; Pouliopoulos, J.; Oh, T. I.; Thiagalingam, A.; McEwan, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies in animal models suggest that the use of small volume boluses of NaCl as an impedance contrast agent can significantly improve pulmonary perfusion imaging by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). However, these studies used highly concentrated NaCl solution (20%) which may have adverse effects on the patients. In a pilot experiment, we address this problem by comparing a number of different Impedance Contrast Boluses (ICBs). Conductivity changes in the lungs of a sheep after the injection of four different ICBs were compared, including three NaCl-based ICBs and one glucose-based ICB. The following procedure was followed for each ICB. Firstly, ventilation was turned off to provide an apneic window of approximately 40s to image the conductivity changes due to the ICB. Each ICB was then injected through a pig-tail catheter directly into the right atrium. EIT images were acquired throughout the apnea to capture the conductivity change. For each ICB, the experiment was repeated three times. The three NaCl-based ICB exhibited similar behaviour in which following the injection of each of these ICBs, the conductivity of each lung predictably increased. The effect of the ICB of 5% glucose solution was inconclusive. A small decrease in conductivity in the left lung was observed in two out of three cases and none was discernible in the right lung.

  17. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m‑1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m‑1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m‑2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m‑2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  18. Optimal multisine excitation design for broadband electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, B.; Vandersteen, G.; Bragos, R.; Schoukens, J.

    2011-11-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can be used to characterize biological materials in applications ranging from cell culture to body composition, including tissue and organ state. The emergence of cell therapy and tissue engineering opens up a new and promising field of application. While in most cases classical measurement techniques based on a frequency sweep can be used, EIS based on broadband excitations enables dynamic biological systems to be characterized when the measuring time and injected energy are a constraint. Myocardial regeneration, cell characterization in micro-fluidic systems and dynamic electrical impedance tomography are all examples of such applications. The weakness of such types of fast EIS measuring techniques resides in their intrinsic loss of accuracy. However, since most of the practical applications have no restriction over the excitation used, the input power spectrum can be appropriately designed to maximize the accuracy obtained from the measurements. This paper deals with the problem of designing the optimal multisine excitation for electrical bioimpedance measurements. The optimal multisine is obtained by the minimization of the Cramer-Rao lower bound, or what is the same, by maximizing the accuracy obtained from the measurements. Furthermore, because no analytical solution exists for global optimization involving time and frequency domains jointly, this paper presents the multisine optimization approach partially in both domains and then combines the results. As regards the frequency domain approach, a novel contribution is made for the multisine amplitude power spectrum. In the time domain, multisine is optimized by reducing its crest factor. Moreover, the impact on the information and accuracy of the impedance spectrum obtained from using different multisine amplitude power spectra is discussed, as well as the number of frequencies and frequency distributions. The theory is supported by a set of validation measurements when

  19. Imaging and characterizing root systems using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemna, A.; Weigand, M.; Kelter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Zimmermann, E.; Walter, A.

    2011-12-01

    Root architecture, growth, and activity play an essential role regarding the nutrient uptake of roots in soils. While in recent years advances could be achieved concerning the modeling of root systems, measurement methods capable of imaging, characterizing, and monitoring root structure and dynamics in a non-destructive manner are still lacking, in particular at the field scale. We here propose electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for the imaging of root systems. The approach takes advantage of the low-frequency capacitive electrical properties of the soil-root interface and the root tissue. These properties are based on the induced migration of ions in an externally applied electric field and give rise to characteristic impedance spectra which can be measured by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy. The latter technique was already successfully applied in the 10 Hz to 1 MHz range by Ozier-Lafontaine and Bajazet (2005) to monitor root growth of tomato. We here apply the method in the 1 mHz to 45 kHz range, requiring four-electrode measurements, and demonstrate its implementation and potential in an imaging framework. Images of real and imaginary components of complex electrical conductivity are computed using a finite-element based inversion algorithm with smoothness-constraint regularization. Results from laboratory measurements on rhizotrons with different root systems (barley, rape) show that images of imaginary conductivity delineate the spatial extent of the root system under investigation, while images of real conductivity show a less clear response. As confirmed by numerical simulations, the latter could be explained by the partly compensating electrical conduction properties of epidermis (resistive) and inner root cells (conductive), indicating the limitations of conventional electrical resistivity tomography. The captured spectral behavior exhibits two distinct relaxation processes with Cole-Cole type signatures, which we interpret as the responses

  20. Using electrical impedance tomography to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.; Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity. EIT can be used to map hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface where measurements of both amplitude and phase are made. Hydraulic conductivity depends on at least two parameters: porosity and a length scale parameter. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) measures and maps electrical conductivity (which can be related to porosity) in three dimensions. By introducing phase measurements along with amplitude, the desired additional measurement of a pertinent length scale can be achieved. Hydraulic conductivity controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the surface. Thus inexpensive maps of hydraulic conductivity would improve planning strategies for subsequent remediation efforts. Fluid permeability is also of importance for oil field exploitation and thus detailed knowledge of fluid permeability distribution in three-dimension (3-D) would be a great boon to petroleum reservoir analysts.

  1. A new method for measuring osteoclast formation by electrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Emori, Haruka; Iwai, Shinichi; Ryu, Kakei; Amano, Hitoshi; Sambe, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Oguchi, Tatsunori; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2015-06-01

    Osteoclasts are important target cells for osteoporosis treatment. Recently, a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system was developed to observe cell morphology and adhesion; however, the use of RTCA to study osteoclastogenesis has not been reported. Here, we investigated whether osteoclast formation could be monitored in real-time using RTCA. The cell index determined via electrical impedance using RTCA, and the number of osteoclasts exhibited a significant positive correlation. RTCA was useful for determining the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the inhibition of bone resorption. We established a new method of measuring osteoclast formation in real-time using RTCA. PMID:26032840

  2. Electrical impedance tomography and the fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikowski, Jutta; Mueller, Jennifer L.

    2004-10-01

    A 3-D linearization-based reconstruction algorithm for Electrical Impedance Tomography suitable for breast cancer detection using data collected on a rectangular array was introduced by Mueller et al. [IEEE Biomed. Eng., 46(11), 1999]. By considering the scenario as an electrostatic problem, it is possible to model the electrodes with various charges, facilitating the use of the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for calculating particle interactions and also supporting the use of different electrode models. In this paper the use of FMM is explained and results in form of reconstructed images from experimental data show that this method is an improvement.

  3. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy as Electrical Biopsy for Monitoring Radiation Sequelae of Intestine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS) by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively. PMID:24093111

  4. Active electrode IC for EEG and electrical impedance tomography with continuous monitoring of contact impedance.

    PubMed

    Guermandi, Marco; Cardu, Roberto; Franchi Scarselli, Eleonora; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The IC presented integrates the front-end for EEG and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) acquisition on the electrode, together with electrode-skin contact impedance monitoring and EIT current generation, so as to improve signal quality and integration of the two techniques for brain imaging applications. The electrode size is less than 2 cm(2) and only 4 wires connect the electrode to the back-end. The readout circuit is based on a Differential Difference Amplifier and performs single-ended amplification and frequency division multiplexing of the three signals that are sent to the back-end on a single wire which also provides power supply. Since the system's CMRR is a function of each electrode's gain accuracy, an analysis is performed on how this is influenced by mismatches in passive and active components. The circuit is fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process and occupies 4 mm(2), the readout circuit consumes 360 μW, the input referred noise for bipolar EEG signal acquisition is 0.56 μVRMS between 0.5 and 100 Hz and almost halves if only EEG signal is acquired. PMID:24860040

  5. Body Fat Measurement: Weighing the Pros and Cons of Electrical Impedance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1985-01-01

    Research technologists have developed electrical impedance units in response to demand for a convenient and reliable method of measuring body fat. Accuracy of impedance measures versus calipers and underwater weighing are discussed. (MT)

  6. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  7. Fully Parallel Electrical Impedance Tomography Using Code Division Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Tsoeu, M S; Inggs, M R

    2016-06-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has been dominated by the use of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) as methods of achieving orthogonal injection of excitation signals. Code Division Multiplexing (CDM), presented in this paper is an alternative that eliminates temporal data inconsistencies of TDM for fast changing systems. Furthermore, this approach eliminates data inconsistencies that arise in FDM when frequency bands of current injecting electrodes are chosen over frequencies that have large changes in the imaged object's impedance. To the authors knowledge no fully functional wideband system or simulation platform using simultaneous injection of Gold codes currents has been reported. In this paper, we formulate, simulate and develop a fully functional pseudo-random (Gold) code driven EIT system with 15 excitation currents and 16 separate voltage measurement electrodes. In the work we verify the use of CDM as a multiplexing modality in simultaneous injection EIT, using a prototype system with an overall bandwidth of 15 kHz, and attainable speed of 462 frames/s using codes with a period of 31 chips. Simulations and experiments are performed using the Electrical Impedance and Diffuse Optics Reconstruction Software (EIDORS). We also propose the use of image processing on reconstructed images to establish their quality quantitatively without access to raw reconstruction data. The results of this study show that CDM can be successfully used in EIT, and gives results of similar visual quality to TDM and FDM. Achieved performance shows average position error of 3.5% and size error of 6.2%. PMID:26731774

  8. Inversion without Explicit Jacobian Calculations in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchard, A.; Bonnet, S.; Hervé, L.; David, O.

    2014-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is the inverse problem of finding the internal conductivity distribution of a medium given boundary electrical measurements performed via an electrode array onto its surface. Conventional inversion schemes adopt Tikhonov regularized Newton-type methods. Following a transport back-transport approach, we develop in this work an adjoint approach which allows reducing computational burden in enabling inversion without explicit Jacobian calculation. Forward and back-projection operators are defined from potential gradients, along with their efficient implementation. These derivations allow the transparent use of inversion algorithms. We first check the implementation of operators. We then evaluate how reconstructions perform on simulated noisy data using a preconditioned conjugate gradient. We eventually practice our inversion framework on experimental data acquired in vitro from a saline phantom.

  9. Field Evaluation of Broadband Electrical Impedance Tomography Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Zimmermann, E.; Treichel, A.; Kemna, A.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range (i.e. mHz to kHz) using spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements have shown great promise to characterize important hydrological properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) and biogeochemical processes. However, translating these findings to field applications remains challenging, and significant improvements in spectral electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are still required to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity with sufficient accuracy in the field. The aim of this study is to present recent improvements in the inversion and processing of broadband field EIT measurements, and to evaluate the accuracy and spectral consistency of the obtained images of the real and imaginary part of the electrical conductivity. In a first case study, time-lapse surface EIT measurements were performed during an infiltration experiment to investigate the spectral complex electrical conductivity as a function of water content. State-of-the-art data processing and inversion approaches were used to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity in a frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 kHz, and integral parameters were obtained using Debye decomposition. Results showed consistent spectral and spatial variation of the phase of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range, and a complex dependence on water saturation that was reasonably consistent with laboratory EIT measurements. In a second case study, borehole EIT measurements were made in a well-characterized aquifer. These measurements were inverted to obtain broadband images of the complex conductivity after correction for inductive and capacitive coupling using recently developed procedures. The results showed good correspondence with reference laboratory SIP measurements in a broad frequency bandwidth up to 1 kHz only after application of the correction procedures.

  10. Fractional Calculus Model of Electrical Impedance Applied to Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vosika, Zoran B.; Lazovic, Goran M.; Misevic, Gradimir N.; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B.

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  11. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    PubMed

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  12. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  13. Determinants of pulmonary perfusion measured by electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Smit, Henk J; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Marcus, J Tim; Boonstra, Anco; de Vries, Peter M; Postmus, Pieter E

    2004-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique for detecting blood volume changes that can visualize pulmonary perfusion. The two studies reported here tested the hypothesis that the size of the pulmonary microvascular bed, rather than stroke volume (SV), determines the EIT signal. In the first study, the impedance changes relating to the maximal pulmonary pulsatile blood volume during systole (Delta Z(sys)) were measured in ten healthy subjects, ten patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who were considered to have a reduced pulmonary vascular bed, and ten heart failure patients with an assumed low cardiac output but with a normal lung parenchyma. Mean Delta Z(sys) (SD) in these groups was 261 (34)x10(-5), 196 (39)x10(-5) ( P<0.001) and 233 (61)x10(-5) arbitrary units (AU) (P=NS), respectively. In the second study, including seven healthy volunteers, Delta Z(sys) was measured at rest and during exercise on a recumbent bicycle while SV was measured by means of magnetic resonance imaging. The Delta Z(sys) at rest was 352 (53)x10(-5 ) and 345 (112)x10(-5 )AU during exercise (P=NS), whereas SV increased from 83 (21) to 105 (34) ml (P<0.05). The EIT signal likely reflects the size of the pulmonary microvascular bed, since neither a low cardiac output nor a change in SV of the heart appear to influence EIT. PMID:14985995

  14. Using electrical impedance spectroscopy to detect water in planetary regoliths.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Suresh; Chin, Keith B; Buehler, Martin G; Anderson, Robert C

    2008-08-01

    We present data in examination of the utility of electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements for in situ surveys to determine the water content, distribution, and phase in unconsolidated planetary regolith. We conducted calibration experiments under conditions relevant to Mars: the concentration of electrolytes in solution was varied up to 1 M to simulate the effects of unsaturated dissolved minerals and brines. We also varied the water content of heterogeneous water/sand mixtures, made with these electrolytic solutions from 0.01 wt% to 10 wt%. Tests were performed at temperatures from +25 degrees C to -65 degrees C. Conductivity and dielectric permittivity calculated from the impedance measurements indicate an expected dependence on electrolyte concentration and relative independence from electrolyte type for both liquid water and water ice. Conductivity and calculated dielectric relaxation times for these aqueous solutions agree with existing data in the literature. The relative permittivity for heterogeneous water/sand mixtures is dominated by polarization effects for the electrode configuration used. However, the characteristic orientational relaxation of ice is still visible. The conductivity retains the strong dependence on electrolyte concentration, and the permittivity is still not affected by electrolyte type. A "universal" curve between conductivity and water content establishes detectability limits of <0.01 wt% and approximately 0.3 wt% for water/sand mixtures containing liquid water and ice, respectively. PMID:18752458

  15. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI perchloroethelyne release

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-10-01

    Goal is to determine if electrical impedance tomography (EIT) might be useful to map free product DNAPL (dense nonaqueous phase liquids) contamination. EIT was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 189 liters (50 gallons) of perchloroethylene (PCE) into a saturated aquifer constructed of sand with two layers of bentonite. Images were made in 4 planes, before, during, and after the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial and temporal development of the plume. Information of the EI (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used at several different frequencies to produce images. Some frequency dispersion was observed in the images before and after the PCE release. Laboratory measurements of organic contamination in soil indicate detectable dispersion. A search for this effect in EIT images reveals weak evidence, the signal appearing just above the measurement uncertainty, of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the PCE.

  16. Automated robust test framework for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Gaggero, Pascal O; Adler, Andy; Waldmann, Andreas D; Mamatjan, Yasin; Justiz, Jörn; Koch, Volker M

    2015-06-01

    An automated test system and procedure is proposed, designed to enable systematic testing of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) devices. The system is designed to calculate reliable, repeatable and accurate performance figures of merit of an EIT system using a saline phantom and an industrial robot arm. Applications of the test system are to compare EIT devices against requirements, or to help optimize a device for its operating parameters. A test methodology and sample test results are presented to illustrate its use. The system is used to compare image quality and contrast detection for a range of stimulation and measurement patterns, and results show the best images when the pair of current injection electrodes is spaced between 45 and 170 degrees on a tank. Finally, we propose a classification of the object detection errors, which can facilitate comparison of EIT instrument specifications. PMID:26009262

  17. Recent progress on the factorization method for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The Factorization Method is a noniterative method to detect the shape and position of conductivity anomalies inside an object. The method was introduced by Kirsch for inverse scattering problems and extended to electrical impedance tomography (EIT) by Brühl and Hanke. Since these pioneering works, substantial progress has been made on the theoretical foundations of the method. The necessary assumptions have been weakened, and the proofs have been considerably simplified. In this work, we aim to summarize this progress and present a state-of-the-art formulation of the Factorization Method for EIT with continuous data. In particular, we formulate the method for general piecewise analytic conductivities and give short and self-contained proofs. PMID:24069064

  18. Toward Microendoscopic Electrical Impedance Tomography for Intraoperative Surgical Margin Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Halter, Ryan J.; Kim, Young-Joong

    2015-01-01

    No clinical protocols are routinely used to intraoperatively assess surgical margin status during prostate surgery. Instead, margins are evaluated through pathological assessment of the prostate following radical prostatectomy, when it is too late to provide additional surgical intervention. An intraoperative device potentially capable of assessing surgical margin status based on the electrical property contrast between benign and malignant prostate tissue has been developed. Specifically, a microendoscopic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) probe has been constructed to sense and image, at near millimeter resolution, the conductivity contrast within heterogeneous biological tissues with the goal of providing surgeons with real-time assessment of margin pathologies. This device consists of a ring of eight 0.6-mm diameter electrodes embedded in a 5-mm diameter probe tip to enable access through a 12-mm laparoscopic port. Experiments were performed to evaluate the volume of tissue sensed by the probe. The probe was also tested with inclusions in gelatin, as well as on a sample of porcine tissue with clearly defined regions of adipose and muscle. The probe's area of sensitivity consists of a circular area of 9.1 mm2 and the maximum depth of sensitivity is approximately 1.5 mm. The probe is able to distinguish between high contrast muscle and adipose tissue on a sub-mm scale (~500 μm). These preliminary results suggest that EIT is possible in a probe designed to fit within a 12-mm laparoscopic access port. PMID:24951675

  19. Transthoracic Electrical Impedance in Cases of High-altitude Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sujoy B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Khan, M. R.; Kaushik, V. S.; Manchanda, S. C.; Guha, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in transthoracic electrical impedance (T.E.I.) due to high-altitude hypoxia (3,658 m) have been measured in 20 young, healthy Indian soldiers. They were first studied at sea level (198 m) and then rapidly transported by air to 3,658 m, where they were studied daily from day 1 to day 5 and then on days 8 and 10. The mean (±S.D.) T.E.I. at sea level (34·6±0·6Ω) fell sharply to 29·6±0·8Ω, 30·3±0·9Ω, and 30·5±1·1Ω on days 1, 2, and 3 (P <0·001) and levelled off at 31·5±0·7Ω on day 10, which was comparable to the mean value obtained in 13 persons permanently resident at high altitude (32·2±0·7Ω). Five sea-level residents who had acute mountain sickness (A.M.S.) or high-altitude pulmonary oedema (H.A.P.O.) had a still lower mean value (22·5±1·1Ω). One normal healthy subject who at sea level had a T.E.I. of 34·7Ω developed H.A.P.O. when the T.E.I. fell to 21·1Ω. Ninety minutes after the administration of 80 mg of intravenous frusemide the value increased to 35·5Ω. In another subject with A.M.S. who received 40 mg of frusemide intravenously the T.E.I. rose from 21·9 to 33·2Ω. Since the study was non-invasive the changes in impedance could not be correlated objectively with alterations in either pulmonary blood volume or pulmonary extravascular water space. In the subject, however, with x-ray evidence of H.A.P.O. and a low T.E.I. intravenous frusemide produced a marked rise in T.E.I. together with clearing of the chest x-ray picture within 24 hours, indicating an inverse relationship between impedance and thoracic fluid volume. It is suggested that with further objective verification in man the measurement of T.E.I. may be a potentially promising technique for the early detection of increased pulmonary fluid volume. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4416705

  20. Acousto-electric impedance of ferroelectric phononic superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusierat, Ola Hassan

    The acousto-electric impedance Z(ƒ) of a ferroelectric phononic superlattice (FPS) is investigated. The analytical derivation of Z(ƒ) and its phase reveal that both are functions of physical parameters such as the electromechanical coupling coefficient, the mechanical quality factor, the domain length and the phase velocity of the plate acoustic waves (PAW). Mathematica code is produced that allows for modeling Z(ƒ) in a two dimensional FPS. It is observed that Z(ƒ) depends on the number of domains in the FPS structure. Fewer domains in the structure might minimize Z(ƒ) or make it approach zero at certain conditions. A series of experiments is performed to investigate the impedance and its phase shift for a ZX-cut periodically poled lithium niobate in the frequency range 3-4 MHz. The experimental results of studying Z(ƒ) and its phase shift are in a good agreement with the developed theory. Experiments reveal the stopband, when an acoustic wavelength is close to a double-length of ferroelectric domain within the inversely poled structure, in which Z(ƒ) has minima close to it. Furthermore, these experiments show that the displacement components of the acoustic mode are decoupled in the transition zone, a small frequency range that extends a few kilohertz from the boundary of the stopband, and the amplitude of those decoupled components goes to zero in that zone. The equations obtained, the computation codes developed, and the experimental investigations can be applied to the ultrasonic transducers and the field of energy harvesting.

  1. Using impedance measurements for detecting pathogens trapped in an electric field

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-07-20

    Impedance measurements between the electrodes in an electric field is utilized to detect the presence of pathogens trapped in the electric field. Since particles trapped in a field using the dielectiphoretic force changes the impedance between the electrodes by changing the dielectric material between the electrodes, the degree of particle trapping can be determined by measuring the impedance. This measurement is used to determine if sufficient pathogen have been collected to analyze further or potentially to identify the pathogen.

  2. Comparison of total variation algorithms for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Sato dos Santos, Gustavo; Dowrick, Thomas; Avery, James; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Hui; Holder, David S

    2015-06-01

    The applications of total variation (TV) algorithms for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been investigated. The use of the TV regularisation technique helps to preserve discontinuities in reconstruction, such as the boundaries of perturbations and sharp changes in conductivity, which are unintentionally smoothed by traditional l2 norm regularisation. However, the non-differentiability of TV regularisation has led to the use of different algorithms. Recent advances in TV algorithms such as the primal dual interior point method (PDIPM), the linearised alternating direction method of multipliers (LADMM) and the spilt Bregman (SB) method have all been demonstrated successful EIT applications, but no direct comparison of the techniques has been made. Their noise performance, spatial resolution and convergence rate applied to time difference EIT were studied in simulations on 2D cylindrical meshes with different noise levels, 2D cylindrical tank and 3D anatomically head-shaped phantoms containing vegetable material with complex conductivity. LADMM had the fastest calculation speed but worst resolution due to the exclusion of the second-derivative; PDIPM reconstructed the sharpest change in conductivity but with lower contrast than SB; SB had a faster convergence rate than PDIPM and the lowest image errors. PMID:26008768

  3. Frequency-difference electrical impedance tomography: Phantom imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sujin; Jun, Sung Chan; Seo, Jin Keun; Lee, Jeehyun; Woo, Eung Je; Holder, David

    2010-04-01

    Frequency-difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) using a weighted voltage difference has been proposed as a means to provide images of admittivity changes at different frequencies. This weighted difference method is an effective way to extract anomaly information while eliminating background effects by unknown boundary geometry, uncertainty in electrode positions and other systematic measurement artefacts. It also properly handles the interplay between conductivity and permittivity in measured boundary voltage data. Though the proposed fdEIT algorithm is promising for applications such as detection of hemorrhagic stroke and breast cancer, more validation studies are needed. In this paper, we performed two-and three-dimensional numerical simulations and phantom experiments. Backgrounds of imaging objects were either saline or carrot pieces suspended in saline. We used carrot pieces to simulate a more realistic frequency-dependent admittivity distribution. Test objects were banana, potato or conductive gel with known admittivity spectra. When the background was saline, both simple and weighted difference approaches produced reasonably accurate images. The weighted difference method yielded better images from two-dimensional imaging objects with background of carrot pieces. For the three-dimensional head-shaped phantom, the advantage of the weighted frequency difference method over the simple difference method is not as obvious as in the case of the two-dimensional phantom. It is unclear if this is due to measurement errors or limitations in the linear algorithm. Further refinement and validation of the frequency difference image reconstructions are currently in progress.

  4. Influence of volume and flow change on the electrical impedance signal (in vitro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, M.; Garcia, A.; Pearce, F.; Van Albert, S.; Armonda, R.

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of preliminary results, rheoencephalography (REG) shows promise as a practical, noninvasive and continuous monitoring modality of brain injuries. However, REG literature reflects uncertainty about whether the signal reflects flow or volume. Presented here are results of in vitro studies manipulating flow/volume to model clinical conditions (such as brain ischemia and vasospasm) while recording the electrical impedance signal. A loop was created using tubing filled with 0.9 % NaCl. This loop was comprised of a Doppler in-line flow probe connected to an ultrasound flow meter, a peristaltic pump, a pressure transducer and home-made electrical impedance measuring cell, incorporating a balloon catheter. Bipolar impedance amplifiers were used for measuring impedance pulse waves. Data were stored on a PC and processed off-line. This in vitro study confirmed that 1) Doubling flow rate influenced the pulse amplitude and mean flow of the Doppler signal; 2) Doubling flow rate had no influence on the amplitudes of the pressure or electrical impedance signals; 3) An increase in amplitude was observed in the pressure and electrical impedance signals when the first derivative was taken. 4) Balloon inflation decreased electrical impedance and Doppler flow pulse amplitudes; 5) With balloon inflation, Doppler and electrical impedance signals showed an identical relationship to decreased flow (R2=0.966).

  5. Electrical impedance measurements: rapid method for detecting and monitoring microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, P; Dufour, S W; Shaw, J; Kraeger, S J

    1978-01-01

    A conceptually simple and east-to-use technique is described that uses continuous impedance measurements for automated monitoring of microbial growth and metabolism. The method has been applied to a wide range of microorganisms. Optical clarity is not required. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are demonstrated. The mechanism whereby microbial growth alters the impedance of the medium is discussed, as well as potential applications of the method to clinical microbiology. Images PMID:348718

  6. Electrical Impedance of Acupuncture Meridians: The Relevance of Subcutaneous Collagenous Bands

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Andrew C.; Park, Min; Shaw, Jessica R.; McManus, Claire A.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Langevin, Helene M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The scientific basis for acupuncture meridians is unknown. Past studies have suggested that acupuncture meridians are physiologically characterized by low electrical impedance and anatomically associated with connective tissue planes. We are interested in seeing whether acupuncture meridians are associated with lower electrical impedance and whether ultrasound-derived measures – specifically echogenic collagenous bands - can account for these impedance differences. Methods/Results In 28 healthy subjects, we assessed electrical impedance of skin and underlying subcutaneous connective tissue using a four needle-electrode approach. The impedances were obtained at 10 kHz and 100 kHz frequencies and at three body sites - upper arm (Large Intestine meridian), thigh (Liver), and lower leg (Bladder). Meridian locations were determined by acupuncturists. Ultrasound images were obtained to characterize the anatomical features at each measured site. We found significantly reduced electrical impedance at the Large Intestine meridian compared to adjacent control for both frequencies. No significant decrease in impedance was found at the Liver or Bladder meridian. Greater subcutaneous echogenic densities were significantly associated with reduced impedances in both within-site (meridian vs. adjacent control) and between-site (arm vs. thigh vs. lower leg) analyses. This relationship remained significant in multivariable analyses which also accounted for gender, needle penetration depth, subcutaneous layer thickness, and other ultrasound-derived measures. Conclusion/Significance Collagenous bands, represented by increased ultrasound echogenicity, are significantly associated with lower electrical impedance and may account for reduced impedances previously reported at acupuncture meridians. This finding may provide important insights into the nature of acupuncture meridians and the relevance of collagen in bioelectrical measurements. PMID:20689594

  7. Rapid detection of bacterial growth in blood samples by a continuous-monitoring electrical impedance apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Specter, S; Throm, R; Strauss, R; Friedman, H

    1977-01-01

    A growth detection method utilizing an automated apparatus capable of rapidly detecting bacterial growth by measuring changes of electrical impedance in bacteriological medium was utilized with "mock" blood cultures containing various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Measurement of changes of electrical impedance was found to ba as accurate and comparable for time of growth detection as the radiometric method for detection of the same bacteria using mock blood cultures. In a limited clinical trial the use of the electrical impedance apparatus detected in 1 positive specimen from 40 clinical blood specimens as rapidly as by radiometric measurement. Both methods were considerably faster for detecting bacterial growth as compared with conventional culture methods. The selected species of gram-positive and -negative organisms tested were all detected by the electrical impedance method, including aerobes and anerobes. However, addition of 5% CO2 to the incubation atmosphere enhanced detection of gram-positive organisms. PMID:336642

  8. Electrical stimulation causes rapid changes in electrode impedance of cell-covered electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Carrie; Richardson, Rachael; Millard, Rodney; Seligman, Peter; Cowan, Robert; Shepherd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Animal and clinical observations of a reduction in electrode impedance following electrical stimulation encouraged the development of an in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface. This model was used previously to show an increase in impedance with cell and protein cover over electrodes. In this paper, the model was used to assess the changes in electrode impedance and cell cover following application of a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse train. Following stimulation, a large and rapid drop in total impedance (Zt) and access resistance (Ra) occurred. The magnitude of this impedance change was dependent on the current amplitude used, with a linear relationship determined between Ra and the resulting cell cover over the electrodes. The changes in impedance due to stimulation were shown to be transitory, with impedance returning to pre-stimulation levels several hours after cessation of stimulation. A loss of cells over the electrode surface was observed immediately after stimulation suggesting that the level of stimulation applied was creating localised changes to cell adhesion. Similar changes in electrode impedance were observed for in vivo and in vitro work, thus helping to verify the in vitro model, although the underlying mechanisms may differ. A change in the porosity of the cellular layer was proposed to explain the alterations in electrode impedance in vitro. These in vitro studies provide insight into the possible mechanisms occurring at the electrode-tissue interface in association with electrical stimulation. PMID:21572219

  9. Electrical impedance tomography may optimize ventilation in a postpartum woman with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Karsten, J; Bohlmann, M K; Sedemund-Adib, B; Wnent, J; Paarmann, H; Iblher, P; Meier, T; Heinze, H

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare peripartum complication with the sudden onset of haemodynamic instability, respiratory failure and coagulopathy during labour or soon after delivery. A 31-year-old woman with amniotic fluid embolism was treated with vasopressors, inotropes, intravenous fluid, tranexamic acid and ventilatory support. Assessment of respiratory impairment was made using conventional chest X-ray, computed tomography and electrical impedance tomography. The potential for electrical impedance tomography to improve monitoring and guide respiratory therapy is explored. PMID:23122281

  10. Imaging fast electrical activity in the brain with electrical impedance tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aristovich, Kirill Y.; Packham, Brett C.; Koo, Hwan; Santos, Gustavo Sato dos; McEvoy, Andy; Holder, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of neuronal depolarization in the brain is a major goal in neuroscience, but no technique currently exists that could image neural activity over milliseconds throughout the whole brain. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging medical imaging technique which can produce tomographic images of impedance changes with non-invasive surface electrodes. We report EIT imaging of impedance changes in rat somatosensory cerebral cortex with a resolution of 2 ms and < 200 μm during evoked potentials using epicortical arrays with 30 electrodes. Images were validated with local field potential recordings and current source-sink density analysis. Our results demonstrate that EIT can image neural activity in a volume 7 × 5 × 2 mm in somatosensory cerebral cortex with reduced invasiveness, greater resolution and imaging volume than other methods. Modeling indicates similar resolutions are feasible throughout the entire brain so this technique, uniquely, has the potential to image functional connectivity of cortical and subcortical structures. PMID:26348559

  11. Nonlinear electrical impedance spectroscopy of viruses using very high electric fields created by nanogap electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Hatsuki, Ryuji; Honda, Ayae; Kajitani, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Takatoki

    2015-01-01

    Our living sphere is constantly exposed to a wide range of pathogenic viruses, which can be either known, or of novel origin. Currently, there is no methodology for continuously monitoring the environment for viruses in general, much less a methodology that allows the rapid and sensitive identification of a wide variety of viruses responsible for communicable diseases. Traditional approaches, based on PCR and immunodetection systems, only detect known or specifically targeted viruses. We here describe a simple device that can potentially detect any virus between nanogap electrodes using nonlinear impedance spectroscopy. Three test viruses, differing in shape and size, were used to demonstrate the general applicability of this approach: baculovirus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and influenza virus. We show that each of the virus types responded differently in the nanogap to changes in the electric field strength, and the impedance of the virus solutions differed depending both on virus type and virus concentration. These preliminary results show that the three virus types can be distinguished and their approximate concentrations determined. Although further studies are required, the proposed nonlinear impedance spectroscopy method may achieve a sensitivity comparable to that of more traditional, but less versatile, virus detection systems. PMID:26441875

  12. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Mi; Yao, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  13. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Mi; Yao, Jun

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  14. Evaluation of electrical impedance ratio measurements in accuracy of electronic apex locators

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper was evaluating the ratios of electrical impedance measurements reported in previous studies through a correlation analysis in order to explicit it as the contributing factor to the accuracy of electronic apex locator (EAL). Materials and Methods The literature regarding electrical property measurements of EALs was screened using Medline and Embase. All data acquired were plotted to identify correlations between impedance and log-scaled frequency. The accuracy of the impedance ratio method used to detect the apical constriction (APC) in most EALs was evaluated using linear ramp function fitting. Changes of impedance ratios for various frequencies were evaluated for a variety of file positions. Results Among the ten papers selected in the search process, the first-order equations between log-scaled frequency and impedance were in the negative direction. When the model for the ratios was assumed to be a linear ramp function, the ratio values decreased if the file went deeper and the average ratio values of the left and right horizontal zones were significantly different in 8 out of 9 studies. The APC was located within the interval of linear relation between the left and right horizontal zones of the linear ramp model. Conclusions Using the ratio method, the APC was located within a linear interval. Therefore, using the impedance ratio between electrical impedance measurements at different frequencies was a robust method for detection of the APC. PMID:25984472

  15. Noninvasive electrical impedance sensor for in vivo tissue discrimination at radio frequencies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Du, Jun; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jianxun

    2014-09-01

    Compared to traditional open surgery, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) allows for a more rapid and less painful recovery. However, the lack of significant haptic feedback in MIS can make tissue discrimination difficult. This paper tests a noninvasive electrical impedance sensor for in vivo discrimination of tissue types in MIS. The sensor consists of two stainless steel spherical electrodes used to measure the impedance spectra over the frequency range of 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The sensor helps ensure free movement on an organ surface and prevents soft tissues from being injured during impedance measurement. Since the recorded electrical impedance is correlated with the force pressed on the electrode and the mechanical property of the tissue, the electrode-tissue contact impedance is calculated theoretically. We show that the standard deviation of the impedance ratio at each frequency point is sufficient to distinguish different tissue types. Both in vitro experiment in a pig kidney and in vivo experiment in rabbit organs were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the electrical impedance sensor. The experimental results indicated that the sensor, used with the proposed data-processing method, provides accurate and reliable biological tissue discrimination. PMID:24764269

  16. Electric impedance imaging of the mammary gland in the case of mastitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkova, M.; Karpov, A.

    2010-04-01

    The electric impedance mammography technique has been applied for several years. The aim of the research in hand is to reveal the peculiarities of the electric impedance imaging in various stages of the inflammatory process in the mammary gland. We have conducted an examination of twenty six patients: five of them in the stage of arterial hyperemia, eight in the stage of infiltration, three of them in the stage of abscess and ten in the stage of cicatrization. The examination was carried out on the "MEIK" (version 5.6) potencial electric impedance computer mammograph. The weighted reciprocal projection method was used to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. Any inflammatory process is phasic and always attended by the complex vascular alterations with exudation of liquid components of plasma, blood cells outwandering and stromal cells proliferation. Pathophysiological and histopathological peculiarities of each stage of the inflammatory process are well reflected in the electric impedance images. This fact enabled the authors of the research to define the electric impedance imaging as the histofunctional scanning.

  17. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Mohamadou, Youssoufa; Lee, Kyounghun; Wi, Hun; Oh, Tong In; Woo, Eung Je; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Seo, Jin Keun

    2014-01-01

    When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor. PMID:24892493

  18. Estimation of electrical conductivity of a layered spherical head model using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Corazza, M.; von-Ellenrieder, N.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive method that aims to create an electrical conductivity map of a volume. In particular, it can be applied to study the human head. The method consists on the injection of an unperceptive and known current through two electrodes attached to the scalp, and the measurement of the resulting electric potential distribution at an array of sensors also placed on the scalp. In this work, we propose a parametric estimation of the brain, scalp and skull conductivities using EIT over an spherical model of the head. The forward problem involves the computation of the electric potential on the surface, for given the conductivities and the injection electrode positions, while the inverse problem consists on estimating the conductivities given the sensor measurements. In this study, the analytical solution to the forward problem based on a three layer spherical model is first described. Then, some measurements are simulated adding white noise to the solutions and the inverse problem is solved in order to estimate the brain, skull and scalp conductivity relations. This is done with a least squares approach and the Nelder-Mead multidimensional unconstrained nonlinear minimization method.

  19. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Defect Sensing Technique in Estimating Cracks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Liangdong; Ammari, Habib; Seo, Jin Keun

    2015-01-01

    A defect sensing method based on electrical impedance spectroscopy is proposed to image cracks and reinforcing bars in concrete structures. The method utilizes the frequency-dependent behavior of thin insulating cracks: low-frequency electrical currents are blocked by insulating cracks, whereas high-frequency currents can pass through thin cracks to probe the conducting bars. From various frequency-dependent electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images, we can show its advantage in terms of detecting both thin cracks with their thickness and bars. We perform numerical simulations and phantom experiments to support the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:26007713

  20. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF THE SQUID GIANT AXON DURING ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Cole, K S; Curtis, H J

    1939-05-20

    Alternating current impedance measurements have been made over a wide frequency range on the giant axon from the stellar nerve of the squid, Loligo pealii, during the passage of a nerve impulse. The transverse impedance was measured between narrow electrodes on either side of the axon with a Wheatstone bridge having an amplifier and cathode ray oscillograph for detector. When the bridge was balanced, the resting axon gave a narrow line on the oscillograph screen as a sweep circuit moved the spot across. As an impulse passed between impedance electrodes after the axon had been stimulated at one end, the oscillograph line first broadened into a band, indicating a bridge unbalance, and then narrowed down to balance during recovery. From measurements made during the passage of the impulse and appropriate analysis, it was found that the membrane phase angle was unchanged, the membrane capacity decreased about 2 per cent, while the membrane conductance fell from a resting value of 1000 ohm cm.(2) to an average of 25 ohm cm.(2) The onset of the resistance change occurs somewhat after the start of the monophasic action potential, but coincides quite closely with the point of inflection on the rising phase, where the membrane current reverses in direction, corresponding to a decrease in the membrane electromotive force. This E.M.F. and the conductance are closely associated properties of the membrane, and their sudden changes constitute, or are due to, the activity which is responsible for the all-or-none law and the initiation and propagation of the nerve impulse. These results correspond to those previously found for Nitella and lead us to expect similar phenomena in other nerve fibers. PMID:19873125

  1. Spatial feature tracking impedence sensor using multiple electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.

    1998-08-11

    Linear and other features on a workpiece are tracked by measuring the fields generated between electrodes arrayed in pairs. One electrode in each pair operates as a transmitter and the other as a receiver, and both electrodes in a pair are arrayed on a carrier. By combining and subtracting fields between electrodes in one pair and between a transmitting electrode in one pair and a receiving electrode in another pair, information describing the location and orientation of the sensor relative to the workpiece in up to six degrees of freedom may be obtained. Typical applications will measure capacitance, but other impedance components may be measured as well. The sensor is designed to track a linear feature axis or a protrusion or pocket in a workpiece. Seams and ridges can be tracked by this non-contact sensor. The sensor output is useful for robotic applications. 10 figs.

  2. Spatial feature tracking impedence sensor using multiple electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.

    1998-01-01

    Linear and other features on a workpiece are tracked by measuring the fields generated between electrodes arrayed in pairs. One electrode in each pair operates as a transmitter and the other as a receiver, and both electrodes in a pair are arrayed on a carrier. By combining and subtracting fields between electrodes in one pair and between a transmitting electrode in one pair and a receiving electrode in another pair, information describing the location and orientation of the sensor relative to the workpiece in up to six degrees of freedom may be obtained. Typical applications will measure capacitance, but other impedance components may be measured as well. The sensor is designed to track a linear feature axis or a protrusion or pocket in a workpiece. Seams and ridges can be tracked by this non-contact sensor. The sensor output is useful for robotic applications.

  3. An Analysis of Electrical Impedance Measurements Applied for Plant N Status Estimation in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F.; de J. Ortiz-Melendez, Antonio; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Contreras-Medina, Luis M.; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range) were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status. PMID:25057134

  4. Flow aeroacoustic damping using coupled mechanical-electrical impedance in lined pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yi-Yong; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Bai, Yu-Zhu; Tan, Xiao-Dong

    2015-05-01

    We report a new noise-damping concept which utilizes a coupled mechanical-electrical acoustic impedance to attenuate an aeroacoustic wave propagating in a moving gas confined by a cylindrical pipeline. An electrical damper is incorporated to the mechanical impedance, either through the piezoelectric, electrostatic, or electro-magnetic principles. Our numerical study shows the advantage of the proposed methodology on wave attenuation. With the development of the micro-electro-mechanical system and material engineering, the proposed configuration may be promising for noise reduction. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404405, 91216201, 51205403, and 11302253).

  5. Measuring the multi-frequency electrical impedance of the mouse gastrocnemius muscle using a tetrapolar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Fogerson, P. M.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance methods can be used to evaluate and monitor neuromuscular disease states. Recently, we have applied tetrapolar surface electrical impedance methods to the gastrocnemius muscle of the rat for this purpose and substantial changes in the impedance parameters after sciatic nerve crush can be identified. In order to be able to study additional animal models of nerve and muscle disease, however, it would highly desirable to be able to perform such impedance measurements in the mouse. Yet the small size of the mouse presents a substantial technical challenge. In this study, we evaluate a basic approach for performing such measurements. A series of thin, stainless steel strip electrodes affixed to the gastrocnemius and interfaced via a separate connector to the Imp SFB7® (Impedimed, Inc), provided an effective means for obtaining impedance data in the 20-500 kHz range. After two weeks, test-retest reproducibility was good, with intra-class correlation coefficients as high 0.84 and variability as low as 12.86 ± 6.18% in the 15 mice studied. Using this approach, it may now be possible to study impedance changes in a variety of mouse models of neuromuscular disease, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  6. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.

    2013-04-01

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  7. Using of electrical impedance tomography for diagnostics of the cervix uteri diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokhanova, O. V.; Chijova, Y. A.; Okhapkin, M. B.; Korjenevsky, A. V.; Tuykin, T. S.

    2010-04-01

    The report presents results of investigation of the neck of the womb (cervix) of 64 women aged from 19 to 70, that formed 4 clinical groups (1st group: 15 women without any pathology of the cervix, 2nd group: 27 women with the erosion, 3rd group: 11 women with dysplasia, 4th group: 11 women with cancer of the cervix). The aim of this research is to assess the capabilities of electrical impedance tomography in the diagnostics of the cervix diseases. The methods of the research were: visual examination with the speculum, colposcopy, and biopsy of the cervix. Also the new method of visualization of the cervix was used - electrical impedance tomography with the help of gynecological impedance tomograph (GIT). The following results were obtained. The electrical conductivity of the cervix in norm and in different pathology has different indices, which allow differential diagnostics of benign and malignant diseases. Summary: the method of electrical impedance tomography allows not only visually estimate portio vaginalis, but receive indices of electrical conductivity of the cervix on the depth up to 0.8 cm and thereby reveal pathological changes in epithelium without invasive and operative intervention.

  8. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance. PMID:26406074

  9. Effect of Electrode Belt and Body Positions on Regional Pulmonary Ventilation- and Perfusion-Related Impedance Changes Measured by Electric Impedance Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Elin; Tesselaar, Erik; Sjöberg, Folke

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced or ventilator-associated lung injury (VILI/VALI) is common and there is an increasing demand for a tool that can optimize ventilator settings. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can detect changes in impedance caused by pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, but the effect of changes in the position of the body and in the placing of the electrode belt on the impedance signal have not to our knowledge been thoroughly evaluated. We therefore studied ventilation-related and perfusion-related changes in impedance during spontaneous breathing in 10 healthy subjects in five different body positions and with the electrode belt placed at three different thoracic positions using a 32-electrode EIT system. We found differences between regions of interest that could be attributed to changes in the position of the body, and differences in impedance amplitudes when the position of the electrode belt was changed. Ventilation-related changes in impedance could therefore be related to changes in the position of both the body and the electrode belt. Perfusion-related changes in impedance were probably related to the interference of major vessels. While these findings give us some insight into the sources of variation in impedance signals as a result of changes in the positions of both the body and the electrode belt, further studies on the origin of the perfusion-related impedance signal are needed to improve EIT further as a tool for the monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. PMID:27253433

  10. Effect of Electrode Belt and Body Positions on Regional Pulmonary Ventilation- and Perfusion-Related Impedance Changes Measured by Electric Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Elin; Tesselaar, Erik; Sjöberg, Folke

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced or ventilator-associated lung injury (VILI/VALI) is common and there is an increasing demand for a tool that can optimize ventilator settings. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can detect changes in impedance caused by pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, but the effect of changes in the position of the body and in the placing of the electrode belt on the impedance signal have not to our knowledge been thoroughly evaluated. We therefore studied ventilation-related and perfusion-related changes in impedance during spontaneous breathing in 10 healthy subjects in five different body positions and with the electrode belt placed at three different thoracic positions using a 32-electrode EIT system. We found differences between regions of interest that could be attributed to changes in the position of the body, and differences in impedance amplitudes when the position of the electrode belt was changed. Ventilation-related changes in impedance could therefore be related to changes in the position of both the body and the electrode belt. Perfusion-related changes in impedance were probably related to the interference of major vessels. While these findings give us some insight into the sources of variation in impedance signals as a result of changes in the positions of both the body and the electrode belt, further studies on the origin of the perfusion-related impedance signal are needed to improve EIT further as a tool for the monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. PMID:27253433

  11. A Review of Electrical Impedance Spectrometry Methods for Parametric Estimation of Physiologic Fluid Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, B.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectrometry involves measurement of the complex resistance of a load at multiple frequencies. With this information in the form of impedance magnitude and phase, or resistance and reactance, basic structure or function of the load can be estimated. The "load" targeted for measurement and estimation in this study consisted of the water-bearing tissues of the human calf. It was proposed and verified that by measuring the electrical impedance of the human calf and fitting this data to a model of fluid compartments, the lumped-model volume of intracellular and extracellular spaces could be estimated, By performing this estimation over time, the volume dynamics during application of stimuli which affect the direction of gravity can be viewed. The resulting data can form a basis for further modeling and verification of cardiovascular and compartmental modeling of fluid reactions to microgravity as well as countermeasures to the headward shift of fluid during head-down tilt or spaceflight.

  12. Interpulse multifrequency electrical impedance measurements during electroporation of adherent differentiated myotubes.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Tomás; Azan, Antoine; Leray, Isabelle; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Bragós, Ramon; Mir, Lluis M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements are performed during electroporation of monolayers of differentiated myotubes. The time resolution of the system (1 spectrum/ms) enable 860 full spectra (21 frequencies from 5 kHz to 1.3 MHz) to be acquired during the time gap between consecutive pulses (interpulse) of a classical electroporation treatment (8 pulses, 100 μs, 1 Hz). Additionally, the characteristics of the custom microelectrode assembly used allow the experiments to be performed directly in situ in standard 24 multi-well plates. The impedance response dynamics are studied for three different electric field intensities (400, 800 and 1200 V/cm). The multifrequency information, analysed with the Cole model, reveals a short-term impedance recovery after each pulse in accordance with the fast resealing of the cell membrane, and a long-term impedance decay over the complete treatment in accordance with an accumulated effect pulse after pulse. The analysis shows differences between the lowest electric field condition and the other two, suggesting that different mechanisms that may be related with the reversibility of the process are activated. As a result of the multifrequency information, the system is able to measure simultaneously the conductivity variations due to ion diffusion during electroporation. Finally, in order to reinforce the physical interpretation of the results, a complementary electrical equivalent model is used. PMID:26123676

  13. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-07-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance (C 2) and resistance (R 2) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process.

  14. Development of an Anatomically Realistic Forward Solver for Thoracic Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to provide a low cost and safe imaging modality for clinically monitoring patients being treated with mechanical ventilation. Variations in reconstruction algorithms at different clinical settings, however, make interpretation of regional ventilation across institutions difficult, presenting the need for a unified algorithm for thoracic EIT reconstruction. Development of such a consensual reconstruction algorithm necessitates a forward model capable of predicting surface impedance measurements as well as electric fields in the interior of the modeled thoracic volume. In this paper, we present an anatomically realistic forward solver for thoracic EIT that was built based on high resolution MR image data of a representative adult. Accuracy assessment of the developed forward solver in predicting surface impedance measurements by comparing the predicted and observed impedance measurements shows that the relative error is within the order of 5%, demonstrating the ability of the presented forward solver in generating high-fidelity surface thoracic impedance data for thoracic EIT algorithm development and evaluation. PMID:27006927

  15. Relationship between moisture content and electrical impedance of carrot slices during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Ákos; Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Vozáry, Eszter; Staroňová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a Denver SI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were measured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 MHz, respectively, at voltage 1 V. The impedance measurement was performed after weighting. The change in the magnitude of impedance during drying showed a good correlation with the change in the moisture content.

  16. Skin impedance is not a factor in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Carol GT; Rakel, Barbara A; Dailey, Dana L; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention used to manage pain using skin surface electrodes. Optimal electrode placement is unclear. We hypothesized that better analgesia would occur if electrodes were placed over sites with lower skin impedance. Optimal site selection (OSS) and sham site selection (SSS) electrode sites on the forearm were identified using a standard clinical technique. Methods Experiment 1 measured skin impedance in the forearm at OSS and SSS. Experiment 2 was a crossover design double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing OSS-TENS, SSS-TENS, and placebo TENS (P-TENS) to confirm differences in skin impedance between OSS and SSS, and measure change in pressure pain threshold (PPT) following a 30-minute TENS treatment. Healthy volunteers were recruited (ten for Experiment 1 [five male, five female] and 24 for Experiment 2 [12 male, 12 female]). TENS was applied for 30 minutes at 100 Hz frequency, 100 µs pulse duration, and “strong but nonpainful” amplitude. Results Experiment 1 results demonstrate significantly higher impedance at SSS (17.69±1.24 Ω) compared to OSS (13.53±0.57 Ω) (P=0.007). For Experiment 2, electrode site impedance was significantly higher over SSS, with both the impedance meter (P=0.001) and the TENS unit (P=0.012) compared to OSS. PPT change was significantly greater for both OSS-TENS (P=0.024) and SSS-TENS (P=0.025) when compared to P-TENS. PPT did not differ between the two active TENS treatments (P=0.81). Conclusion Skin impedance is lower at sites characterized as optimal using the described technique of electrode site selection. When TENS is applied at adequate intensities, skin impedance is not a factor in attainment of hypoalgesia of the forearm in healthy subjects. Further investigation should include testing in patients presenting with painful conditions. PMID:26316808

  17. Study the effects of moisture content on the electrical properties of technical textiles by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusis, A.; Pentjuss, E.; Bajars, G.; Gabrusenoks, J.; Janeliukštis, R.; Zandersons, J.

    2012-08-01

    Application of metal coatings for the functionalization of technical fibres and fabrics faced with influence of moisture on functional properties, e.g., the impedance of the metal coated K-glass fabrics have strong dependence of content absorbed water or moisture. The paper devoted to develop methodology for characterisation functional materials based on fabrics and model for interpretation of the electrical impedance spectra to obtained functional characteristics of technical textile fabrics. Model based on analyses of 3D plot of imaginary part of complex modulus spectra versus sample mass. Methodology helps to control content of adsorbed water in fabric and influence of moisture on the functional characteristics.

  18. Electrical impedance imaging in two-phase, gas-liquid flows: 1. Initial investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J. T.; Ovacik, L.; Jones, O. C.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of interfacial area density in two-phase, gas-liquid flows is one of the major elements impeding significant development of predictive tools based on the two-fluid model. Currently, these models require coupling of liquid and vapor at interfaces using constitutive equations which do not exist in any but the most rudimentary form. Work described herein represents the first step towards the development of Electrical Impedance Computed Tomography (EICT) for nonintrusive determination of interfacial structure and evolution in such flows.

  19. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography using magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Reyhan; Güneri Gençer, Nevzat

    2016-08-01

    In this study, magnetic field measurement technique is investigated to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues using Lorentz forces. This technique is based on electrical current induction using ultrasound together with an applied static magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity generated due to induced currents is measured using two coil configurations, namely, a rectangular loop coil and a novel xy coil pair. A time-varying voltage is picked-up and recorded while the acoustic wave propagates along its path. The forward problem of this imaging modality is defined as calculation of the pick-up voltages due to a given acoustic excitation and known body properties. Firstly, the feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated analytically. The basic field equations governing the behaviour of time-varying electromagnetic fields are presented. Secondly, the general formulation of the partial differential equations for the scalar and magnetic vector potentials are derived. To investigate the feasibility of this technique, numerical studies are conducted using a finite element method based software. To sense the pick-up voltages a novel coil configuration (xy coil pairs) is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical geometry with a 16-element linear phased array (LPA) ultrasonic transducer (1 MHz) and a conductive body (breast fat) with five tumorous tissues is modeled. The static magnetic field is assumed to be 4 Tesla. To understand the performance of the imaging system, the sensitivity matrix is analyzed. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two different locations of LPA transducer with eleven steering angles from -{{25}\\circ} to {{25}\\circ} at intervals of {{5}\\circ} . The characteristics of the imaging system are shown with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sensitivity matrix. The images are reconstructed with the truncated SVD algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio in measurements is assumed 80 dB. Simulation studies

  20. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography using magnetic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Reyhan; Gençer, Nevzat Güneri

    2016-08-21

    In this study, magnetic field measurement technique is investigated to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues using Lorentz forces. This technique is based on electrical current induction using ultrasound together with an applied static magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity generated due to induced currents is measured using two coil configurations, namely, a rectangular loop coil and a novel xy coil pair. A time-varying voltage is picked-up and recorded while the acoustic wave propagates along its path. The forward problem of this imaging modality is defined as calculation of the pick-up voltages due to a given acoustic excitation and known body properties. Firstly, the feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated analytically. The basic field equations governing the behaviour of time-varying electromagnetic fields are presented. Secondly, the general formulation of the partial differential equations for the scalar and magnetic vector potentials are derived. To investigate the feasibility of this technique, numerical studies are conducted using a finite element method based software. To sense the pick-up voltages a novel coil configuration (xy coil pairs) is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical geometry with a 16-element linear phased array (LPA) ultrasonic transducer (1 MHz) and a conductive body (breast fat) with five tumorous tissues is modeled. The static magnetic field is assumed to be 4 Tesla. To understand the performance of the imaging system, the sensitivity matrix is analyzed. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two different locations of LPA transducer with eleven steering angles from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] at intervals of [Formula: see text]. The characteristics of the imaging system are shown with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sensitivity matrix. The images are reconstructed with the truncated SVD algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio in measurements is assumed 80 d

  1. Dynamic Impedance Model of the Skin-Electrode Interface for Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Luna, José Luis; Krenn, Matthias; Cortés Ramírez, Jorge Armando; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation can depolarize nerve or muscle cells applying impulses through electrodes attached on the skin. For these applications, the electrode-skin impedance is an important factor which influences effectiveness. Various models describe the interface using constant or current-depending resistive-capacitive equivalent circuit. Here, we develop a dynamic impedance model valid for a wide range stimulation intensities. The model considers electroporation and charge-dependent effects to describe the impedance variation, which allows to describe high-charge pulses. The parameters were adjusted based on rectangular, biphasic stimulation pulses generated by a stimulator, providing optionally current or voltage-controlled impulses, and applied through electrodes of different sizes. Both control methods deliver a different electrical field to the tissue, which is constant throughout the impulse duration for current-controlled mode or have a very current peak for voltage-controlled. The results show a predominant dependence in the current intensity in the case of both stimulation techniques that allows to keep a simple model. A verification simulation using the proposed dynamic model shows coefficient of determination of around 0.99 in both stimulation types. The presented method for fitting electrode-skin impedance can be simple extended to other stimulation waveforms and electrode configuration. Therefore, it can be embedded in optimization algorithms for designing electrical stimulation applications even for pulses with high charges and high current spikes. PMID:25942010

  2. A shape decomposition technique in electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.K.; Prosperetti, A.

    1999-10-10

    Consider a two-dimensional domain containing a medium with unit electrical conductivity and one or more non-conducting objects. The problem considered here is that of identifying shape and position of the objects on the sole basis of measurements on the external boundary of the domain. An iterative technique is presented in which a sequence of solutions of the direct problem is generated by a boundary element method on the basis of assumed positions and shapes of the objects. The key new aspect of the approach is that the boundary of each object is represented in terms of Fourier coefficients rather than a point-wise discretization. These Fourier coefficients generate the fundamental shapes mentioned in the title in terms of which the object shape is decomposed. The iterative procedure consists in the successive updating of the Fourier coefficients at every step by means of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. It is shown that the Fourier decomposition--which, essentially, amounts to a form of image compression--enables the algorithm to image the embedded objects with unprecedented accuracy and clarity. In a separate paper, the method has also been extended to three dimensions with equally good results.

  3. Use of low-frequency electrical impedance measurements to determine phospholipid content in amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, F.; Cametti, C.; Zimatore, G.; Maraviglia, B.; Pachi', A.

    1996-09-01

    In this report we propose a new method for an in vitro test of the foetal lung maturity based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the overall amniotic fluid obtained from transabdominal amniocentesis, since this quantity can be linked to a first approximation in a very simple way to the phospholipid content. We have carried out measurements of 85 different samples of amniotic fluid as a function of gestation weeks and we have observed a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity that reflects the increase in the phospholipid concentration occurring at the end of normal pregnancies. The method could be further developed to obtain similar information on in vivo experiments by means of bioelectric impedance tomography, taking advantage of the frequency dependence of the tissue electrical impedance.

  4. Noninvasive Imaging of Head-Brain Conductivity Profiles Using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Yan, Dandan; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a recently introduced non-invasive conductivity imaging modality, which combines the magnetic resonance current density imaging (CDI) and the traditional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) techniques. MREIT is aimed at providing high spatial resolution images of electrical conductivity, by avoiding solving the well-known ill-posed problem in the traditional EIT. In this paper, we review our research activities in MREIT imaging of head-brain tissue conductivity profiles. We have developed several imaging algorithms and conducted a series of computer simulations for MREIT imaging of the head and brain tissues. Our work suggests MREIT brain imaging may become a useful tool in imaging conductivity distributions of the brain and head. PMID:18799394

  5. Physics of a novel magnetic resonance and electrical impedance combination for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallergi, Maria; Heine, John J.; Wollin, Ernest

    2015-03-01

    A new technique is proposed and experimentally validated for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. The technique combines magnetic resonance with electrical impedance measurements and has the potential to increase the specificity of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) thereby reducing false positive biopsy rates. The new magnetic resonance electrical impedance mammography (MREIM) adds a time varying electric field during a supplementary sequence to a standard MRM examination with an apparatus that is "invisible" to the patient. The applied electric field produces a current that creates an additional magnetic field with a component aligned with the bore magnetic field that can alter the native signal in areas of higher electrical conductivity. The justification for adding the electric field is that the electrical conductivity of cancerous breast tissue is approximately 3-40 times higher than normal breast tissue and, hence, conductivity of malignant tissue represents a known clinical disease biomarker. In a pilot study with custom-made phantoms and experimental protocols, it was demonstrated that MREIM can produce, as theoretically predicted, a detectable differential signal in areas of higher electrical conductivity (tumor surrogate regions); the evidence indicates that the differential signal is produced by the confluence of two different effects at full image resolution without gadolinium chelate contrast agent injection, without extraneous reconstruction techniques, and without cumbersome multi-positioned patient electrode configurations. This paper describes the theoretical model that predicts and explains the observed experimental results that were also confirmed by simulation studies.

  6. Application of stochastic Galerkin FEM to the complete electrode model of electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Leinonen, Matti Hakula, Harri Hyvönen, Nuutti

    2014-07-15

    The aim of electrical impedance tomography is to determine the internal conductivity distribution of some physical body from boundary measurements of current and voltage. The most accurate forward model for impedance tomography is the complete electrode model, which consists of the conductivity equation coupled with boundary conditions that take into account the electrode shapes and the contact resistances at the corresponding interfaces. If the reconstruction task of impedance tomography is recast as a Bayesian inference problem, it is essential to be able to solve the complete electrode model forward problem with the conductivity and the contact resistances treated as a random field and random variables, respectively. In this work, we apply a stochastic Galerkin finite element method to the ensuing elliptic stochastic boundary value problem and compare the results with Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. An in vitro model for investigating impedance changes with cell growth and electrical stimulation: implications for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbold, Carrie; Richardson, Rachael; Huang, Christie Q.; Milojevic, Dusan; Cowan, Robert; Shepherd, Robert

    2004-12-01

    The impedance of stimulating electrodes used in cochlear implants and other neural prostheses often increases post-implantation, and is thought to be due to fibrous tissue encapsulation of the electrode array. Increased impedance results in higher power requirements to stimulate target neurons at set charge densities. We developed an in vitro model to investigate the electrode-tissue interface in a highly controlled environment. This model was tested using three cell types, with and without charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation. Under standard tissue culture conditions, a monolayer of cells was grown over the electrode surface. Electrode impedance increased in proportion to the extent of cell coverage of the electrode. Cell type was a significant factor in the amount of impedance increase, with kidney epithelial cells (MDCK) creating the greatest impedance, followed by dissociated rat skin fibroblasts and then macrophages (J774). The application of electrical stimulation to cell-covered electrodes caused impedance fluctuations similar to that seen in vivo, with a lowering of impedance immediately following stimulation, and a recovery to pre-stimulation levels during inactive periods. Examination of these electrodes suggests that the stimulation-induced impedance changes were due to the amount of cell cover over the electrodes. This in vitro technique accurately models the changes in impedance observed with neural prostheses in vivo, and shows the close relationship between impedance and tissue coverage adjacent to the electrode surface. We believe that this in vitro approach holds great promise to further our knowledge of the mechanisms contributing to electrode impedance.

  8. The peculiar electrical response of liquid crystal-carbon nanotube systems as seen by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Vergaz, R.; Algorri, J. F.; Geday, M. A.; Otón, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Conductive nanoparticles, especially elongated ones such as carbon nanotubes, dramatically modify the electrical behavior of liquid crystal cells. These nanoparticles are known to reorient with liquid crystals in electric fields, causing significant variations of conductivity at minute concentrations of tens or hundreds ppm. The above notwithstanding, impedance spectroscopy of doped cells in the frequency range customarily employed by liquid crystal devices, 100 Hz-10 kHz, shows a relatively simple resistor/capacitor response where the components of the cell can be univocally assigned to single components of the electrical equivalent circuit. However, widening the frequency range up to 1 MHz or beyond reveals a complex behavior that cannot be explained with the same simple EEC. Moreover, the system impedance varies with the application of electric fields, their effect remaining after removing the field. Carbon nanotubes are reoriented together with liquid crystal reorientation when applying voltage, but barely reoriented back upon liquid crystal relaxation once the voltage is removed. Results demonstrate a remarkable variation in the impedance of the dielectric blend formed by liquid crystal and carbon nanotubes, the irreversible orientation of the carbon nanotubes and possible permanent contacts between electrodes.

  9. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT): conductivity and current density imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest impedance imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) providing information on electrical conductivity and current density distributions inside an electrically conducting domain such as the human body. The motivation for this research is explained by discussing conductivity changes related with physiological and pathological events, electromagnetic source imaging and electromagnetic stimulations. We briefly summarize the related technique of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) that deals with cross-sectional image reconstructions of conductivity distributions from boundary measurements of current-voltage data. Noting that EIT suffers from the ill-posed nature of the corresponding inverse problem, we introduce MREIT as a new conductivity imaging modality providing images with better spatial resolution and accuracy. MREIT utilizes internal information on the induced magnetic field in addition to the boundary current-voltage measurements to produce three-dimensional images of conductivity and current density distributions. Mathematical theory, algorithms, and experimental methods of current MREIT research are described. With numerous potential applications in mind, future research directions in MREIT are proposed.

  10. A Chicken Tissue Phantom for Studying an Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) System Suitable for Clinical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Nagaraju, J.

    2011-12-01

    The study of practical phantoms is essential for assessing the reconstruction algorithms and instrumentation used in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Responses of saline phantoms with insulator inhomogeneities differ from the real tissue phantoms in several aspects. Also, it is difficult to reconstruct the actual resistivity of the insulator inhomogeneity in a saline background because of their large resistivity difference. A practical biological phantom consisting of two different materials with low resistivity difference is more suitable for impedance imaging studies. In order to demonstrate this, a chicken tissue phantom was developed to study the resistivity imaging in EIT. A 16-electrode array was placed inside the phantom tank filled with chicken muscle tissue paste and chicken tissue. A 1 mA, 50 kHz sinusoidal current was injected at the phantom boundary and the boundary potentials are measured using opposite current injection protocol. Resistivity images were reconstructed from the boundary data using Electrical Impedance and Diffuse Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) and the reconstruction was evaluated by calculating the contrast parameters of the images. Results show that the resistivity of the chicken fat is successfully reconstructed with a proper background resistivity. Impedance spectroscopic studies show that the chicken tissue phantom can be suitably used to evaluate a multifrequency EIT system.

  11. [A Digital System for Bioimpedance and Electrical Impedance Tomography Measurement System].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Gao, Nana; Huang, Huafang

    2015-06-01

    A digital system for bioimpedance and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurement controlled by an ATmega16 microcontroller was constructed in our laboratory. There are eight digital electrodes using AD5933 to measure the impedance of the targets, and the data is transmitted to the computer wirelessly through nRF24L01. The structure of the system, circuit design, system testing, vitro measurements of animals' tissues and electrical impedance tomography are introduced specifically in this paper. The experimental results showed that the system relative error was 0.42%, and the signal noise ratio was 76.3 dB. The system not only can be used to measure the impedance by any two electrodes within the frequency of 1-100 kHz in a sweep scanning, but also can reconstruct the images of EIT. The animal experiments showed that the data was valid and plots were fitting with Cole-Cole theory. The testing verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the system. The images reconstructed of a salt-water tank are satisfactory and match with the actual distribution of the tank. The system improves the effectiveness of the front-end measuring signal and the stability of the system greatly. PMID:26485981

  12. Traveling-wave electrokinetic micropumps: velocity, electrical current, and impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, P; Ramos, A; Green, N G; Morgan, H

    2008-09-01

    An array of microelectrodes covered in an electrolyte and energized by a traveling-wave potential produces net movement of the fluid. Arrays of platinum microelectrodes of two different characteristic sizes have been studied. For both sizes of arrays, at low voltages (<2 V pp) the electrolyte flow is in qualitative agreement with the linear theory of ac electroosmosis. At voltages above a threshold, the direction of fluid flow is reversed. The electrical impedance of the electrode-electrolyte system was measured after the experiments, and changes in the electrical properties of the electrolyte were observed. Measurements of the electrical current during pumping of the electrolyte are also reported. Transient behaviors in both electrical current and fluid velocity were observed. The Faradaic currents probably generate conductivity gradients in the liquid bulk, which in turn give rise to electrical forces. These effects are discussed in relation to the fluid flow observations. PMID:18672919

  13. The Amplitude Phase Decomposition for the Magnetotelluric Impedance Tensor and Galvanic Electric Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukirch, Maik; Rudolf, Daniel; Garcia, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The introduction of the phase tensor marked a major breakthrough in understanding of, analysing of and dealing with galvanic distortion of the electric field in the Magnetotelluric method. The phase tensor itself can be used for (distortion free) dimensionality analysis, if applicable distortion analysis and even to invert for subsurface models. However, impedance amplitude information is not stored in the phase tensor, therefore the impedance corrected by distortion analysis (or alternative remedies) may yield better results. We formulate an impedance tensor decomposition into the known phase tensor and an amplitude tensor that is shown to be complementary and independent of the phase tensor. The rotational invariant amplitude tensor contains galvanic and inductive amplitudes of which the latter are physically related to the inductive phase information present in the phase tensor. We show, that for the special cases of 1D and 2D subsurfaces, the geometric amplitude tensor parameter (strike and skew) converge to phase tensor parameter and the singular values are the amplitudes of the impedance in TE and TM mode. Further, the physical similarity between inductive phase and amplitude is used to approximate the galvanic amplitude for the general subsurface, which leads to the qualitative interpretation of 3D galvanic distortion: (i) the (purely) galvanic part of the subsurface (as sensed at a given period) may have a changing impact on the impedance (over a period range) and (ii) only the purely galvanic response of the lowest available period should be termed galvanic distortion. The approximation of the galvanic amplitude (and therewith galvanic distortion), though not accurate, offers a new perspective on galvanic distortion, which breaks with the general belief of the need to assume 1D or 2D regional structure for the impedance. The amplitude tensor itself is complementary to the phase tensor containing integrated (galvanic and inductive) subsurface information

  14. A dynamic oppositional biogeography-based optimization approach for time-varying electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Rashid, A; Kim, S; Liu, D; Kim, K Y

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic electrical impedance tomography-based image reconstruction using conventional algorithms such as the extended Kalman filter often exhibits inferior performance due to the presence of measurement noise, the inherent ill-posed nature of the problem and its critical dependence on the selection of the initial guess as well as the state evolution model. Moreover, many of these conventional algorithms require the calculation of a Jacobian matrix. This paper proposes a dynamic oppositional biogeography-based optimization (OBBO) technique to estimate the shape, size and location of the non-stationary region boundaries, expressed as coefficients of truncated Fourier series, inside an object domain using electrical impedance tomography. The conductivity of the object domain is assumed to be known a priori. Dynamic OBBO is a novel addition to the family of dynamic evolutionary algorithms. Moreover, it is the first such study on the application of dynamic evolutionary algorithms for dynamic electrical impedance tomography-based image reconstruction. The performance of the algorithm is tested through numerical simulations and experimental study and is compared with state-of-the-art gradient-based extended Kalman filter. The dynamic OBBO is shown to be far superior compared to the extended Kalman filter. It is found to be robust to measurement noise as well as the initial guess, and does not rely on a priori knowledge of the state evolution model. PMID:27203482

  15. Carbon nanotube composites multi-sensing characteristics based on electrical impedance properties.

    PubMed

    Kang, Inpil; Schulz, Mark J; Choi, Yeon-Sun; Hwang, Sung-Ho

    2009-12-01

    CNT composites demonstrate sensory materials properties such as piezoresistivity, chemical and bio selectivity and they can detect structural deterioration, chemical contamination and bio signal by means of their impedance measurement (resistance and capacitance). In this study, electrical impedance characteristics of CNT composite electrodes are studied to simultaneously detect mechanical and chemical symptoms in engineering applications. We measured variations of electrical resistance and capacitance values of CNT composite electrodes under static load for mechanical sensing behavior and under the change of buffer solution amount for chemical sensing behavior. At the mechanical sensing behavior test, the resistance values changed quite linearly under bending and compression loads while the capacitance value varied within small range with invalid relationship to the loads. At the chemical sensing behavior investigation, the electrode's capacitance showed drastic change while the resistance value only changed within few percent range. The independently changing pattern of electrical impedance parameters according to mechanical strain and chemical effect can provide new opportunities to design a novel multifunctional sensor that can simultaneously monitor mechanical and chemical behaviors of a target system. PMID:19908789

  16. Effects of mass layer imperfect bonding on the electrical impedance of a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, YangYang; Wang, Ji; Du, JianKe; Yang, JiaShi

    2013-11-01

    We study electrically forced vibrations of a crystal plate of AT-cut quartz carrying a thin mass layer operating as a quartz crystal microbalance for mass sensing. The mass layer is imperfectly bonded to the crystal plate with their interface described by the so-called interface-slip model which allows a discontinuity of the tangential interface displacement. Mindlin's equations for piezoelectric plates are used. An analytical solution is obtained. The electrical impedance is calculated. The effects of an elastic interface and a viscoelastic interface are examined.

  17. Mechanical and electrical impedance matching in a piezoelectric beam for Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszewnik, A.; Grześ, P.; Walendziuk, W.

    2015-11-01

    A piezoelectric beam is one of transducers for energy harvesting. It provides easy implementation and good performance in changing mechanical stress into electric voltage. In order to maximize output power, it is important to provide mechanical and electrical impedance matching. In the paper the authors proposed a methodology which allows to find values of lumped elements in an electromechanical model after completing appropriate measurements. Due to linear equations, it is possible to model a beam in both mechanical and electrical ways, and match the best load depending of frequency. The proposed model of a piezoelectric cantilever shows a potential use of these devices in micro scale as a cantilever which is a part of a silicon structure. Moreover, in the paper, the authors discuss mechanical aspects of using a weight as the way to tune the piezoelectric beam to a specific frequency. The electrical aspect of matching the source impedance with load, which is based on an electrical model of a piezoelectric transducer, is also presented. In the paper a mathematical model was verified by an experiment in which a laboratory stand equipped with a vibration generator, a piezoelectric energy harvester and acceleration sensors was used.

  18. Impedance Alterations in Healthy and Diseased Mice During Electrically Induced Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Li, Jia; Geisbush, Tom; Bardia, Ramon Bragos; Rutkove, Seward B

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in the health of muscles can be evaluated through the use of electrical impedance myography (EIM). To date, however, nearly all work in this field has relied upon the measurement of muscle at rest. To provide an insight into the contractile mechanisms of healthy and disease muscle, we evaluated the alterations in the spectroscopic impedance behavior of muscle during the active process of muscle contraction. The gastrocnemii from a total of 13 mice were studied (five wild type, four muscular dystrophy animals, and four amyotrophic lateral sclerosis animals). Muscle contraction was induced via monophasic current pulse stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Simultaneously, multisine EIM (1 kHz to 1 MHz) and force measurements of the muscle were performed. Stimulation was applied at three different rates to produce mild, moderate, and strong contractions. We identified changes in both single and multifrequency data, as assessed by the Cole impedance model parameters. The processes of contraction and relaxation were clearly identified in the impedance spectra and quantified via derivative plots. Reductions in the center frequency fc were observed during the contraction consistent with the increasing muscle fiber diameter. Different EIM stimulation rate-dependencies were also detected across the three groups of animals. PMID:24800834

  19. Electrical transport properties of Mn-Ni-Zn ferrite using complex impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizar Rahman, M.; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2014-02-01

    Polycrystalline Mn0.45Ni0.05Zn0.50Fe2O4 was prepared by a standard solid state reaction technique. We report the electrical properties of this ferrite using ac impedance spectroscopy as a function of frequency (20 Hz-10 MHz) at different temperatures (50-350 °C). X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of cubic spinel structure. Complex impedance analysis has been used to separate the grain and grain boundary resistance of this ferrite. The variation of grain and grain boundary conductivities with temperature confirms semiconducting behavior. The dielectric permittivity shows dielectric dispersion at lower frequency and reveals that it has almost the same value on the high-frequency side. The non-coincidence of peaks corresponding to modulus and impedance indicates deviation from Debye-type relaxation. A similar value of activation energy is obtained from impedance and modulus spectra, indicating that charge carriers overcome the same energy barrier during relaxation. Electron hopping is responsible for ac conduction in this ferrite. The electron hopping shifts toward higher frequency with increasing temperature, below which the conductivity is frequency independent. The frequency-independent ac conductivity has been observed at and above 300 °C in the frequency range 20 Hz-1 MHz. This frequency-independent ac conductivity is due to the long-range movement of the mobile charge carriers.

  20. High-power CMOS current driver with accurate transconductance for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Loucas; Triantis, Iasonas F; Bayford, Richard; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Current drivers are fundamental circuits in bioimpedance measurements including electrical impedance tomography (EIT). In the case of EIT, the current driver is required to have a large output impedance to guarantee high current accuracy over a wide range of load impedance values. This paper presents an integrated current driver which meets these requirements and is capable of delivering large sinusoidal currents to the load. The current driver employs a differential architecture and negative feedback, the latter allowing the output current to be accurately set by the ratio of the input voltage to a resistor value. The circuit was fabricated in a 0.6- μm high-voltage CMOS process technology and its core occupies a silicon area of 0.64 mm (2) . It operates from a ± 9 V power supply and can deliver output currents up to 5 mA p-p. The accuracy of the maximum output current is within 0.41% up to 500 kHz, reducing to 0.47% at 1 MHz with a total harmonic distortion of 0.69%. The output impedance is 665 k Ω at 100 kHz and 372 k Ω at 500 kHz. PMID:25073130

  1. Clinical application of Electrical Impedance Tomography in the Present Health Scenario of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, K. L., Dr; Selvamurthy, W., Dr

    2010-04-01

    Early detection of Breast Cancer is currently emerging as a big clinical entity requiring a non invasive, radiation less, harmless, cost effective diagnostic technique. Survival is improved if detected early. Breast Cancer is the second most common cancer in India. Health corporate system of India is urgently requiring a cost effective, noninvasive novel technique like "Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)" for screening large poor rural population of India for early diagnosis of Breast Cancer. EIT is the technique to visualize spatial distribution of Electro-impedance (or conductivity) inside the object, such as human body. A medical device which allows imaging of the distribution of conductivity in 3D in regions below the skin surface has been developed and tested. Its purpose is to enable early detection and preliminary diagnosis of breast tumors. The system uses a planar array consisting of 256 electrodes and enables obtaining images of the three-dimensional conductivity distribution in regions below the skin's surface up to several centimeters deep. The developed measuring system and image reconstruction algorithm can be used for breast tissue imaging and diagnostic, in particular for malignant tumor detection. Initially ten patients as control and ten patients with breast lesions have been studied with this new technique. It was found that electrical impedance mammograms from different groups has clear visual distinctions and statistically significant difference in breast glands conductivity. The results are quiet encouraging. EIT may emerge as the first line noninvasive imaging method of choice for screening large population for early detection of breast cancer.

  2. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Annual technical report for program renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O.C.

    1993-05-01

    This progress report details the theoretical development, numerical results, experimental design (mechanical), experimental design (electronic), and experimental results for the research program for the development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flow analyzer.

  3. Influence of torso and arm positions on chest examinations by electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Vogt, B; Mendes, L; Chouvarda, I; Perantoni, E; Kaimakamis, E; Becher, T; Weiler, N; Tsara, V; Paiva, R P; Maglaveras, N; Frerichs, I

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is increasingly used in patients suffering from respiratory disorders during pulmonary function testing (PFT). The EIT chest examinations often take place simultaneously to conventional PFT during which the patients involuntarily move in order to facilitate their breathing. Since the influence of torso and arm movements on EIT chest examinations is unknown, we studied this effect in 13 healthy subjects (37  ±  4 years, mean age  ±  SD) and 15 patients with obstructive lung diseases (72  ±  8 years) during stable tidal breathing. We carried out the examinations in an upright sitting position with both arms adducted, in a leaning forward position and in an upright sitting position with consecutive right and left arm elevations. We analysed the differences in EIT-derived regional end-expiratory impedance values, tidal impedance variations and their spatial distributions during all successive study phases. Both the torso and the arm movements had a highly significant influence on the end-expiratory impedance values in the healthy subjects (p  =  0.0054 and p  <  0.0001, respectively) and the patients (p  <  0.0001 in both cases). The global tidal impedance variation was affected by the torso, but not the arm movements in both study groups (p  =  0.0447 and p  =  0.0418, respectively). The spatial heterogeneity of the tidal ventilation distribution was slightly influenced by the alteration of the torso position only in the patients (p  =  0.0391). The arm movements did not impact the ventilation distribution in either study group. In summary, the forward torso movement and the arms' abduction exert significant effects on the EIT waveforms during tidal breathing. We recommend strict adherence to the upright sitting position during PFT when EIT is used. PMID:27200486

  4. Body fat estimations by electrical impedance and infra-red interactance.

    PubMed

    Brodie, D A; Eston, R G

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body fat estimation using three methods of electrical impedance (the BIA-103 Body Composition Analyser--RJL Systems, Detroit; the BMR 2000 Body Composition Analyzer--Berkeley Medical Research, San Leandro; the BC300 Body Composition Analyzer--Spacelabs, Dallas) and an infra-red interactance method (Futrex 5000 Analyzer--Futrex Inc. Gaithersburg) as an alternative to hydrodensitometry. Five different groups were examined using at least one of the electrical systems and in all cases utilising hydrodensitometry as the criterion method. The results produced highly significant correlations between all methods, but caution is recommended due to the limited common variance in some cases. The individual electrical methods differed from hydrodensitometry by a maximum of 1.1% in obese women, by 21.6% in athletic adults, by 6.2% in the slightly obese group, by 8.1% in normal women and by 56.0% in normal children. Significant mean differences between one of the impedance methods and hydrodensitometry were only noted in two of the groups tested. This suggests, allowing for the limitations of hydrodensitometry itself, that the other three electrical methods appear to be reasonably valid alternatives to underwater weighing, especially for field work of an epidemiological nature. PMID:1521946

  5. Effects of polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRN) on wound healing: Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS).

    PubMed

    Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-12-01

    Polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRN) have been explored as an effective treatment for tissue repair in peripheral artery occlusive disease, diabetic foot ulcers, and eye lotion. We report on the effect of polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRN) on wound healing by using the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system and viability testing. Human osteoblasts (U2OS) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were used to study the effect of PDRN on migration and proliferation. ECIS allowed the creation of a wound by applying high current, and then monitoring the healing process by measuring impedance in real time. The traditional culture-insert gap-closure migration assay was performed and compared with the ECIS wound assay. PDRN-treated U2OS and HDF cells affected cell motilities to wounding site. Viability test results show that HDF and U2OS proliferation depended on PDRN concentration. Based on the results, a PDRN compound can be useful in wound healing associated with bone and skin. PMID:27612747

  6. Electric field imaging of a high impedance surface for GNSS array decoupling application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, Daniel; Issac, François; Martel, Cédric; Capet, Nicolas; Sokoloff, Jérôme; Pascal, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    An original method of characterization of high impedance surfaces (HIS) is presented to exhibit electric field patterns. The electric field frames are obtained through a resistive film located in the near field domain of the HIS. The film heating is recorded using an infrared camera and gives after post-processing electric field magnitude profiles. We applied this technique to a HIS specially tuned for reducing mutual coupling in a global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) array designed for the E5 Galileo band. The mushroom-like HIS, designed and realized with the help of simulation, is located near the ground plane of a micro-strip line which allows S parameter characterization. Present measurement enables near field characterization and field structure analysis, and is therefore a complement to usual analysis. Moreover, the technique shows the very special field structure, including sub-lambda details, created by the HIS and more generally by metamaterial structures.

  7. Considerations on electrical impedance measurements of electrolyte solutions in a four-electrode cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, C. V.; Herrera, L. V.; Meléndez, A. M.; Miranda, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    A tetrapolar probe to measure the electrical properties of electrolyte solutions was implemented with gold electrodes according to the van der Pauw method. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of different concentrations of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution and an oral mucosal tissue sample dispersed in PBS were performed in the galvanostatic mode using a four-electrode cell (tetrapolar probe). Taking advantage of using a potentiostat/galvanostat for carrying out the electrical measurements, a simple and rapid method using a three-electrode electrochemical cell is described for: a) cleaning of electrodes, b) verification of surface chemical state of electrode material and c) choice of current supplied to electrodes for EIS measurements. Results of this research shown a depolarization effect due to the addition of oral mucosa tissue cells into the PBS solution.

  8. A new experimental device to evaluate eye ulcers using a multispectral electrical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Mariela I.; Bast, Walter; Berra, Alejandro; Bonetto, Fabián J.

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel experimental technique to determine eye ulcers in animals using a spectral electrical impedance technique. We expect that this technique will be useful in dry eye syndrome. We used a sensor that is basically a platinum (Pt) microelectrode electrically insulated by glass from a cylindrical stainless steel counter-electrode. This sensor was applied to the naked eye of New Zealand rabbits (2.0-3.5 kg in weight). Whereas half of the eyes were normal (control), we applied to the remainder a few drops of 20% (v/v) alcohol to produce an ulcer in the eye. Using a multispectral electrical impedance system we measured ulcerated and control eyes and observed significant difference between normal and pathological samples. We also investigated the effects of different applied pressures and natural degradation of initially normal eyes as a function of time. We believe that this technique could be sufficiently sensitive and repetitive to help diagnose ocular surface diseases such as dry eye syndrome.

  9. Use of electrical impedance spectroscopy to detect malignant and potentially malignant oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Craig; Brown, Brian H; Hearnden, Vanessa; Speight, Paul M; D’Apice, Katy; Hegarty, Anne M; Tidy, John A; Healey, T Jamie; Highfield, Peter E; Thornhill, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    The electrical properties of tissues depend on their architecture and cellular composition. We have previously shown that changes in electrical impedance can be used to differentiate between different degrees of cervical dysplasia and cancer of the cervix. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to determine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could distinguish between normal oral mucosa; benign, potentially malignant lesions (PML); and oral cancer. EIS data were collected from oral cancer (n=10), PML (n=27), and benign (n=10) lesions. EIS from lesions was compared with the EIS reading from the normal mucosa on the contralateral side of the mouth or with reference spectra from mucosal sites of control subjects (n=51). Healthy controls displayed significant differences in the EIS obtained from different oral sites. In addition, there were significant differences in the EIS of cancer and high-risk PML versus low-risk PML and controls. There was no significant difference between benign lesions and normal controls. Study subjects also deemed the EIS procedure considerably less painful and more convenient than the scalpel biopsy procedure. EIS shows promise at distinguishing among malignant, PML, and normal oral mucosa and has the potential to be developed into a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:25285005

  10. [Estimation of normal body volumes in children by the measurement of total electrical impedance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Peyramond, D; Tholly, F; Bertoye, A

    1980-03-01

    The theoretical fluid volume of 41 normal children (mean age 8 years 9 months) was estimated from anthropometric data: height, weight, wrist circumference, and body surface. The correlation between this method and the conventional methods of determining total body water using tritiated water or of extracellular fluid volume using stable bromide or bromide 82 is very good. The real fluid volumes have been measured using total body electrical impedance at low frequency (Z5 kHz) and high frequency (Z1 MHz). The correlation of these results with those obtained by anthropometry is very satisfactory (r = 0.89; p < 0,001). PMID:7469697

  11. A Wide Bandwidth Model for the Electrical Impedance of Magnetic BearingS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, David C.; Maslen, Eric H.; Noh, Myounggyu D.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are often designed using magnetic circuit theory. When these bearings are built, however, effects not included in the usual circuit theory formulation have a significant influence on bearing performance. Two significant sources of error in the circuit theory approach are the neglect of leakage and fringing effects and the neglect of eddy current effects. This work formulates an augmented circuit model in which eddy current and flux leakage and fringing effects are included. Through the use of this model, eddy current power losses and actuator bandwidth can be derived. Electrical impedance predictions from the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental data from a typical magnetic bearing.

  12. Measurement of lung function using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) during mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Noshiro, Makoto; Brown, Brian H.; Soma, Kazui

    2010-04-01

    The consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), in eleven patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, was validated to verify the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities between the normal lung and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (Steel-Dwass test, p < 0.05). Temporal changes in regional lung density of patients with atelectasis were observed to be in good agreement with the results of clinical diagnosis. These results indicate that it is feasible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT.

  13. The in-situ characterization of a transesterification reaction using electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungjin

    Impedance Spectroscopy has been used in the in-situ monitoring of a transesterfication reaction of soybean biodiesel. This paper describes the application of Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to observe and characterize the transesterfication reaction and its interfacial behavior phenomena electrically. In particular, the dielectric properties of soybean biodiesel were measured at broad range frequencies from 10-2 to 106 Hz at different temperatures, methanol molar ratio to biodiesel, concentration of catalyst and reaction time. Measurement of dielectric property have provided an important approach to understanding the structure of matter. Measurements of the dielectric properties are a reliable and efficient method for evaluating the biodiesel production to determine their quality and yield for reducing the production cost. The dielectric constant (epsilon') and loss (epsilon") are the most convenient indicators for quality control in commercial biodiesel manufacturing. Dielectric properties were correlated with chemically measured changes in soybean oil such as free fatty acids, amount of catalyst and alcohols at different temperatures as well as reaction times. It was observed that there is a good correlation between the dielectric constant (epsilon') and loss (epsilon") in soybean biodiesel. The result indicated that the dielectric properties increased with the (1) increasing temperature (2) increasing methanol; (3) increasing catalyst; (4) increasing reaction time. Dielectric properties was a useful index for the rapid quality evaluation of soybean biodiesel. Dielectric properties were compared to conventional methods of analysis (Infrared Spectroscopy) for evaluating the quality of soybean biodiesel. The results indicated that dielectric constant and dielectric loss are essential measurement for predicting the best biodiesel yield. Moreover, the electrical impedance parameters such as bulk resistance (Rb), bulk capacitance (Cb) and time constant(tau b

  14. Electrical impedance measurements in the arm and the leg during a thirty day bed rest study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardus, David; Jaweed, Mazher; McTaggart, Wesley

    1995-01-01

    The need to detect, follow, and understand the effects of gravity on body fluid distribution is a constant stimulus to the quest for new techniques in this area of research. One of these techniques is electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Although not new, this is a technique whose applications to biomedical research are fairly recent. What is new is the development of instrumentation that has made practical the use of impedance spectroscopy in the biomedical setting, particularly in studies involving human subjects. The purpose of this paper is to report impedance spectroscopy observations made on a subject who was submitted to bed rest for a period of thirty days. These observations were made as part of a study on muscle atrophy during a thirty day head down bed rest. Since bed rest studies are very costly in human and financial terms, and technically difficult to realize, we felt that even though the present study deals only with a single case it was worthy of reporting because it illustrates kinds of questions impedance spectroscopy may help to answer in microgravity research.

  15. Recognition of Fibrotic Infarct Density by the Pattern of Local Systolic-Diastolic Myocardial Electrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Jorge, Esther; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is a biophysical property of the heart that is influenced by the intrinsic structural characteristics of the tissue. Therefore, the structural derangements elicited in a chronic myocardial infarction should cause specific changes in the local systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to characterize the local changes of systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance in a healed myocardial infarction model. Six pigs were successfully submitted to 150 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. 4 weeks later, myocardial impedance spectroscopy (1–1000 kHz) was measured at different infarction sites. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow (ABF) were also recorded. A total of 59 LV tissue samples were obtained and histopathological studies were performed to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Samples were categorized as normal myocardium (<10% fibrosis), heterogeneous scar (10–50%) and dense scar (>50%). Resistivity of normal myocardium depicted phasic changes during the cardiac cycle and its amplitude markedly decreased in dense scar (18 ± 2 Ω·cm vs. 10 ± 1 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001, respectively). The mean phasic resistivity decreased progressively from normal to heterogeneous and dense scar regions (285 ± 10 Ω·cm, 225 ± 25 Ω·cm, and 162 ± 6 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001 respectively). Moreover, myocardial resistivity and phase angle correlated significantly with the degree of local fibrosis (resistivity: r = 0.86 at 1 kHz, P < 0.001; phase angle: r = 0.84 at 41 kHz, P < 0.001). Myocardial infarcted regions with greater fibrotic content show lower mean impedance values and more depressed systolic-diastolic dynamic impedance changes. In conclusion, this study reveals that differences in the degree of myocardial fibrosis can be detected in vivo by local measurement of phasic systolic

  16. Detection of small bleeds in the brain with electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Boverman, Gregory; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Wang, Xin; Ashe, Jeffrey M; Davenport, David M; Amm, Bruce C

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe and assess feasibility of instrumentation and algorithms for detecting bleeding due to hemorrhagic strokes and traumatic brain injury using electrical impedance tomography, a novel biomedical diagnostic modality in which the body is probed noninvasively with generally imperceptible alternating currents applied in patterns to a set of electrodes placed in contact with the skin. We focus on the GENESIS instrument developed by GE Global Research and on the achievability of our goal to detect a bleed in the center of the head with a volume of several ml. Our main topic is compensation for the large changes in voltages that tend to occur when the electrodes are in contact with biological media, specifically either human subjects or with vegetable matter proxies which seem to exhibit the same 'drift' phenomenon. We show that these changes in voltages can be modeled by assuming that each electrode is attached to the body via a discrete complex impedance whose value is time-varying and describe how this discrete component value can be estimated and largely compensated-for. We compare this discrete model with changes in contact impedances estimated using the complete electrode model showing that the two models are roughly comparable in their ability to explain the data from a single human subject experiment with electrodes attached to the head. In a simulation study, we demonstrate that it is possible to detect a small bleed in the center of the head even in the case of large changes in electrode impedances, which can be treated as nuisance parameters. PMID:27203851

  17. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE) for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR) channels and four voltage-readout (VR) channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm 2 , is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between -6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100 μ A. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm 2 . The chip consumes between 530 μ A and 690 μ A per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis. PMID:27463721

  18. Pre-contraction dynamic electrical impedance myography of the forearm finger flexors.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, C A

    2016-02-01

    Electrical activity in the sensory-motor and supplementary motor areas of the cerebral cortex is known to occur during a 'readiness interval', extending up to 2 s before the relevant muscle actually contracts. This paper presents evidence that there are also changes in the properties of the muscle itself during a similar preparatory period, as revealed by dynamic electrical impedance myography. 11 healthy subjects aged 23.5 ± 2.5 years were asked to perform a series of isometric gripping exercises during which the force, resistance and reactance of the forearm finger flexor muscles were monitored. A change in reactance, ΔX, or resistance, ΔR, which occurred before the generation of force, ΔF, was dubbed a 'PIC', shorthand for precontraction impedance change (subject to criteria to rule out the possibility of simple 'noise'), of which 1206 qualified in the entire subject cohort. Such PIC's are statistically well correlated when expressed in terms of differences between PIC and force onset times (r ≈ 0.9, p ≈ 0). This is demonstrated using a variation on the 'computer of average transients' method. Precontraction impedance changes (PICs) occurring as much as 2 s before the onset of force generation were found, in qualitative agreement with precontraction EEG activity reported in the literature. Also, a subset of PIC's was found in which the scaled and time-shifted ΔX(t) was virtually identical to ΔF(t). Since the occurrence and timing of all the PICs depend on oral commands, it is clear that the auditory cortex is likely involved, but the detailed mechanism coupling brain activity with PICs is not known. PMID:26814557

  19. Influence of neutron flux, frequency and temperature to electrical impedance of nano silica particles

    SciTech Connect

    Huseynov, Elchin E-mail: hus.elchin@gmail.com; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan; Andreja, Eršte; Rustamov, Anar

    2014-11-15

    We studied electric impedance of SiO{sub 2} nanomaterial at its initial state and after being exposed to continuous neutron irradiation for up to 20 hours. In doing so we employed a flux of neutrons of 2x10{sup 13} n⋅cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} while the frequency and temperature ranges amounted to 0,09 – 2.3 MHz and 100 – 400 K correspondingly. Analysis in terms of the Cole-Cole expression revealed that with increasing irradiation period the polarization and relaxation times decrease as a result of combination of nanoparticles. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the electric conductivity of samples, on the other hand, increases with the increasing irradiation period. At low temperatures formations of clusters at three distinct states with different energies were resolved.

  20. Design of an Electrical Impedance Tomography Sensor for Flow Measurement in an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, G.; Williams, R. A.; Wang, M.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, a new application of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for an advanced on-line measurement is presented. This application involves the design, manufacture and adaptation of an EIT sensor for the measurement in an oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR). The main goal is to develop of a novel measurement and modeling method for control of the OBR. The reactor itself enables the production of water-in-oil/oil-in water emulsions along with the use of chemical reagents for a variety of manufacturing processes. Use of electrical tomography facilitates detailed measurement of the concentration and flow of components in the reactor. The paper reports on design philosophy of the EIT for this application that has not, to our knowledge, been reported previously.

  1. Design and simulation of superconducting Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography (LFEIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Boyang; Fu, Lin; Geng, Jianzhao; Zhang, Xiuchang; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Qihuan; Li, Chao; Li, Jing; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography (LFEIT) is a hybrid diagnostic scanner with strong capability for biological imaging, particularly in cancer and haemorrhages detection. This paper presents the design and simulation of a novel combination: a superconducting magnet together with LFEIT system. Superconducting magnets can generate magnetic field with high intensity and homogeneity, which could significantly enhance the imaging performance. The modelling of superconducting magnets was carried out using Finite Element Method (FEM) package, COMSOL Multiphysics, which was based on Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model with H-formulation coupling B-dependent critical current density and bulk approximation. The mathematical model for LFEIT system was built based on the theory of magneto-acoustic effect. The magnetic field properties from magnet design were imported into the LFEIT model. The basic imaging of electrical signal was developed using MATLAB codes. The LFEIT model simulated two samples located in three different magnetic fields with varying magnetic strength and homogeneity.

  2. Measurement of Two-Phase Flow Fields by Application of Dynamic Electrical Impedance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, KyungYoun; Kang, Sook In; Kim, Ho Chan; Kim, Sin; Lee, Yoon Joon; Kim, Min Chan; Anghaie, Samim

    2002-07-01

    This study presents a visualization technique for the phase distribution in a two-phase flow field with an electrical impedance imaging technique, which reconstructs the resistivity distribution with electrical responses that are determined by corresponding excitations. Special emphasis is placed on the development of dynamic imaging technique for two-phase system undergoing a rapid transient, which could not be visualized with conventional static imaging techniques. The proposed algorithm treats the image reconstruction problem as a nonlinear state estimation problem and the unknown state (resistivity distribution, i.e. phase distribution) is estimated with the aid of a Kalman filter in a minimum mean square error sense. Several illustrative examples with computer simulations are successfully provided to verify the reconstruction performance of the proposed algorithm. (authors)

  3. Enhanced health monitoring of fibrous composites with aligned carbon nanotube networks and electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallman, T.; Semperlotti, F.; Wang, K. W.

    2012-04-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of fibrous composites such as glass-fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) makes them prominent structural materials. However, their laminar nature is susceptible to delamination failure the onset of which traditional structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques cannot reliably and accurately detect. Carbon nano-tubes (CNT) have been recently used to tailor the electrical conductivity of polymer based materials that otherwise behave as insulators. The occurrence of damage in the polymer matrix produces localized changes in conductivity which can be tracked using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). This paper explores combining advances in composite manufacturing with EIT to develop a SHM technique that exploits anisotropic conductance monitoring for enhanced delamination and matrix crack detection.

  4. Monitoring of lobectomy in cystic fibrosis with electrical impedance tomography - a new diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Sylvia; Tenbrock, Klaus; Schrading, Simone; Pikkemaat, Robert; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Santos, Susana; Spillner, Jan Wilhelm; Wagner, Norbert; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a radiation-free technique generating cross-sectional images of the lung. EIT visualizes global and regional ventilation by illustrating the distribution of electrical bioimpedance. With an electrode belt around the patient's thorax, rotating injection-couples of a harmless alternating current allow voltage measurement of the remaining electrodes. This enables the reconstruction of a tomogram with highly dynamic changes within ventilation. We report on a female six-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and complete destruction of the upper and middle lobe of the right lung. Lobectomy, a rare therapeutic option in patients with cystic fibrosis that needs to be considered in cases of severe localized destruction, was performed. We show a pre- and postoperative documentation of static (radiology) and dynamic investigation tools (spirometry) in correlation with EIT as a new non-invasive and radiation-free diagnostic tool for this patient group. PMID:25153206

  5. Bias-dependent model of the electrical impedance of ionic polymer-metal composites.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the charge dynamics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) in response to voltage inputs composed of a large dc bias and a small superimposed time-varying voltage. The IPMC chemoelectrical behavior is described through the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck framework, in which steric effects are taken into consideration. The physics of charge build-up and mass transfer in the proximity of the high surface electrodes is modeled by schematizing the IPMC as the stacked sequence of five layers, in which the ionomeric membrane is separated from the metal electrodes by two composite layers. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a semianalytical solution for the concentration of mobile counterions and the electric potential in the IPMC, which is, in turn, used to establish an equivalent circuit model for the IPMC electrical response. The circuit model consists of the series connection of a resistor and two complex elements, each constituted by the parallel connection of a capacitor and a Warburg impedance. The resistor is associated with ion transport in the ionomeric membrane and is independent of the dc bias. The capacitors and the Warburg impedance idealize charge build-up and mass transfer in the vicinity of the electrodes and their value is controlled by the dc bias. The proposed approach is validated against experimental results on in-house fabricated IPMCs and the accuracy of the equivalent circuit is assessed through comparison with finite element results. PMID:23496522

  6. Model-aware Newton-type inversion scheme for electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Robert; Rieder, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive method for imaging the electrical conductivity of an object from voltage measurements on its surface. This inverse problem suffers in three respects: It is highly nonlinear, severely ill-posed and highly under-determined. To obtain yet reasonable reconstructions, maximal information needs to be gathered from the model and extracted from the data in all stages of the reconstruction procedure. We will present a holistic reconstruction framework which estimates the unknown model-specific parameters, i.e. background conductivity, contact impedance, and noise level, before solving the full nonlinear problem with a Newton-type method. Therein, a novel conductivity transformation decreases nonlinearity while a weighting scheme resolves the under-determinedness by promoting the reconstruction of piecewise constant conductivities. This way we increase robustness, speed, and reconstruction accuracy. Moreover, our method is easy to use and applies to a wide range of settings as it is free of design parameters. Being an absolute imaging method, no measured calibration data is required. We demonstrate the performance of this concept numerically for simulated and measured data.

  7. A Multilayer MEMS Platform for Single-Cell Electric Impedance Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dittami, Gregory M.; Ayliffe, H. Edward; King, Curtis S.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a microchamber electrode array for electrical and electrochemical studies of individual biological cells are presented. The geometry was tailored specifically for measurements from sensory hair cells isolated from the cochlea of the mammalian inner ear. Conventional microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication techniques were combined with a heat-sealing technique and polydimethylsiloxane micromolding to achieve a multilayered microfluidic system that facilitates cell manipulation and selection. The system allowed for electrical stimulation of individual living cells and interrogation of excitable cell membrane dielectric properties as a function of space and time. A three-electrode impedimetric system was incorporated to provide the additional ability to record the time-dependent concentrations of specific biochemicals in microdomain volumes near identified regions of the cell membrane. The design and fabrication of a robust fluidic and electrical interface are also described. The interface provided the flexibility and simplicity of a “cartridge-based” approach in connecting to the MEMS devices. Cytometric measurement capabilities were characterized by using electric impedance spectroscopy (1 kHz–10 MHz) of isolated outer hair cells. Chemical sensing capability within the microchannel recording chamber was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry with varying concentrations of potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6). Chronoamperometric recordings of electrically stimulated PC12 cells highlight the ability of the platform to resolve exocytosis events from individual cells. PMID:19756255

  8. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-06-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5-10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0-3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage. PMID:26006171

  9. THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE OF MUSCLE DURING THE ACTION OF NARCOTICS AND OTHER AGENTS.

    PubMed

    Guttman, R

    1939-05-20

    1. The effect of certain inorganic cations upon the electrical impedance of the sartorius muscle of the frog was investigated. While Na, K, and Mg have little effect upon the resistance of muscle, Ba and Ca cause it to fall. The use of physiologically "unbalanced" salt solution does not in itself seem to affect muscle impedance. 2. The time course of the effect upon muscle impedance of the penetration of substances into the intercellular spaces was studied by treating the muscle with sugar solutions. Half of the effect is over in three-quarters of a minute when the sugar solution is permitted to circulate past both sides of the muscle. This sets an upper limit for the time necessary for inorganic cations and organic narcotics to reach the cell surfaces. The action of inorganic cations and organic narcotics upon muscle is slow compared to the time necessary for them to reach the scene of action. The penetration of the sugar solutions into the intercellular spaces of muscle was found to follow the well known diffusion law, the amount diffusing in being proportional to the square root of the time. Average values of 77.7 per cent for rho, the volume concentration of fibers; 231 ohms specific resistance for r(2), the resistance of the interior of the fibers; and 71.0 degrees for theta, the phase angle of the impedance locus, were obtained for the muscle in Ringer's solution. How these values change when the muscle is placed in various concentrations of sugar was also studied. 3. The action of a number of organic narcotics upon muscle was studied. All decrease 1000 cycle resistance if the concentration is sufficiently high. A detailed analysis of the action of the narcotic, iso-amyl carbamate, was made, and it was noted that low concentrations increase resistance while higher concentrations decrease it. By investigating the effect of narcotics upon muscle impedance over a wide frequency range, it was found that during narcosis the resistance of the fiber membranes first

  10. Electron Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    P Cameron

    2011-12-31

    It is only recently, and particularly with the quantum Hall effect and the development of nanoelectronics, that impedances on the scale of molecules, atoms and single electrons have gained attention. In what follows the possibility that characteristic impedances might be defined for the photon and the single free electron is explored is some detail, the premise being that the concepts of electrical and mechanical impedances are relevant to the elementary particle. The scale invariant quantum Hall impedance is pivotal in this exploration, as is the two body problem and Mach's principle.

  11. Distributed network imaging and electrical impedance tomography of minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Otten, David M; Onik, Gary; Rubinsky, Boris

    2004-04-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has become highly dependent on imaging. For instance, the effectiveness of cryosurgery in treating cancer is dependent on knowledge of freezing extent, and relies on real-time imaging techniques for monitoring. However, medical imaging is often very expensive and therefore not available to most of the world population. Here we propose the concept of distributed network imaging (DNI) which could make medical imaging and minimally invasive surgery available to all who need these advanced medical modalities. We demonstrate the concept through electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of cryosurgery. The central idea is to develop an inexpensive measurend (data collection hardware) at a remote site and then to connect the measurend apparatus to an advanced image reconstruction server, which can serve a large number of distributed measurends at remote sites, using existing communication conduits (Ethernet, telephone, satellite, etc.). These conduits transfer the raw data from the measurend to the server and the reconstructed image from the server to the measurend. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging modality which utilizes tissue impedance variation to construct an image. The EIT measurend which consists of electrodes, a power supply, and means to measure voltage is inexpensive, and therefore suitable for DNI. EIT is also very well-suited to imaging cryosurgery since frozen tissue impedance is much higher than that of unfrozen tissue. In this study, we first develop numerical models to illustrate the theoretical ability of EIT to image cryosurgery. We begin with a simplified two dimensional model, and then extend the study to the more appropriate three dimensional model. Our simulated finite element phantoms and pixel-based Newton-Raphson reconstruction algorithms were able to produce easily identifiable images of frozen regions within tissue. Then, we demonstrate the feasibility of the DNI concept though a case study using EIT to

  12. A new application of electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring glucose metabolism: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism relates to biochemical processes in living organisms and plays an important role in diabetes and cancer-metastasis. Although many methods are available for measuring glucose metabolism-activities, from simple blood tests to positron emission tomography, currently there is no robust and affordable device that enables monitoring of glucose levels in real-time. In this study we tested feasibility of applying a unique resonance-frequency based electronic impedance spectroscopy (REIS) device that has been, recently developed to measure and monitor glucose metabolism levels using a phantom study. In this new testing model, a multi-frequency electrical signal sequence is applied and scanned through the subject. When the positive reactance of an inductor inside the device cancels out the negative reactance of the capacitance of the subject, the electrical impedance reaches a minimum value and this frequency is defined as the resonance frequency. The REIS system has a 24-bit analog-to-digital signal convertor and a frequency-resolution of 100Hz. In the experiment, two probes are placed inside a 100cc container initially filled with distilled water. As we gradually added liquid-glucose in increments of 1cc (250mg), we measured resonance frequencies and minimum electrical signal values (where A/D was normalized to a full scale of 1V). The results showed that resonance frequencies monotonously decreased from 243kHz to 178kHz, while the minimum voltages increased from 405mV to 793mV as the added amount of glucose increased from 0 to 5cc. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying this new REIS technology to measure and/or monitor glucose levels in real-time in future.

  13. Electrical impedance tomography-based sensing skin for quantitative imaging of damage in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallaji, Milad; Seppänen, Aku; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    This paper outlines the development of a large-area sensing skin for damage detection in concrete structures. The developed sensing skin consists of a thin layer of electrically conductive copper paint that is applied to the surface of the concrete. Cracking of the concrete substrate results in the rupture of the sensing skin, decreasing its electrical conductivity locally. The decrease in conductivity is detected with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) imaging. In previous works, electrically based sensing skins have provided only qualitative information on the damage on the substrate surface. In this paper, we study whether quantitative imaging of the damage is possible. We utilize application-specific models and computational methods in the image reconstruction, including a total variation (TV) prior model for the damage and an approximate correction of the modeling errors caused by the inhomogeneity of the painted sensing skin. The developed damage detection method is tested experimentally by applying the sensing skin to polymeric substrates and a reinforced concrete beam under four-point bending. In all test cases, the EIT-based sensing skin provides quantitative information on cracks and/or other damages on the substrate surface: featuring a very low conductivity in the damage locations, and a reliable indication of the lengths and shapes of the cracks. The results strongly support the applicability of the painted EIT-based sensing skin for damage detection in reinforced concrete elements and other substrates.

  14. Electrical impedance map (EIM) for margin assessment during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) using a microendoscopic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Aditya; Khan, Shadab; Schned, Alan R.; Hyams, Elias S.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2015-03-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSMs) found following prostate cancer surgery are a significant risk factor for post-operative disease recurrence. Noxious adjuvant radiation and chemical-based therapies are typically offered to men with PSMs. Unfortunately, no real-time intraoperative technology is currently available to guide surgeons to regions of suspicion during the initial prostatectomy where immediate surgical excisions could be used to reduce the chance of PSMs. A microendoscopic electrical impedance sensing probe was developed with the intention of providing real-time feedback regarding margin status to surgeons during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) procedures. A radially configured 17-electrode microendoscopic probe was designed, constructed, and initially evaluated through use of gelatin-based phantoms and an ex vivo human prostate specimen. Impedance measurements are recorded at 10 frequencies (10 kHz - 100 kHz) using a high-speed FPGA-based electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. Tetrapolar impedances are recorded from a number of different electrode configurations strategically chosen to sense tissue in a pre-defined sector underlying the probe face. A circular electrical impedance map (EIM) with several color-coded pie-shaped sectors is created to represent the impedance values of the probed tissue. Gelatin phantom experiments show an obvious distinction in the impedance maps between high and low impedance regions. Similarly, the EIM generated from the ex vivo prostate case shows distinguishing features between cancerous and benign regions. Based on successful development of this probe and these promising initial results, EIMs of additional prostate specimens are being collected to further evaluate this approach for intraoperative surgical margin assessment during RALP procedures.

  15. Guidelines to electrode positioning for human and animal electrical impedance myography research.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Pacheck, Adam; Rutkove, Seward B

    2016-01-01

    The positioning of electrodes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) is critical for accurately assessing disease progression and effectiveness of treatment. In human and animal trials for neuromuscular disorders, inconsistent electrode positioning adds errors to the muscle impedance. Despite its importance, how the reproducibility of resistance and reactance, the two parameters that define EIM, are affected by changes in electrode positioning remains unknown. In this paper, we present a novel approach founded on biophysical principles to study the reproducibility of resistance and reactance to electrode misplacements. The analytical framework presented allows the user to quantify a priori the effect on the muscle resistance and reactance using only one parameter: the uncertainty placing the electrodes. We also provide quantitative data on the precision needed to position the electrodes and the minimum muscle length needed to achieve a pre-specified EIM reproducibility. The results reported here are confirmed with finite element model simulations and measurements on five healthy subjects. Ultimately, our data can serve as normative values to enhance the reliability of EIM as a biomarker and facilitate comparability of future human and animal studies. PMID:27585740

  16. Visualized Multiprobe Electrical Impedance Measurements with STM Tips Using Shear Force Feedback Control

    PubMed Central

    Botaya, Luis; Coromina, Xavier; Samitier, Josep; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Otero, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Here we devise a multiprobe electrical measurement system based on quartz tuning forks (QTFs) and metallic tips capable of having full 3D control over the position of the probes. The system is based on the use of bent tungsten tips that are placed in mechanical contact (glue-free solution) with a QTF sensor. Shear forces acting in the probe are measured to control the tip-sample distance in the Z direction. Moreover, the tilting of the tip allows the visualization of the experiment under the optical microscope, allowing the coordination of the probes in X and Y directions. Meanwhile, the metallic tips are connected to a current–voltage amplifier circuit to measure the currents and thus the impedance of the studied samples. We discuss here the different aspects that must be addressed when conducting these multiprobe experiments, such as the amplitude of oscillation, shear force distance control, and wire tilting. Different results obtained in the measurement of calibration samples and microparticles are presented. They demonstrate the feasibility of the system to measure the impedance of the samples with a full 3D control on the position of the nanotips. PMID:27231911

  17. Decomposition method of an electrical bio-impedance signal into cardiac and respiratory components.

    PubMed

    Krivoshei, A; Kukk, V; Min, M

    2008-06-01

    The paper presents a method for adaptive decomposition of an electrical bio-impedance (BI) signal into two components: cardiac and respiratory. The decomposition of a BI signal is not a trivial process because of the non-stationarity of the signal components and overlapping of their harmonic spectra. An application specific orthonormal basis (ASOB) was designed to solve the decomposition task using the Jacobi weighting function in the standard Gram-Schmidt process. The key element of the bio-impedance signal decomposer (BISD) is a model of the cardiac BI signal, which is constructed from the components of the ASOB and is intended for use in the BISD for on-line tracking of the cardiac BI signal. It makes it possible to separate the cardiac and respiratory components of the total BI signal in non-stationary conditions. In combination with the signal-shape locked loop (SSLL), the BISD allows us to decompose the BI signals with partially overlapping spectra. The proposed BISD based method is accomplished as a PC software digital system, but it is oriented towards applications in portable and stationary cardiac devices and in clinical settings. PMID:18544800

  18. Measurement of Electrical Activation Energy in Black CVD Diamond Using Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haitao; Williams, Oliver A.; Jackman, Richard B.

    Dc current-voltage (I-V) measurement, Hall measurement, Deep-level transient-spectroscopy (DLTS), and flatband capacitance measurement have been used to investigate electrical activation energies in diamond. However, the deviations still exist in the published activation energies obtained by these methods. In this paper, we report the first measurement of impedance on free-standing diamond films from 0.1Hz to 10MHz up to 300°C. A wide range of CVD materials have been investigated, but here we concentrate on `black' diamond grown by MWPECVD. The Cole-Cole (Z' via Z'') plots are well fitted to a RC parallel circuit model and the equivalent Resistance and Capacitance for the diamond films have been estimated using the Zview curve fitting. The results show only one single semicircle response at each temperature measured. It was found that the resistance decreases from 62 MΩ at room temperature to 4 KΩ at 300°C, with an activation energy around 0.15eV. The equivalent capacitance is maintained at the level of 102 pF up to 300°C suggesting that the diamond grain boundaries are dominating the conduction. At 400°C, the impedance at low frequencies shows a linear tail, which can be explained that the AC polarization of diamond/Au interface occurs.

  19. Microneedle Electrode Array for Electrical Impedance Myography to Characterize Neurogenic Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Li, Yi; Liu, Mingsheng; Cui, Liying; Yu, Yude

    2016-05-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a noninvasive technique for neuromuscular assessment, wherein a low-intensity alternating current is applied to a muscle, and the consequent surface voltage patterns are evaluated. Commercial wet electrodes are most commonly used for EIM. However, these electrodes are not suitable for use on small muscles, as they do not effectively solve the problem of high electrode-skin contact impedance (ESCI) that negatively influences the quality of recorded biopotentials. To address this problem, we fabricated a novel microneedle electrode array (MEA) that consists of 124-µm-long microneedles. Compared to wet electrodes, the MEA could pierce through the outer skin surface in a painless and micro-invasive manner, and could thus effectively reduce ESCI. The MEA has excellent test-retest reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.920. When used in combination with EIM, the MEA differentiated the affected muscles from the unaffected muscles in patients with neurogenic myopathy, by using EIM parameters of reactance and phase (p = 0.023 and 0.008, respectively). Thus, the novel MEA is a practical and reusable device for EIM assessment in cases of neurogenic myopathy. However, further refinement of the electrode is needed to enhance the clinical application of the system. PMID:26407702

  20. Investigation of electrical properties of Mn doped tin oxide nanoparticles using impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S.; Chaman, M.; Naqvi, A. H.

    2010-11-01

    Manganese doped tin oxide nanoparticles with manganese content varying from 0 to 15 mol % were synthesized using sol-gel method. The structural and compositional analysis was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). Dielectric and impedance spectroscopy was carried out at room temperature to explore the electrical properties of Mn doped SnO2. XRD analysis indicated the formation of single phase rutile type tetragonal structure of all the samples. The crystallite size was observed to vary from 16.2 to 7.1 nm as the Mn content was increased. The XRD, SEM, and EDAX results corroborated the successful doping of Mn in the SnO2 matrix. Complex impedance analysis was used to distinguish the grain and grain boundary contributions to the system, suggesting the dominance of grain boundary resistance in the doped samples. The dielectric constant ɛ', dielectric loss tan δ and ac conductivity σac were studied as a function of frequency and composition and the behavior has been explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial model. All the dielectric parameters were found to decrease with the increase in doping concentration. Moreover, it has been observed that the dielectric loss approaches to zero in case of high dopant concentration (9%, 15%) at high frequencies.

  1. A comparison of headnet electrode arrays for electrical impedance tomography of the human head.

    PubMed

    Tidswell, A T; Bagshaw, A P; Holder, D S; Yerworth, R J; Eadie, L; Murray, S; Morgan, L; Bayford, R H

    2003-05-01

    Three types of commercially available headnet electrode arrays, designed for use in EEG, and conventional EEG Ag/AgCl cup electrodes were tested on human subjects, and a realistic, saline-filled head-shaped tank was prepared with vegetable skin to simulate human skin in order to determine the optimum electrode system for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of the human head. Impedance changes during EIT acquisition were produced in healthy volunteers during a finger-thumb apposition task and in tanks by the insertion of a Perspex rod. Signal-to-baseline noise, measured from raw EIT data, was 2.3 +/- 0.3 and 2.3 +/- 0.2 for the human and tank data, respectively. In both the human and tank experiments, a commercial hydrogel elasticated electrode headnet produced the least amount of baseline noise, and was the only headnet in the human data with noise levels acceptable for EIT imaging. Image quality measured in the tank was similar for most of the headnets tested, except that the EEG electrodes produced a higher positional error and electrodes in a geodesic elasticated net produced images with worse subjective image quality. Overall, the hydrogel elasticated headnet was judged to be the most suitable for human neuroimaging with EIT. PMID:12812436

  2. Visualized Multiprobe Electrical Impedance Measurements with STM Tips Using Shear Force Feedback Control.

    PubMed

    Botaya, Luis; Coromina, Xavier; Samitier, Josep; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Otero, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Here we devise a multiprobe electrical measurement system based on quartz tuning forks (QTFs) and metallic tips capable of having full 3D control over the position of the probes. The system is based on the use of bent tungsten tips that are placed in mechanical contact (glue-free solution) with a QTF sensor. Shear forces acting in the probe are measured to control the tip-sample distance in the Z direction. Moreover, the tilting of the tip allows the visualization of the experiment under the optical microscope, allowing the coordination of the probes in X and Y directions. Meanwhile, the metallic tips are connected to a current-voltage amplifier circuit to measure the currents and thus the impedance of the studied samples. We discuss here the different aspects that must be addressed when conducting these multiprobe experiments, such as the amplitude of oscillation, shear force distance control, and wire tilting. Different results obtained in the measurement of calibration samples and microparticles are presented. They demonstrate the feasibility of the system to measure the impedance of the samples with a full 3D control on the position of the nanotips. PMID:27231911

  3. Guidelines to electrode positioning for human and animal electrical impedance myography research

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Pacheck, Adam; Rutkove, Seward B.

    2016-01-01

    The positioning of electrodes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) is critical for accurately assessing disease progression and effectiveness of treatment. In human and animal trials for neuromuscular disorders, inconsistent electrode positioning adds errors to the muscle impedance. Despite its importance, how the reproducibility of resistance and reactance, the two parameters that define EIM, are affected by changes in electrode positioning remains unknown. In this paper, we present a novel approach founded on biophysical principles to study the reproducibility of resistance and reactance to electrode misplacements. The analytical framework presented allows the user to quantify a priori the effect on the muscle resistance and reactance using only one parameter: the uncertainty placing the electrodes. We also provide quantitative data on the precision needed to position the electrodes and the minimum muscle length needed to achieve a pre-specified EIM reproducibility. The results reported here are confirmed with finite element model simulations and measurements on five healthy subjects. Ultimately, our data can serve as normative values to enhance the reliability of EIM as a biomarker and facilitate comparability of future human and animal studies. PMID:27585740

  4. Fourier analysis of electrical impedance variations in urinary bladder during changes of intravesical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. V.; Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Gavrilov, I. Yu; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Stranadko, M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Original hardware and software system was used to record and analyze the variations of electrical impedance of the urinary bladder in narcotized rats (n=7) at rest, during instillation of physiological saline into the bladder resulted in elevation of intravesical pressure, and during subsequent urination accompanied by intravesical pressure release. Fourier analysis of impedance variations revealed three periodic components with the frequencies of heartbeat, respiration, and the Mayer wave (~0.1 Hz). In resting bladder, the amplitude of Mayer and respiratory spectrum peaks were high, and they increased to a different extent during physiological elevation of intravesical pressure, while a small cardiac peak did not changed significantly and tended to decrease at high intravesical pressure. Urination released intravesical pressure and restored all the peaks to the resting level. It is hypothesized that Mayer and respiratory bioimpedance oscillations of urinary bladder are neural in origin, while the cardiac peak is mainly determined by hydrodynamic arterial pulsations. The novel method can assess vesical circulation and its neural control at various phases of bladder activity.

  5. Optical Breast Shape Capture and Finite Element Mesh Generation for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, J.; Borsic, A.; Halter, R.J.; Hartov, A.; Paulsen, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    X-Ray mammography is the standard for breast cancer screening. The development of alternative imaging modalities is desirable because Mammograms expose patients to ionizing radiation. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) may be used to determine tissue conductivity, a property which is an indicator of cancer presence. EIT is also a low-cost imaging solution and does not involve ionizing radiation. In breast EIT, impedance measurements are made using electrodes placed on the surface of the patient’s breast. The complex conductivity of the volume of the breast is estimated by a reconstruction algorithm. EIT reconstruction is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. As a result, noisy instrumentation and incorrect modelling of the electrodes and domain shape produce significant image artefacts. In this paper, we propose a method that has the potential to reduce these errors by accurately modelling the patient breast shape. A 3D hand-held optical scanner is used to acquire the breast geometry and electrode positions. We develop methods for processing the data from the scanner and producing volume meshes accurately matching the breast surface and electrode locations, which can be used for image reconstruction. We demonstrate this method for a plaster breast phantom and a human subject. Using this approach will allow patient-specific finite element meshes to be generated which has the potential to improve the clinical value of EIT for breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:21646711

  6. A new resonance-frequency based electrical impedance spectroscopy and its application in biomedical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; Zheng, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has shown promising results for differentiating between malignant and benign tumors, which exhibit different dielectric properties. However, the performance of current EIS systems has been inadequate and unacceptable in clinical practice. In the last several years, we have been developing and testing a new EIS approach using resonance frequencies for detection and classification of suspicious tumors. From this experience, we identified several limitations of current technologies and designed a new EIS system with a number of new characteristics that include (1) an increased A/D (analog-to-digital) sampling frequency, 24 bits, and a frequency resolution of 100 Hz, to increase detection sensitivity (2) automated calibration to monitor and correct variations in electronic components within the system, (3) temperature sensing and compensation algorithms to minimize impact of environmental change during testing, and (4) multiple inductor-switching to select optimum resonance frequencies. We performed a theoretical simulation to analyze the impact of adding these new functions for improving performance of the system. This system was also tested using phantoms filled with variety of liquids. The theoretical and experimental test results are consistent with each other. The experimental results demonstrated that this new EIS device possesses the improved sensitivity and/or signal detection resolution for detecting small impedance or capacitance variations. This provides the potential of applying this new EIS technology to different cancer detection and diagnosis tasks in the future.

  7. A generic screening platform for inhibitors of virus induced cell fusion using cellular electrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Daniel; Robinson, Jodie; Chappell, Keith J; Butler, Mark S; Edwards, David J; Fry, Scott R; Bermingham, Imogen M; Cooper, Matthew A; Young, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membranes is an essential step in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. Despite such a clear target for antiviral drug development, few anti-fusion drugs have progressed to market. One significant hurdle is the absence of a generic, high-throughput, reproducible fusion assay. Here we report that real time, label-free measurement of cellular electrical impedance can quantify cell-cell fusion mediated by either individually expressed recombinant viral fusion proteins, or native virus infection. We validated this approach for all three classes of viral fusion and demonstrated utility in quantifying fusion inhibition using antibodies and small molecule inhibitors specific for dengue virus and respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:26976324

  8. Generating anatomically accurate finite element meshes for electrical impedance tomography of the human head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Canhua; Dai, Meng; Fu, Feng; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2013-07-01

    For electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of brain, the use of anatomically accurate and patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh has been shown to confer significant improvements in the quality of image reconstruction. But, given the lack of a rapid method to achieve the accurate anatomic geometry of the head, the generation of patient-specifc mesh is time-comsuming. In this paper, a modified fuzzy c-means algorithm based on non-local means method is performed to implement the segmentation of different layers in the head based on head CT images. This algorithm showed a better effect, especially an accurate recognition of the ventricles and a suitable performance dealing with noise. And the FE mesh established according to the segmentation results is validated in computational simulation. So a rapid practicable method can be provided for the generation of patient-specific FE mesh of the human head that is suitable for brain EIT.

  9. Expectation propagation for nonlinear inverse problems – with an application to electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gehre, Matthias; Jin, Bangti

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we study a fast approximate inference method based on expectation propagation for exploring the posterior probability distribution arising from the Bayesian formulation of nonlinear inverse problems. It is capable of efficiently delivering reliable estimates of the posterior mean and covariance, thereby providing an inverse solution together with quantified uncertainties. Some theoretical properties of the iterative algorithm are discussed, and the efficient implementation for an important class of problems of projection type is described. The method is illustrated with one typical nonlinear inverse problem, electrical impedance tomography with complete electrode model, under sparsity constraints. Numerical results for real experimental data are presented, and compared with that by Markov chain Monte Carlo. The results indicate that the method is accurate and computationally very efficient.

  10. A Gold Sensors Array for Imaging The Real Tissue Phantom in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanti Bera, Tushar; Nagaraju, J.

    2015-02-01

    Surface electrodes in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) phantoms usually reduce the SNR of the boundary potential data due to their design and development errors. A novel gold sensors array with high geometric precision is developed for EIT phantoms to improve the resistivity image quality. Gold thin films are deposited on a flexible FR4 sheet using electro-deposition process to make a sixteen electrode array with electrodes of identical geometry. A real tissue gold electrode phantom is developed with chicken tissue paste and the fat cylinders as the inhomogeneity. Boundary data are collected using a USB based high speed data acquisition system in a LabVIEW platform for different inhomogeneity positions. Resistivity images are reconstructed using EIDORS and compared with identical stainless steel electrode systems. Image contrast parameters are calculated from the resistivity matrix and the reconstructed images are evaluated for both the phantoms. Image contrast and image resolution of resistivity images are improved with gold electrode array.

  11. A generic screening platform for inhibitors of virus induced cell fusion using cellular electrical impedance

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Daniel; Robinson, Jodie; Chappell, Keith J.; Butler, Mark S.; Edwards, David J.; Fry, Scott R.; Bermingham, Imogen M.; Cooper, Matthew A.; Young, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membranes is an essential step in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. Despite such a clear target for antiviral drug development, few anti-fusion drugs have progressed to market. One significant hurdle is the absence of a generic, high-throughput, reproducible fusion assay. Here we report that real time, label-free measurement of cellular electrical impedance can quantify cell-cell fusion mediated by either individually expressed recombinant viral fusion proteins, or native virus infection. We validated this approach for all three classes of viral fusion and demonstrated utility in quantifying fusion inhibition using antibodies and small molecule inhibitors specific for dengue virus and respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:26976324

  12. Electrical impedance spectroscopy device for measurement of moisture gradients in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiitta, M.; Olkkonen, H.

    2002-08-01

    A prototype of the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) device for the measurement of internal moisture gradients in wood was developed. The EIS device consists of a hand-held probe connected to a control unit interfaced with a portable personal computer and a power unit. In the measurement, parallel flat electrodes of the measuring probe are laid against the wood specimen and the sine wave excitation is applied in the frequency range 1-100 kHz. The measured amplitude and phase spectral data were analyzed using the model based on constant phase elements. A spectral analysis software package was designed for measurement of subsurface transverse moisture gradients. The EIS device was tested with many types of uniform, desorption, and absorption gradients in lumber, pulpwood, and log specimens from spruce, pine, and birch. The EIS device can be easily transferred in a small case allowing field measurements.

  13. Applications of GRID in clinical neurophysiology and Electrical Impedance Tomography of brain function.

    PubMed

    Fritschy, J; Horesh, L; Holder, D; Bayford, R

    2005-01-01

    The computational requirements in Neurophysiology are increasing with the development of new analysis methods. The resources the GRID has to offer are ideally suited for this complex processing. A practical implementation of the GRID, Condor, has been assessed using a local cluster of 920 PCs. The reduction in processing time was assessed in spike recognition of the Electroencephalogram (EEG) in epilepsy using wavelets and the computationally demanding task of non-linear image reconstruction with Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Processing times were decreased by 25 and 40 times respectively. This represents a substantial improvement in processing time, but is still sub optimal due to factors such as shared access to resources and lack of checkpoints so that interrupted jobs had to be restarted. Future work will be to use these methods in non-linear EIT image reconstruction of brain function and methods for automated EEG analysis, if possible with further optimized GRID middleware. PMID:15923723

  14. Biological impedance cross evaluation and imaging from composite measurements of magnetic and electrical methods.

    PubMed

    Ran, Peng; Xiao, Xiaoming; He, Wei; Li, Zhangyong

    2015-01-01

    Because of the need for rapid detection and location of diseases in clinical applications, this work proposes a composite measurement of magnetic induction tomography (MIT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT). This paper is composed of the following aspects: portable and integral hardware design, stable dual constant-current sources, the composite detection method, cross-plane data acquirement, 3-dimensional image reconstruction and so on. A qualitative evaluation of conductivity, resolution and relative position error were taken by combining the EIT and MIT methods via the experiment model. The sensitivities of both methods were analyzed to improve the imaging results. The reconstruction results reveal that the system is capable of obtaining better physiological measurements, which is very useful in clinical monitoring, quick medical diagnosing and preliminary screening of community health. PMID:26405936

  15. The sensor of surface defects based on electrical impedance tomography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryndin, Eugeny A.; Isaeva, Alina S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the application of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to development of the surface defect sensor that can be used for structural health monitoring (such structural as bridge bearing, airframe, etc.). Thin conductive film with electrodes along its boundaries, as a sensor skin, is applied to structural surface. By using the corresponding boundary potential measurements and the value of applied current the both forward and inverse EIT problem were solved and method of defects detection in thin conductive film was created. This method allows calculating two-dimensional distribution of conductivity in film (conductivity map) and, indirectly, distribution of defects in it. The reconstruction defect efficiency criterion and the method of its calculation were proposed. The influence of initial data disturbance (non-uniform conductivity of the film as its roughness) on reconstruction defect efficiency without using all the combinations of current electrodes was examined.

  16. Simultaneous recovery of admittivity and body shape in electrical impedance tomography: an experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardé, Jérémi; Hyvönen, Nuutti; Seppänen, Aku; Staboulis, Stratos

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model and it is based on the Fréchet derivative of the corresponding current-to-voltage map with respect to the body shape. The reconstruction problem is cast into the Bayesian framework, and maximum a posteriori estimates for the admittivity and the boundary geometry are computed. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has potential for handling an unknown body shape in a practical setting.

  17. Nonstationary phase boundary estimation in electrical impedance tomography using unscented Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Lee, Jeong Seong; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2008-07-20

    In this paper, an effective nonstationary phase boundary estimation scheme in electrical impedance tomography is presented based on the unscented Kalman filter. The inverse problem is treated as a stochastic nonlinear state estimation problem with the nonstationary phase boundary (state) being estimated online with the aid of unscented Kalman filter. This research targets the industrial applications, such as imaging of stirrer vessel for detection of air distribution or detecting large air bubbles in pipelines. Within the domains, there exist 'voids' having zero conductivity. The design variables for phase boundary estimation are truncated Fourier coefficients. Computer simulations and experimental results are provided to evaluate the performance of unscented Kalman filter in comparison with extended Kalman filter to show a better performance of the unscented Kalman filter approach.

  18. Electrical Impedance Tomography-guided PEEP Titration in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Xingying; Jiang, Jingjing; Liu, Yuli; Xu, Haitao; Zhou, Shuangqiong; Yang, Shibo; Shi, Xueyin; Yuan, Hongbin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to utilize electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to guide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and to optimize oxygenation in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery.Fifty patients were randomly assigned to the control (C) group and the EIT (E) group (n = 25 each). We set the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at 0.30. The PEEP was titrated and increased in a 2-cm H2O stepwise manner, from 6 to 14 cm H2O. Hemodynamic variables, respiratory mechanics, EIT images, analysis of blood gas, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation were recorded. The postoperative pulmonary complications within the first 5 days were also observed.We chose 10 cm H2O and 8 cm H2O as the "ideal" PEEP for the C and the E groups, respectively. EIT-guided PEEP titration led to a more dorsal shift of ventilation. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio in the E group was superior to that in the C group in the pneumoperitoneum period, though the difference was not significant (330 ± 10 vs 305.56 ± 4 mm Hg; P = 0.09). The C group patients experienced 8.7% postoperative pulmonary complications versus 5.3% among the E group patients (relative risk 1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.31-5.3, P = 0.75).Electrical impedance tomography represents a new promising technique that could enable anesthesiologists to assess regional ventilation of the lungs and optimize global oxygenation for patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. PMID:27057904

  19. SU-E-I-52: Validation of Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography Using Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K; Liu, F; Krishnan, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Multi-frequency EIT has been reported to be a potential tool in distinguishing a tissue anomaly from background. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of acquiring functional information by comparing multi-frequency EIT images in reference to the structural information from the CT image through fusion. Methods: EIT data was acquired from a slice of winter melon using sixteen electrodes around the phantom, injecting a current of 0.4mA at 100, 66, 24.8 and 9.9 kHz. Differential EIT images were generated by considering different combinations of pair frequencies, one serving as reference data and the other as test data. The experiment was repeated after creating an anomaly in the form of an off-centered cavity of diameter 4.5 cm inside the melon. All EIT images were reconstructed using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) package in 2-D differential imaging mode using one-step Gaussian Newton minimization solver. CT image of the melon was obtained using a Phillips CT Scanner. A segmented binary mask image was generated based on the reference electrode position and the CT image to define the regions of interest. The region selected by the user was fused with the CT image through logical indexing. Results: Differential images based on the reference and test signal frequencies were reconstructed from EIT data. Result illustrated distinct structural inhomogeneity in seeded region compared to fruit flesh. The seeded region was seen as a higherimpedance region if the test frequency was lower than the base frequency in the differential EIT reconstruction. When the test frequency was higher than the base frequency, the signal experienced less electrical impedance in the seeded region during the EIT data acquisition. Conclusion: Frequency-based differential EIT imaging can be explored to provide additional functional information along with structural information from CT for identifying different tissues.

  20. Assessing risk of thyroid cancer using resonance-frequency based electrical impedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Lederman, Dror; Klym, Amy H.; Brown, Erica D.; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has risen faster than many malignancies and has nearly doubled in the USA over the past 30 years. Palpable nodules and subclinical nodules detected by imaging are found in a large percentage of the USA population. Most of these (.>95%) are fortunately benign. This vast reservoir of nodules makes the detection and diagnosis of thyroid cancer a diagnostic dilemma. Ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) is excellent for triaging patients but up to 25% of FNABs are inconclusive. As a result, definitive diagnosis is often only possible with a diagnostic lobectomy; many thousands of these are performed in the USA annually for ultimately benign disease. It would be extremely beneficial if we could develop a non-invasive procedure that could assist the diagnostician in reliably predicting the likelihood of malignancy of otherwise indeterminate thyroid nodules, thereby reducing the number of these "exploratory/diagnostic" lobectomies performed under general anesthesia. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was considered as a possible approach to address this problem. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EIS is too low for routine clinical use to date. In our group, we developed a substantially modified technology termed Resonance-frequency Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (REIS), which yields usable information for classifying risk of having breast abnormalities. We preliminarily applied REIS to measure signals on participants having thyroid nodules aiming to assess whether we can assist in improving diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules. In this study we present a new multi-probe based REIS device specifically designed for the assessment of indeterminate thyroid nodules. Our preliminary assessment presented here demonstrates the feasibility of using this proposed REIS device in a busy tertiary care center.

  1. Reconstruction of apparent orthotropic conductivity tensor image using magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Ji Eun; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography visualizes current density and/or conductivity distributions inside an electrically conductive object. Injecting currents into the imaging object along at least two different directions, induced magnetic flux density data can be measured using a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Without rotating the object inside the scanner, we can measure only one component of the magnetic flux density denoted as Bz. Since the biological tissues such as skeletal muscle and brain white matter show strong anisotropic properties, the reconstruction of anisotropic conductivity tensor is indispensable for the accurate observations in the biological systems. In this paper, we propose a direct method to reconstruct an axial apparent orthotropic conductivity tensor by using multiple Bz data subject to multiple injection currents. To investigate the anisotropic conductivity properties, we first recover the internal current density from the measured Bz data. From the recovered internal current density and the curl-free condition of the electric field, we derive an over-determined matrix system for determining the internal absolute orthotropic conductivity tensor. The over-determined matrix system is designed to use a combination of two loops around each pixel. Numerical simulations and phantom experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm stably determines the orthotropic conductivity tensor.

  2. Sensitivity study of an ultrasound coupled transrectal electrical Impedance Tomography system for prostate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Y.; Halter, R.; Borsic, A.; Manwaring, P.; Hartov, A.; Paulsen, K.

    2010-04-01

    In 2009, prostate cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second most fatal cancer in men in the United States. Unfortunately, the current clinical diagnostic methods (e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, endorectal MRI, transrectal ultrasound, biopsy) used for detecting and staging prostate cancer are limited. It has been shown that cancerous prostate tissue has significantly different electrical properties when compared to benign tissues. Based on these electrical property findings, a TransRectal Electrical Impedance Tomography (TREIT) system is proposed as a novel prostate imaging modality. The TREIT system is comprised of an array of electrodes interfaced with a clinical TransRectal UltraSound (TRUS) probe. We evaluate this imaging system through series of phantom imaging experiments to assess the system's ability to image high and low contrast objects at various positions. We found that the TREIT system can easily discern high contrast inclusions of 1 cm in diameter at distances centered at 2 times the radius of the TREIT probe away from the probe surface. Furthermore, this technology's ability to detect low contrast inclusions suggests that it has the potential to successfully detect prostate cancer.

  3. Reconstruction of apparent orthotropic conductivity tensor image using magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Ji Eun; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2015-03-14

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography visualizes current density and/or conductivity distributions inside an electrically conductive object. Injecting currents into the imaging object along at least two different directions, induced magnetic flux density data can be measured using a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Without rotating the object inside the scanner, we can measure only one component of the magnetic flux density denoted as B{sub z}. Since the biological tissues such as skeletal muscle and brain white matter show strong anisotropic properties, the reconstruction of anisotropic conductivity tensor is indispensable for the accurate observations in the biological systems. In this paper, we propose a direct method to reconstruct an axial apparent orthotropic conductivity tensor by using multiple B{sub z} data subject to multiple injection currents. To investigate the anisotropic conductivity properties, we first recover the internal current density from the measured B{sub z} data. From the recovered internal current density and the curl-free condition of the electric field, we derive an over-determined matrix system for determining the internal absolute orthotropic conductivity tensor. The over-determined matrix system is designed to use a combination of two loops around each pixel. Numerical simulations and phantom experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm stably determines the orthotropic conductivity tensor.

  4. Electrical transport properties of manganese containing pyrochlore type semiconducting oxides using impedance analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, S.; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Mahesh, S.K.; Koshy, Peter

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: DC conductivity variation of CaCe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}SnNbO{sub 7−δ} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) with inverse of temperature. Variation of conductivity with Mn concentration at 600 °C is shown in the inset. Display Omitted Highlights: ► We have observed that the structural ordering as well as grain size increase with Mn substitution. ► Impedance analysis proved that a correlated barrier hopping type conduction mechanism is involved in the materials. ► Activation energy as well as electrical conductivity increases with increase in Mn substitution. ► Localization of electrons associated with Mn{sup 2+} and structural ordering are the key factors for the increased activation energy with Mn substitution. ► All the materials showed good NTC thermistor properties. -- Abstract: A new series of manganese containing pyrochlore type semiconducting oxides CaCe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}SnNbO{sub 7−δ} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) have been synthesized to study the effect of Mn substitution on the structure, microstructure and electrical properties of these samples. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies revealed an increase of structural ordering and grain size respectively with increase of Mn substitution. Rietveld analysis and Raman spectroscopy were also employed to corroborate the XRD results. The bulk resistance measurements with temperature exhibit negative temperature coefficient behavior. The impedance analysis of the samples revealed a non-Debye type relaxation existed in the materials. The ac conductivity variation with temperature and frequency indicates a correlated barrier hopping type conduction mechanism in these materials. The barrier height and the intersite separation for hopping influence the electrical conductivity of these samples and are found to be a function of localization of electrons associated with the Mn{sup 2+} ions and the unit cell volume respectively. The Mn substitution increases both electrical

  5. A Robust Current Pattern for the Detection of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Neonates Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, T.; Oh, Sungho; Sadleir, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    We compared two 16-electrode electrical impedance tomography (EIT) current patterns on their ability to reconstruct and quantify small amounts of bleeding inside a neonatal human head using both simulated and phantom data. The current patterns used were an adjacent injection RING pattern (with electrodes located equidistantly on the equator of a sphere) and an EEG current pattern based on the 10–20 EEG electrode layout. Structures mimicking electrically important structures in the infant skull were included in a spherical numerical forward model and their effects on reconstructions were determined. The EEG pattern was found to be a better topology to localize and quantify anomalies within lateral ventricular regions. The RING electrode pattern could not reconstruct anomaly location well, as it could not distinguish different axial positions. The quantification accuracy of the RING pattern was as good as the EEG pattern in noise-free environments. However, the EEG pattern showed better quantification ability than the RING pattern when noise was added. The performance of the EEG pattern improved further with respect to the RING pattern when a fontanel was included in forward models. Significantly better resolution and contrast of reconstructed anomalies was achieved when generated from a model containing such an opening and 50 dB added noise. The EEG method was further applied to reconstruct data from a realistic neonatal head model. Overall, acceptable reconstructions and quantification results were obtained using this model and the homogeneous spherical forward model. PMID:20238166

  6. Nanoparticle-enhanced electrical impedance detection and its potential significance in image tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Jin, Cuiyun; Song, Fengjuan; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The conductivity and permittivity of tumors are known to differ significantly from those of normal tissues. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a relatively new imaging method for exploiting these differences. However, the accuracy of data capture is one of the difficult problems urgently to be solved in the clinical application of EIT technology. A new concept of EIT sensitizers is put forward in this paper with the goal of expanding the contrast ratio of tumor and healthy tissue to enhance EIT imaging quality. The use of nanoparticles for changing tumor characteristics and determining the infiltration vector for easier detection has been widely accepted in the biomedical field. Ultra-pure water, normal saline, and gold nanoparticles, three kinds of material with large differences in electrical characteristics, are considered as sensitizers and undergo mathematical model analysis and animal experimentation. Our preliminary results suggest that nanoparticles are promising for sensitization work. Furthermore, in experimental and simulation results, we found that we should select different sensitizers for the detection of different types and stages of tumor. PMID:23319858

  7. Transoesophageal detection of heart graft rejection by electrical impedance: Using finite element method simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovinazzo, G.; Ribas, N.; Cinca, J.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to evaluate heart graft rejection level using a bioimpedance technique by means of an intracavitary catheter. However, this technique does not present relevant advantages compared to the gold standard for the detection of a heart rejection, which is the biopsy of the endomyocardial tissue. We propose to use a less invasive technique that consists in the use of a transoesophageal catheter and two standard ECG electrodes on the thorax. The aim of this work is to evaluate different parameters affecting the impedance measurement, including: sensitivity to electrical conductivity and permittivity of different organs in the thorax, lung edema and pleural water. From these results, we deduce the best estimator for cardiac rejection detection, and we obtain the tools to identify possible cases of false positive of heart rejection due to other factors. To achieve these objectives we have created a thoracic model and we have simulated, with a FEM program, different situations at the frequencies of 13, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. Our simulation demonstrates that the phase, at 100 and 300 kHz, has the higher sensitivity to changes in the electrical parameters of the heart muscle.

  8. An electric impedance based microelectromechanical system flow sensor for ionic solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, H Edward; Rabbitt, RD

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic devices with channel cross sections measuring 4 × 10 μm2 instrumented with gold microelectrodes were used to sense flow rates of ionic solutions on the basis of electric impedance (EI) measured perpendicular to the flow. Negative pressures were applied to access ports of the microdevices to generate flow of saline solutions (physiologic concentrations 0.9%) through the micro-EI recording zone with flow rates between 2.4 and 4.8 μl min−1. The EI spectra (100 Hz–20 MHz) recorded under flow conditions were compared with the no-flow condition. Changes in the magnitude of EI (at 350 Hz) for flow rates as low as 2.4 μl min−1 were statistically significant compared with the no-flow condition. The observed dependence of EI on flow rate is attributed to the relative difference between the rate of migration of charge-balancing electrolyte ions to the electrode surface and the rate of removal of the same ions by forced convection. An electrochemical convection–diffusion model was used to study the observed dependence on flow. Simulations support the conceptual model that passing DC current from the gold electrodes into the ionic solution results in an increase in ionic concentration near the electrode surface (due to the inward migration of counter-balancing ions). When the fluid flow rates increase, these counter-balancing ions are replaced by the bulk solution, thereby lowering the average ionic concentration within the recording zone. This local concentration drop results in an increase in the real part of the impedance. PMID:19672321

  9. Electrical impedance myography to assess outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Rutkove, Seward B.; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David A.; Raynor, Elizabeth M.; Shefner, Jeremy M.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Chin, Anne B.; Aaron, Ronald; Shiffman, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Standard outcome measures used for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinical trials, including the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), maximal voluntary isometric contraction testing (MVICT), and manual muscle testing (MMT) are limited in their ability to detect subtle disease progression. Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a new non-invasive technique that provides quantitative data on muscle health by measuring localized tissue impedance. This study investigates whether EIM could provide a new outcome measure for use in ALS clinical trials work. Methods Fifteen ALS patients underwent repeated EIM measurements of one or more muscles over a period of up to 18 months and the primary outcome variable, θz-max, measured. The θz-max megascore was then calculated using the same approach as has been applied in the past for MVICT. This and the MMT data were then used to assess each measure’s statistical power to detect a given effect on disease progression in a hypothetical planned clinical therapeutic trial. Results θz-max showed a mean decline of about 21% for the test period, averaged across all patients and all tested muscles. The θz-max megascore had a power of 73% to detect a 10% treatment effect in our planned hypothetical trial, as compared to a 28% power for MMT. These results also compared favorably to historical data for ALSFRS-R and MVICT arm megascore from the trial of celecoxib in ALS, where both measures had only a 23% power to detect the same 10% treatment effect. Conclusions The θz-max megascore may provide a powerful new outcome measure for ALS clinical trials. Significance The application of EIM to future ALS trials may allow for smaller, faster studies with an improved ability to detect subtle treatment effects. PMID:17897874

  10. Left and right preconditioning for electrical impedance tomography with structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, Daniela; McGivney, Debra; Somersalo, Erkki

    2012-05-01

    A common problem in computational inverse problems is to find an efficient way of solving linear or nonlinear least-squares problems. For large-scale problems, iterative solvers are the method of choice for solving the associated linear systems, and for nonlinear problems, an additional effective local linearization method is required. In this paper, we discuss an efficient preconditioning scheme for Krylov subspace methods, based on the Bayesian analysis of the inverse problem. The model problem to which we apply this methodology is electrical impedance tomography (EIT) augmented with prior information coming from a complementary modality, such as x-ray imaging. The particular geometry considered here models the x-ray-guided EIT for breast imaging. The interest in applying EIT concurrently with x-ray breast imaging arises from the experimental observation that the impedivity spectra of certain types of malignant and benign tissues differ significantly from each other, thus offering a possibility of diagnosis without more invasive tissue sampling. After setting up the EIT inverse problem within a Bayesian framework, we present an inner and outer iteration scheme for computing a maximum a posteriori estimate. The prior covariance provides a right preconditioner and the modeling error covariance provides a left preconditioner for the iterative method used to solve the linear least-squares problem at each outer iteration of the optimization problem. Moreover, the stopping criterion for the inner iterations is coupled with the progress of the solution of the outer iteration. Besides the preconditioning scheme, the computational efficiency relies on a very efficient method to compute the Jacobian, obtained by carefully organizing the forward computation. Computed examples illustrate the robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Sub-millimeter resolution electrical conductivity images of brain tissues using magnetic resonance-based electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyun Bum; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kyung, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-07-01

    Recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) of in vivo animal and human subjects enabled the imaging of electromagnetic properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, on tissue structure and function with a few millimeter pixel size. At those resolutions, the conductivity contrast might be sufficient to distinguish different tissue type for certain applications. Since the precise measurement of electrical conductivity under the tissue levels can provide alternative information in a wide range of biomedical applications, it is necessary to develop high-resolution MREIT technique to enhance its availability. In this study, we provide the experimental evaluation of sub-millimeter resolution conductivity imaging method using a 3T MR scanner combined with a multi-echo MR pulse sequence, multi-channel RF coil, and phase optimization method. From the phantom and animal imaging results, sub-millimeter resolution exhibited similar signal-to-noise ratio of MR magnitude and noise levels in magnetic flux density comparing to the existing millimeter resolution. The reconstructed conductivity images at sub-millimeter resolution can distinguish different brain tissues with a pixel size as small as 350 μm.

  12. Sub-millimeter resolution electrical conductivity images of brain tissues using magnetic resonance-based electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Tong In; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyun Bum; Kyung, Eun Jung; Kwon, Oh In

    2015-07-13

    Recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) of in vivo animal and human subjects enabled the imaging of electromagnetic properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, on tissue structure and function with a few millimeter pixel size. At those resolutions, the conductivity contrast might be sufficient to distinguish different tissue type for certain applications. Since the precise measurement of electrical conductivity under the tissue levels can provide alternative information in a wide range of biomedical applications, it is necessary to develop high-resolution MREIT technique to enhance its availability. In this study, we provide the experimental evaluation of sub-millimeter resolution conductivity imaging method using a 3T MR scanner combined with a multi-echo MR pulse sequence, multi-channel RF coil, and phase optimization method. From the phantom and animal imaging results, sub-millimeter resolution exhibited similar signal-to-noise ratio of MR magnitude and noise levels in magnetic flux density comparing to the existing millimeter resolution. The reconstructed conductivity images at sub-millimeter resolution can distinguish different brain tissues with a pixel size as small as 350 μm.

  13. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  14. Effect of psychological stress on gastric motility assessed by electrical bio-impedance

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Ramirez-Padilla, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate gastric motility using electrical bio-impedance (EBI) and gastric changes as a result of stress induced by psychological tests. METHODS: A group of 57 healthy women, aged 40-60 years, was recruited, and a clinical history and physical examination were performed. The women were free from severe anxiety, chronic or acute stress, severe depression, mental diseases and conditions that affect gastric activity. The women were evaluated under fasting conditions, and using a four-electrode configuration, the gastric signals were obtained through a BIOPAC MP-150 system. The volunteers were evaluated using the following paradigm: basal state, recording during the Stroop Test, intermediate resting period, recording during the Raven Test, and a final resting period. We analyzed the relative areas of the frequency spectrum: A1 (1-2 cpm), A2 (2-4 cpm), A3 (4-8 cpm), and A4 (8-12 cpm), as well as the median of area A2 + A3. The data were analyzed by an autoregressive method using a Butterworth filter with MatLab and Origin. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman ANOVA (for nonparametric variables) were performed; in addition, pairs of groups were compared using the T dependent and Wilcoxon T tests. RESULTS: The results of the main values of area A2 were not significantly different comparing the five steps of the experimental paradigm. Nevertheless, there was a tendency of this A2 region to decrease during the stress tests, with recuperation at the final resting step. When an extended gastric region was considered (1-4 cpm), significant differences with the psychological stress tests were present (F = 3.85, P = 0.005). The A3 region also showed significant changes when the stress psychological tests were administered (F = 7.25, P < 0.001). These differences were influenced by the changes in the adjacent gastric region of A2. The parameter that we proposed in previous studies for the evaluation of gastric motility by electrical bio-impedance (EBI) was the median

  15. Assembling a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for breast tissue signal detection: preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumkin, Jules; Zheng, Bin; Gruss, Michelle; Drescher, John; Leader, Joseph; Good, Walter; Lu, Amy; Cohen, Cathy; Shah, Ratan; Zuley, Margarita; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology to detect breast abnormalities in general and cancer in particular has been attracting research interests for decades. Large clinical tests suggest that current EIS systems can achieve high specificity (>= 90%) at a relatively low sensitivity ranging from 15% to 35%. In this study, we explore a new resonance frequency based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) technology to measure breast tissue EIS signals in vivo, which aims to be more sensitive to small tissue changes. Through collaboration between our imaging research group and a commercial company, a unique prototype REIS system has been assembled and preliminary signal acquisition has commenced. This REIS system has two detection probes mounted in the two ends of a Y-shape support device with probe separation of 60 mm. During REIS measurement, one probe touches the nipple and the other touches to an outer point of the breast. The electronic system continuously generates sweeps of multi-frequency electrical pulses ranging from 100 to 4100 kHz. The maximum electric voltage and the current applied to the probes are 1.5V and 30mA, respectively. Once a "record" command is entered, multi-frequency sweeps are recorded every 12 seconds until the program receives a "stop recording" command. In our imaging center, we have collected REIS measurements from 150 women under an IRB approved protocol. The database includes 58 biopsy cases, 78 screening negative cases, and other "recalled" cases (for additional imaging procedures). We measured eight signal features from the effective REIS sweep of each breast. We applied a multi-feature based artificial neural network (ANN) to classify between "biopsy" and normal "non-biopsy" breasts. The ANN performance is evaluated using a leave-one-out validation method and ROC analysis. We conducted two experiments. The first experiment attempted to classify 58 "biopsy" breasts and 58 "non-biopsy" breasts acquired on 58 women

  16. Development of a combined ultrasound and electrical impedance imaging system for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuqing

    Approximately 240,890 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 33,720 men were expected to die from it in the year of 2011 in the United States. Unfortunately, the current clinical diagnostic methods (e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, ultrasound guided biopsy) used for detecting and staging prostate cancer are limited. It has been shown that cancerous prostate tissue has significantly different electrical properties when compared to benign tissues. Based on these electrical property findings, a transrectal electrical impedance tomography (TREIT) system is proposed as a novel prostate imaging modality. An ultrasound probe is incorporated with TREIT to achieve anatomic information of the prostate and guide electrical property reconstruction. Without the guidance of the ultrasound, the TREIT system can easily discern high contrast inclusions of 1 cm in diameter at distances centered at two times the radius of the TREIT probe away from the probe surface. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that our system is able to detect low contrast inclusions. With the guidance of the ultrasound, our system is capable of detecting a plastic inclusion embedded in a gelatin phantom, indicating the potential to detect cancer. In addition, the results of preliminary in vivo clinical trials using the imaging system are also presented in the thesis. After collecting data for a total 66 patients, we demonstrated that the in vivo conductivity of cancerous tissue is significantly greater than that of benign tissue (p=0.0015 at 400 Hz) and the conductivity of BPH tissue is significantly lower than that of normal tissue (p=0.0009 at 400 Hz). Additionally at 25.6 kHz, the dual-modal imaging system is able to differentiate cancerous tissue from benign tissue with sensitivity of 0.6012 and specificity of 0.5498, normal tissue from BPH tissue with sensitivity of 0.6085 and specificity of 0.5813 and differentiate cancerous tissue from BPH tissue with sensitivity of

  17. Ex vivo characterization of age-associated impedance changes of single vascular endothelial cells using micro electrical impedance spectroscopy with a cell trap.

    PubMed

    Park, Yangkyu; Cha, Jung-Joon; Seo, Seungwan; Yun, Joho; Woo Kim, Hyeon; Park, Changju; Gang, Giseok; Lim, Juhun; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to characterize aging of single vascular endothelial cells, which are indicators of senescence, using micro electrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS) for the first time. The proposed μEIS was equipped with two barriers under the membrane actuator near the sensing electrodes, increasing its cell-trapping capability and minimizing the interference between the target cell and subsequent cells. The cell-trapping capability in μEIS with barriers was considerably improved (90%) with a capture time of 5 s or less, compared to μEIS without barriers (30%). Cells were extracted from transgenic zebrafish to minimize an initial discrepancy originating from genetic differences. In order to estimate useful parameters, cytoplasm resistance and membrane capacitance were estimated by fitting an electrical equivalent circuit to the data of ex vivo sensor output. The estimated cytoplasm resistance and membrane capacitance in the younger vascular endothelial cells were 20.16 ± 0.79 kΩ and 17.46 ± 0.76 pF, respectively, whereas those in the older cells were 17.81 ± 0.98 kΩ and 20.08 ± 1.38 pF, respectively. Discrimination of each group with different aging showed statistical significance in terms of cytoplasm resistance (p < 0.001) and membrane capacitance (p < 0.001). Considering both of the sensor and cellular level, the optimal frequency was determined as 1 MHz at which the electrical impedance of each group was clearly discriminated (p < 0.001). PMID:26865907

  18. Cost-effective broad-band electrical impedance spectroscopy measurement circuit and signal analysis for piezo-materials and ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Lewis, George K; Olbricht, William

    2008-10-01

    This paper explains the circuitry and signal processing to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy on piezoelectric materials and ultrasound transducers. Here, we measure and compare the impedance spectra of 2-5 MHz piezoelectrics, but the methodology applies for 700 kHz-20 MHz ultrasonic devices as well. Using a 12 ns wide 5 volt pulsing circuit as an impulse, we determine the electrical impedance curves experimentally using Ohm's law and fast Fourier transform (FFT), and compare results with mathematical models. The method allows for rapid impedance measurement for a range of frequencies using a narrow input pulse, digital oscilloscope and FFT techniques. The technique compares well to current methodologies such as network and impedance analyzers while providing additional versatility in the electrical impedance measurement. The technique is theoretically simple, easy to implement and completed with ordinary laboratory instrumentation for minimal cost. PMID:19081773

  19. In vitro localisation of intracranial haematoma using electrical impedance tomography semi-array.

    PubMed

    Ayati, S Bentolhoda; Bouazza-Marouf, Kaddour; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography is a non-invasive and portable method that has good potential as an alternative to the conventional modalities for early detection of intracranial haematomas in high risk patients. Early diagnosis can reduce treatment delays and most significantly can impact patient outcomes. Two eight-electrode layouts, a standard ring full array (FA) and a semi-array (SA), were investigated for their ability to detect, localise and quantify simulated intracranial haematomas in vitro on ovine models for the purpose of early diagnosis. SA layout speeds up electrode application and avoids the need to move and lift the patient's head. Haematomas were simulated using gel samples with the same conductivity as blood. Both layouts, FA and SA, could detect the presence of haematomas at any location within the skull. The mean of the relative radial position error with respect to the brain radius was 7% for FA and 6% for SA, for haematomas close to the electrodes, and 11% for SA for haematomas far from the electrodes at the back of the head. Size estimation was not as good; the worst size estimation error for FA being around 30% while the best for SA was 50% for simulated haematomas close to the electrodes. PMID:25455163

  20. Process techniques for human thoracic electrical bio-impedance signal in remote healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Mirza, Shafi Shahsavar

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of thoracic electrical bio-impedance (TEB) facilitates heart stroke volume in sudden cardiac arrest. This Letter proposes several efficient and computationally simplified adaptive algorithms to display high-resolution TEB component. In a clinical environment, TEB signal encounters with various physiological and non-physiological phenomenon, which masks the tiny features that are important in identifying the intensity of the stroke. Moreover, computational complexity is an important parameter in a modern wearable healthcare monitoring tool. Hence, in this Letter, the authors propose a new signal conditioning technique for TEB enhancement in remote healthcare systems. For this, the authors have chosen higher order adaptive filter as a basic element in the process of TEB. To improve filtering capability, convergence speed, to reduce computational complexity of the signal conditioning technique, the authors apply data normalisation and clipping the data regressor. The proposed implementations are tested on real TEB signals. Finally, simulation results confirm that proposed regressor clipped normalised higher order filter is suitable for a practical healthcare system. PMID:27382481

  1. A Novel Method for Monitoring Data Quality in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Gaggero, Pascal; Justiz, Jörn; Koch, Volker; Mamatjan, Yasin

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the promise to help improve care for patients undergoing ventilation therapy by providing real-time bed-side information on the distribution of ventilation in their lungs. To realise this potential, it is important for an EIT system to provide a reliable and meaningful signal at all times, or alert clinicians when this is not possible. Because the reconstructed images in EIT are sensitive to system instabilities (including electrode connection problems) and artifacts caused by e.g. movement or sweat, there is a need for EIT systems to continuously monitor, recognize and, if possible, correct for such errors. Motivated by this requirement, our paper describes a novel approach to quantitatively measure EIT data quality suitable for online and offline applications. We used a publicly available data set of ventilation data from two pediatric patients with lung disease to evaluate the data quality on clinical data. Results suggest that the developed data quality could be a useful tool for real-time assessment of the quality of EIT data and, hence, to indicate the reliability of any derived physiological information.

  2. Induced current electrical impedance tomography system: experimental results and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Zlochiver, Sharon; Radai, M Michal; Abboud, Shimon; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Dong, Xiu-Zhen; Liu, Rui-Gang; You, Fu-Sheng; Xiang, Hai-Yan; Shi, Xue-Tao

    2004-02-01

    In electrical impedance tomography (EIT), measurements of developed surface potentials due to applied currents are used for the reconstruction of the conductivity distribution. Practical implementation of EIT systems is known to be problematic due to the high sensitivity to noise of such systems, leading to a poor imaging quality. In the present study, the performance of an induced current EIT (ICEIT) system, where eddy current is applied using magnetic induction, was studied by comparing the voltage measurements to simulated data, and examining the imaging quality with respect to simulated reconstructions for several phantom configurations. A 3-coil, 32-electrode ICEIT system was built, and an iterative modified Newton-Raphson algorithm was developed for the solution of the inverse problem. The RMS norm between the simulated and the experimental voltages was found to be 0.08 +/- 0.05 mV (<3%). Two regularization methods were implemented and compared: the Marquardt regularization and the Laplacian regularization (a bounded second-derivative regularization). While the Laplacian regularization method was found to be preferred for simulated data, it resulted in distinctive spatial artifacts for measured data. The experimental reconstructed images were found to be indicative of the angular positioning of the conductivity perturbations, though the radial sensitivity was low, especially when using the Marquardt regularization method. PMID:15005319

  3. Electrical Impedance Tomography for pulmonary oedema extent monitoring: review and updated design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eduardo; Simini, Franco

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring pulmonary oedema would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a graphical representation of its size and density to guide therapeutic interventions. Currently the clinician has only indirect estimations because X-ray imaging or computed tomography can not be repeated often. To avoid the transfer of critically ill patients and to have continuous information Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is suggested. Circuit designs for EIT are reviewed, including wave generators, current sources, differential amplifiers, synchronous voltmeters, multiplexers and control modules. Nine designs are studied, the characteristics of five of them are presented (UK 2005, Uruguay 2002, Iran 2006, China 2007 and Switzerland 2012). Three different solutions are compared (components cost range from) and an optimal design is proposed which includes a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) for signal generation, a modified Howland configuration for current source, 16 bits for the analog to digital conversion, and a digital signal processor (DSP) for the synchronous demodulation as well as to process the measurements for the reconstruction algorithm. This allows us to design low cost, gross graphical representations for oedema extent monitoring, with little anatomical accuracy.

  4. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Huijing; Shin, Henry

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM), as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer) longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner) longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2) of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase) and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434). Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM. PMID:27227876

  5. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test. PMID:27185035

  6. Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography applied to a metal-walled filtration test platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J. L.; Ruffino, L. S.; Stephenson, D. R.; Mann, R.; Grieve, B. D.; York, T. A.

    2004-11-01

    The first true three-dimensional image reconstructions from a metal-walled vessel using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are presented. Two image reconstruction techniques have been applied via relatively sophisticated FEM modelling of a bespoke laboratory test vessel from which data have been obtained using an EIT instrument designed to intrinsically safe requirements. A generalized Tikhonov regularization method is compared with the linear back-projection (LBP) technique. Subsequent image reconstructions strongly suggest that the LBP method when applied to a metal-walled vessel is highly sensitive to the level of detail within the FEM model. By comparison, the regularized technique is far less sensitive to the complexity of the modelled geometry. Additionally, unlike the LBP method, the regularization technique has been successful in accurately reconstructing multiple inhomogeneities within an aqueous system. A further experiment has shown similar sensitivity in a wetted powder-based system. It is concluded that EIT via a regularized difference imaging approach has significant potential for detecting 3D malformations and non-uniformities in industrial pressure filtration systems.

  7. A fast parallel solver for the forward problem in electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Markus; Dedner, Andreas; Betcke, Timo; Aristovich, Kirill; Klöfkorn, Robert; Holder, David

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive imaging modality, where imperceptible currents are applied to the skin and the resulting surface voltages are measured. It has the potential to distinguish between ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke with a portable and inexpensive device. The image reconstruction relies on an accurate forward model of the experimental setup. Because of the relatively small signal in stroke EIT, the finite-element modeling requires meshes of more than 10 million elements. To study the requirements in the forward modeling in EIT and also to reduce the time for experimental image acquisition, it is necessary to reduce the run time of the forward computation. We show the implementation of a parallel forward solver for EIT using the Dune-Fem C++ library and demonstrate its performance on many CPU's of a computer cluster. For a typical EIT application a direct solver was significantly slower and not an alternative to iterative solvers with multigrid preconditioning. With this new solver, we can compute the forward solutions and the Jacobian matrix of a typical EIT application with 30 electrodes on a 15-million element mesh in less than 15 min. This makes it a valuable tool for simulation studies and EIT applications with high precision requirements. It is freely available for download. PMID:25069109

  8. Probing the biocompatibility of MoS2 nanosheets by cytotoxicity assay and electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pratikkumar; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Li, Chen-Zhong; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2015-08-01

    Transition metal dichalgogenides such as MoS2 have recently emerged as hot two-dimensional (2D) materials due to their superior electronic and catalytic properties. Recently, we have reported the usefulness of MoS2 nanosheets toward the electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters and glucose (Narayanan et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 335702). Furthermore, there are reports available in the literature that demonstrate the usefulness of MoS2 nanosheets for biosensing and energy storage applications (Zhu et al 2013 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 5998-6001 Pumera and Loo 2014 Trends Anal. Chem. 61 49-53 Lee et al 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 7352; Stephenson et al 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 209-31). Understanding the cytotoxic effect of any material is very important prior to employing them for any in vivo biological applications such as implantable sensors, chips, or carriers for drug delivery and cell imaging purposes. Herein, we report the cytotoxicity of the MoS2 nanosheets based on the cytotoxic assay results and electrical impedance analysis using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and rat adrenal medulla endothelial cells (RAMEC). Our results indicated that the MoS2 nanosheets synthesized in our work are safe 2D nanosheets for futuristic biomedical applications.

  9. A comparison framework for temporal image reconstructions in electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Hervé; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides low-resolution images of internal conductivity distributions, but is able to achieve relatively high temporal resolutions. Most EIT image reconstruction algorithms do not explicitly account for the temporal constraints on the measurements or physiological processes under investigation. Instead, algorithms typically assume both that the conductivity distribution does not change during the acquisition of each EIT data frame, and that frames can be reconstructed independently, without consideration of the correlation between images. A failure to account for these temporal effects will result in aliasing-related artefacts in images. Several methods have been proposed to compensate for these effects, including interpolation of raw data, and reconstruction algorithms using Kalman and temporal filtering. However, no systematic work has been performed to understand the severity of the temporal artefacts nor the extent to which algorithms can account for them. We seek to address this need by developing a temporal comparison framework and figures of merit to assess the ability of reconstruction algorithms to account for temporal effects. Using this approach, we compare combinations of three reconstruction algorithms using three EIT data frame types: perfect, realistic and interpolated. The results show that, without accounting for temporal effects, artefacts are present in images for dynamic conductivity contrasts at frequencies 10-20 times slower than the frame rate. The proposed methods show some improvements in reducing these artefacts. PMID:26006181

  10. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Huijing; Shin, Henry; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM), as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer) longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner) longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2) of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase) and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434). Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM. PMID:27227876

  11. Assessment of distribution of ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Ambrisko, T D; Schramel, J P; Adler, A; Kutasi, O; Makra, Z; Moens, Y P S

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in horses. Thoracic EIT was used in nine horses. Thoracic and abdominal circumference changes were also measured with respiratory ultrasound plethysmography (RUP). Data were recorded during baseline, rebreathing of CO2 and sedation. Three breaths were selected for analysis from each recording. During baseline breathing, horses regularly took single large breaths (sighs), which were also analysed. Functional EIT images were created using standard deviations (SD) of pixel signals and correlation coefficients (R) of each pixel signal with a reference respiratory signal. Left-to-right ratio, centre-of-ventilation and global-inhomogeneity-index were calculated. RM-ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used (P < 0.05). Distribution of ventilation shifted towards right during sighs and towards dependent regions during sighs, rebreathing and sedation. Global-inhomogeneity-index did not change for SD but increased for R images during sedation. The sum of SDs for the respiratory EIT signals correlated well with thoracic (r(2) = 0.78) and abdominal (r(2) = 0.82) tidal circumferential changes. Inverse respiratory signals were identified on the images at sternal location and based on reviewing CT images, seemed to correspond to location of gas filled intestines. Application of EIT in standing non-sedated horses is feasible. EIT images may provide physiologically useful information even in situations, such as sighs, that cannot easily be tested by other methods. PMID:26711858

  12. On the influence of spread constant in radial basis networks for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sébastien; Choi, Charles T M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique. The main task of this work is to solve a non-linear inverse problem, for which several techniques have been suggested, but none of which gives a very high degree of accuracy. This paper introduces a novel approach, based on radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural networks (ANNs), to solve this problem, and uses several ANNs to obtain the best solution to the EIT inverse problem. ANNs have the potential to directly estimate the solution of the inverse problem with a high degree of accuracy. While different radial basis neural networks do not always perform well on different problems, they usually give good results on some specific problems. This paper evidences a strong correlation between the area of the target and the spread constant of the RBF network that gives the best reconstruction. A solution to automatically estimate the size of the target and pick the best neural network directly from voltage measurements is presented, making the reconstruction process automatic. By automatically selecting the best ANN for each specific set of voltage measurements, the proposed solution gives a more accurate reconstruction of both small and large targets. PMID:27203367

  13. Electrical impedance myography for the assessment of children with muscular dystrophy: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkove, S. B.; Darras, B. T.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) provides a non-invasive approach for quantifying the severity of neuromuscular disease. Here we determine how well EIM data correlates to functional and ultrasound (US) measures of disease in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and healthy subjects. Thirteen healthy boys, aged 2-12 years and 14 boys with DMD aged 4-12 years underwent both EIM and US measurements of deltoid, biceps, wrist flexors, quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. EIM measurements were performed with a custom-designed probe using a commercial multifrequency bioimpedance device. US luminosity data were quantified using a gray-scale analysis approach. Children also underwent the 6-minute walk test, timed tests and strength measurements. EIM and US data were combined across muscles. EIM 50 kHz phase was able to discriminate DMD children from healthy subjects with 98% accuracy. In the DMD patients, average EIM phase measurements also correlated well with standard functional measures. For example the 50 kHz phase correlated with the Northstar Ambulatory Assessment test (R = 0.83, p = 0.02). EIM 50 kHz phase and US correlated as well, with R = -0.79 (p < 0.001). These results show that EIM provides valuable objective measures Duchenne muscular dystrophy severity.

  14. Visualization of the meridian of traditional Chinese medicine with electrical impedance tomography: An initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanli; Lu, Xiaozuo; Wang, Xuemin

    2010-04-01

    The meridian is a concept central to traditional Chinese medical techniques such as acupuncture. There is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological basis for the existence of meridians. In Chinese medicine, the meridians are channels along which the energy of the psychological system is considered to flow. It has been proven that the resistance along the meridian channels is lower compared to other paths. Based on this knowledge, we proposed using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to visualize the meridians of human being. A simplified three dimensional (3D) mathematical model of the forearm developed. Current was injected in the direction perpendicular to the cross-section where eight electrodes were equally placed around the surface of the forearm for the voltage measurements. The model was solved using Finite Element Method (FEM) and dynamic image was reconstructed using truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) regularization method. The conductivity distributions were compared with different current injections, along the meridian channel and channels around respectively. We also conducted experiments on models and the meridians were shown in final reconstructed images.

  15. In vivo imaging of irreversible electroporation by means of electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Yair; Ivorra, Antoni; Maor, Elad; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-08-01

    Electroporation, the increased permeability of cell membranes due to a large transmembrane voltage, is an important clinical tool. Both reversible and irreversible in vivo electroporation are used for clinical applications such as gene therapy and solid malignant tumor ablation, respectively. The primary advantage of in vivo electroporation is the ability to treat tissue in a local and minimally invasive fashion. The drawback is the current lack of control over the process. This paper is the first report of a new method for real-time three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo electroporation process. Using two needle electrodes for irreversible electroporation and a set of electrodes for reconstructing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images of the treated tissue, we were able to demonstrate electroporation imaging in rodent livers. Histology analysis shows good correlation between the extent of tissue damage caused by irreversible electroporation and the EIT images. This new method may lead the way to real-time control over genetic treatment of diseases in tissue and tissue ablation.

  16. The potential of electrical impedance on the performance of galloping systems for energy harvesting and control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, H.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2016-05-01

    Performances of galloping-based piezoelectric systems for energy harvesting and control applications when considering complex electrical impedance are investigated. The aeroelastic system is composed of a unimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam with a square cylinder attached at its tip and subjected to a uniform flow speed. A quasi-steady representation is used to model the aerodynamic force. A nonlinear distributed-parameter model is developed when considering various scenarios of connections between electrical resistance, capacitance, and inductance. Theoretical strategies are developed in order to determine the relation between the onset speed of galloping and the components of the electrical impedance. The results show that the presence of the electrical capacitance and inductance is not beneficial in terms of improving the levels of the harvested power crossing the load resistance. On the other hand, it is shown that the inclusion of these electrical components may be useful for energy harvesting purposes when charging/discharging batteries. One of the important findings of this research study is that including an electrical inductance in connection to a load resistance is very beneficial for control purposes because a significant increase in the onset speed of instability can be obtained for well-defined values of the electrical components. Analytical predictions of these optimum values of the electrical inductance and resistance are determined and compared with numerical simulations. It is also demonstrated that supercritical Hopf bifurcations take place at this controlled optimal configuration without having any hysteresis and jumps when increasing and decreasing the wind speeds.

  17. Respiratory-gated electrical impedance tomography: a potential technique for quantifying stroke volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Saaid H.; Murphy, Ethan K.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2016-03-01

    Telemonitoring is becoming increasingly important as the proportion of the population living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases. Currently used health parameters in the suite of telemonitoring tools lack the sensitivity and specificity to accurately predict heart failure events, forcing physicians to play a reactive versus proactive role in patient care. A novel cardiac output (CO) monitoring device is proposed that leverages a custom smart phone application and a wearable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of using respiratory-gated EIT to quantify stroke volume (SV) and assess its feasibility using real data. Simulations were carried out using the 4D XCAT model to create anatomically realistic meshes and electrical conductivity profiles representing the human thorax and the intrathoracic tissue. A single 5-second period respiration cycle with chest/lung expansion was modeled with end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart volumes to evaluate how effective EIT-based conductivity changes represent clinically significant differences in SV. After establishing a correlation between conductivity changes and SV, the applicability of the respiratory-gated EIT was refined using data from the PhysioNet database to estimate the number of useful end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart events attained over a 3.3 minute period. The area associated with conductivity changes was found to correlate to SV with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. A window of 12.5% around peak exhalation was found to be the optimal phase of the respiratory cycle from which to record EIT data. Within this window, ~47 useable ED and ES were found with a standard deviation of 28 using 3.3 minutes of data for 20 patients.

  18. Novel microfluidic system for online monitoring of biofilm dynamics by electrical impedance spectroscopy and amperometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruchmann, Julia; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Schwartz, Thomas; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Biofilm formation is ubiquitous in nature where microorganisms attach to surfaces and form highly adapted and protected communities. In technical and industrial systems like drinking water supply, food production or shipping industry biofilms are a major cause of product contamination, biofouling, and biocorrosion. Therefore, understanding of biofilm formation and means of preventing biofilm formation is important to develop novel biofilm treatment strategies. A system allowing directly online detection and monitoring biofilm formation is necessary. However, until today, there are little to none technical systems featuring a non-destructive real-time characterization of biofilm formation in a highthroughput manner. This paper presents such a microfluidic system based on electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperomertic current measurement. The sensor consists of four modules, each housing 24 independent electrodes within 12 microfluidic channels. Attached biomass on the electrodes is monitored as increased inhibition in charge transfer by EIS and a change in metabolic activity is measured as change in produced electric current by amperometry. This modular sensor system is highly adaptable and suitable for a broad range of microbiological applications. Among others, biofilm formation processes can be characterized online, biofilm manipulation like inactivation or destabilization can be monitored in real-time and gene expression can be analyzed in parallel. The use of different electrode designs allows effective biofilm studies during all biofilm phases. The whole system was recently extended by an integrated pneumatic microfluidic pump which enables easy handling procedures. Further developments of this pumping module will allow a fully- automated computer-controlled valving and pumping.

  19. FPGA-based voltage and current dual drive system for high frame rate electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shadab; Manwaring, Preston; Borsic, Andrea; Halter, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used to image the electrical property distribution of a tissue under test. An EIT system comprises complex hardware and software modules, which are typically designed for a specific application. Upgrading these modules is a time-consuming process, and requires rigorous testing to ensure proper functioning of new modules with the existing ones. To this end, we developed a modular and reconfigurable data acquisition (DAQ) system using National Instruments' (NI) hardware and software modules, which offer inherent compatibility over generations of hardware and software revisions. The system can be configured to use up to 32-channels. This EIT system can be used to interchangeably apply current or voltage signal, and measure the tissue response in a semi-parallel fashion. A novel signal averaging algorithm, and 512-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) computation block was implemented on the FPGA. FFT output bins were classified as signal or noise. Signal bins constitute a tissue's response to a pure or mixed tone signal. Signal bins' data can be used for traditional applications, as well as synchronous frequency-difference imaging. Noise bins were used to compute noise power on the FPGA. Noise power represents a metric of signal quality, and can be used to ensure proper tissue-electrode contact. Allocation of these computationally expensive tasks to the FPGA reduced the required bandwidth between PC, and the FPGA for high frame rate EIT. In 16-channel configuration, with a signal-averaging factor of 8, the DAQ frame rate at 100 kHz exceeded 110 frames s (-1), and signal-to-noise ratio exceeded 90 dB across the spectrum. Reciprocity error was found to be for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Static imaging experiments were performed on a high-conductivity inclusion placed in a saline filled tank; the inclusion was clearly localized in the reconstructions obtained for both absolute current and voltage mode data. PMID:25376037

  20. Electrical impedance tomography in 3D using two electrode planes: characterization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Justin; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) uses body surface electrical stimulation and measurements to create conductivity images; it shows promise as a non-invasive technology to monitor the distribution of lung ventilation. Most applications of EIT have placed electrodes in a 2D ring around the thorax, and thus produced 2D cross-sectional images. These images are unable to distinguish out-of-plane contributions, or to image volumetric effects. Volumetric EIT can be calculated using multiple electrode planes and a 3D reconstruction algorithm. However, while 3D reconstruction algorithms are available, little has been done to understand the performance of 3D EIT in terms of the measurement configurations available. The goal of this paper is to characterize the phantom and in vivo performance of 3D EIT with two electrode planes. First, phantom measurements are used to measure the reconstruction characteristics of seven stimulation and measurement configurations. Measurements were then performed on eight healthy volunteers as a function of body posture, postures, and with various electrode configurations. Phantom results indicate that 3D EIT using two rings of electrodes provides reasonable resolution in the electrode plane but low vertical resolution. For volunteers, functional EIT images are created from inhalation curve features to analyze the effect of posture (standing, sitting, supine and decline) on regional lung behaviour. An ability to detect vertical changes in lung volume distribution was shown for two electrode configurations. Based on tank and volunteer results, we recommend the use of the 'square' stimulation and measurement pattern for two electrode plane EIT. PMID:27203154

  1. Feasibility studies of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring tissue response to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Osterman, Kendra S.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Lilge, Lothar D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    1998-05-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been evaluated as a non- or minimally-invasive technique to monitor the acute tissue response to photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study the EIS spectra of normal muscle tissue in the rat hind leg were monitored immediately before and at time intervals up to 96 hours post-PDT treatment with different photosensitizers (Photofrin, ALA-induced PpIX, BenzoPorphyrin Derivative), at varying photosensitizer and light doses. EIS measurements were made using a pair of solid matrix Ag-AgCl electrodes placed parallel to one another on either side of the muscle mass and interfaced to a precision LCR impedance meter scanning the frequency range 1 - 1000 KHz. Independent histological grading of tissue injury was performed on tissue sections from treated and untreated legs at the 96 hour end point. Significant and PDT dose-dependent changes in the EIS spectra following treatment were observed, including increases in conductivity which correlated with the immediate post-PDT edematous response with Photofrin and ALA and which resolved or partially-resolved over the measurement time course. Photofrin treatments exhibited a clear drug dose response at 96 hours that was evident in both the EIS spectra and the histological sections. These changes included significant tissue necrosis as well as edema, inflammation and early fibroplasia. The BPD data were less clear, but potentially quite interesting. Most striking were below unity ratios of treated-to-untreated muscle spectra components at 24 hours which reversed to above unity by 96 hours in the through skin measurements. This phenomenon is indicative of a tissue response distinctly different than that observed with Photofrin or ALA. These data also suggest that EIS measured changes are sensitive enough to detect differences in PDT-initiated tissue damage that may be photosensitize-specific. While the data are derived from a small number of animals, the findings are quite encouraging in

  2. Lumped Element Electrical Model based on Three Resistors for Electrical Impedance in Radiofrequency Cardiac Ablation: Estimations from Analytical Calculations and Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Berjano, Enrique; d'Avila, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The electrical impedance measured during radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) is widely used in clinical studies to predict the heating evolution and hence the success of the procedure. We hypothesized that a model based on three resistors in series can mimic the total electrical impedance measured during RFCA. The three resistors or impedances are given by: impedance associated with the tissue around the active electrode (myocardium and circulating blood) (Z-A), that associated with the tissue around the dispersive electrode (Z-DE) and that associated with the rest of the body (Z-B). Our objective was to quantify the values associated with these three impedance types by an analytical method, after which the values obtained would be compared to those estimated from clinical data from previous studies. The results suggest that an RFCA using a 7 Fr 4-mm electrode would give a Z-A of around 75 ohms, a Z-DE around 20 ohms, and Z-B would be 15±10 ohms (for body surface area variations between 1.5 and 2.5 m^2). Finally, adaptations of the proposed model were used to explain the results of previous clinical studies using a different electrode arrangement, such as in bipolar ablation of the ventricular septum. PMID:23961299

  3. Modeling of the dye loading time influence on the electrical impedance of a dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, D.; Shahzad, N.; Sacco, A.; Tresso, E.; Alexe-Ionescu, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    A hemisquaraine dye molecule (CT1) was used as TiO2 sensitizer. The influence of the dye-adsorption time on the electrical impedance of a CT1-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) was analyzed. Differently from what we observed with commercial Ru dye-based DSC, a non-monotonic effect of the impregnation time on the impedance has been found and the dye loading time is much reduced, a desirable outcome in economic grounds. This feature is analyzed in terms of the dye molecules tendency to aggregate close to the TiO2/electrolyte interface. A physical model that fits well the experimental data is proposed, which also takes into account a correction related to the difference between the illuminated area of the cell and the total area available in the electrical measurements.

  4. Experimental impedance investigation of an ultracapacitor at different conditions for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhenpo; Sun, Fengchun; Dorrell, David G.

    2015-08-01

    Ultracapacitors (UCs) are being increasingly deployed as a short-term energy storage device in various energy systems including uninterruptable power supplies, electrified vehicles, renewable energy systems, and wireless communication. They exhibit excellent power density and energy efficiency. The dynamic behavior of a UC, however, strongly depends on its impedance characteristics. In this paper, the impedance characteristics of a commercial UC are experimentally investigated through the well-adopted Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The implications of the UC operating conditions (i.e., temperature and state of charge (SOC)) to the impedance are systematically examined. The results show that the impedance is highly sensitive to the temperature and SOC; and the temperature effect is more significant. In particular, the coupling effect between the temperature and SOC is illustrated, as well as the high-efficiency SOC window, which is highlighted. To further verify the reliability of the EIS-based investigation and to probe the sensitivity of UC parameters to the operating conditions, a dynamic model is characterized by fitting the collected impedance data. The interdependence of UC parameters (i.e., capacitance and resistance elements) on the temperature and SOC is quantitatively revealed. The impedance-based model is demonstrated to be accurate in two driving-cycle tests.

  5. Single cell studies of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation by electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Basu, Srinjan; Laue, Ernest; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-07-15

    Biological populations of cells show considerable cell-to-cell variability. Study of single cells and analysis of cell heterogeneity are considered to be critical in understanding biological processes such as stem cell differentiation and cancer development. Recent advances in lab-on-a-chip techniques have allowed single-cell capture in microfluidic channels with the possibility of precise environmental control and high throughput of experiments with minimal usage of samples and reagents. In recent years, label-free techniques such as electrical impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a non-invasive approach to studying cell properties. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a microfluidic device that combines hydrodynamic trapping of single cells in pre-defined locations with the capability of running electrical impedance measurements within the same device. We have measured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) at different states during differentiation (t=0h, 24h and 48h) and quantitatively analysed the changes in electrical parameters of cells during differentiation. A marked increase in the magnitude of the cell impedance is found during cell differentiation, which can be attributed to an increase in cell size. The analysis of the measurements shows that the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio decreases during this process. The degree of cell heterogeneity is observed to be the highest when the cells are at the transition state (24h), compare with cells at undifferentiated (0h) and fully differentiated (48h) states. The device enables highly efficient single cell trapping and provides sensitive, label-free electrical impedance measurements of individual cells, enabling the possibility of quantitatively analysing their physical state as well as studying the associated heterogeneity of a cell population. PMID:26963790

  6. Single cell studies of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation by electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Basu, Srinjan; Laue, Ernest; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological populations of cells show considerable cell-to-cell variability. Study of single cells and analysis of cell heterogeneity are considered to be critical in understanding biological processes such as stem cell differentiation and cancer development. Recent advances in lab-on-a-chip techniques have allowed single-cell capture in microfluidic channels with the possibility of precise environmental control and high throughput of experiments with minimal usage of samples and reagents. In recent years, label-free techniques such as electrical impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a non-invasive approach to studying cell properties. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a microfluidic device that combines hydrodynamic trapping of single cells in pre-defined locations with the capability of running electrical impedance measurements within the same device. We have measured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) at different states during differentiation (t=0 h, 24 h and 48 h) and quantitatively analysed the changes in electrical parameters of cells during differentiation. A marked increase in the magnitude of the cell impedance is found during cell differentiation, which can be attributed to an increase in cell size. The analysis of the measurements shows that the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio decreases during this process. The degree of cell heterogeneity is observed to be the highest when the cells are at the transition state (24 h), compare with cells at undifferentiated (0 h) and fully differentiated (48 h) states. The device enables highly efficient single cell trapping and provides sensitive, label-free electrical impedance measurements of individual cells, enabling the possibility of quantitatively analysing their physical state as well as studying the associated heterogeneity of a cell population. PMID:26963790

  7. Accuracy of two osmometers on standard samples: electrical impedance technique and freezing point depression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Resúa, Carlos; Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; Miñones, Mercedes; Gilino, Jorge; Giraldez, Maria J.; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva

    2013-11-01

    High tear fluid osmolarity is a feature common to all types of dry eye. This study was designed to establish the accuracy of two osmometers, a freezing point depression osmometer (Fiske 110) and an electrical impedance osmometer (TearLab™) by using standard samples. To assess the accuracy of the measurements provided by the two instruments we used 5 solutions of known osmolarity/osmolality; 50, 290 and 850 mOsm/kg and 292 and 338 mOsm/L. Fiske 110 is designed to be used in samples of 20 μl, so measurements were made on 1:9, 1:4, 1:1 and 1:0 dilutions of the standards. Tear Lab is addressed to be used in tear film and only a sample of 0.05 μl is required, so no dilutions were employed. Due to the smaller measurement range of the TearLab, the 50 and 850 mOsm/kg standards were not included. 20 measurements per standard sample were used and differences with the reference value was analysed by one sample t-test. Fiske 110 showed that osmolarity measurements differed statistically from standard values except those recorded for 290 mOsm/kg standard diluted 1:1 (p = 0.309), the 292 mOsm/L H2O sample (1:1) and 338 mOsm/L H2O standard (1:4). The more diluted the sample, the higher the error rate. For the TearLab measurements, one-sample t-test indicated that all determinations differed from the theoretical values (p = 0.001), though differences were always small. For undiluted solutions, Fiske 110 shows similar performance than TearLab. However, for the diluted standards, Fiske 110 worsens.

  8. Assessment of Lung Recruitment by Electrical Impedance Tomography and Oxygenation in ARDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Long; He, Huai-wu; Möller, Knut; Frerichs, Inéz; Liu, Dawei; Zhao, Zhanqi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that not all patients with appreciably recruited lung tissue during a recruitment maneuver (RM) show significant improvement of oxygenation. In the present study, we combined electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with oxygenation measurements to examine the discrepancies of lung ventilation and perfusion versus oxygenation after RM. A 2-minute RM (20 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] + 20 cm H2O pressure control) was prospectively conducted in 20 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients from January 2014 to December 2014. A decremental PEEP trial was performed to select the PEEP level after RM. A positive response to RM was identified as PaO2 + PaCO2 ≥400 mm Hg. Relative differences in the distribution of ventilation and perfusion in the most dependent region of interest (ROI4) were monitored with EIT and denoted as the ventilation-perfusion index. Ten patients were found to be responders and 10 patients to be nonresponders. No significant difference in baseline PaO2/FiO2 was observed between nonresponders and responders. A significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio during RM and higher PEEP set after PEEP titration were recorded in responders. In both responders and nonresponders, the proportion of ventilation distributed in ROI4 compared with the global value was lower than the cardiac-related activity before RM, but this situation was reversed after RM (P < 0.01 in each group). Six out of 10 nonresponders exhibited a remarkable increase in ventilation in ROI4. A significant difference in the relative ventilation-perfusion index was found between the patients with remarkable and insufficient lung tissue reopening in the nonresponder group (P < 0.01). A discrepancy between lung tissue reopening and oxygenation improvement after RM was observed. EIT has the potential to evaluate the efficacy of RM by combining oxygenation measurements. PMID:27258527

  9. Regional lung function determined by electrical impedance tomography during bronchodilator reversibility testing in patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, I; Zhao, Z; Becher, T; Zabel, P; Weiler, N; Vogt, B

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of rapid regional lung volume changes by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could determine regional lung function in patients with obstructive lung diseases during pulmonary function testing (PFT). EIT examinations carried out before and after bronchodilator reversibility testing could detect the presence of spatial and temporal ventilation heterogeneities and analyse their changes in response to inhaled bronchodilator on the regional level. We examined seven patients suffering from chronic asthma (49  ±  19 years, mean age  ±  SD) using EIT at a scan rate of 33 images s(-1) during tidal breathing and PFT with forced full expiration. The patients were studied before and 5, 10 and 20 min after bronchodilator inhalation. Seven age- and sex-matched human subjects with no lung disease history served as a control study group. The spatial heterogeneity of lung function measures was quantified by the global inhomogeneity indices calculated from the pixel values of tidal volume, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak flow and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC as well as histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values. Temporal heterogeneity was assessed using the pixel values of expiration times needed to exhale 75% and 90% of pixel FVC. Regional lung function was more homogeneous in the healthy subjects than in the patients with asthma. Spatial and temporal ventilation distribution improved in the patients with asthma after the bronchodilator administration as evidenced mainly by the histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values and pixel expiration times. The examination of regional lung function using EIT enables the assessment of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilation distribution during bronchodilator reversibility testing. EIT may become a new tool in PFT, allowing the estimation of the natural disease progression and therapy effects on the regional and not only global level. PMID

  10. Dynamic separation of pulmonary and cardiac changes in electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Deibele, J M; Luepschen, H; Leonhardt, S

    2008-06-01

    In spontaneously breathing or ventilated subjects, it is difficult to image cardiac-related conductivity changes using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) due to the high amplitude of the ventilation component. Previous attempts to separate these components included either electrocardiogram-gated averaging, frequency domain filtering or holding the breath while performing the measurements. However, such methods are either not able to produce continuous real-time images or to fully separate cardiac and pulmonary changes. The aim of this work was to develop a new dynamic filtering method for the online separation of pulmonary and cardiac changes avoiding the drawbacks of the previous attempts. The approach is based on estimating template functions for the pulmonary and cardiac components by means of principal component analysis and frequency domain filtering. Then, these templates are fitted into the input signals. The new method enables an observer to examine the variation of the cardiac signal beat-by-beat after a one-time setup period of 20 s. Preliminary in vivo results of two healthy subjects are presented. The results are superior to frequency domain filtering and in good agreement with signals averaged over several cardiac cycles. The method does not depend on ECG or other a priori knowledge. The apparent validity of the method's ability to separate cardiac and pulmonary changes in EIT images was shown and has to be confirmed in future studies. The algorithm opens up new possibilities for future clinical trials on continuous monitoring by means of EIT and for the examination of the relation between the cardiac component and lung perfusion. PMID:18544813

  11. FEM convergence of a segmentation approach to the electrical impedance tomography problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Renier; Keeling, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    In Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), different current patterns are injected to the unknown object through the electrodes attached at the boundary ∂ Ω of Ω. The corresponding voltages V are then measured on its boundary surface. Based on these measured voltages, the image reconstruction of the conductivity distribution σ is done by solving an inverse problem of a generalized Laplace equation subject to a homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. In other words, with known V, we seek to solve for the typically piecewise values of σ, from which the geometry of internal objects may be inferred. We approach this problem by using a multi-phase segmentation method. We express σ as σ (x)= ∑m=1Mσm(x)χm (x) , where χm is the characteristic function of a subdomain Ωm such that Ωm ∩ Ωn = Ø, m ≠ n and Ω= ∪m=1MΩm. The expected number of phases for Ω is M, where M = 2 for this work. The number of segments is the number of connected components of the subdomains. Using a calculated optimality condition, the conductivity value σm is expressed as a function of χm. The total variation of χm is then introduced to regularize the resulting cost functional. Using a descent method, an update for χm is proposed. In this work, the Finite Element Method (FEM) convergence of all the resulting variational formulations are studied. A real analytic mollification of χm is introduced to guarantee convergence.

  12. Spaceflight and hind limb unloading induce similar changes in electrical impedance characteristics of mouse gastrocnemius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sung, M.; Li, J.; Spieker, A.J.; Spatz, J.; Ellman, R.; Ferguson, V.L.; Bateman, T.A.; Rosen, G.D.; Bouxsein, M.; Rutkove, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential of electrical impedance myography (EIM) to serve as a marker of muscle fiber atrophy and secondarily as an indicator of bone deterioration by assessing the effects of spaceflight or hind limb unloading. Methods In the first experiment, 6 mice were flown aboard the space shuttle (STS-135) for 13 days and 8 earthbound mice served as controls. In the second experiment, 14 mice underwent hind limb unloading (HLU) for 13 days; 13 additional mice served as controls. EIM measurements were made on ex vivo gastrocnemius muscle. Quantitative microscopy and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements of the hindlimb were also performed. Results Reductions in the multifrequency phase-slope parameter were observed for both the space flight and HLU cohorts compared to their respective controls. For ground control and spaceflight groups, the values were 24.7±1.3°/MHz and 14.1±1.6°/MHz, respectively (p=0.0013); for control and HLU groups, the values were 23.9±1.6°/MHz and 19.0±1.0°/MHz, respectively (p=0.014). This parameter also correlated with muscle fiber size (ρ=0.65, p=0.011) for spaceflight and hind limb aBMD (ρ=0.65, p=0.0063) for both groups. Conclusions These data support the concept that EIM may serve as a useful tool for assessment of muscle disuse secondary to immobilization or microgravity. PMID:24292610

  13. Classification of thyroid nodules using a resonance-frequency-based electrical impedance spectroscopy: progress assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Lederman, Dror; Klym, Amy H.; Brown, Erica D.; Gur, David

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is rising faster than other malignancies and has nearly doubled in the United States (U.S.) in the last 30 years. However, classifying between malignant and benign thyroid nodules is often difficult. Although ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) is considered an excellent tool for triaging patients, up to 25% of FNABs are inconclusive. As a result, definitive diagnosis requires an exploratory surgery and a large number of these are performed in the U.S. annually. It would be extremely beneficial to develop a non-invasive tool or procedure that could assist in assessing the likelihood of malignancy of otherwise indeterminate thyroid nodules, thereby reducing the number of exploratory thyroidectomies that are performed under general anesthesia. In this preliminary study we demonstrate a unique hand-held Resonance-frequency based Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (REIS) device with six pairs of detection probes to detect and classify thyroid nodules using multi-channel EIS output signal sweeps. Under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved case collection protocol, this REIS device is being tested in our clinical facility and we have been collecting an initial patient data set since March of this year. Between March and August of 2011, 65 EIS tests were conducted on 65 patients. Among these cases, six depicted pathology-verified malignant cells. Our initial assessment indicates the feasibility of easily applying this REIS device and measurement approach in a very busy clinical setting. The measured resonance frequency differences between malignant and benign nodules could potentially make it possible to accurately classify indeterminate thyroid nodules.

  14. Positive End-expiratory Pressure Titration after Alveolar Recruitment Directed by Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Liu, Da-Wei; He, Huai-Wu; Zhao, Zhan-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a real-time bedside monitoring tool, which can reflect dynamic regional lung ventilation. The aim of the present study was to monitor regional gas distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration using EIT. Methods: Eighteen ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to April in 2014 were included in this prospective observational study. After recruitment maneuvers (RMs), decremental PEEP titration was performed from 20 cmH2O to 5 cmH2O in steps of 3 cmH2O every 5–10 min. Regional over-distension and recruitment were monitored with EIT. Results: After RMs, patient with arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) + carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) >400 mmHg with 100% of fractional inspired oxygen concentration were defined as RM responders. Thirteen ARDS patients was diagnosed as responders whose PaO2 + PaCO2 were higher than nonresponders (419 ± 44 mmHg vs. 170 ± 73 mmHg, P < 0.0001). In responders, PEEP mainly increased recruited pixels in dependent regions and over-distended pixels in nondependent regions. PEEP alleviated global inhomogeneity of tidal volume and end-expiratory lung volume. PEEP levels without significant alveolar derecruitment and over-distension were identified individually. Conclusions: After RMs, PEEP titration significantly affected regional gas distribution in lung, which could be monitored with EIT. EIT has the potential to optimize PEEP titration. PMID:26021494

  15. Assessment of Lung Recruitment by Electrical Impedance Tomography and Oxygenation in ARDS Patients.

    PubMed

    Yun, Long; He, Huai-Wu; Möller, Knut; Frerichs, Inéz; Liu, Dawei; Zhao, Zhanqi

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that not all patients with appreciably recruited lung tissue during a recruitment maneuver (RM) show significant improvement of oxygenation. In the present study, we combined electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with oxygenation measurements to examine the discrepancies of lung ventilation and perfusion versus oxygenation after RM.A 2-minute RM (20 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] + 20 cm H2O pressure control) was prospectively conducted in 20 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients from January 2014 to December 2014. A decremental PEEP trial was performed to select the PEEP level after RM. A positive response to RM was identified as PaO2 + PaCO2 ≥400 mm Hg. Relative differences in the distribution of ventilation and perfusion in the most dependent region of interest (ROI4) were monitored with EIT and denoted as the ventilation-perfusion index.Ten patients were found to be responders and 10 patients to be nonresponders. No significant difference in baseline PaO2/FiO2 was observed between nonresponders and responders. A significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio during RM and higher PEEP set after PEEP titration were recorded in responders. In both responders and nonresponders, the proportion of ventilation distributed in ROI4 compared with the global value was lower than the cardiac-related activity before RM, but this situation was reversed after RM (P < 0.01 in each group). Six out of 10 nonresponders exhibited a remarkable increase in ventilation in ROI4. A significant difference in the relative ventilation-perfusion index was found between the patients with remarkable and insufficient lung tissue reopening in the nonresponder group (P < 0.01).A discrepancy between lung tissue reopening and oxygenation improvement after RM was observed. EIT has the potential to evaluate the efficacy of RM by combining oxygenation measurements. PMID:27258527

  16. Impedance spectroscopy applied to the fast wounding dynamics of an electrical wound-healing assay in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Mariela I.; Giana, Fabián E.; Bonetto, Fabián J.

    2015-08-01

    Electrical wound-healing assays are often used as a means to study in vitro cell migration and proliferation. In such analysis, a cell monolayer that sits on a small electrode is electrically wounded and its spectral impedance is then continuously measured in order to monitor the healing process. The relatively slow dynamics of the cell healing have been extensively studied, while those of the much faster wounding phase have not yet been investigated. An analysis of the electrical properties of a particular cell type during this phase could give extra information about the changes in the cell membrane due to the application of the wounding current, and could also be useful to optimize the wounding regime for different cell types. The main issue when trying to register information about these dynamics is that the traditional measurement scheme employed in typical wound-healing assays doesn’t allow the simultaneous application of the wounding signal and measurement of the system’s impedance. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by implementing a measurement strategy consisting of cycles of fast alternating low- and high-voltage signals applied on electrodes covered with mammalian cells. This approach is capable of registering the fast impedance changes during the transient regime corresponding to the cell wounding process. Furthermore, these quasi-simultaneous high- and low-voltage measurements can be compared in order to obtain an empirical correlation between both quantities.

  17. Electrical Impedance Myography to Detect the Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Wild Type and Mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Yim, Sung; Pacheck, Adam; Sanchez, Benjamin; Rutkove, Seward B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tools to better evaluate the impact of therapy on nerve and muscle disease are needed. Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is sensitive to neuromuscular disease progression as well as to therapeutic interventions including myostatin inhibition and antisense oligonucleotide-based treatments. Whether the technique identifies the impact of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is unknown. Methods Ten wild-type (wt) C57B6 mice and 10 dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice underwent 2 weeks of 20 min/day EMS on left gastrocnemius and sham stimulation on the right gastrocnemius. Multifrequency EIM data and limb girth were obtained before and at the conclusion of the protocol. Muscle weight, in situ force measurements, and muscle fiber histology were also assessed at the conclusion of the study. Results At the time of sacrifice, muscle weight was greater on the EMS-treated side than on the sham-stimulated side (p = 0.018 for wt and p = 0.007 for mdx). Similarly, in wt animals, EIM parameters changed significantly compared to baseline (resistance (p = 0.009), reactance (p = 0.0003) and phase (p = 0.002); these changes were due in part to reductions in the EIM values on the EMS-treated side and elevations on the sham-simulated side. Mdx animals showed analogous but non-significant changes (p = 0.083, p = 0.064, and p = 0.57 for resistance, reactance and phase, respectively). Maximal isometric force trended higher on the stimulated side in wt animals only (p = 0.06). Myofiber sizes in wt animals were also larger on the stimulated side than on the sham-stimulated side (p = 0.034); no significant difference was found in the mdx mice (p = 0.79). Conclusion EIM is sensitive to stimulation-induced muscle alterations in wt animals; similar trends are also present in mdx mice. The mechanisms by which these EIM changes develop, however, remains uncertain. Possible explanations include longer-term trophic effects and shorter-term osmotic effects. PMID:26986564

  18. Tissue electrical properties measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis among healthy and sportsmen population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapica, Dominik; Warchulińska, Joanna; Jakubiak, Monika; Teter, Mariusz; Mlak, Radosław; Hałabiś, Magdalena; Wójcik, Waldemar; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Introduction: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a useful tool to asses human body composition and nutrition status; multi-frequency BIA has a higher accuracy than single-frequency BIA. In our study a difference of impedance values (Z) at 5, 100 and 200 kHz and Z200/Z5 index between professional athletes and control group were determined. Methods: In this research 105 people were tested, divided into control group (72 people: 35 males and 37 females) and professional athletes (33 people: 16 males and 17 females). Impedance was measured at three frequency values - 5, 100 and 200 kHz; with received values the Z200/Z5 index was calculated. Results: In most compared subgroups impedance values showed significantly lower values in athletes than in control group (5 kHz - males: p=0.136, females: p=0.001, 100 kHz - males: p=0.039, females: p<0.0001, 200 kHz - males: p=0.047, females: p<0.0001) Z200/Z5 index also showed lower value in athletes than in control group (p=0.016 for males, p<0.0001 for females). Conclusion: Lower values of impedance and Z200/Z5 index indicates a better nutrition status and general health condition of athletes than in control group.

  19. Impedance and electric modulus study of amorphous TiTaO thin films: highlight of the interphase effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouahi, A.; Kahouli, A.; Challali, F.; Besland, M. P.; Vallée, C.; Yangui, B.; Salimy, S.; Goullet, A.; Sylvestre, A.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of phases and phase's boundaries of TiO2 and Ta2O5 in the dielectric and electric response of TiTaO (100 nm thick) elaborated by RF magnetron sputtering was highlighted by complex impedance spectroscopy. Dielectric and electric modulus properties were studied over a wide frequency range (0.1-105 Hz) and at various temperatures (-160 to 120 °C). The diagram of Argand (ɛ″ versus ɛ‧) shows the contribution of phases, phases' boundaries and conductivity effect on the electric response of TiTaO thin films. Moreover, the resistance of the material decreases when the temperature increases, thus the material exhibits a negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The electric modulus plot indicates the presence of two peaks of relaxation. The first relaxation process appears at low temperature with activation energy of about 0.22 eV and it is related to the first ionization energy of oxygen vacancies. The second relaxation process appears at high temperature with activation energy of about 0.44 eV. This second peak is attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation. The plots of the complex dielectric modulus and the impedance as a function of frequency allow concluding to a localized relaxation due to the long-range conductivity in the TiTaO film.

  20. Behaviour of the electrical impedance myography in isometric contraction of biceps brachii at different elbow joint angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, A. B. B.; Jotta, B.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) can be understood as an experimental technique applied to evaluate bioelectrical impedance associated to the muscular activity. With the development of technique, some studies are trying to associate the EIM parameters with the morphological and physiological changes that occur in the muscle during contraction. In this context this work sought to associate EIM parameters observed during isometric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at different elbow joint angles with the correspondent muscular force. Differently from previous works that did not observe significant correlation between those data, our findings point to high correlations between the some EIM resistive parameters and the muscle force. Despite the need of further investigation, our results indicated that EIM technique can be used to estimate muscle force in a noninvasive way.

  1. Influence of the ageing phenomenon on the low-frequency electrical impedance behavior of naphazoline hydrochloride solutions and paracetamol syrup.

    PubMed

    Brito, Pedro C; Mechetti, Magdalena; Gotter, Carlos M; Merep, David J

    2009-05-01

    The influence of the ageing process on the low frequency behavior of some electrical parameters of naphazoline hydrochloride solutions at 0.5% and 1% in concentration and of 2% paracetamol syrup, is studied. The impedance measurements were performed, in the range between 200 Hz and 1 MHz, using an impedance analyzer and a cell for liquids with plane parallel electrodes whose separation can be changed by using a set of spacers, provided by the manufacturer, in order to get better control of the influence of electrodes polarization effect. The ageing state was artificially generated by dilution and/or heating separated procedures. The results show that this dielectric technique can be used as a good quality complementary control technique. PMID:18781632

  2. Evaluation of Electrical Impedance as a Biomarker of Myostatin Inhibition in Wild Type and Muscular Dystrophy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Li, Jia; Yim, Sung; Pacheck, Adam; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; Rutkove, Seward B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-invasive and effort independent biomarkers are needed to better assess the effects of drug therapy on healthy muscle and that affected by muscular dystrophy (mdx). Here we evaluated the use of multi-frequency electrical impedance for this purpose with comparison to force and histological parameters. Methods Eight wild-type (wt) and 10 mdx mice were treated weekly with RAP-031 activin type IIB receptor at a dose of 10 mg kg−1 twice weekly for 16 weeks; the investigators were blinded to treatment and disease status. At the completion of treatment, impedance measurements, in situ force measurements, and histology analyses were performed. Results As compared to untreated animals, RAP-031 wt and mdx treated mice had greater body mass (18% and 17%, p < 0.001 respectively) and muscle mass (25% p < 0.05 and 22% p < 0.001, respectively). The Cole impedance parameters in treated wt mice, showed a 24% lower central frequency (p < 0.05) and 19% higher resistance ratio (p < 0.05); no significant differences were observed in the mdx mice. These differences were consistent with those seen in maximum isometric force, which was greater in the wt animals (p < 0.05 at > 70 Hz), but not in the mdx animals. In contrast, maximum force normalized by muscle mass was unchanged in the wt animals and lower in the mdx animals by 21% (p < 0.01). Similarly, myofiber size was only non-significantly higher in treated versus untreated animals (8% p = 0.44 and 12% p = 0.31 for wt and mdx animals, respectively). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate electrical impedance of muscle reproduce the functional and histological changes associated with myostatin pathway inhibition and do not reflect differences in muscle size or volume. This technique deserves further study in both animal and human therapeutic trials. PMID:26485280

  3. Sensing of NO2 with Zirconium Hydroxide via Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Coleman; Soliz, Jennifer; Klevitch, Andrew; Rossin, Joseph; Fountain, Augustus, III; Peterson, Gregory; Hauser, Adam

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a brown gas mainly produced as a byproduct of burning fossil fuels, such as automobiles and power plants. Nitrogen oxides can form acid rain and smog by reacting with air, can form toxic organic nitrates by reacting with soil, and can react with oxygen in water, destroying marine life due to a lack of breathable oxygen. Any concentration beyond 53 ppb (air quality standard) can cause irritation to the lungs and respiratory infections, and higher dosages can be fatal. As such, research in NO2 detection is incredibly important to human welfare. Zirconium hydroxide (Zr(OH)4) has been investigated as a candidate NO2 dielectric sensor using impedance spectroscopy analysis. Impedance changes of several orders of magnitude are seen down to our dosage minimum of 50 ppmhr. Changes in impedance correlate with nitrogen and oxygen atomic ratio increases observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that Zr(OH)4 may be a strong candidate for use in impedance-based NO2 detection devices. A.J.H., J.R.S., A.W.F. and G.W. P. acknowledge funding under Army Research Office STIR Award #W911F-15-1-0104. J.R.S. acknowledges funding under a NRC fellowship and is advised by Dr. Christopher Karwacki, ECBC.

  4. Highly sensitive three-dimensional interdigitated microelectrode for microparticle detection using electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Wang, Min-Haw; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Cell impedance analysis is widely used for monitoring biological and medical reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated microelectrode (IME) with a high aspect ratio on a polyimide (PI) flexible substrate was fabricated for microparticle detection (e.g. cell quantity detection) using electroforming and lithography technology. 3D finite element simulations were performed to compare the performance of the 3D IME (in terms of sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio) to that of a planar IME for particles in the sensing area. Various quantities of particles were captured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium and their impedances were measured. With the 3D IME, the particles were arranged in the gap, not on the electrode, avoiding the noise due to particle position. For the maximum particle quantities, the results show that the 3D IME has at least 5-fold higher sensitivity than that of the planar IME. The trends of impedance magnitude and phase due to particle quantity were verified using the equivalent circuit model. The impedance (1269 Ω) of 69 particles was used to estimate the particle quantity (68 particles) with 98.6% accuracy using a parabolic regression curve at 500 kHz.

  5. A portable system for the assessment of neuromuscular diseases with electrical impedance myography

    PubMed Central

    RUTKOVE, S. B.; MA, H.; FOGERSON, P. M.; SCHARFSTEIN, M.; COOPER, R. C.; DAWSON, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Primary Objective To create a system for the acquisition of multi-angle, multifrequency muscle impedance data. Research Design Device development and preliminary testing. Methods and Procedures The system presented here employs an interrogating signal composed of multiple tones with frequencies between 10 kHz and 300 kHz. The use of a composite signal makes possible measurement of impedance at multiple frequencies simultaneously. In addition, this system takes impedance measurements at multiple orientations with respect to the muscle fibers by means of an electronically reconfigurable electrode array utilizing the linearity of muscle tissue to reduce the required measurement time. Main outcomes and results The system was tested in normal subjects, a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and one with inclusion body myositis; unique impedance signatures were identified the two patients. Conclusions Early data suggests that this system is capable of high-quality data collection and may detect changes in neuromuscular disease; study of additional normal subjects and patients with a variety of neuro-muscular diseases is warranted. PMID:20670104

  6. An improved statistical model for linear antenna input impedance in an electrically large cavity.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lee, Kelvin S. H.

    2005-03-01

    This report presents a modification of a previous model for the statistical distribution of linear antenna impedance. With this modification a simple formula is determined which yields accurate results for all ratios of modal spectral width to spacing. It is shown that the reactance formula approaches the known unit Lorentzian in the lossless limit.

  7. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, J.M.; Fita, I.C.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.; Borrachero, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solid–solution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  8. Advances in imaging and quantification of electrical properties at the nanoscale using Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Stuart; Yang, Yongliang; Amster, Oskar

    2015-03-01

    Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) is a mode for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) enabling imaging of unique contrast mechanisms and measurement of local permittivity and conductivity at the 10's of nm length scale. Recent results will be presented illustrating high-resolution electrical features such as sub 15 nm Moire' patterns in Graphene, carbon nanotubes of various electrical states and ferro-electrics. In addition to imaging, the technique is suited to a variety of metrology applications where specific physical properties are determined quantitatively. We will present research activities on quantitative measurements using multiple techniques to determine dielectric constant (permittivity) and conductivity (e.g. dopant concentration) for a range of materials. Examples include bulk dielectrics, low-k dielectric thin films, capacitance standards and doped semiconductors. Funded in part by DOE SBIR DE-SC0009586.

  9. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yangkyu; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Yun, Joho; Seo, Seungwan; Park, Chang-Ju; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1) and cancerous (TCCSUP) human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS). Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF) was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT) was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p < 0.001), was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF. PMID:26998490

  10. Electrical impedance tomography to evaluate air distribution prior to extubation in very-low-birth-weight infants: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Rossi, Felipe; Yagui, Ana Cristina Zanon; Haddad, Luciana Branco; Deutsch, Alice D'Agostini; Rebello, Celso Moura

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is used as a standard of care after extubation in very-low-birth-weight infants. A pressure of 5 cmH2O is usually applied regardless of individual differences in lung compliance. Current methods for evaluation of lung compliance and air distribution in the lungs are thus imprecise for preterm infants. This study used electrical impedance tomography to determine the feasibility of evaluating the positive end-expiratory pressure level associated with a more homogeneous air distribution within the lungs before extubation. METHODS: Ventilation homogeneity was defined by electrical impedance tomography as the ratio of ventilation between dependent and non-dependent lung areas. The best ventilation homogeneity was achieved when this ratio was equal to 1. Just before extubation, decremental expiratory pressure levels were applied (8, 7, 6 and 5 cmH20; 3 minutes each step), and the pressure that determined the best ventilation homogeneity was defined as the best positive end-expiratory pressure. RESULTS: The best positive end-expiratory pressure value was 6.3±1.1 cmH20, and the mean continuous positive airway pressure applied after extubation was 5.2±0.4 cmH20 (p = 0.002). The extubation failure rate was 21.4%. X-Ray and blood gases after extubation were also checked. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that electrical impedance tomography can be safely and successfully used in patients ready for extubation to suggest the best ventilation homogeneity, which is influenced by the level of expiratory pressure applied. In this feasibility study, the best lung compliance was found with pressure levels higher than the continuous positive airway pressure levels that are usually applied for routine extubation. PMID:23644854

  11. Accuracy of detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using electrical impedance spectroscopy with colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Tidy, JA; Brown, BH; Healey, TJ; Daayana, S; Martin, M; Prendiville, W; Kitchener, HC

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) improves the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy when used as an adjunct. Design Prospective, comparative, multi-centre clinical study. Setting Three colposcopy clinics: two in England and one in Ireland. Population Women referred with abnormal cytology. Methods In phase 1, EIS was assessed against colposcopic impression and histopathology of the biopsies taken. In phase 2, a probability index and cut-off value for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG–CIN, i.e. grade CIN2+) was derived to indicate sites for biopsy. EIS data collection and analyses were performed in real time and blinded to the clinician. The phase-2 data were analysed using different cut-off values to assess performance of EIS as an adjunct. Main outcome measure Histologically confirmed HG–CIN (CIN2+). Results A total of 474 women were recruited: 214 were eligible for analysis in phase 1, and 215 were eligible in phase 2. The average age was 33.2 years (median age 30.3 years, range 20–64 years) and 48.5% (208/429) had high-grade cytology. Using the cut-off from phase 1 the accuracy of colposcopic impression to detect HG–CIN when using EIS as an adjunct at the time of examination improved the positive predictive value (PPV) from 78.1% (95% CI 67.5–86.4) to 91.5%. Specificity was also increased from 83.5% (95% CI 75.2–89.9) to 95.4%, but sensitivity was significantly reduced from 73.6% (95% CI 63.0–82.5) to 62.1%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was unchanged. The positive likelihood ratio for colposcopic impression alone was 4.46. This increased to 13.5 when EIS was used as an adjunct. The overall accuracy of colposcopy when used with EIS as an adjunct was assessed by varying the cut-off applied to a combined test index. Using a cut-off set to give the same sensitivity as colposcopy in phase 2, EIS increased the PPV to detect HG–CIN from 53.5% (95% CI 45.0–61.8) to 67%, and

  12. Time-lapse electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the cell cycle of single immobilized S. pombe cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen; Frey, Olivier; Haandbaek, Niels; Franke, Felix; Rudolf, Fabian; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    As a complement and alternative to optical methods, wide-band electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables multi-parameter, label-free and real-time detection of cellular and subcellular features. We report on a microfluidics-based system designed to reliably capture single rod-shaped Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by applying suction through orifices in a channel wall. The system enables subsequent culturing of immobilized cells in an upright position, while dynamic changes in cell-cycle state and morphology were continuously monitored through EIS over a broad frequency range. Besides measuring cell growth, clear impedance signals for nuclear division have been obtained. The EIS system has been characterized with respect to sensitivity and detection limits. The spatial resolution in measuring cell length was 0.25 μm, which corresponds to approximately a 5-min interval of cell growth under standard conditions. The comprehensive impedance data sets were also used to determine the occurrence of nuclear division and cytokinesis. The obtained results have been validated through concurrent confocal imaging and plausibilized through comparison with finite-element modeling data. The possibility to monitor cellular and intracellular features of single S. pombe cells during the cell cycle at high spatiotemporal resolution renders the presented microfluidics-based EIS system a suitable tool for dynamic single-cell investigations.

  13. Time-lapse electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the cell cycle of single immobilized S. pombe cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Frey, Olivier; Haandbaek, Niels; Franke, Felix; Rudolf, Fabian; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    As a complement and alternative to optical methods, wide-band electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables multi-parameter, label-free and real-time detection of cellular and subcellular features. We report on a microfluidics-based system designed to reliably capture single rod-shaped Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by applying suction through orifices in a channel wall. The system enables subsequent culturing of immobilized cells in an upright position, while dynamic changes in cell-cycle state and morphology were continuously monitored through EIS over a broad frequency range. Besides measuring cell growth, clear impedance signals for nuclear division have been obtained. The EIS system has been characterized with respect to sensitivity and detection limits. The spatial resolution in measuring cell length was 0.25 μm, which corresponds to approximately a 5-min interval of cell growth under standard conditions. The comprehensive impedance data sets were also used to determine the occurrence of nuclear division and cytokinesis. The obtained results have been validated through concurrent confocal imaging and plausibilized through comparison with finite-element modeling data. The possibility to monitor cellular and intracellular features of single S. pombe cells during the cell cycle at high spatiotemporal resolution renders the presented microfluidics-based EIS system a suitable tool for dynamic single-cell investigations. PMID:26608589

  14. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Kollengode; Mohammed, Hend; Hopkins, Peter; Corley, Amanda; Caruana, Lawrence; Dunster, Kimble; Barnett, Adrian G.; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung. PMID:27445522

  15. Minimal implementation of an AFE4300-based spectrometer for electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, B.; Praveen, A.; Bartolome, E.; Soundarapandian, K.; Bragos, R.

    2013-04-01

    The AFE4300 is a new low-cost on-chip impedance spectrometer developed by Texas Instruments able to handle multiple four electrode interface measurements. In this work, we present a brief description and characterization of this device and, besides its interesting features as a body-composition impedancemeter system; we evaluate its potential to develop minimal implementations for other biomedical applications. As the case study presented in this paper, its use to monitor ventilatory time-varying bioimpedance.

  16. Reduced electrical impedance of SiO{sub 2}, deposited through focused ion beam based systems, due to impurity percolation

    SciTech Connect

    Faraby, H.; DiBattista, M.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2014-11-28

    The electrical impedance (both the resistive and capacitive aspects) of focused ion beam (FIB) deposited SiO{sub 2} has been correlated to the specific composition of the ion beam, in Ga- and Xe-based FIB systems. The presence of electrically percolating Ga in concert with carbon (inevitably found as the product of the hydrocarbon precursor decomposition) has been isolated as a major cause for the observed decrease in the resistivity of the deposited SiO{sub 2}. Concomitant with the decreased resistivity, an increased capacitance and effective dielectric constant was observed. Our study would be useful to understand the constraints to the deposition of high quality insulator films through FIB based methodologies.

  17. Sensor applications of soft magnetic materials based on magneto-impedance, magneto-elastic resonance and magneto-electricity.

    PubMed

    García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Barandiarán, José M; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934

  18. Sensor Applications of Soft Magnetic Materials Based on Magneto-Impedance, Magneto-Elastic Resonance and Magneto-Electricity

    PubMed Central

    García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V.; Barandiarán, José M.; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934

  19. Input impedance of coaxially fed rectangular microstrip antenna on electrically thick substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei; Lee, Kai-Fong; Lee, R. Q.

    1993-01-01

    A full-wave spectral domain analysis has been used to obtain input-impedance results for a probe-fed rectangular-patch antenna, modeling the source as a magnetic-current frill. Multiple modes are used in the probe surface current to account for axial and azimuthal variations. It is established that maximum resistance is dependent on the substrate loss tangent. The axial variation of the probe current must be taken into account for substrate thicknesses greater than about 0.02 wavelengths.

  20. Light-induced changes in the electrical impedance of the isolated frog retina

    PubMed Central

    Coles, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    1. An isolated frog retina was mounted in an impedance chamber and superfused on its vitread surface. 2. Changes in the real part of the impedance (ΔR) and also in the imaginary part were measured using alternating current in the frequency range 1-300 kHz passed from one surface of the retina to the other. 3. Under most conditions, the response to a flash of light, measured at frequencies below about 100 kHz, was a decrease in the real part of the impedance (ΔR < 0). 4. The geometry of the electrodes was such that the system was particularly sensitive to changes in the impedance of the layer of photo-receptor outer segments. It was confirmed that most of ΔR did arise here and that it was mediated by the absorption of light in rod photo-pigment. 5. The magnitude of ΔR increased when the channels between the outer segments were constricted, e.g. by osmotic swelling of the outer segments. In addition to this increase, a further increase was seen following the commencement of recording in most of the experiments from which usable measurements were obtained. 6. In such retinas, the magnitude of ΔR was greatest when measured at a frequency in the range 3-32 kHz, the largest changes being of the order of 0·1% of the resting value. A light flash bleaching about 1% of the pigment was sufficient to produce this. The onset of ΔR was apparent within 1 msec of the flash (at 15° C); it reached a maximum in 0·5-4 sec and then returned towards the base line. 7. The main component of ΔR was attributed to a decrease in the resistance of the spaces between the outer segments. In addition, there was a resistance increase which occurred at some other site, probably the surface membrane. The first of these components had an onset slightly more rapid than the second, and both occurred irrespective of whether the major cation in the superfusate was sodium or potassium. PMID:4539862

  1. Micro electrical impedance spectroscopy on a needle for ex vivo discrimination between human normal and cancer renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Yun, Joho; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Yangkyu; Cha, Jung-Joon; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Shin, Dong Gil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The ex-vivo discrimination between human normal and cancer renal tissues was confirmed using μEoN (micro electrical impedance spectroscopy-on-a-needle) by measuring and comparing the electrical impedances in the frequency domain. To quantify the extent of discrimination between dissimilar tissues and to determine the optimal frequency at which the discrimination capability is at a maximum, discrimination index (DI) was employed for both magnitude and phase. The highest values of DI for the magnitude and phase were 5.15 at 1 MHz and 3.57 at 1 kHz, respectively. The mean magnitude and phase measured at the optimal frequency for normal tissues were 5013.40 ± 94.39 Ω and -68.54 ± 0.72°, respectively; those for cancer tissues were 4165.19 ± 70.32 Ω and -64.10 ± 0.52°, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two tissues was observed at all the investigated frequencies. To extract the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of these bio-tissues through curve fitting with experimental results, an equivalent circuit was proposed based on the μEoN structure on the condition that the μEoN was immersed in the bio-tissues. The average and standard deviation of the extracted resistance and capacitance for the normal tissues were 6.22 ± 0.24 kΩ and 280.21 ± 32.25 pF, respectively, and those for the cancer tissues were 5.45 ± 0.22 kΩ and 376.32 ± 34.14 pF, respectively. The electrical impedance was higher in the normal tissues compared with the cancer tissues. The μEoN could clearly discriminate between normal and cancer tissues by comparing the results at the optimal frequency (magnitude and phase) and those of the curve fitting (extracted resistance and capacitance). PMID:27279933

  2. Cellular electrical micro-impedance parameter artifacts produced by passive and active current regulation.

    PubMed

    English, Anthony E; Squire, James C; Moy, Alan B

    2008-03-01

    This study analyzes the cellular microelectrode voltage measurement errors produced by active and passive current regulation, and the propagation of these errors into cellular barrier function parameter estimates. The propagation of random and systematic errors into these parameters is accounted for within a Riemannian manifold framework consistent with information geometry. As a result, the full non-linearity of the model parameter state dependence, the instrumental noise distribution, and the systematic errors associated with the voltage to impedance conversion, are accounted for. Specifically, cellular model parameters are treated as the coordinates of a model space manifold that inherits a Riemannian metric from the data space. The model space metric is defined in terms of the pull back of an instrumental noise-dependent Fisher information metric. Additional noise sources produced by the evaluation of the cell-covered electrode model that is a function of a naked electrode random variable are also included in the analysis. Based on a circular cellular micro-impedance model in widespread use, this study shows that cellular barrier function parameter estimates are highly model state dependent. Systematic errors produced by coaxial lead capacitances and circuit loading can also lead to significant and model state-dependent parameter errors and should, therefore, be either reduced or corrected for analytically. PMID:18202917

  3. Alternating current impedance imaging of high-resistance membrane pores using a scanning electrochemical microscope. Application of membrane electrical shunts to increase measurement sensitivity and image contrast.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Eric Nathan; White, Henry S; Baker, Lane A; Martin, Charles R

    2006-09-15

    Whether an individual pore in a porous membrane can be imaged using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), operated in ac impedance mode, is determined by the magnitude of the change in the total impedance of the imaging system as the SECM tip is scanned over the pore. In instances when the SECM tip resistance is small relative to the internal pore resistance, the total impedance changes by a negligible amount, rendering the pore invisible during impedance imaging. A simple solution to this problem is to introduce a low-impedance electrical shunt (i.e., a salt bridge) across the membrane. This principle is demonstrated by imaging polycarbonate membranes (6-12-microm thickness) containing between 1 and 2000 conical-shaped pores (60-nm- and 2.5-microm-diameter openings) using an approximately 1-microm-radius Pt tip. Theory and experiments show that image contrast (the change in ac current measured as the probe is scanned over the pore) is inversely proportional to the total resistance of the membrane and can be increased by a factor of approximately 50x by introducing a low-resistance electrical shunt across the membrane. Remarkably, SECM images of membranes containing a single high-resistance (approximately 1 G Omega) pore can only be imaged by short-circuiting the membrane. Image contrast also becomes independent of membrane resistance when an electrical shunt is used, allowing for more quantitative comparisons of the features in ac impedance images of different membranes. PMID:16970331

  4. In vivo bioimpedance changes during haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in rats: towards 3D stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could be used as a portable non-invasive means to image the development of ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to examine if this was possible using time difference imaging, in the anesthetised rat using 40 spring-loaded scalp electrodes with applied constant currents of 50-150 μA at 2 kHz. Impedance changes in the largest 10% of electrode combinations were  -12.8%  ±  12.0% over the first 10 min for haemorrhage and  +46.1%  ±  37.2% over one hour for ischaemic stroke (mean  ±  SD, n  =  7 in each group). The volume of the pathologies, assessed by tissue section and histology post-mortem, was 12.6 μl  ±  17.6 μl and 12.6 μl  ±  17.6 μl for haemorrhage and ischaemia respectively. In time difference EIT images, there was a correspondence with the pathology in 3/7 cases of haemorrhage and none of the ischaemic strokes. Although the net impedance changes were physiologically reasonable and consistent with expectations from the literature, it was disappointing that it was not possible to obtain reliable EIT images. The reason for this are not clear, but probably include confounding effects of secondary ischaemia for haemorrhage and tissue and cerebrospinal fluid shifts for the stroke model. With this method, it does not appear that EIT with scalp electrodes is yet ready for clinical use. PMID:27200510

  5. Early detection of acute transmural myocardial ischemia by the phasic systolic-diastolic changes of local tissue electrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Esther; Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is influenced by the mechanical activity of the heart. Therefore, the ischemia-induced mechanical dysfunction may cause specific changes in the systolic-diastolic pattern of myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to analyze the phasic changes of myocardial resistivity in normal and ischemic conditions. Myocardial resistivity was measured continuously during the cardiac cycle using 26 different simultaneous excitation frequencies (1 kHz-1 MHz) in 7 anesthetized open-chest pigs. Animals were submitted to 30 min regional ischemia by acute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow were recorded simultaneously. Baseline myocardial resistivity depicted a phasic pattern during the cardiac cycle with higher values at the preejection period (4.19 ± 1.09% increase above the mean, P < 0.001) and lower values during relaxation phase (5.01 ± 0.85% below the mean, P < 0.001). Acute coronary occlusion induced two effects on the phasic resistivity curve: 1) a prompt (5 min ischemia) holosystolic resistivity rise leading to a bell-shaped waveform and to a reduction of the area under the LV pressure-impedance curve (1,427 ± 335 vs. 757 ± 266 Ω·cm·mmHg, P < 0.01, 41 kHz) and 2) a subsequent (5-10 min ischemia) progressive mean resistivity rise (325 ± 23 vs. 438 ± 37 Ω·cm at 30 min, P < 0.01, 1 kHz). The structural and mechanical myocardial dysfunction induced by acute coronary occlusion can be recognized by specific changes in the systolic-diastolic myocardial resistivity curve. Therefore these changes may become a new indicator (surrogate) of evolving acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:26608340

  6. Interface electric properties of Si/organic hybrid solar cells using impedance spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Juye; Ding, Li; Gao, Pingqi; Pan, Xiaoyin; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun

    2016-05-01

    The internal resistance and capacitance of Si/organic hybrid solar cells (Si-HSC) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three types of Nyquist plots in Si-HSC are observed firstly at different bias voltages, while suitable equivalent circuit models are established to evaluate the details of interface carrier transfer and recombination. In particular, the carrier transport property of the PEDOT:PSS film responds at a high frequency (6 × 104-1 × 106 Hz) in three-arc spectra. Therefore, EIS could help us deeply understand the electronic properties of Si-HSC for developing high performance devices.

  7. Engineering the Input Impedance of Electric Planar Metamaterials Analogue of Dipole Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan-Wu; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Qi; Domenic, Belgiovane

    2014-11-01

    Since the demand of metamaterial (MM) based devices for practical applications is increased, the method with input impedance of dipole aims to produce fast results with reasonable accuracy for its design proposed. In this work, the unit of MM is equivalent to a dipole and then MM could be treated as a dipole array. An analysis is performed based on classical microwave dipole and numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain for different MM configurations in the form of dipoles array. Additionally, a quality factor (Q-factor) based analysis is shown to yield simulation results which are in good agreement with the experiment. In essence, this shows that we could use antenna theory and numerical method to analyze MM thus opening the doors for a more efficient parameter optimization method.

  8. ACT3: A High-speed, High-Precision Electrical Impedance Tomograph

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Raymond D.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Gisser, David G.; Goble, John C.; Newell, JC.; Isaacson, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and performance of Rensselaer’s third-generation Adaptive Current Tomograph, ACT3. This system uses 32 current sources and 32 phase-sensitive voltmeters to make a 32-electrode system that is capable of applying arbitrary spatial patterns of current. The instrumentation provides 16 b precision on both the current values and the real and reactive voltage readings and can collect the data for a single image in 133 ms. Additionally, the instrument is able to automatically calibrate its voltmeters and current sources and adjust the current source output impedance under computer control. The major system components are discussed in detail and performance results are given. Images obtained using stationary agar targets and a moving pendulum in a phantom as well as in vivo resistivity profiles showing human respiration are shown. PMID:7927393

  9. Sensitivity Enhancement of Bead-based Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (BEIS) biosensor by electric field-focusing in microwells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Ji, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Jun, Seong Chan; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports a novel electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) biosensors that uses magnetic beads trapped in a microwell array to improve the sensitivity of conventional bead-based EIS (BEIS) biosensors. Unloading the previously measured beads by removing the magnetic bar enables the BEIS sensor to be used repeatedly by reloading it with new beads. Despite its recyclability, the sensitivity of conventional BEIS biosensors is so low that it has not attracted much attentions from the biosensor industry. We significantly improved the sensitivity of the BEIS system by introducing of a microwell array that contains two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) to concentrate the electric field on the surfaces of the beads. We confirmed that the performance of the BEIS sensor in a microwell array using an immunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in PBS buffer and human plasma. The experimental results showed that a low concentration of PSA (a few tens or hundreds of fg/mL) were detectable as a ratio of the changes in the impedance of the PBS buffer or in human plasma. Therefore, our BEIS sensor with a microwell array could be a promising platform for low cost, high-performance biosensors for applications that require high sensitivity and recyclability. PMID:27152445

  10. Adaptive approach for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Robust algorithms using reduced order equivalent circuit model (ECM) for an accurate and reliable estimation of battery states in various applications become more popular. In this study, a novel adaptive, self-learning heuristic algorithm for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles is introduced. The presented approach is verified using LIBs with different composition of chemistries (NMC/C, NMC/LTO, LFP/C) at different aging states. An impedance-based reduced order ECM incorporating ohmic resistance and a combination of a constant phase element and a resistance (so-called ZARC-element) is employed. Existing algorithms in vehicles are much more limited in the complexity of the ECMs. The algorithm is validated using seven day real vehicle data with high temperature variation including very low temperatures (from -20 °C to +30 °C) at different Depth-of-Discharges (DoDs). Two possibilities to approximate both ZARC-elements with finite number of RC-elements on-board are shown and the results of the voltage estimation are compared. Moreover, the current dependence of the charge-transfer resistance is considered by employing Butler-Volmer equation. Achieved results indicate that both models yield almost the same grade of accuracy.

  11. Design of a Broadband Electrical Impedance Matching Network for Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducers Based on a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianfei; Song, Kezhu; Zhang, Shuangxi; Yang, Junfeng; Cao, Ping

    2014-01-01

    An improved method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to design a broadband electrical impedance matching network for piezoelectric ultrasound transducer. A key feature of the new method is that it can optimize both the topology of the matching network and perform optimization on the components. The main idea of this method is to find the optimal matching network in a set of candidate topologies. Some successful experiences of classical algorithms are absorbed to limit the size of the set of candidate topologies and greatly simplify the calculation process. Both binary-coded GA and real-coded GA are used for topology optimization and components optimization, respectively. Some calculation strategies, such as elitist strategy and clearing niche method, are adopted to make sure that the algorithm can converge to the global optimal result. Simulation and experimental results prove that matching networks with better performance might be achieved by this improved method. PMID:24743156

  12. dc-Electrical Degradation of the BT-Based Material for Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor with Ni internal Electrode: Impedance Analysis and Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazono, Hirokazu; Kishi, Hiroshi

    2001-09-01

    The impedance of a BaTiO3 (BT)-based multilayer ceramic capacitor with a nickel internal electrode (Ni-MLCC) was investigated by measuring the frequency domain at various temperatures. All the obtained impedance data could be successfully fitted to a 4-RC section electrical equivalent network. The 4-RC section electrical equivalent network was successfully correlated to the microstructure: the core, the shell, the grain boundary, and the ceramic/internal electrode interface regions. Based on this electrical equivalent network, the electrical properties including the Curie-Weiss law, the current-voltage characteristics, and dc electrical degradation, were well explained. A model for the degradation behavior for BT-based Ni-MLCC with thin active layer thickness was proposed.

  13. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  14. Impedance magnetocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Kandori, A; Miyashita, T; Suzuki, D; Yokosawa, K; Tsukada, K

    2001-02-01

    We have developed an impedance magnetocardiogram (IMCG) system to detect the change of magnetic field corresponding to changes in blood volume in the heart. A low magnetic field from the electrical activity of the human heart--the so-called magnetocardiogram (MCG)--can be simultaneously detected by using this system. Because the mechanical and electrical functions in the heart can be monitored by non-invasive and non-contact measurements, it is easy to observe the cardiovascular functions from an accurate sensor position. This system uses a technique to demodulate induced current in a subject. A flux-locked circuit of a superconducting quantum interference device has a wide frequency range (above 1 MHz) because a constant current (40 kHz) is fed through the subject. It is shown for the first time that the system could measure IMCG signals at the same time as MCG signals. PMID:11229740

  15. Electrical impedance sensor for quantitative monitoring of infection processes on HCT-8 cells by the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Dibao-Dina, Alfred; Follet, Jérôme; Ibrahim, Mouhamad; Vlandas, Alexis; Senez, Vincent

    2015-04-15

    Cryptosporidium is the main origin of worldwide waterborne epidemic outbreaks caused by protozoan parasites. Its resilience to water chemical treatments and the absence of therapy led to consider it as a reference pathogen to assess water quality and as a possible bioterrorism agent. We here show that an electrical impedance-based device is able to get insights on Cryptosporidium development on a cell culture and to quantify sample infectivity. HCT-8 cells were grown to confluency on Interdigitated Microelectrode Arrays (IMA's) during 76h and then infected by Cryptosporidium parvum during 60h. The impedimetric response was measured at frequencies ranging from 100Hz to 1MHz and a 7min sampling period. As the infection progresses the impedance signal shows a reproducible distinct succession of peaks at 12h post infection (PI), 23h PI and 31h PI and local minima at 9h PI, 19h PI and 28h PI. An equivalent circuit modeling-based approach indicates that these features are mostly originated from paracellular pathway modifications due to host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, our data present for the first time a real-time monitoring of early parasitic stage development with alternating zoite and meront predominances, observed respectively at peaks and local minima in the impedimetric signal. Finally, by quantifying the magnitude of the impedimetric response, we demonstrate this device can also be used as an infectivity sensor as early as 12h PI thus being at least 6 times faster than other state of the art techniques. PMID:25460884

  16. Impedance of a nanoantenna

    SciTech Connect

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Laroche, Marine; Marquier, Francois

    2009-10-07

    We introduce a generalized definition of the impedance of a nanoantenna that can be applied to any system. We also introduce a definition of the impedance of a two level system. Using this framework, we establish a link between the electrical engineering and the quantum optics picture of light emission.

  17. Development of an Arduino-based electrical impedance tomography system with application to dam internal erosion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Ferdos, Farzad; Losito, Gabriella; Solari, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a technique for the imaging of the electrical properties of conductive materials. In EIT, the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity or electrical conductivity within a domain is reconstructed using measurements made with electrodes placed at the boundaries of the domain. Data acquisition is typically made by applying an electrical current to the object under investigation using a set of electrodes, and measuring the developed voltage between the other electrodes. The tomographic image is then obtained using an inversion algorithm. This work describes the implementation of a simple and low cost 3D EIT measurement system suitable for laboratory-scale studies. The system was specifically developed for the time-lapse imaging of soil samples subjected to erosion processes during laboratory tests. The tests reproduce the process of internal erosion of soil particles by water flow within a granular media; this process is one of the most common causes of failure of earthen levees and embankment dams. The measurements needed strict requirements of speed and accuracy due to the varying time scale and magnitude of these processes. The developed EIT system consists of a PC which controls I/O cards (multiplexers) through the Arduino micro-controller, an external current generator, a digital acquisition device (DAQ), a power supply and the electrodes. The ease of programming of the Arduino interface greatly helped the implementation of custom acquisition software, increasing the overall flexibility of the system and the creation of specific acquisition schemes and configurations. The system works with a multi-electrode configuration of up to 48 channels but it was designed to be upgraded to an arbitrary large number of electrodes by connecting additional multiplexer cards (> 96 electrodes). The acquisition was optimized for multi-channel measurements so that the overall time of acquisition is dramatically reduced compared to

  18. Electrical transport properties of CoMn0.2-xGaxFe1.8O4 ferrites using complex impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Lin, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Yao-Ming; Chang, Horng-Yi; Lei, Chien-Ming; Jen, Shien-Uang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we report the influence of Ga content on the microstructural, magnetic, and AC impedance properties of Co-based ferrites with compositions of CoMn0.2-xGaxFe1.8O4 (x=0, 0.1, and 0.2) prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Experimental results showed that the as-prepared Co-based ferrites had a single-phase spinel structure; the Curie temperature of Co-based ferrites decreased with increasing Ga content. All ferrite samples exhibited a typical hysteresis behavior with good values of saturation magnetization at room temperature. The electrical properties of Co-based ferrites were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy analysis in the frequency range of 100 kHz-50 MHz at temperatures of 150 to 250 oC. The impedance analysis revealed that the magnitudes of the real part (Z') and the imaginary part (Z") of complex impedance decreased with increasing temperature. Only one semicircle was observed in each complex impedance plane plot, which revealed that the contribution to conductivity was from the grain boundaries. It was found that the relaxation time for the grain boundary (τgb) also decreased with increasing temperature. The values of resistance for the grain boundary (Rgb) significantly increased with increasing Ga content, which indicated that the incorporation of Ga into Co-based ferrites enhanced the electrical resistivity.

  19. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kyung, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Bum; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2016-06-01

    Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  20. Development of a portable electrical impedance tomography data acquisition system for near-real-time spatial sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Kenneth J.

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and validate the performance of a miniature and portable data acquisition (DAQ) system designed for interrogating carbon nanotube (CNT)-based thin films for real-time spatial structural sensing and damage detection. Previous research demonstrated that the electrical properties of CNT-based thin film strain sensors were linearly correlated with applied strains. When coupled with an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) algorithm, the detection and localization of damage was possible. In short, EIT required that the film or "sensing skin" be interrogated along its boundaries. Electrical current was injected across a pair of boundary electrodes, and voltage was simultaneously recorded along the remaining electrode pairs. This was performed multiple times to obtain a large dataset needed for solving the EIT spatial conductivity mapping inverse problem. However, one of the main limitations of this technique was the large amount of time required for data acquisition. In order to facilitate the adoption of this technology and for field implementation purposes, a miniature DAQ that could interrogate these CNT-based sensing skins at high sampling rates was designed and tested. The prototype DAQ featured a Howland current source that could generate stable and controlled direct current. Measurement of boundary electrode voltages and the switching of the input, output, and measurement channels were achieved using multiplexer units. The DAQ prototype was fabricated on a two-layer printed circuit board, and it was designed for integration with a prototype wireless sensing system, which is the next phase of this research.

  1. A non-iterative method for the electrical impedance tomography based on joint sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ok Kyun; Kang, Hyeonbae; Ye, Jong Chul; Lim, Mikyoung

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a non-iterative method for the inverse conductivity problem of recovering multiple small anomalies from the boundary measurements. When small anomalies are buried in a conducting object, the electric potential values inside the object can be expressed by integrals of densities with a common sparse support on the location of anomalies. Based on this integral expression, we formulate the reconstruction problem of small anomalies as a joint sparse recovery and present an efficient non-iterative recovery algorithm of small anomalies. Furthermore, we also provide a slightly modified algorithm to reconstruct an extended anomaly. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the linearized method and the multiple signal classification algorithm by numerical simulations. This work is supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Sciences and Technology through NRF grant No. NRF-2010-0017532 (to H K), the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning; through NRF grant No. NRF-2013R1A1A3012931 (to M L), the R&D Convergence Program of NST (National Research Council of Science & Technology) of Republic of Korea (Grant CAP-13-3-KERI) (to O K L and J C Y).

  2. Permeability, electrical impedance, and acoustic velocities on reservoir rocks from the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Boitnott, G.N.; Boyd, P.J.

    1996-01-24

    Previous measurements of acoustic velocities on NEGU- 17 cores indicate that saturation effects are significant enough to cause Vp/Vs anomalies observed in the field. In this study we report on the results of new measurements on core recently recovered from SB-15-D along with some additional measurements on the NEGU-17 cores. The measurements indicate correlations between mechanical, transport, and water storage properties of the matrix which may prove useful for reservoir assessment and management. The SB-15-D material is found to be similar to the NEGU-17 material in terms of acoustic velocities, being characterized by a notably weak pressure dependence on the velocities and a modest Vp/Vs signature of saturation. The effect of saturation on Vp/Vs appears to result in part from a chemo-mechanical weakening of the shear modulus due to the presence of water. Electrical properties of SB-15-D material are qualitatively similar to those of the NEGU-17 cores, although resistivities of SB-15-D cores are notably lower and dielectric permittivities higher than in their NEGU- 17 counterparts. While some limited correlations of measured properties with depth are noted, no clear change in character is observed within SB-15-D cores which can be associated with the proposed cap-rock/reservoir boundary.

  3. Simulations and phantom evaluations of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) for breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadleir, Rosalind J.; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2013-05-01

    MREIT is a new imaging modality that can be used to reconstruct high-resolution conductivity images of the human body. Since conductivity values of cancerous tissues in the breast are significantly higher than those of surrounding normal tissues, breast imaging using MREIT may provide a new noninvasive way of detecting early stage of cancer. In this paper, we present results of experimental and numerical simulation studies of breast MREIT. We built a realistic three-dimensional model of the human breast connected to a simplified model of the chest including the heart and evaluated the ability of MREIT to detect cancerous anomalies in a background material with similar electrical properties to breast tissue. We performed numerical simulations of various scenarios in breast MREIT including assessment of the effects of fat inclusions and effects related to noise levels, such as changing the amplitude of injected currents, effect of added noise and number of averages. Phantom results showed straightforward detection of cancerous anomalies in a background was possible with low currents and few averages. The simulation results showed it should be possible to detect a cancerous anomaly in the breast, while restricting the maximal current density in the heart below published levels for nerve excitation.

  4. Characterization of piezocrystals for practical configurations with temperature- and pressure-dependent electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhen; Sadiq, Muhammad R; Démoré, Christine; Parker, Michelle F; Marin, Pablo; Mayne, Keith; Cochran, Sandy

    2011-09-01

    Piezoelectric single crystal materials such as (x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)(1-x)PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) have, by some measures, significantly better performance than established piezoelectric ceramics for ultrasound applications. However, they are also subject to phase transitions affecting their behavior at temperatures and pressures encountered in underwater sonar and actuator applications and in non-destructive testing at elevated temperatures. Materials with modified compositions to reduce these problems are now under development, but application-oriented characterization techniques need further attention. Characterization with temperature variation has been reported extensively, but the range of parameters measured is often limited and the effects of pressure variation have received almost no attention. Furthermore, variation in properties between samples is now rarely reported. The focus of this paper is an experimental system set up with commercially available equipment and software to carry out characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with variation in temperature, pressure, and electrical bias fields found in typical practical use. We illustrate its use with data from bulk thickness-mode PMN-29%PT samples, demonstrating variation among nominally identical samples and showing not only the commonly reported changes in permittivity with temperature for bulk material but also significant and complicated changes with pressure and bias field and additional ultrasonic modes which are attributed to material phase changes. The insight this provides may allow the transducer engineer to accelerate new material adoption in devices. PMID:21937310

  5. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ovacik, L.; Jones, O.C.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the work on the research project on this cooperative program between DOE and Hitachi, Ltd. Major advances were made in the computational reconstruction of images from electrical excitation and response data with respect to existing capabilities reported in the literature. A demonstration is provided of the imaging of one or more circular objects within the measurement plane with demonstrated linear resolution of six parts in two hundred. At this point it can be said that accurate excitation and measurement of boundary voltages and currents appears adequate to obtain reasonable images of the real conductivity distribution within a body and the outlines of insulating targets suspended within a homogeneous conducting medium. The quality of images is heavily dependent on the theoretical and numerical implementation of imaging algorithms. The overall imaging system described has the potential of being both fast and cost effective in comparison with alternative methods. The methods developed use multiple plate-electrode excitation in conjunction with finite element block decomposition, preconditioned voltage conversion, layer approximation of the third dimension and post processing of boundary measurements to obtain optimal boundary excitations. Reasonably accurate imaging of single and multiple targets of differing size, location and separation is demonstrated and the resulting images are better than any others found in the literature. Recommendations for future effort include the improvement in computational algorithms with emphasis on internal conductivity shape functions and the use of adaptive development of quadrilateral (2-D) or tetrahedral or hexahedral (3-D) elements to coincide with large discrete zone boundaries in the fields, development of a truly binary model and completion of a fast imaging system. Further, the rudimentary methods shown herein for three-dimensional imaging need improving.

  6. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) based on the solution of the convection equation using FEM with stabilization.

    PubMed

    Oran, Omer Faruk; Ider, Yusuf Ziya

    2012-08-21

    Most algorithms for magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) concentrate on reconstructing the internal conductivity distribution of a conductive object from the Laplacian of only one component of the magnetic flux density (∇²B(z)) generated by the internal current distribution. In this study, a new algorithm is proposed to solve this ∇²B(z)-based MREIT problem which is mathematically formulated as the steady-state scalar pure convection equation. Numerical methods developed for the solution of the more general convection-diffusion equation are utilized. It is known that the solution of the pure convection equation is numerically unstable if sharp variations of the field variable (in this case conductivity) exist or if there are inconsistent boundary conditions. Various stabilization techniques, based on introducing artificial diffusion, are developed to handle such cases and in this study the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) stabilization method is incorporated into the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method (FEM) to numerically solve the MREIT problem. The proposed algorithm is tested with simulated and also experimental data from phantoms. Successful conductivity reconstructions are obtained by solving the related convection equation using the Galerkin weighted residual FEM when there are no sharp variations in the actual conductivity distribution. However, when there is noise in the magnetic flux density data or when there are sharp variations in conductivity, it is found that SUPG stabilization is beneficial. PMID:22837046

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 09: Evaluation of electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion algorithms using an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Brige Paul; Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-08-15

    Integration of biological conductivity information provided by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with anatomical information provided by Computed Tomography (CT) imaging could improve the ability to characterize tissues in clinical applications. In this paper, we report results of our study which compared the fusion of EIT with CT using three different image fusion algorithms, namely: weighted averaging, wavelet fusion, and ROI indexing. The ROI indexing method of fusion involves segmenting the regions of interest from the CT image and replacing the pixels with the pixels of the EIT image. The three algorithms were applied to a CT and EIT image of an anthropomorphic phantom, constructed out of five acrylic contrast targets with varying diameter embedded in a base of gelatin bolus. The imaging performance was assessed using Detectability and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). Wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing resulted in lower Detectability (by 35% and 47%, respectively) yet higher SSIM (by 66% and 73%, respectively) than weighted averaging. Our results suggest that wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing yielded more consistent and optimal fusion performance than weighted averaging.

  8. Localized Electrical Impedance Myography of the Biceps Brachii Muscle during Different Levels of Isometric Contraction and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Shin, Henry; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed changes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) at different levels of isometric muscle contraction as well as during exhaustive exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. The EIM was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 19 healthy subjects. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the muscle resistance (R) measured during the isometric contraction and when the muscle was completely relaxed. Post hoc analysis shows that the resistance increased at higher contractions (both 60% MVC and MVC), however, there were no significant changes in muscle reactance (X) during the isometric contractions. The resistance also changed during different stages of the fatigue task and there were significant decreases from the beginning of the contraction to task failure as well as between task failure and post fatigue rest. Although our results demonstrated an increase in resistance during isometric contraction, the changes were within 10% of the baseline value. These changes might be related to the modest alterations in muscle architecture during a contraction. The decrease in resistance seen with muscle fatigue may be explained by an accumulation of metabolites in the muscle tissue. PMID:27110795

  9. Investigation of dielectric and electrical properties of Mn doped sodium potassium niobate ceramic system using impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rashmi; Sharma, Seema; Rai, Radheshyam; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2011-11-01

    A single perovskite phase formation of polycrystalline samples of (Na0.52K0.44Li0.04) (Nb0.86-x Ta0.1Sb0.04Mnx) (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) here by denoted as NKNLST and Mn doped NKNLST were prepared by mixed oxide method. The preliminary structural studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction technique showing the formation of single perovskite phase with orthorhombic symmetry for all compositions. Addition of Mn in NKNLST system lowered the sintering temperature by 75 °C. Detail study of impedance parameters shows the non-Debye temperature of relaxation phenomena in the system. This analysis enables us to separate grain and grain boundary contribution of the materials. Above the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature, the electrical conduction is governed by the thermal excitation of carriers from oxygen vacancies exhibiting Negative temperature coefficient (NTCR) behaviour.

  10. Empirical validation of statistical parametric mapping for group imaging of fast neural activity using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Packham, B; Barnes, G; Dos Santos, G Sato; Aristovich, K; Gilad, O; Ghosh, A; Oh, T; Holder, D

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows for the reconstruction of internal conductivity from surface measurements. A change in conductivity occurs as ion channels open during neural activity, making EIT a potential tool for functional brain imaging. EIT images can have  >10 000 voxels, which means statistical analysis of such images presents a substantial multiple testing problem. One way to optimally correct for these issues and still maintain the flexibility of complicated experimental designs is to use random field theory. This parametric method estimates the distribution of peaks one would expect by chance in a smooth random field of a given size. Random field theory has been used in several other neuroimaging techniques but never validated for EIT images of fast neural activity, such validation can be achieved using non-parametric techniques. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques were used to analyze a set of 22 images collected from 8 rats. Significant group activations were detected using both techniques (corrected p  <  0.05). Both parametric and non-parametric analyses yielded similar results, although the latter was less conservative. These results demonstrate the first statistical analysis of such an image set and indicate that such an analysis is an approach for EIT images of neural activity. PMID:27203477

  11. Measurement of the axial force during primary peristalsis in the oesophagus using a novel electrical impedance technology.

    PubMed

    Gravesen, F H; McMahon, B P; Drewes, A M; Gregersen, H

    2008-03-01

    The oesophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Oesophageal function is usually evaluated by means of manometry which is a proxy of the force in the radial direction. However, force measurements in the axial direction will provide a better measure of oesophageal transport function. The aim of this study was to develop a probe based on electrical impedance measurements to quantify the axial force generated by oesophageal contractions, i.e. probe elongation was associated with the axial force. Calibration with weights up to 200 g was done. The dispersion, creep, temperature and bending dependence were studied at the bench. Subsequently, the probe was tested in vivo in a healthy human volunteer. The probe showed good reproducibility and the dispersion was <0.04. Some dependence on temperature, creep and bending was found. Interpolation of the calibration curves made it possible to compensate for temperature fluctuations. The maximum deviation was 6.1 +/- 3.7% at loads of 50 g. The influence of creep showed a maximum net creep of 6.1 g after 8 s. The swallowed bolus size correlated with the axial force measurements (P = 0.038) but not with manometric measurements. In conclusion, the new technique measures axial force in the oesophagus and may in the future provide valuable information about oesophageal function. PMID:18367813

  12. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Santos, Susana; Robens, Anne; Boehm, Anna; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A new prototype of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system is presented. The system uses a field-programmable gate array as a main controller and is configured to measure at different frequencies simultaneously through a composite waveform. Both real and imaginary components of the data are computed for each frequency and sent to the personal computer over an ethernet connection, where both time-difference imaging and frequency-difference imaging are reconstructed and visualized. The system has been tested for both time-difference and frequency-difference imaging for diverse sets of frequency pairs in a resistive/capacitive test unit and in self-experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first work that shows preliminary frequency-difference images of in-vivo experiments. Results of time-difference imaging were compared with simulation results and shown that the new prototype performs well at all frequencies in the tested range of 60 kHz-960 kHz. For frequency-difference images, further development of algorithms and an improved normalization process is required to correctly reconstruct and interpreted the resulting images. PMID:27463715

  13. Effect of Trigger Sensitivity on Redistribution of Ventilation During Pressure Support Ventilation Detected by Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Oliver C.; Schneider, Thomas; Vogel, Elisabeth; Koch, Thea

    2015-01-01

    Background: In supine position, pressure support ventilation causes a redistribution of ventilation towards the ventral regions of the lung. Theoretically, a less sensitive support trigger would cause the patient to breathe more actively, potentially attenuating the effect of positive pressure ventilation. Objectives: To quantify the effect of trigger setting, we assessed redistribution of ventilation during pressure support ventilation (PSV) using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Patients and Methods: With approval from the local ethics committee, six orthopedic patients were enrolled. All patients had general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway and a standardized anesthetic regimen (sufentanil, propofol and sevoflurane). Pressure support trigger settings varied between 2 and 15 L/minute and compared to unassisted spontaneous breathing. From EIT data, the center of ventilation (COV), the fraction of the total ventilation per region of interest (ROI) and intratidal gas distribution were calculated. Results: At all trigger settings, pressure support ventilation caused a significant ventral shift of the center of ventilation compared with during spontaneous breathing, confirmed by the analysis by regions of interest. During spontaneous breathing, COV was not different from baseline values obtained before induction of anesthesia. During PSV, the intratidal regional gas distribution (ITV-analysis) revealed subtle changes during the early inspiratory phase not detected by the COV-analysis. Conclusions: Pressure support ventilation, but not spontaneous breathing, induces a significant redistribution of ventilation towards the ventral region. The sensitivity of the support trigger appears to influence the distribution of ventilation only during the early phase of inspiration. PMID:26478865

  14. Electrical properties of double perovskite oxide Sr2LaSbO6: An impedance spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Alo; Kumari, Premlata; Sinha, T. P.

    2015-09-01

    The Rietveld refinement of the room temperature x-ray diffraction pattern of double perovskite oxide, Sr2LaSbO6 (SLS) synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique shows monoclinic phase with P21/ n symmetry, which is substantiated by the Raman spectrum of the sample. The dielectric relaxation of SLS is investigated in the temperature range from 30°C to 300°C and in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The Cole-Cole model is used to explain the dielectric relaxation of SLS. The most probable relaxation frequencies at various temperatures are found to obey the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 0.36 eV, which indicates that the polaron hopping plays the main role in the dielectric relaxation of SLS. The complex impedance plane plots are analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant phase element. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra obey the power law. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Localized Electrical Impedance Myography of the Biceps Brachii Muscle during Different Levels of Isometric Contraction and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Shin, Henry; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed changes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) at different levels of isometric muscle contraction as well as during exhaustive exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. The EIM was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 19 healthy subjects. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the muscle resistance (R) measured during the isometric contraction and when the muscle was completely relaxed. Post hoc analysis shows that the resistance increased at higher contractions (both 60% MVC and MVC), however, there were no significant changes in muscle reactance (X) during the isometric contractions. The resistance also changed during different stages of the fatigue task and there were significant decreases from the beginning of the contraction to task failure as well as between task failure and post fatigue rest. Although our results demonstrated an increase in resistance during isometric contraction, the changes were within 10% of the baseline value. These changes might be related to the modest alterations in muscle architecture during a contraction. The decrease in resistance seen with muscle fatigue may be explained by an accumulation of metabolites in the muscle tissue. PMID:27110795

  16. Setting ventilation parameters guided by electrical impedance tomography in an animal trial of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Leonhardt, Steffen; Rossaint, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Since mechanical ventilation can cause harm to lung tissue it should be as protective as possible. Whereas numerous options exist to set ventilator parameters, an adequate monitoring is lacking up to date. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) provides a non-invasive visualization of ventilation which is relatively easy to apply and commercially available. Although there are a number of published measures and parameters derived from EIT, it is not clear how to use EIT to improve clinical outcome of e.g. patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe disease with a high mortality rate. On the one hand, parameters should be easy to obtain, on the other hand clinical algorithms should consider them to optimize ventilator settings. The so called Global inhomogeneity (GI) index bases on the fact that ARDS is characterized by an inhomogeneous injury pattern. By applying positive endexpiratory pressures (PEEP), homogeneity should be attained. In this study, ARDS was induced by a double hit procedure in six pigs. They were randomly assigned to either the EIT or the control group. Whereas in the control group the ARDS network table was used to set the PEEP according to the current inspiratory oxygen fraction, in the EIT group the GI index was calculated during a decremental PEEP trial. PEEP was kept when GI index was lowest. Interestingly, PEEP was significantly higher in the EIT group. Additionally, two of these animals died ahead of the schedule. Obviously, not only homogeneity of ventilation distribution matters but also limitation of over-distension.

  17. Use of 3-D magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography in detecting human cerebral stroke: a simulation study*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Nuo; Zhu, Shan-an; He, Bin

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new three dimensional (3-D) conductivity imaging approach and have used it to detect human brain conductivity changes corresponding to acute cerebral stroke. The proposed Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) approach is based on the J-Substitution algorithm and is expanded to imaging 3-D subject conductivity distribution changes. Computer simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the present MREIT imaging approach. Simulations of both types of cerebral stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke, were performed on a four-sphere head model. Simulation results showed that the correlation coefficient (CC) and relative error (RE) between target and estimated conductivity distributions were 0.9245±0.0068 and 8.9997%±0.0084%, for hemorrhagic stroke, and 0.6748±0.0197 and 8.8986%±0.0089%, for ischemic stroke, when the SNR (signal-to-noise radio) of added GWN (Gaussian White Noise) was 40. The convergence characteristic was also evaluated according to the changes of CC and RE with different iteration numbers. The CC increases and RE decreases monotonously with the increasing number of iterations. The present simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed 3-D MREIT approach in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke detection and suggest that the method may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke in humans. PMID:15822161

  18. Solving the forward problem in electrical impedance tomography for the human head using IDEAS (integrated design engineering analysis software), a finite element modelling tool.

    PubMed

    Bayford, R H; Gibson, A; Tizzard, A; Tidswell, T; Holder, D S

    2001-02-01

    If electrical impedance tomography is to be used as a clinical tool, the image reconstruction algorithms must yield accurate images of impedance changes. One of the keys to producing an accurate reconstructed image is the inclusion of prior information regarding the physical geometry of the object. To achieve this, many researchers have created tools for solving the forward problem by means of finite element methods (FEMs). These tools are limited, allowing only a set number of meshes to be produced from the geometric information of the object. There is a clear need for geometrical accurate FEM models to improve the quality of the reconstructed images. We present a commercial tool called IDEAS, which can be used to create FEM meshes for these models. The application of this tool is demonstrated by using segmented data from the human head to model impedance changes inside the head. PMID:11236890

  19. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  20. Overview Of Impedance Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, John E.

    1989-08-01

    Electrical impedance has been one of the many "tools of great promise" that physicians have employed in their quest to measure and/or monitor body function or physiologic events. So far, the expectations for its success have always exceeded its performance. In simplistic terms, physiologic impedance is a measure of the resistance in the volume between electrodes which changes as a function of changes in that volume, the relative impedance of that volume, or a combination of these two. The history and principles of electrical impedance are very nicely reviewed by Geddes and Baker in their textbook "Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation". It is humbling, however, to note that Cremer recorded variations in electrical impedance in frog hearts as early as 1907. The list of potential applications includes the measurement of thyroid function, estrogen activity, galvanic skin reflex, respiration, blood flow by conductivity dilution, nervous activity and eye movement. Commercial devices employing impedance have been and are being used to measure respiration (pneumographs and apneamonitors), pulse volume (impedance phlebographs) and even noninvasive cardiac output.

  1. Feature-space assessment of electrical impedance tomography coregistered with computed tomography in detecting multiple contrast targets

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fusion of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with computed tomography (CT) can be useful as a clinical tool for providing additional physiological information about tissues, but requires suitable fusion algorithms and validation procedures. This work explores the feasibility of fusing EIT and CT images using an algorithm for coregistration. The imaging performance is validated through feature space assessment on phantom contrast targets. Methods: EIT data were acquired by scanning a phantom using a circuit, configured for injecting current through 16 electrodes, placed around the phantom. A conductivity image of the phantom was obtained from the data using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). A CT image of the phantom was also acquired. The EIT and CT images were fused using a region of interest (ROI) coregistration fusion algorithm. Phantom imaging experiments were carried out on objects of different contrasts, sizes, and positions. The conductive medium of the phantoms was made of a tissue-mimicking bolus material that is routinely used in clinical radiation therapy settings. To validate the imaging performance in detecting different contrasts, the ROI of the phantom was filled with distilled water and normal saline. Spatially separated cylindrical objects of different sizes were used for validating the imaging performance in multiple target detection. Analyses of the CT, EIT and the EIT/CT phantom images were carried out based on the variations of contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity, using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A reference image of the phantom was simulated using EIDORS, and the performances of the CT and EIT imaging systems were evaluated and compared against the performance of the EIT/CT system using various feature metrics, detectability, and structural similarity index measures. Results: In detecting distilled and normal saline water in bolus medium, EIT as a stand

  2. Regional lung response to bronchodilator reversibility testing determined by electrical impedance tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Barbara; Zhao, Zhanqi; Zabel, Peter; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz

    2016-07-01

    Patients with obstructive lung diseases commonly undergo bronchodilator reversibility testing during examination of their pulmonary function by spirometry. A positive response is defined by an increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). FEV1 is a rather nonspecific criterion not allowing the regional effects of bronchodilator to be assessed. We employed the imaging technique of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to visualize the spatial and temporal ventilation distribution in 35 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at baseline and 5, 10, and 20 min after bronchodilator inhalation. EIT scanning was performed during tidal breathing and forced full expiration maneuver in parallel with spirometry. Ventilation distribution was determined by EIT by calculating the image pixel values of FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), tidal volume, peak flow, and mean forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC. The global inhomogeneity indexes of each measure and histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values were then determined to assess the bronchodilator effect on spatial ventilation distribution. Temporal ventilation distribution was analyzed from pixel values of times needed to exhale 75 and 90% of pixel FVC. Based on spirometric FEV1, significant bronchodilator response was found in 17 patients. These patients exhibited higher postbronchodilator values of all regional EIT-derived lung function measures in contrast to nonresponders. Ventilation distribution was inhomogeneous in both groups. Significant improvements were noted for spatial distribution of pixel FEV1 and tidal volume and temporal distribution in responders. By providing regional data, EIT might increase the diagnostic and prognostic information derived from reversibility testing. PMID:27190067

  3. Noise analysis in fast magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) based on spoiled multi gradient echo (SPMGE) pulse sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Oh, Tong; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Ji Eun; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; In Kwon, Oh; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a promising non-invasive method to visualize a static cross-sectional conductivity and/or current density image by injecting low frequency currents. MREIT measures one component of the magnetic flux density caused by the injected current using a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. For practical in vivo implementations of MREIT, especially for soft biological tissues where the MR signal rapidly decays, it is crucial to develop a technique for optimizing the magnetic flux density signal by the injected current while maintaining spatial-resolution and contrast. We design an MREIT pulse sequence by applying a spoiled multi-gradient-echo pulse sequence (SPMGE) to the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE), which fully injects the current at the end of the read-out gradient. The applied ICNE-SPMGE pulse sequence maximizes the duration of injected current almost up to a repetition time by measuring multiple magnetic flux density data. We analyze the noise level of measured magnetic flux density with respect to the pulse width of injection current and T_{2}^{*} relaxation time. In due consideration of the ICNE-SPMGE pulse sequence, using a reference information of T_{2}^{*} values in a local region of interest by a short pre-scan data, we predict the noise level of magnetic flux density to be measured for arbitrary repetition time TR. Results from phantom experiment demonstrate that the proposed method can predict the noise level of magnetic flux density for an appropriate TR = 40 ms using a reference scan for TR = 75 ms. The predicted noise level was compared with the noise level of directly measured magnetic flux density data.

  4. A sub-domain based regularization method with prior information for human thorax imaging using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Kang, Suk; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Jeon, Min Ho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2016-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that can be used as a bed-side monitoring tool for human thorax imaging. EIT has high temporal resolution characteristics but at the same time it suffers from poor spatial resolution due to ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Often regularization methods are used as a penalty term in the cost function to stabilize the sudden changes in resistivity. In human thorax monitoring, with conventional regularization methods employing Tikhonov type regularization, the reconstructed image is smoothed between the heart and the lungs, that is, it makes it difficult to distinguish the exact boundaries of the lungs and the heart. Sometimes, obtaining structural information of the object prior to this can be incorporated into the regularization method to improve the spatial resolution along with helping create clear and distinct boundaries between the objects. However, the boundary of the heart is changed rapidly due to the cardiac cycle hence there is no information concerning the exact boundary of the heart. Therefore, to improve the spatial resolution for human thorax monitoring during the cardiac cycle, in this paper, a sub-domain based regularization method is proposed assuming the lungs and part of background region is known. In the proposed method, the regularization matrix is modified anisotropically to include sub-domains as prior information, and the regularization parameter is assigned with different weights to each sub-domain. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments for 2D human thorax monitoring are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed regularization method. The results show a better reconstruction performance with the proposed regularization method.

  5. Numerical calculations for effects of structure of skeletal muscle on frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance and impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Katsuhisa; Yamada, Ayumi; Kageyama, Hitomi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Nana; Asami, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Numerical calculations were carried out by the finite difference method using three-dimensional models to examine effects of the structure of skeletal muscle on the frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance Y and impedance Z in transversal and longitudinal directions. In the models, the muscle cell was represented by a rectangular solid surrounded by a smooth surface membrane, and the cells were assumed to be distributed periodically. The width of the cross section of the cell, thickness of the intercellular medium, and the relative permittivities and the conductivities of the cell interior, the intercellular medium and the surface membrane were changed. Based on the results of the calculations, reported changes in Y and Z of the muscles from 1 kHz to 1 MHz were analyzed. The analyses revealed that a decreased cell radius was reasonable to explain the Y and Z of the muscles of immature rats, rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush at chronic stage and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. Changes in Y and Z due to the sciatic nerve crush at acute stage were attributable to the decreased cell radius, the increased space between the cells, the increased permittivity of the surface membrane and the increased conductivity of the cell interior. The changes in Z due to contraction were explained by the changes in the cell radius, and the conductivities of the cell interior and the intercellular medium. The changes in Z of meat due to aging were compared with the effects of the increase in the conductivity of the surface membrane.

  6. Effects of Variable Aspect-Ratio Inclusions on the Electrical Impedance of an Alumina Zirconia Composite at Intermediate Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A series of alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia composites containing either a high aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) hexagonal platelet alumina or an alumina low aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) spherical particulate was used to determine the effect of the aspect ratio on the temperature-dependent impedance of the composite material. The highest impedance across the temperature range of 373 to 1073 K is attributed to the grain boundary of the hexagonal platelet second phase in this alumina zirconia composite.

  7. Early Detection of Cervical Intraepitelial Neoplasia in a Heterogeneos Group of Colombian Women Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and the Miranda-López Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González-Correa, Carlos-A.

    2012-12-01

    Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) allows the study of the electrical properties of materials and structures such as biological tissues. EIS can be used as a diagnostic tool for the identification of pathological conditions such as cervical cancer. We used EIS in combination with genetic algorithms to characterize cervical epithelial squamous tissue in a heterogeneous sample of 56 Colombian women. All volunteers had a cytology taken for Papanicolau test and biopsy taken for histopathological analysis from those with a positive result (9 subjects). ROC analysis of the results suggest a sensitivity and specificity in the order of 0.73 and 0.86, respectively.

  8. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  9. Investigation and optimization of a finite element simulation of transducer array systems for 3D ultrasound computer tomography with respect to electrical impedance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, B.; Pirinen, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2012-03-01

    The established standard screening method to detect breast cancer is X-ray mammography. However X-ray mammography often has low contrast for tumors located within glandular tissue. A new approach is 3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), which is expected to detect small tumors at an early stage. This paper describes the development, improvement and the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations of the Transducer Array System (TAS) used in our 3D USCT. The focus of this work is on researching the influence of meshing and material parameters on the electrical impedance curves. Thereafter, these findings are used to optimize the simulation model. The quality of the simulation was evaluated by comparing simulated impedance characteristics with measured data of the real TAS. The resulting FEM simulation model is a powerful tool to analyze and optimize transducer array systems applied for USCT. With this simulation model, the behavior of TAS for different geometry modifications was researched. It provides a means to understand the acoustical performances inside of any ultrasound transducer represented by its electrical impedance characteristic.

  10. Assessing Body Composition of Children and Adolescents Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfolds, and Electrical Impedance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Angela; Kelsey, Laurel; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron L.; Myrer, J. William; Vehrs, Pat R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of percent body fat estimates in 177 boys and 154 girls between 12-17 years of age, percent body fat was assessed once using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and twice using the sum of two skinfolds and three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices. The assessments were repeated on 79 participants on a…

  11. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources. PMID:26932040

  12. Wavelet-based multiscale analysis of bioimpedance data measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing for classification of cancerous and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debanjan; Shiladitya, Kumar; Biswas, Karabi; Dutta, Pranab Kumar; Parekh, Aditya; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a study to differentiate normal and cancerous cells using label-free bioimpedance signal measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The real-time-measured bioimpedance data of human breast cancer cells and human epithelial normal cells employs fluctuations of impedance value due to cellular micromotions resulting from dynamic structural rearrangement of membrane protrusions under nonagitated condition. Here, a wavelet-based multiscale quantitative analysis technique has been applied to analyze the fluctuations in bioimpedance. The study demonstrates a method to classify cancerous and normal cells from the signature of their impedance fluctuations. The fluctuations associated with cellular micromotion are quantified in terms of cellular energy, cellular power dissipation, and cellular moments. The cellular energy and power dissipation are found higher for cancerous cells associated with higher micromotions in cancer cells. The initial study suggests that proposed wavelet-based quantitative technique promises to be an effective method to analyze real-time bioimpedance signal for distinguishing cancer and normal cells.

  13. The point source method for reconstructing an inclusion from boundary measurements in electrical impedance tomography and acoustic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Klaus; Potthast, Roland

    2003-10-01

    We employ the point source method (PSM) for the reconstruction of some field u on parts of a domain Omega from the Cauchy data for the field on the boundary partialOmega of the domain. Then, the boundary condition for a perfectly conducting inclusion or a sound-soft object in Omega can be used to find the location and shape of the inhomogeneity. The results show that we can detect perfectly conducting inclusions in impedance tomography from the voltages for one injected current. For acoustic scattering a sound-soft object is found from the knowledge of one (total) field and its normal derivative on partialOmega. The work redesigns the PSM, which was first proposed in the framework of inverse scattering, to solve inverse boundary value problems. Numerical examples are provided for impedance tomography and the sound-soft acoustic boundary value problem.

  14. Towards the development of a wearable Electrical Impedance Tomography system: A study about the suitability of a low power bioimpedance front-end.

    PubMed

    Menolotto, Matteo; Rossi, Stefano; Dario, Paolo; Della Torre, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Wearable systems for remote monitoring of physiological parameter are ready to evolve towards wearable imaging systems. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows the non-invasive investigation of the internal body structure. The characteristics of this low-resolution and low-cost technique match perfectly with the concept of a wearable imaging device. On the other hand low power consumption, which is a mandatory requirement for wearable systems, is not usually discussed for standard EIT applications. In this work a previously developed low power architecture for a wearable bioimpedance sensor is applied to EIT acquisition and reconstruction, to evaluate the impact on the image of the limited signal to noise ratio (SNR), caused by low power design. Some anatomical models of the chest, with increasing geometric complexity, were developed, in order to evaluate and calibrate, through simulations, the parameters of the reconstruction algorithms provided by Electrical Impedance Diffuse Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) project. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements taken with our bioimpedance device on a phantom reproducing chest tissues properties. The comparison was both qualitative and quantitative through the application of suitable figures of merit; in this way the impact of the noise of the low power front-end on the image quality was assessed. The comparison between simulation and measurement results demonstrated that, despite the limited SNR, the device is accurate enough to be used for the development of an EIT based imaging wearable system. PMID:26736956

  15. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

    PubMed

    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant. PMID:24861424

  16. The effects of polar excipients transcutol and dexpanthenol on molecular mobility, permeability, and electrical impedance of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Pham, Quoc Dat; Jensen, Louise Bastholm; Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Dencker; Ekelund, Katarina; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Engblom, Johan; Sparr, Emma

    2016-10-01

    In the development of transdermal and topical products it is important to understand how formulation ingredients interact with the molecular components of the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), and thereby influence its macroscopic barrier properties. The aim here was to investigate the effect of two commonly used excipients, transcutol and dexpanthenol, on the molecular as well as the macroscopic properties of the skin membrane. Polarization transfer solid-state NMR methods were combined with steady-state flux and impedance spectroscopy measurements to investigate how these common excipients influence the molecular components of SC and its barrier function at strictly controlled hydration conditions in vitro with excised porcine skin. The NMR results provide completely new molecular insight into how transcutol and dexpanthenol affect specific molecular segments of both SC lipids and proteins. The presence of transcutol or dexpanthenol in the formulation at fixed water activity results in increased effective skin permeability of the model drug metronidazole. Finally, impedance spectroscopy data show clear changes of the effective skin capacitance after treatment with transcutol or dexpanthenol. Based on the complementary data, we are able to draw direct links between effects on the molecular properties and on the macroscopic barrier function of the skin barrier under treatment with formulations containing transcutol or dexpanthenol. PMID:27388135

  17. Constant current loop impedance measuring system that is immune to the effects of parasitic impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system is provided for measuring a characteristic of an environment. The system comprises a first impedance positionable in the environment, a second impedance coupled in series with said first impedance and a parasitic impedance electrically coupled to the first and second impedances. A current generating device, electrically coupled in series with the first and second impedances, provides a constant current through the first and second impedances to produce first and second voltages across the first and second impedances, respectively, and a parasitic voltage across the parasitic impedance. A high impedance voltage measuring device measures a voltage difference between the first and second voltages independent of the parasitic voltage to produce a characteristic voltage representative of the characteristic of the environment.

  18. Magnetotelluric observations over the Rhine Graben, France: a simple impedance tensor analysis helps constrain the dominant electrical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, M.; Jouanne, V.; Menvielle, M.; Chouteau, M.; Grandis, H.; Tarits, P.

    1992-12-01

    A simple impedance tensor analysis of four magnetotelluric soundings recorded over the ECORS section of the Rhine Graben shows that for periods shorter than about 30 s, induction dominates over channelling. For longer periods, 2-D induction galvanically distorted by surface heterogeneities and/or current chanelled in the Graben can explain the observations; the role of chanelling becomes dominant at periods of the order of a few hundred seconds. In the area considered, induction appears to be controlled by inclusions of saline water in a porous limestone layer (Grande Oolithe) and not by the limits of the Graben with its crystalline shoulder (Vosges). The simple analysis is supported by tipper analyses and by the results of schematic 2-D modelling.

  19. Advances in imaging and quantification of electrical properties at the nanoscale using Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Stuart; Stanke, Fred; Yang, Yongliang; Amster, Oskar

    Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) is a mode for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) enabling imaging of unique contrast mechanisms and measurement of local permittivity and conductivity at the 10's of nm length scale. sMIM has been applied to a variety of systems including nanotubes, nanowires, 2D materials, photovoltaics and semiconductor devices. Early results were largely semi-quantitative. This talk will focus on techniques for extracting quantitative physical parameters such as permittivity, conductivity, doping concentrations and thin film properties from sMIM data. Particular attention will be paid to non-linear materials where sMIM has been used to acquire nano-scale capacitance-voltage curves. These curves can be used to identify the dopant type (n vs p) and doping level in doped semiconductors, both bulk samples and devices. Supported in part by DOE-SBIR DE-SC0009856.

  20. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  1. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)

    PubMed Central

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E.; Hiltunen, Anna K.; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract’s pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow. PMID:26569236

  2. Images reproducibility of an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) prototype. Analysis of the EIT sensibility in rats in pathological in vivo conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaona, A; Aguillon, P; Mendoza, J; Lopez, L; Gonzalez, E

    2004-01-01

    The development of a 16 electrode-electrical impedance tomography (EIT) prototype to be applied in neurological fields such as epilepsy in rats has been previously reported. Approaching residual problems in order to improve its performance, this work reports results about changes made in the system hardware as follows: 1) replacing the current source demultiplexing circuit that could impact on a better spatial localization, and 2) a new current source design that increases the current amplitude up to 5 mA/sub rms/. System was evaluated by means of: a) image reproducibility starting from 4 test elements in homogeneous conditions; and b) spatial localization evaluation in conductivity perturbation conditions; this feature is evaluated too in preliminary acute in vivo experiments where an epileptic seizure is induced, and an impedance increase is expected. Results show a 95% of proper images for a) analysis. Spatial localization reports improvement up to 20% transversely and 5.5% longitudinally with regard to previous results. In vivo results are lack of interpretation due poor changes obtained in images. In order to conclude or not a reliable correlation between the perturbation measured and the seizure activity, a new definition of grey scale or other changes could be proposed. PMID:17272187

  3. Evaluation and refinement of a field-portable drinking water toxicity sensor utilizing electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and a fluidic biochip.

    PubMed

    Widder, Mark W; Brennan, Linda M; Hanft, Elizabeth A; Schrock, Mary E; James, Ryan R; van der Schalie, William H

    2015-07-01

    The US Army's need for a reliable and field-portable drinking water toxicity sensor was the catalyst for the development and evaluation of an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) device. Water testing technologies currently available to soldiers in the field are analyte-specific and have limited capabilities to detect broad-based water toxicity. The ECIS sensor described here uses rainbow trout gill epithelial cells seeded on fluidic biochips to measure changes in impedance for the detection of possible chemical contamination of drinking water supplies. Chemicals selected for testing were chosen as representatives of a broad spectrum of toxic industrial compounds. Results of a US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-sponsored evaluation of the field portable device were similar to previously published US Army testing results of a laboratory-based version of the same technology. Twelve of the 18 chemicals tested following USEPA Technology Testing and Evaluation Program procedures were detected by the ECIS sensor within 1 h at USEPA-derived human lethal concentrations. To simplify field-testing methods further, elimination of a procedural step that acclimated cells to serum-free media streamlined the test process with only a slight loss of chemical sensitivity. For field use, the ECIS sensor will be used in conjunction with an enzyme-based sensor that is responsive to carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. PMID:25231170

  4. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS).

    PubMed

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E; Hiltunen, Anna K; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract's pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow. PMID:26569236

  5. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiac Output vs. Heart Rate in Patients with an Implanted Pacemaker Based on Electric Impedance Method Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Ladislav; Vondra, Vlastimil; Viščor, Ivo; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef

    2013-04-01

    The methods and device for estimation of cardiac output and measurement of pulse wave velocity simultaneously is presented here. The beat-to-beat cardiac output as well as pulse wave velocity measurement is based on application of electrical impedance method on the thorax and calf. The results are demonstrated in a study of 24 subjects. The dependence of pulse wave velocity and cardiac output on heart rate during rest in patients with an implanted pacemaker was evaluated. The heart rate was changed by pacemaker programming while neither exercise nor drugs were applied. The most important result is that the pulse wave velocity, cardiac output and blood pressure do not depend significantly on heart rate, while the stroke volume is reciprocal proportionally to the heart rate.

  6. A better method to define electrical chargeability from laboratory measurements of spectral impedance using a parallel Cole-Cole equivalent circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) is a successful electric method to identify drill targets for mineral exploration at the property scale. The Paleomagnetism and Petrophysics Laboratory at the Geological Survey of Canada makes petrophysical measurements on cylindrical rock samples, 2.5 cm diameter and 2.2 cm long. This small size has advantages, including allowing measurement of magnetic remanence with standard paleomagnetism equipment, but it is too small to allow a 4-contact electrical impedance measurement. The samples are impregnated with distilled water under vacuum and allowed 24 hours for solutes to dissolve off pore walls, in order to approximate original groundwater ionic conductivity. We use graphite electrodes on the flat surfaces and measure the complex impedance at 5 frequencies per decade from 1 MHz down to 25 mHz. Typical responses on a Cole-Cole plot (i.e., real vs. imaginary components displayed parametrically as a function of frequency) look like a two overlapping circular arcs followed by a constant-phase diffusive response at lowest frequencies. The impedance frequency response is fit with a circuit in which the rock is modelled as a set of parallel resistor and constant-phase-element pathways, connected in series through a modified constant-phase-element representing the low frequency sample-holder response. The program "ZarcFit", written in LabView, allows the operator to tune parameters of an equivalent but far more intuitive series circuit with a set of 13 sliders, and then perform a least-squares optimization. Time domain chargeability is defined by removing the effect of the sample holder, taking the Fourier transform to convert the frequency response to its time-domain equivalent and then integrating under the resulting voltage-decay curve. Time domain measurements using two-electrode sample holders are necessarily contaminated by the low-frequency response of ionic diffusion at the electrodes. Results are compiled in the Canadian Rock Physical

  7. Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) with Microelectrode Arrays for Investigation of Cancer Cell – Fibroblasts Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trong Binh; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, including stromal cells, surrounding blood vessels and extracellular matrix components, has been defined as a crucial factor that influences the proliferation, drug-resistance, invasion and metastasis of malignant epithelial cells. Among other factors, the communications and interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells have been reported to play pivotal roles in cancer promotion and progression. To investigate these relationships, an on-chip co-culture model was developed to study the cellular interaction between A549—human lung carcinoma cells and MRC-5—human lung epithelial cells in both normal proliferation and treatment conditions. In brief, a co-culture device consisting of 2 individual fluidic chambers in parallel, which were separated by a 100 μm fence was utilized for cell patterning. Microelectrodes arrays were installed within each chamber including electrodes at various distances away from the confrontation line for the electrochemical impedimetric sensing assessment of cell-to-cell influence. After the fence was removed and cell-to-cell contact occurred, by evaluating the impedance signal responses representing cell condition and behavior, both direct and indirect cell-to-cell interactions through conditioned media were investigated. The impact of specific distances that lead to different influences of fibroblast cells on cancer cells in the co-culture environment was also defined. PMID:27088611

  8. Waveform library for chinch bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Blissidae): Characterization of Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) waveforms at multiple input impedances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring has been used extensively to elucidate mechanisms of resistance in plants to insect herbivores with piercing-sucking mouthparts, or stylets. Characterization of waveforms produced by insects during stylet probing is essential to the application of this ...

  9. Experimental study of two-phase fluid flow in two different porosity types of sandstone by P-wave velocity and electrical Impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, H.; Mitani, Y.; Kitamura, K.; Ikemi, H.; Takaki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is recently expected as the promising method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is important to investigate CO2 behavior in the reservoir, to evaluate the safety and to account the stored CO2 volume. In this study, experimental investigation is conducted to discuss the relationships between injected fluid speed (Flow rate: FR) or capillary number (Ca) and non-wetting fluid flow by compressional wave velocity (Vp) and electrical impedance (Z). In the experiment, N2 and supercritical CO2 were injected into the two sandstones with different porosity (φ), Berea sandstone (φ: 18 %), and Ainoura sandstone (φ: 11.9 %). The dimension of the rock specimens is cored cylinder with a 35 mm diameter and 70 mm height. Experimental conditions are nearly same as the reservoir of deep underground (Confining pressure:15MPa, 40℃). Initial conditions of the specimen are brine (0.1wt%-KCl) saturated. Four piezo-electrical transducers (PZTs) are set on the each surface of the top, middle, lower of the specimen to monitor the CO2 bahavior by Vp. To measuring Z, we use for electrodes method with Ag-AgCl electrodes. Four electrodes are wounded around specimen on the both sides of PZTs. We measured the changes of these parameters with injecting N2, injected fluid speed (FR), the differential pore pressure (DP), N2 saturation (SN2), P-wave velocity (Vp) and electrical impedance (Z), respectively. We also estimated the Ca from measured FR. From these experimental results, there are no obvious Vp changes with increasing Ca, while Z measurement indicates clear and continuous increment. In regards to Vp, Vp reduced at the small FR (0.1 to 0.2 ml/min). As the Ca increases, Vp doesn't indicate large reduction. On the other hand, Z is more sensitive to change the fluid saturation than Vp. It is well-known that both of Vp and Z are the function of fluid saturation. Though, these experimental results are not consistent with previous studies. In

  10. Predictive Mechanistic Model for the Electrical Impedance and Intensity-Modulated Photocurrent and Photovoltage Spectroscopic Responses of an Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Set, Ying Ting; Birgersson, Erik; Luther, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    We develop a predictive and mechanistic model for the intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopic (IMPS), intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopic (IMVS), and electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) responses of organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Unlike the dominant analytical framework—equivalent circuit analysis—the model uses physical parameters that directly reflect the device's fundamental electronic mechanisms, eliminating the ambiguity associated with interpreting phenomenological parameters. Formulated in the frequency domain, the model is a computationally efficient tool for extracting parameters from the measured spectra. With a set of physical parameters representing a device, we predict the device's spectra (a) in techniques employing different methods of perturbing a device and (b) at different bias voltages and illumination intensities. The predicted spectra show good agreement with the measured ones. By quantifying the device's internal electric field and charge carrier concentration and relating them to the spectra, we determine that the IMPS responses at the short-circuit condition and the IMVS responses at the open-circuit condition directly reflect the charge carrier extraction and recombination, respectively. Furthermore, the EIS response indicates the device's recombination time scale at different bias voltages.

  11. Detection of optimal PEEP for equal distribution of tidal volume by volumetric capnography and electrical impedance tomography during decreasing levels of PEEP in post cardiac-surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Blankman, P.; Shono, A.; Hermans, B. J. M.; Wesselius, T.; Hasan, D.; Gommers, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homogeneous ventilation is important for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been used to identify optimal PEEP by detection of homogenous ventilation in non-dependent and dependent lung regions. We aimed to compare the ability of volumetric capnography and EIT in detecting homogenous ventilation between these lung regions. Methods Fifteen mechanically-ventilated patients after cardiac surgery were studied. Ventilator settings were adjusted to volume-controlled mode with a fixed tidal volume (Vt) of 6–8 ml kg−1 predicted body weight. Different PEEP levels were applied (14 to 0 cm H2O, in steps of 2 cm H2O) and blood gases, Vcap and EIT were measured. Results Tidal impedance variation of the non-dependent region was highest at 6 cm H2O PEEP, and decreased significantly at 14 cm H2O PEEP indicating decrease in the fraction of Vt in this region. At 12 cm H2O PEEP, homogenous ventilation was seen between both lung regions. Bohr and Enghoff dead space calculations decreased from a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. Alveolar dead space divided by alveolar Vt decreased at PEEP levels ≤6 cm H2O. The normalized slope of phase III significantly changed at PEEP levels ≤4 cm H2O. Airway dead space was higher at higher PEEP levels and decreased at the lower PEEP levels. Conclusions In postoperative cardiac patients, calculated dead space agreed well with EIT to detect the optimal PEEP for an equal distribution of inspired volume, amongst non-dependent and dependent lung regions. Airway dead space reduces at decreasing PEEP levels. PMID:27199318

  12. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) based real-time measurement of titer dependent cytotoxicity induced by adenoviral vectors in an IPI-2I cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jakob; Thirion, Christian; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2011-01-15

    Recombinant viral vectors are widespread tools for transfer of genetic material in various modern biotechnological applications like for example RNA interference (RNAi). However, an accurate and reproducible titer assignment represents the basic step for most downstream applications regarding a precise multiplicity of infection (MOI) adjustment. As necessary scaffold for the studies described in this work we introduce a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based approach for viral particle measurement. Still an implicated problem concerning physiological effects is that the appliance of viral vectors is often attended by toxic effects on the individual target. To determine the critical viral dose leading to cell death we developed an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) based assay. With ECIS technology the impedance change of a current flow through the cell culture medium in an array plate is measured in a non-invasive manner, visualizing effects like cell attachment, cell-cell contacts or proliferation. Here we describe the potential of this online measurement technique in an in vitro model using the porcine ileal epithelial cell line IPI-2I in combination with an adenoviral transfection vector (Ad5-derivate). This approach shows a clear dose-depending toxic effect, as the amount of applied virus highly correlates (p<0.001) with the level of cell death. Thus this assay offers the possibility to discriminate the minimal non-toxic dose of the individual transfection method. In addition this work suggests that the ECIS-device bears the feasibility to transfer this assay to multiple other cytotoxicological questions. PMID:20875729

  13. A modelling study to inform specification and optimal electrode placement for imaging of neuronal depolarization during visual evoked responses by electrical and magnetic detection impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Gilad, O; Horesh, L; Holder, D S

    2009-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to achieve non-invasive functional imaging of fast neuronal activity in the human brain due to opening of ion channels during neuronal depolarization. Local changes of resistance in the cerebral cortex are about 1%, but the size and location of changes recorded on the scalp are unknown. The purpose of this work was to develop an anatomically realistic finite element model of the adult human head and use it to predict the amplitude and topography of changes on the scalp, and so inform specification for an in vivo measuring system. A detailed anatomically realistic finite element (FE) model of the head was produced from high resolution MRI. Simulations were performed for impedance changes in the visual cortex during evoked activity with recording of scalp potentials by electrodes or magnetic flux density by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in response to current injected with electrodes. The predicted changes were validated by recordings in saline filled tanks and with boundary voltages measured on the human scalp. Peak changes were 1.03 +/- 0.75 microV (0.0039 +/- 0.0034%) and 27 +/- 13 fT (0.2 +/- 0.5%) respectively, which yielded an estimated peak signal-to-noise ratio of about 4 for in vivo averaging over 10 min and 1 mA current injection. The largest scalp changes were over the occipital cortex. This modelling suggests, for the first time, that reproducible changes could be recorded on the scalp in vivo in single channels, although a higher SNR would be desirable for accurate image production. The findings suggest that an in vivo study is warranted in order to determine signal size but methods to improve SNR, such as prolonged averaging or other signal processing may be needed for accurate image production. PMID:19491442

  14. Real-time quantitative monitoring of hiPSC-based model of macular degeneration on Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Gamal, W.; Borooah, S.; Smith, S.; Underwood, I.; Srsen, V.; Chandran, S.; Bagnaninchi, P.O.; Dhillon, B.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Humanized disease models are required to develop new therapies for currently incurable forms of AMD. In this work, a tissue-on-a-chip approach was developed through combining human induced pluripotent stem cells, Electric Cell–substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) and reproducible electrical wounding assays to model and quantitatively study AMD. Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells generated from a patient with an inherited macular degeneration and from an unaffected sibling were used to test the model platform on which a reproducible electrical wounding assay was conducted to model RPE damage. First, a robust and reproducible real-time quantitative monitoring over a 25-day period demonstrated the establishment and maturation of RPE layers on the microelectrode arrays. A spatially controlled RPE layer damage that mimicked cell loss in AMD disease was then initiated. Post recovery, significant differences (P<0.01) in migration rates were found between case (8.6±0.46 μm/h) and control cell lines (10.69±0.21 μm/h). Quantitative data analysis suggested this was achieved due to lower cell–substrate adhesion in the control cell line. The ECIS cell–substrate adhesion parameter (α) was found to be 7.8±0.28 Ω1/2 cm for the case cell line and 6.5±0.15 Ω1/2 cm for the control. These findings were confirmed using cell adhesion biochemical assays. The developed disease model-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for translational studies with considerable potential to investigate novel therapies by enabling real-time, quantitative and reproducible patient-specific RPE cell repair studies. PMID:25950942

  15. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Liégina Silveira; de Sousa, Nathalia Parente; Barros, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira; Matias, Marcelo Silveira; Monteiro, Luana Torres; Beraldo, Marcelo do Amaral; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure. PMID:24473768

  16. Characterization of PMN-PT piezoelectric single crystal and PMN-PT 1-3 composite at elevated temperatures by electrical impedance resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengbin; Xi, Kui

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric single crystal and its 1-3 composite counterpart were characterized and analyzed under different stable temperatures using both a Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm and the commercial software PRAP (Piezoelectric Resonance Analysis Program). Electrical impedance resonance characteristics of the two material samples over the range 25-125 °C were measured. The correlation between experimental data and numerical fits derived from both SA and PRAP is considered. Calculation of the determination coefficient (R1(2)) between numerically fitted and measured results is above 95% for both methods. Furthermore, variations in the number of data values used for the fit introduced no more than 3.1% uncertainty on the calculated material parameters. It is found that the complex material parameters of PMN-PT composite are more dependent on temperature than the single crystal. The phase transition of the PMN-PT, which is close to 90 °C, has an effect on the high temperature material characteristics of both piezoelectric materials. These calculated complex material parameters can be used for the design of ultrasonic transducers for elevated temperature applications. PMID:24495996

  17. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of a PET chip sandwiched between two disk electrodes: understanding the contribution of the polymer/electrode interface.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, M; Chaal, L; Vivier, V; Tribollet, B; Gamby, J

    2016-07-27

    This work is devoted to the understanding of the dielectric impedance response of a semi-crystalline polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane sandwiched between two disk electrodes under alternate voltage excitation in the frequency range between 1 MHz and 25 mHz. Experimental results obtained for various PET thicknesses (36, 50 and 100 μm) highlighted the influence of the contact resistance at the electrode/polymer interface. For a better understanding of the PET/electrode interface behaviour, the experiments were compared with simulations performed for three different descriptions: the direct use of electrical equivalent circuits, an analytical model accounting for a power-law distribution of resistivity, and a numerical model (finite element simulations of the whole cell). The results highlight that the resistivity distribution obtained using the power-law model provided an appropriate description of the system in the frequency range investigated while the use of the CPE model is only consistent for low-frequencies (below 1 Hz). PMID:27406857

  18. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  19. RF discharge impedance measurements using a new method to determine the stray impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, F.J. de )

    1999-06-01

    The impedance of a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge in a tubular fluorescent lamp filled with neon and mercury is measured. The stray impedances in the electrical network are determined using a new method that requires no extra instruments. The reflection of power is used to determine the stray impedances. Making use of a simple discharge impedance model, the electron density in the lamp is estimated.

  20. In vivo quantification of intraventricular hemorrhage in a neonatal piglet model using an EEG-layout based electrical impedance tomography array.

    PubMed

    Tang, Te; Weiss, Michael D; Borum, Peggy; Turovets, Sergei; Tucker, Don; Sadleir, Rosalind

    2016-06-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common occurrence in the days immediately after premature birth. It has been correlated with outcomes such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), cerebral palsy and developmental delay. The causes and evolution of IVH are unclear; it has been associated with fluctuations in blood pressure, damage to the subventricular zone and seizures. At present, ultrasound is the most commonly used method for detection of IVH, but is used retrospectively. Without the presence of adequate therapies to avert IVH, the use of a continuous monitoring technique may be somewhat moot. While treatments to mitigate the damage caused by IVH are still under development, the principal benefit of a continuous monitoring technique will be in investigations into the etiology of IVH, and its associations with periventricular injury and blood pressure fluctuations. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is potentially of use in this context as accumulating blood displaces higher conductivity cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles. We devised an electrode array and EIT measurement strategy that performed well in detection of simulated ventricular blood in computer models and phantom studies. In this study we describe results of pilot in vivo experiments on neonatal piglets, and show that EIT has high sensitivity and specificity to small quantities of blood (<1 ml) introduced into the ventricle. EIT images were processed to an index representing the quantity of accumulated blood (the 'quantity index', QI). We found that QI values were linearly related to fluid quantity, and that the slope of the curve was consistent between measurements on different subjects. Linear discriminant analysis showed a false positive rate of 0%, and receiver operator characteristic analysis found area under curve values greater than 0.98 to administered volumes between 0.5, and 2.0 ml. We believe our study indicates that this method may be well suited to quantitative

  1. [Effects of saline-alkali stress on electrical impedance spectroscopy parameters and ion contents in shoots of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jia, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2014-11-01

    To study the adaptability to salt-alkaline stress of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut, 'Liaozhen 3' shoots which were treated with three types of stress neutral NaCl, alkaline Na2CO3, and mixed salt-alkali, and the changes in electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) parameters and mineral ion contents were subsequently determined. The correlations between the EIS parameters and mineral ion contents were analyzed. The results showed that with the increasing level of NaCl, specific high- frequency resistance (r), specific low-frequency resistance ( r(l)), specific intracellular resistance (r(i)) and specific extracellular resistance (r(e)) of shoots decreased firstly, then increased, and finally decreased again. However, these parameters increased gradually with the increasing level of Na2CO3, while r(l) and r(e) decreased slowly in the mixed salt-alkali treatments. The Na+ contents of shoots increased significantly under the three salt-alkali stresses with the order of NaCl stress > mixed salt-alkali stress > Na2CO3 stress. Furthermore, Na2CO3 stress resulted in the decreases in the contents of three elements Zn, B and Ca. The significant negative correlation was found between the sum of five cations and four EIS parameters r(l), r(e), relaxation time (τ) , and distribution coefficient of relaxation time (ψ). The shoots of 'Liaozhen 3' might be tolerant of Na2CO3 stress of 200 mmol · L(-1), while they could be resistant to NaCl stress of 100-150 mmol · L(-1). PMID:25898608

  2. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  3. Electrical impedance scanning as a new imaging modality in breast cancer detection—a short review of clinical value on breast application, limitations and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malich, A.; Böhm, T.; Facius, M.; Kleinteich, I.; Fleck, M.; Sauner, D.; Anderson, R.; Kaiser, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties compared to normal cells, measurable as different electrical conductance and capacitance using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). Therefore, active biocompatible current is applied to the patient for calculation of both parameters taking into account frequency, voltage and current flow. Subjects and methods. 240 women with 280 sonographically and/or mammographically suspicious findings were examined using EIS. All lesions were histologically proven. A lesion was scored as positive, when a focal increased conductance and/or capacitance was measurable using EIS. The lesion was visible as a bright area in a 256 grey-scale computer output. Due to system limitations patients having a pacemaker or pregnant had to be excluded from the study. Results. 91/113 malignant and 108/167 benign lesions were correctly identified using EIS (80.5% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity). NPV and PPV of 83.1% and 60.7% were observed, respectively. Accuracy was 0.73. A wide range of factors can induce false positive results, although by an experienced observer a number of these findings can be detected such as scars, skin alterations, contact artefacts, air bubbles and naevi, hairs and interfering bone. Based upon visibility on ultrasound (194 lesions visible, 86 not visible) significant differences in the detection rate occurred. Histology-dependent detectability rate varied significantly with lowest rate in CIS-cases (50%). Specificity values varied histology-depending, too; probably depending on the rate of proliferation between 75% (inflammatory lesions) and papillomata (50%). Best detectability was observed in malignant lesions with a size between 20 and 30 mm. Further possible applications will be discussed regarding the currently available literature (lymph nodes, salivary glands, mathematical and animal based models). Conclusion. EIS appears to be a promising new additional technology providing a rather high

  4. Impedance spectroscopy of food mycotoxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Yaremyk, Roman Ya.; Kotsyumbas, Ihor Ya.; Kotsyumbas, Halyna I.

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method of high-selective detection of mycotoxins in food and feed are considered. A method is based on optical registration the changes of conduct of the electric polarized bacterial agents in solution at the action of the external gradient electric fields. Measuring are conducted in integrated electrode-optical cuvette of the special construction, which provides the photometric analysis of forward motion of the objects registration in liquid solution under act of the enclosed electric field and simultaneous registration of kinetics of change of electrical impedance parameters solution and electrode system.

  5. ADVANCES IN IMPEDANCE THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-05

    We review recent progress in the following areas of the impedance theory: calculation of impedance of tapers and small angle collimators; optical approximation and parabolic equation for the high-frequency impedance; impedance due to resistive inserts in a perfectly conducting pipe.

  6. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends. PMID:27006932

  7. Electrical conductivity and complex impedance analysis of La0.7-xNdxSr0.3Mn0.7Ti0.3O3 (x≤0.30) perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abassi, Amel; Kallel, Nabil; Kallel, Sami; Khirouni, Kamel; Peña, Octavio

    2016-03-01

    Polycrystalline samples La0.7-xNdxSr0.3Mn0.7Ti0.3O3 (x=0.10; 0.20 and 0.30) were prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction shows that all the samples crystallize in the orthorhombic structure, Pbnm space group, with presence of a minor unreacted Nd2O3. The electrical response was studied by impedance complex spectroscopy over a broad frequency range (40-100 MHz) at room temperature. The values of ac conductivity for all samples were fitted by the Jonscher law σ (ω) = σdc + Aωs . For x=0.10 and 0.20, hopping occurs between neighboring sites, whereas for x=0.30 the hopping process occurs through longer distance. Complex impedance plots exhibit semicircular arcs described by an electrical equivalent circuit, which indicates that the Nd-doped compounds obey a non-Debye relaxation process.

  8. Characterization of protein-immobilized polystyrene nanoparticles using impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-In; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2014-10-01

    A novel approach for characterization of non-conductive protein-immobilized nanoparticles using AC impedance spectroscopy combined with conductive atomic force microscopy was examined. As AC impedance spectroscopy can provide information on diverse electrical properties such as capacitance and inductance, it is applicable to the characterization of non-conductive substances. Several non-conductive protein-immobilized polystyrene nanoparticles were analyzed using AC impedance spectroscopy, and their impedance spectra were used as markers for nanoparticle identification. Analyses of impedance signals using an electrical circuit model established that the capacitance and inductance of each nanoparticle changed with the adsorbed protein and that impedance spectral differences were characteristic properties of the proteins. From this study, AC impedance spectroscopy was shown to be a useful tool for characterization of non-conductive nanoparticles and is expected to be applicable to the development of sensors for nanomaterials. PMID:25942903

  9. A review of impedance measurements of whole cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youchun; Xie, Xinwu; Duan, Yong; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Zhen; Cheng, Jing

    2016-03-15

    Impedance measurement of live biological cells is widely accepted as a label free, non-invasive and quantitative analytical method to assess cell status. This method is easy-to-use and flexible for device design and fabrication. In this review, three typical techniques for impedance measurement, i.e., electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, Impedance flow cytometry and electric impedance spectroscopy, are reviewed from the aspects of theory, to electrode design and fabrication, and applications. Benefiting from the integration of microelectronic and microfluidic techniques, impedance sensing methods have expanded their applications to nearly all aspects of biology, including living cell counting and analysis, cell biology research, cancer research, drug screening, and food and environmental safety monitoring. The integration with other techniques, the fabrication of devices for certain biological assays, and the development of point-of-need diagnosis devices is predicted to be future trend for impedance sensing techniques. PMID:26513290

  10. A coupled fictitious electric circuit's method for impedance of a sensor with ferromagnetic core calculation. Application to eddy currents non destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerguini, S.; Maouche, B.; Latreche, M.; Feliachi, M.

    2009-12-01

    The eddy current testing method is widely used to evaluate conductive pieces. This method requires an adequate mathematical model which is able to describe the complicated interactions between the source and induced currents, primary and secondary, the fields and the flaws in materials. This paper describes a model which predicts the apparent changes in the impedance of an absolute ferrite-cored probe in axially symmetric non destructive testing (NDT) configurations. Originally, this model is based on coupled electromagnetic quantities principle. To include the contribution of the magnetic environment, the state variable chosen is the current because the magnetic magnetization is replaced by the fictional equivalent currents. The obtained modelling results are validated by comparison to finite element computations. Once validated, the suggested model is not only applied to calculation of probe's impedance in the presence of a defect inside the load but it is also applied to determine geometrical and physical characteristics of the eddy current non destructive testing (ECNDT) device. This half-numerical technique with a very weak time of simulation can be used for the design of new probes and offers a simple solution to the inversion problem. The model is implemented within a software tool (CECM: coupling electromagnetic circuits method) developed in MATLAB environment.

  11. Scattering by a groove in an impedance plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindiganavale, Sunil; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional scattering from a narrow groove in an impedance plane is presented. The groove is represented by a impedance surface and the problem reduces to that of scattering from an impedance strip in an otherwise uniform impedance plane. On the basis of this model, appropriate integral equations are constructed using a form of the impedance plane Green's functions involving rapidly convergent integrals. The integral equations are solved by introducing a single basis representation of the equivalent current on the narrow impedance insert. Both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations are treated. The resulting solution is validated by comparison with results from the standard boundary integral method (BIM) and a high frequency solution. It is found that the presented solution for narrow impedance inserts can be used in conjunction with the high frequency solution for the characterization of impedance inserts of any given width.

  12. Impedance based automatic electrode positioning.

    PubMed

    Miklody, Daniel; Hohne, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    The position of electrodes in electrical imaging and stimulation of the human brain is an important variable with vast influences on the precision in modeling approaches. Nevertheless, the exact position is obscured by many factors. 3-D Digitization devices can measure the distribution over the scalp surface but remain uncomfortable in application and often imprecise. We demonstrate a new approach that uses solely the impedance information between the electrodes to determine the geometric position. The algorithm involves multidimensional scaling to create a 3 dimensional space based on these impedances. The success is demonstrated in a simulation study. An average electrode position error of 1.67cm over all 6 subjects could be achieved. PMID:26736345

  13. Robust impedance shaping telemanipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, J.E.

    1993-08-01

    When a human operator performs a task via a bilateral manipulator, the feel of the task is embodied in the mechanical impedance of the manipulator. Traditionally, a bilateral manipulator is designed for transparency; i.e., so that the impedance reflected through the manipulator closely approximates that of the task. Impedance shaping bilateral control, introduced here, differs in that it treats the bilateral manipulator as a means of constructively altering the impedance of a task. This concept is particularly valuable if the characteristic dimensions (e.g., force, length, time) of the task impedance are very different from those of the human limb. It is shown that a general form of impedance shaping control consists of a conventional power-scaling bilateral controller augmented with a real-time interactive task simulation (i.e., a virtual environment). An approach to impedance shaping based on kinematic similarity between tasks of different scale is introduced and illustrated with an example. It is shown that an important consideration in impedance shaping controller design is robustness; i.e., guaranteeing the stability of the operator/manipulator/task system. A general condition for the robustness of a bilateral manipulator is derived. This condition is based on the structured singular value ({mu}). An example of robust impedance shaping bilateral control is presented and discussed.

  14. Label-Free Impedance Biosensors: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Jonathan S.; Pourmand, Nader

    2007-01-01

    Impedance biosensors are a class of electrical biosensors that show promise for point-of-care and other applications due to low cost, ease of miniaturization, and label-free operation. Unlabeled DNA and protein targets can be detected by monitoring changes in surface impedance when a target molecule binds to an immobilized probe. The affinity capture step leads to challenges shared by all label-free affinity biosensors; these challenges are discussed along with others unique to impedance readout. Various possible mechanisms for impedance change upon target binding are discussed. We critically summarize accomplishments of past label-free impedance biosensors and identify areas for future research. PMID:18176631

  15. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retter, Utz; Lohse, Heinz

    Non-steady-state measuring techniques are known to be extremely suitable for the investigation of the electrode kinetics of more complex electrochemical systems. Perturbation of the electrochemical system leads to a shift of the steady state. The rate at which it proceeds to a new steady state depends on characteristic parameters (reaction rate constants, diffusion coefficients, charge transfer resistance, double-layer capacity). Due to non-linearities caused by the electron transfer, low-amplitude perturbation signals are necessary. The small perturbation of the electrode state has the advantage that the solutions of relevant mathematical equations used are transformed in limiting forms that are normally linear. Impedance spectroscopy represents a powerful method for investigation of electrical properties of materials and interfaces of conducting electrodes. Relevant fields of application are the kinetics of charges in bulk or interfacial regions, the charge transfer of ionic or mixed ionic-ionic conductors, semiconducting electrodes, the corrosion inhibition of electrode processes, investigation of coatings on metals, characterisation of materials and solid electrolyte as well as solid-state devices.

  16. Impedance spectra of polypyrrole coated platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Onnela, Niina; Savolainen, Virpi; Hiltunen, Maiju; Kellomäki, Minna; Hyttinen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) coated electrodes may provide new solutions to increase the charge injection capacity and biocompatibility of metal electrodes in e.g., neural stimulus applications. In this study, electrical impedance spectra of PPy coated platinum (Pt) electrodes having three different coating thicknesses were measured and modeled. A suitable equivalent electrical circuit providing the material characteristics was chosen and the impedance data was analyzed using the model and data fitting. The modeled parameter values of different coating thicknesses were compared and our results demonstrated the changes in charge transfer properties and mechanisms of thin and thick PPy film coatings. PMID:24109743

  17. Mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming-Xing; Xiao, Qiu-Jin; Cui, Chao-Ying; Kuang, Nan-Zhen; Hong, Wen-Qin; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change. On the basis of Ohm's law and the electrical field distribution in the cylindrical volume conductor, the formula about the thoracic impedance change are deduced, and they are demonstrated with the model experiment. The results indicate that the thoracic impedance change caused by single blood vessel is directly proportional to the ratio of the impedance change to the basal impedance of the blood vessel itself, to the length of the blood vessel appearing between the current electrodes, and to the basal impedance between two detective electrodes on the chest surface, while it is inversely proportional to the distance between the blood vessel and the line joining two detective electrodes. The thoracic impedance change caused by multiple blood vessels together is equal to the algebraic addition of all thoracic impedance changes resulting from the individual blood vessels. That is, the impedance changes obey the principle of adding scalars in the measurement of the electrical impedance graph. The present study can offer the theoretical basis for the waveform reconstruction of Impedance cardiography (ICG). PMID:20336823

  18. Forward problem solution as the operator of filtered and back projection matrix to reconstruct the various method of data collection and the object element model in electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ain, Khusnul; Kurniadi, Deddy; Suprijanto; Santoso, Oerip; Wibowo, Arif

    2015-04-16

    Back projection reconstruction has been implemented to get the dynamical image in electrical impedance tomography. However the implementation is still limited in method of adjacent data collection and circular object element model. The study aims to develop the methods of back projection as reconstruction method that has the high speed, accuracy, and flexibility, which can be used for various methods of data collection and model of the object element. The proposed method uses the forward problem solution as the operator of filtered and back projection matrix. This is done through a simulation study on several methods of data collection and various models of the object element. The results indicate that the developed method is capable of producing images, fastly and accurately for reconstruction of the various methods of data collection and models of the object element.

  19. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  20. The electrical properties of Titan's surface at the Huygens landing site measured with the PWA-HASI Mutual Impedance Probe. New approach and new findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Michel; Lethuillier, Anthony; Le Gall, Alice; Grard, Réjean; Béghin, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Jernej, Irmgard; López-Moreno, José-Juan; Brown, Vic; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Ferri, Francesca; Ciarletti, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    Ten years after the successful landing of the Huygens Probe on the surface of Titan, we reassess the derivation of ground complex permittivity using the PWA-MIP/HASI measurements (Permittivity, Waves and Altimetry-Mutual Impedance Probe/Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument) at the frequencies 45, 90 and 360 Hz. For this purpose, we have developed a numerical method, namely "the capacity-influence matrix method", able to account for new insights on the Huygens Probe attitude at its final resting position. We find that the surface of Titan at the landing site has a dielectric constant of 2.5 ± 0.3 and a conductivity of 1.2 ± 0.6 nS/m, in agreement with previously published results but with much more reliable error estimates. These values speak in favour of a photochemical origin of the material in the first meter of the subsurface. We also propose, for the first time, a plausible explanation for the sudden change observed by PWA-MIP ∼11 min after landing: this change corresponds to a drop in the ground conductivity, probably due to the removal of a superficial conductive layer in association with the release of volatile materials warmed by the Huygens Probe.

  1. Plasma Diagnostics by Antenna Impedance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, C. M.; Baker, K. D.; Pound, E.; Jensen, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The impedance of an electrically short antenna immersed in a plasma provides an excellent in situ diagnostic tool for electron density and other plasma parameters. By electrically short we mean that the wavelength of the free-space electromagnetic wave that would be excited at the driving frequency is much longer than the physical size of the antenna. Probes using this impedance technique have had a long history with sounding rockets and satellites, stretching back to the early 1960s. This active technique could provide information on composition and temperature of plasmas for comet or planetary missions. Advantages of the impedance probe technique are discussed and two classes of instruments built and flown by SDL-USU for determining electron density (the capacitance and plasma frequency probes) are described.

  2. Disagreement between standard transthoracic impedance cardiography and the automated transthoracic electrical bioimpedance method in estimating the cardiovascular responses to phenylephrine and isoprenaline in healthy man.

    PubMed Central

    De Mey, C; Enterling, D

    1993-01-01

    1. Impedance cardiography is a well-established noninvasive method to assess within-subject changes of cardiovascular function. We compared the standard approach (ZCG) which requires tedious signal analysis with an automated approach (TEB: NCCOM 3) with its own specific equipment, algorithms and equations in order to assess agreement of the method-specific measurements and calculations. 2. Ten healthy men were studied on two occasions with either ZCG or TEB, at rest and at the end of 5 min i.v.-infusions with 1 microgram min-1 isoprenaline and 100 micrograms min-1 phenylephrine. 3. There was good agreement for the method-independent changes (HR, SBP/DBP), but there were large differences for method-specific measurements: dZ/dtmax [TEB-ZCG] = -0.68, CI: -0.83 to -0.53 ohm s-1, PEP [TEB-ZCG] = -22.1, CI: -35.0 to -9.2 ms and QS2c [TEB-ZCG] = -16.5, CI: -32.4 to -0.6 ms and for the calculated stroke volume SV [TEB-ZCG] = 30.3, CI: 15.5 to 45.2 ml. The responses of dZ/dtmax and SV to isoprenaline and phenylephrine, although qualitatively similar, reached no quantitative agreement either. A substantial disagreement was evident for the STI responses to isoprenaline where TEB failed to detect the expected reduction of VETc and thus grossly underestimated the shortening of QS2c. 4. It is concluded that TEB-measurements and -calculations did not agree with standard ZCG, that the methods, albeit related, cannot be considered as interchangeable and that suspicion is justified that TEB might yield erroneous results under specific circumstances. PMID:8485014

  3. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOEpatents

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  4. Acoustic impedance microscopy for biological tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Hozumi, Naohiro

    2014-09-01

    A new method for two-dimensional acoustic impedance imaging for biological tissue characterization with micro-scale resolution was proposed. A biological tissue was placed on a plastic substrate with a thickness of 0.5mm. A focused acoustic pulse with a wide frequency band was irradiated from the "rear side" of the substrate. In order to generate the acoustic wave, an electric pulse with two nanoseconds in width was applied to a PVDF-TrFE type transducer. The component of echo intensity at an appropriate frequency was extracted from the signal received at the same transducer, by performing a time-frequency domain analysis. The spectrum intensity was interpreted into local acoustic impedance of the target tissue. The acoustic impedance of the substrate was carefully assessed prior to the measurement, since it strongly affects the echo intensity. In addition, a calibration was performed using a reference material of which acoustic impedance was known. The reference material was attached on the same substrate at different position in the field of view. An acoustic impedance microscopy with 200×200 pixels, its typical field of view being 2×2 mm, was obtained by scanning the transducer. The development of parallel fiber in cerebella cultures was clearly observed as the contrast in acoustic impedance, without staining the specimen. The technique is believed to be a powerful tool for biological tissue characterization, as no staining nor slicing is required. PMID:24852259

  5. Modeling magnetically insulated devices using flow impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Rosenthal, S.E. )

    1995-04-01

    In modern pulsed power systems the electric field stresses at metal surfaces in vacuum transmission lines are so high that negative surfaces are space-charge-limited electron emitters. These electrons do not cause unacceptable losses because magnetic fields due to system currents result in net motion parallel to the electrodes. It has been known for several years that a parameter known as flow impedance is useful for describing these flows. Flow impedance is a measure of the separation between the anode and the mean position of the electron cloud, and it will be shown in this paper that in many situations flow impedance depends upon the geometry of the transmission line upstream of the point of interest. It can be remarkably independent of other considerations such as line currents and voltage. For this reason flow impedance is a valuable design parameter. Models of impedance transitions and voltage adders using flow impedance will be developed. Results of these models will be compared to two-dimensional, time-dependent, particle-in-cell simulations.

  6. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  7. Impedance of accelerator components

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed.

  8. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-11-16

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.

  9. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductor allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology.

  10. Impedance cardiography: recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Gerard; Strasz, Anna; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Gąsiorowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of recent advancements in impedance cardiography regarding methodical approach, applied equipment and clinical or research implementations. The review is limited to the papers which were published over last 17 months (dated 2011 and 2012) in well recognised scientific journals. PMID:23042327

  11. Impedances of Tevatron separators

    SciTech Connect

    K. Y. Ng

    2003-05-28

    The impedances of the Tevatron separators are revisited and are found to be negligibly small in the few hundred MHz region, except for resonances at 22.5 MHz. The later are contributions from the power cables which may drive head-tail instabilities if the bunch is long enough.

  12. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  13. Antenna pattern control using impedence surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1991-01-01

    During this research period, September 16, 1990 to March 15, 1991, a design method for selecting a low-loss impedance material coating for a horn antenna pattern control has been developed. This method and the stepped waveguide technique can be employed to accurately compute the electromagnetic wave phenomenon inside the transition region of the horn antenna, with or without the impedance surfaces, from the feed to the radiating aperture. For moment method solutions of the electric and magnetic current distributions on the radiating aperture and the outer surface of the horn antenna, triangular surface-patch modes are introduced to replace the sinusoidal surface-patch modes as expansion and testing functions to provide a more physical expansion of the current distributions. In the synthesis problem, a numerical optimization process is formulated to minimize the error function between the desired waveguide modes and the modes provided by the horn transition with impedance surfaces. Since the modes generated by the horn transition with impedance surface are computed by analytical techniques, the computational error involved in the synthesis of the antenna pattern is minimum. Therefore, the instability problem can be avoided. A preliminary implementation of the techniques has demonstrated that the developed theory of the horn antenna pattern control using the impedance surfaces is realizable.

  14. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  15. In vivo impedance spectroscopy of deep brain stimulation electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempka, Scott F.; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Johnson, Matthew D.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a powerful clinical technology, but a systematic characterization of the electrical interactions between the electrode and the brain is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the in vivo changes in the DBS electrode impedance that occur after implantation and during clinically relevant stimulation. Clinical DBS devices typically apply high-frequency voltage-controlled stimulation, and as a result, the injected current is directly regulated by the impedance of the electrode-tissue interface. We monitored the impedance of scaled-down clinical DBS electrodes implanted in the thalamus and subthalamic nucleus of a rhesus macaque using electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements ranging from 0.5 Hz to 10 kHz. To further characterize our measurements, equivalent circuit models of the electrode-tissue interface were used to quantify the role of various interface components in producing the observed electrode impedance. Following implantation, the DBS electrode impedance increased and a semicircular arc was observed in the high-frequency range of the EIS measurements, commonly referred to as the tissue component of the impedance. Clinically relevant stimulation produced a rapid decrease in electrode impedance with extensive changes in the tissue component. These post-operative and stimulation-induced changes in impedance could play an important role in the observed functional effects of voltage-controlled DBS and should be considered during clinical stimulation parameter selection and chronic animal research studies.

  16. Readout electrode assembly for measuring biological impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Moody, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises of a pair of readout ring electrodes which are used in conjunction with apparatus for measuring the electrical impedance between different points in the body of a living animal to determine the amount of blood flow therebetween. The readout electrodes have independently adjustable diameters to permit attachment around different parts of the body between which it is desired to measure electric impedance. The axial spacing between the electrodes is adjusted by a pair of rods which have a first pair of ends fixedly attached to one electrode and a second pair of ends slidably attached to the other electrode. Indicia are provided on the outer surface of the ring electrodes and on the surface of the rods to permit measurement of the circumference and spacing between the ring electrodes.

  17. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  18. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2013-05-28

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  19. Impedance Measurement Box

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-20

    The IMB 50V software provides functionality for design of impedance measurement tests or sequences of tests, execution of these tests or sequences, processing measured responses and displaying and saving of the results. The software consists of a Graphical User Interface that allows configuration of measurement parameters and test sequencing, a core engine that controls test sequencing, execution of measurements, processing and storage of results and a hardware/software data acquisition interface with the IMB hardware system.

  20. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    A compact, portable instrument was developed to measure the acoustic impedance of the ground, or other surfaces, by direct pressure-volume velocity measurement. A Helmholz resonator, constructed of heavy-walled stainless steel but open at the bottom, is positioned over the surface having the unknown impedance. The sound source, a cam-driven piston of known stroke and thus known volume velocity, is located in the neck of the resonator. The cam speed is a variable up to a maximum 3600 rpm. The sound pressure at the test surface is measured by means of a microphone flush-mounted in the wall of the chamber. An optical monitor of the piston displacement permits measurement of the phase angle between the volume velocity and the sound pressure, from which the real and imaginary parts of the impedance can be evaluated. Measurements using a 5-lobed cam can be made up to 300 Hz. Detailed design criteria and results on a soil sample are presented.

  1. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  2. Whole-body impedance--what does it measure?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Lukaski, H C

    1996-09-01

    Although the bioelectrical impedance technique is widely used in human nutrition and clinical research, an integrated summary of the biophysical and bioelectrical bases of this approach is lacking. We summarize the pertinent electrical phenomena relevant to the application of the impedance technique in vivo and discuss the relations between electrical measurements and biological conductor volumes. Key terms in the derivation of bioelectrical impedance analysis are described and the relation between the electrical properties of tissues and tissue structure is discussed. The relation between the impedance of an object and its geometry, scale, and intrinsic electrical properties is also discussed. Correlations between whole-body impedance measurements and various bioconductor volumes, such as total body water and fat-free mass, are experimentally well established; however, the reason for the success of the impedence technique is much less clear. The bioengineering basis for the technique is critically presented and considerations are proposed that might help to clarify the method and potentially improve its sensitivity. PMID:8780354

  3. Does combing the scalp reduce scalp electrode impedances?

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Yatin; McArthur, Genevieve

    2010-05-15

    Electrical activity from the human brain can be recorded via electrodes on the scalp. It is important to reduce the impedance of each electrode to minimize unwanted noise in the recording. Electrode impedance can be improved by abrading the skin to remove dead skin cells. In this experiment, we tested if abrading the skin by combing the scalp leads to a significant reduction in electrode impedance. We compared the mean electrode impedance values of 20 subjects whose scalps were combed prior to electrode cap placement, with 20 subjects whose scalps were not combed. Combing significantly reduced the impedances at central, right, and left areas of the scalp. This finding supports the use of scalp combing to reduce the time and subject discomfort that can be associated with placing scalp electrodes. This is particularly important for experiments testing children. PMID:20211649

  4. Impedance sensing of flaws in non-homogeneous materials

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.

    1997-02-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing impedances of materials placed in contact therewith. The invention comprises a plurality of drive electrodes and one or more sense electrodes. Both rotating electric fields and differently shaped electric fields are provided for, as are analysis of structure and composition at different orientations and depths. 10 figs.

  5. Impedance sensing of flaws in non-homogenous materials

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensing impedances of materials placed in contact therewith. The invention comprises a plurality of drive electrodes and one or more sense electrodes. Both rotating electric fields and differently shaped electric fields are provided for, as are analysis of structure and composition at different orientations and depths.

  6. Very long period magnetotellurics at Tucson Observatory: Estimation of impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Egbert, G.D.; Booker, J.R.; Schultz, A.

    1992-10-10

    Eleven years (1932-1942) of electric potential and magnetic measurements at the Tucson observatory represent a unique very long period magnetotelluric (MT) data set. The authors report on a careful reanalysis of this data using modern processing techniques. They have developed and used novel methods for separating out the quasi-periodic daily variation fields and for cleaning up outliers and filling in missing data in the time domain. MT impedance tensors, estimated using the cleaned and filled data and using robust frequency domain methods, are well determined and smoothly varying for periods between 4 hours and 10 days. At longer periods the electric field data are swamped by large-amplitude incoherent noise, particularly after the third year of the experiment. Although they find no evidence for contamination of any field components by oceanic motional induction at tidal periods, the MT impedance estimates do show evidence of small systematic biases due to finite spatial scale geomagnetic sources at harmonics of the daily variation period. These periods are thus removed from the time series and not used in further analysis. They show that the resulting impedance tensor is well modeled by a real, frequency-independent distortion of a scalar impedance, which is consistent with non-inductive distortion of the electric fields by local surface geology. To estimate the undetermined static shift of the MT impedance, the authors compare the long-period MT results to equivalent MT impedances determined from 46 years of geomagnetic data. Combining the geomagnetic and undistorted MT impedances results in scalar impedance estimates for periods 0.17 < T < 91 days of unprecedented precision. However, for periods less than one day, the phase and amplitude of this impedance, while individually consistent, are not mutually consistent with any one-dimensional conductivity distribution. 51 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Frequency Dependent Microwave Impedance Microscopy of Ferroelectric Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    ABO3 ferroelectrics are known to exhibit domain wall conductivity which is of great fundamental and technological interest. Microwave Impedance Microscopy is a near field measurement technique which allows local, non-contact measurement of AC conductivity and permittivity. In this work, Microwave Impedance Microscopy over a wide frequency range is used to probe the electrical properties of domain walls in ABO3 ferroelectrics. An unexpected, strong frequency dependence in the microwave dissipation near domain walls is observed.

  8. Impedance characterization of microarray recording electrodes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Daniel R; Tresco, Patrick A

    2005-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying performance degradation of chronically implanted silicon microelectrode arrays in the central nervous system (CNS) remain unclear. Humoral and cellular components of the brain foreign body response were evaluated to determine whether their presence on the electrode surface results in increased electrical impedance. Iridium oxide microelectrode recording arrays were electrically characterized in saline, culture media with 10% fetal bovine serum, and coated with various CNS cell types isolated from rat brain. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were performed using a three-electrode system. Potential cycling caused an immediate decrease in electrical impedance, which increased with time toward precycling values, with the effect of cycling remaining significant for several days. The addition of serum caused a significant increase in impedance of up to 28% relative to the saline control. Microelectrodes coated with various cell types known to participate in the foreign body response caused a 20%-80% increase in impedance immediately after contact that remained constant or gradually increased for several weeks. Our findings suggest that the attachment of molecular and cellular species following microelectrode implantation into brain tissue likely contribute to increases in impedance, but do not appear sufficient to hinder recording performance. PMID:16285400

  9. Correcting electrode impedance effects in broadband SIP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Johan Alexander; Zimmermann, Egon; Esser, Odilia; Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Broadband spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements of the complex electrical resistivity can be affected by the contact impedance of the potential electrodes above 100 Hz. In this study, we present a correction procedure to remove electrode impedance effects from SIP measurements. The first step in this correction procedure is to estimate the electrode impedance using a measurement with reversed current and potential electrodes. In a second step, this estimated electrode impedance is used to correct SIP measurements based on a simplified electrical model of the SIP measurement system. We evaluated this new correction procedure using SIP measurements on water because of the well-defined dielectric properties. It was found that the difference between the corrected and expected phase of the complex electrical resistivity of water was below 0.1 mrad at 1 kHz for a wide range of electrode impedances. In addition, SIP measurements on a saturated unconsolidated sediment sample with two types of potential electrodes showed that the measured phase of the electrical resistivity was very similar (difference <0.2 mrad) up to a frequency of 10 kHz after the effect of the different electrode impedances was removed. Finally, SIP measurements on variably saturated unconsolidated sand were made. Here, the plausibility of the phase of the electrical resistivity was improved for frequencies up to 1 kHz, but errors remained for higher frequencies due to the approximate nature of the electrode impedance estimates and some remaining unknown parasitic capacitances that led to current leakage. It was concluded that the proposed correction procedure for SIP measurements improved the accuracy of the phase measurements by an order of magnitude in the kHz frequency range. Further improvement of this accuracy requires a method to accurately estimate parasitic capacitances in situ.

  10. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  11. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  12. Stimuli dependent impedance of conductive magnetorheological elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Xuan, Shouhu; Dong, Bo; Xu, Feng; Gong, Xinglong

    2016-02-01

    The structure dependent impedance of conductive magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) under different loads and magnetic fields has been studied in this work. By increasing the weight fraction of iron particles, the conductivity of the MREs increased. Dynamic mechanical measurements and synchrotron radiation x-ray computed tomography (SR-CT) were used and they provided reasons for the electrical properties changing significantly under pressure and magnetic field stimulation. The high sensitivity of MREs to external stimuli renders them suitable for application in force or magnetic field sensors. The equivalent circuit model was proposed to analyze the impedance response of MREs and it fits the experimental results very well. Each circuit component reflected the change of the inner interface under different conditions, thus relative changes in the microstructure could be distinguished. This method could be used not only to detect the structural changes in the MRE but also to provide a great deal of valuable information for the further understanding of the MR mechanism.

  13. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  14. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    SciTech Connect

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  15. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Tükenmez Ergene, Lale; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  16. Monolithically compatible impedance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton Nance; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic sensor includes a reference channel and at least one sensing channel. Each sensing channel has an oscillator and a counter driven by the oscillator. The reference channel and the at least one sensing channel being formed integrally with a substrate and intimately nested with one another on the substrate. Thus, the oscillator and the counter have matched component values and temperature coefficients. A frequency determining component of the sensing oscillator is formed integrally with the substrate and has an impedance parameter which varies with an environmental parameter to be measured by the sensor. A gating control is responsive to an output signal generated by the reference channel, for terminating counting in the at least one sensing channel at an output count, whereby the output count is indicative of the environmental parameter, and successive ones of the output counts are indicative of changes in the environmental parameter.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Mikes, D M; Cha, B A; Dym, C L; Baumgaertner, J; Hartzog, A G; Tacey, A D; Calabria, M R

    1999-12-01

    Although total limb volume measurements are used to track the progress of lymphedema and its treatment, these measurements can be confounded by changes other than fluid excess namely muscle or fat gain. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a technique that specifically quantifies both total body fluid and extracellular fluid in extremities. Whereas BIA has potential as a quick, inexpensive, and quantitative technique to measure directly fluid gain or loss from lymphedema, it also has certain shortcomings that must be addressed before it can be validated. this paper examines the back-ground that explains why measuring total limb volume is insufficient to quantify the extent of peripheral lymphedema and explores the advantages and drawbacks of using BIA for this purpose. PMID:10652699

  18. Fiber Materials AC Impedance Characteristics and Principium Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Li, Xiaofeng

    With an invariable amplitude and variable frequency inspiriting, impedance of fiber materials rapidly decrease at first and then increase speedy followed with increasing of signal frequency. For the impedance curve of frequency is section of bathtub, this phenomenon is defined as alternating current electric conductive bathtub effect of fiber material. With analysis tools,of circuit theory and medium polarization theory, the phenomenon can be deeply detected that in AC electric field there are four different kind of currents in fiber material: absorbing current, conductance current, charging current and superficial current. With more analyzing it's discovered this phenomenon can be explained by medium polarize theory. Make using of fiber AC electric conductivity bathtub effect, fast testing equipment on fiber moisture regain can be invent, and disadvantages of conventional impedance technique, such as greatness test error and electrode polarization easily. This paper affords directions to design novel speediness fiber moisture test equipments in theory.

  19. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  20. Impedance in School Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarts, John T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over use of impedance screening in public schools to identify students with hearing problems, including otitis media, a common ear condition in infants and young children. It cites research that questions the value of pure tone screening as a single test and raises critics' objections to the use of impedance,…

  1. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  2. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  3. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3−x crystals. The resistance of WO3−x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors. PMID:27150936

  4. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3-x crystals. The resistance of WO3-x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors. PMID:27150936

  5. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3‑x crystals. The resistance of WO3‑x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors.

  6. A Batteryless Sensor ASIC for Implantable Bio-Impedance Applications.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Saul; Ollmar, Stig; Waqar, Muhammad; Rusu, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of the biological tissue's electrical impedance is an active research field that has attracted a lot of attention during the last decades. Bio-impedances are closely related to a large variety of physiological conditions; therefore, they are useful for diagnosis and monitoring in many medical applications. Measuring living tissues, however, is a challenging task that poses countless technical and practical problems, in particular if the tissues need to be measured under the skin. This paper presents a bio-impedance sensor ASIC targeting a battery-free, miniature size, implantable device, which performs accurate 4-point complex impedance extraction in the frequency range from 2 kHz to 2 MHz. The ASIC is fabricated in 150 nm CMOS, has a size of 1.22 mm × 1.22 mm and consumes 165 μA from a 1.8 V power supply. The ASIC is embedded in a prototype which communicates with, and is powered by an external reader device through inductive coupling. The prototype is validated by measuring the impedances of different combinations of discrete components, measuring the electrochemical impedance of physiological solution, and performing ex vivo measurements on animal organs. The proposed ASIC is able to extract complex impedances with around 1 Ω resolution; therefore enabling accurate wireless tissue measurements. PMID:26372646

  7. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  8. Electromagnetic scattering by impedance structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from impedance structures is investigated, and current work on antenna pattern calculation is presented. A general algorithm for determining radiation patterns from antennas mounted near or on polygonal plates is presented. These plates are assumed to be of a material which satisfies the Leontovich (or surface impedance) boundary condition. Calculated patterns including reflection and diffraction terms are presented for numerious geometries, and refinements are included for antennas mounted directly on impedance surfaces. For the case of a monopole mounted on a surface impedance ground plane, computed patterns are compared with experimental measurements. This work in antenna pattern prediction forms the basis of understanding of the complex scattering mechanisms from impedance surfaces. It provides the foundation for the analysis of backscattering patterns which, in general, are more problematic than calculation of antenna patterns. Further proposed study of related topics, including surface waves, corner diffractions, and multiple diffractions, is outlined.

  9. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  10. Beam coupling impedances of fast transmission-line kickers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fast transmission-line kickers contain no ferrite and consist of two long metallic parallel plates supported by insulators inside a beam pipe. A beam is deflected by both the electric and magnetic fields of a TEM wave created by a pulse propagating along the strips in the direction opposite to the beam. Computations of the beam coupling impedances for such structures are difficult because of their length. In the paper, the beam coupling impedances of transmission-line kickers are calculated by combining analytical and numerical methods: the wake potentials computed in short models are extended analytically to obtain the wakes for the long kickers, and then the corresponding beam impedances are derived. At very low frequencies the results are compared with simple analytical expressions for the coupling impedances of striplines in beam position monitors.

  11. Impedance Biosensors: Applications to Sustainability and Remaining Technical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Due to their all-electrical nature, impedance biosensors have significant potential for use as simple and portable sensors for environmental studies and environmental monitoring. Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Although impedance biosensors have been widely studied in the academic literature, commercial applications have been hindered by several technical limitations, including possible limitations to small analytes, the complexity of impedance detection, susceptibility to nonspecific adsorption, and stability of biomolecule immobilization. Recent research into methods to overcome these obstacles is briefly reviewed. New results demonstrating antibody regeneration atop degenerate (highly doped) Si are also reported. Using 0.2 M KSCN and 10 mM HF for antibody regeneration, peanut protein Ara h 1 is detected daily during a 30 day trial. PMID:25068095

  12. Characterisation of CFRP adhesive bonds by electromechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel H.; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw M.

    2014-03-01

    In aircraft industry the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) elements are joint using rivets and adhesive bonding. The reliability of the bonding limits the use of adhesive bonding for primary aircraft structures, therefore it is important to assess the bond quality. The performance of adhesive bonds depends on the physico-chemical properties of the adhered surfaces. The contamination leading to weak bonds may have various origin and be caused by moisture, release agent, hydraulic fluid, fuel, poor curing of adhesive and so on. In this research three different causes of possible weak bonds were selected for the investigation: 1. Weak bond due to release agent contamination, 2. Weak bond due to moisture contamination, 3. Weak bond due to poor curing of the adhesive. In order to assess the bond quality electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique was selected and investigation was focused on the influence of bond quality on electrical impedance of piezoelectric transducer. The piezoelectric transducer was mounted at the middle of each sample surface. Measurements were conducted using HIOKI Impedance Analyzer IM3570. Using the impedance analyzer the electrical parameters were measured for wide frequency band. Due to piezoelectric effect the electrical response of a piezoelectric transducer is related to mechanical response of the sample to which the transducers is attached. The impedance spectra were investigated in order to find indication of the weak bonds. These spectra were compared with measurements for reference sample using indexes proposed in order to assess the bond quality.

  13. Low impedance switch

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low inductance switch comprising a pair of spaced apart, annularly shaped, plate members of conducting material supported in substantially parallel, insulated relationship, said plate members being provided with a plurality of radially extending, spoke-like extensions whereby said members may be connected into a plurality of electrical circuits, and an electrical discharge means connected across said spaced plate members for effecting the simultaneous closing of the electrical circuits connected thereto, said electrical discharge means including an elongated, sealed envelope which contains an ionizable gas and which is supported on one of said plate members with the major axis of said envelope extending generally perpendicular to the plane of said plate members, a pair of elongated, spaced apart, insulated electrodes supported within said envelope and extending axially thereof, one of said electrodes being connected to each of said plate members, and a third, firing or trigger electrode supported within said envelope intermediate said main electrodes and being insulated from said main electrodes.

  14. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  15. Human body impedance for electromagnetic hazard analysis in the VLF to MF band

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, H.; Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1984-08-01

    A knowledge of the average electrical impedance of the human body is essential for the analysis of electromagnetic hazards in the VLF to MF band. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the average body impedance of several human subjects as a function of frequency. Measurements were carried out with the subjects standing barefoot on a ground plane and touching various metal electrodes with the hand or index finger. The measured impedance includes the electrode polarization and skin impedances, spread impedance near the electrode, body impedance, stray capacitance between the body surface and ground, and inductance due to the body and grounding strap. These components are separated and simplified equivalent circuits are presented for body impedance of humans exposed to free-space electromagnetic waves as well as in contact with large ungrounded metallic objects therein.

  16. I/O impedance controller

    DOEpatents

    Ruesch, Rodney; Jenkins, Philip N.; Ma, Nan

    2004-03-09

    There is disclosed apparatus and apparatus for impedance control to provide for controlling the impedance of a communication circuit using an all-digital impedance control circuit wherein one or more control bits are used to tune the output impedance. In one example embodiment, the impedance control circuit is fabricated using circuit components found in a standard macro library of a computer aided design system. According to another example embodiment, there is provided a control for an output driver on an integrated circuit ("IC") device to provide for forming a resistor divider network with the output driver and a resistor off the IC device so that the divider network produces an output voltage, comparing the output voltage of the divider network with a reference voltage, and adjusting the output impedance of the output driver to attempt to match the output voltage of the divider network and the reference voltage. Also disclosed is over-sampling the divider network voltage, storing the results of the over sampling, repeating the over-sampling and storing, averaging the results of multiple over sampling operations, controlling the impedance with a plurality of bits forming a word, and updating the value of the word by only one least significant bit at a time.

  17. Impedance-estimation methods, modeling methods, articles of manufacture, impedance-modeling devices, and estimated-impedance monitoring systems

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, John G.

    2009-11-17

    An impedance estimation method includes measuring three or more impedances of an object having a periphery using three or more probes coupled to the periphery. The three or more impedance measurements are made at a first frequency. Three or more additional impedance measurements of the object are made using the three or more probes. The three or more additional impedance measurements are made at a second frequency different from the first frequency. An impedance of the object at a point within the periphery is estimated based on the impedance measurements and the additional impedance measurements.

  18. On combined source solutions for bodies with impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. R.

    1985-04-01

    Studies conducted by Rogers (1984, 1983) regarding impedance boundary condition (IBC) integral equations have been mainly concerned with the spurious interior resonance problem associated with electromagnetic solutions exterior to a closed surface. Specifically, exterior radiation and scattering solutions of the IBC electric and magnetic field integral equations (EFIE and MFI) have nonunique solutions at the interior resonant frequencies of a perfectly conducting cavity having the same shape as the impedance target. In the present investigation, examples are presented of numerical solutions to the IBC combined source integral equation for scattering from impedance spheres. The presented results demonstrate that the IBC combined source integral equation (CSIE) is effective in eliminating the spurious solutions which occur in the electric and magnetic field integral equations.

  19. Low temperature ac electrical study of Pr0.5-xLaxCa0.5MnO3 (x = 0.0-0.4) ceramics by employing impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javid Iqbal, M.; Nadeem, M.; Hassan, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    Polycrystalline Pr0.5-xLaxCa0.5MnO3 (x = 0.0-0.40) ceramics are synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method, and phase purity is confirmed by employing X-ray diffraction. Temperature dependent ac impedance spectroscopic measurements enable us to determine an increasing trend in resistance values of these samples with the decrease in temperatures. However, a decreasing trend in resistance values with increase in the La-doping at Pr-site is observed. A metal to insulator transition (MIT) is reported for x ≥ 0.2, which is shifted to higher temperature values with further increase of x doping. Two equivalent circuit models, i.e., (ReQe)(RgbQgb) and (ReQe)(RgbQgb)(RgQg) are employed to explain the impedance data with and without MIT, respectively. Mott variable range hopping model is found to be an appropriate model for defining the conduction mechanism of charge carriers in the semiconducting region. The decrease in the impedance with x doping is explained in terms of increase in the localization length obtained from the fitting of Rgb. Using tanδ results, thermally activated relaxation behavior is discussed for x = 0.0 and 0.1; whereas for x = 0.2, a temperature independent relaxation behavior is conferred due to the change in the hopping process of charge carriers.

  20. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2014-10-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage may help to clear up this confusion.

  1. Coupling impedance for modern accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.A.; Kheifets, S.A. )

    1992-03-10

    A systematic review of theoretical results for the longitudinal and transverse impedances obtained by different methods is presented. The paper comprises definitions, general theorems, modal analysis, a diffraction model, and analytical results. Several new results are included. In particular, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the independence of the impedance from the beam longitudinal direction. The impedances of two basic simple structures---that of a {ital cavity} and that of a {ital step}---are studied in detail. The transition from the regime of a cavity to the regime of a step is explained, an approximate formula describing this transition is given, and the criterion for determining the applicability of each regime is established. The asymptotic behavior of the impedance for a finite number {ital M} of periodically arranged cavities as a function of {ital M} is studied. The different behaviors of the impedance for a single cavity and that for an infinite number of cavities are explained as resulting from the interference of the diffracted waves. A criterion for determining the transition in the impedance behavior from small {ital M} to large {ital M} is presented.

  2. Insulator-based DEP with impedance measurements for analyte detection

    DOEpatents

    Davalos, Rafael V.; Simmons, Blake A.; Crocker, Robert W.; Cummings, Eric B.

    2010-03-16

    Disclosed herein are microfluidic devices for assaying at least one analyte specie in a sample comprising at least one analyte concentration area in a microchannel having insulating structures on or in at least one wall of the microchannel which provide a nonuniform electric field in the presence of an electric field provided by off-chip electrodes; and a pair of passivated sensing electrodes for impedance detection in a detection area. Also disclosed are assay methods and methods of making.

  3. Transcranial Extracellular Impedance Control (tEIC) Modulates Behavioral Performances

    PubMed Central

    Matani, Ayumu; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Furuyama, Yoshikazu; Hotta, Atsushi; Hoshino, Shotaro

    2014-01-01

    Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC) attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons) and impedances (volume conductors). Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG) forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor) the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC). We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance. PMID:25047913

  4. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  5. Impedance-based damage detection for civil infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seunghee; Roh, YongRae; Yi, JinHak; Yun, Chung-Bang; Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung; Lee, SangHan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of an impedance-based damage detection technique using piezoelectric (PZT) transducers for civil infrastructures such as steel bridges. The basic concept of the technique is to monitor the changes in the electrical impedance to detect structural damages. Those changes in the electrical impedance are due to the electro-mechanical coupling property of piezoelectric materials. The smart PZT transducers which act as both actuators and sensors in a self-analyzing manner are emerging to be effective in non-parametric health monitoring of structural systems. This health monitoring technique can be easily adapted to existing structures, since only a small number of PZT patches are needed for continuous monitoring of their structural integrity. This impedance-based method operates at high frequencies (above 100 kHz), which enables it to detect incipient-type damage. It is not interfered by normal operating conditions, vibrations of the host structure, and changes in the host external body. The results of the experimental study on three kinds of structural members indicate that cracks or loosened bolts/nuts near the PZT sensors may be effectively detected by monitoring the shifts of the resonant frequencies of the impedance functions.

  6. Piezogenerator impedance matching using Mason equivalent circuit for harvester identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Richard, Claude

    2014-04-01

    Any piezoelectric generator structure can be modeled close to its resonance by an equivalent circuit derived from the well known Mason equivalent circuit. This equivalent circuit can therefore be used in order to optimize the harvested power using usual electrical impedance matching. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the full process leading to the definition of the proper passive load allowing the optimization of the harvested energy of any harvesting device. First, the electric equivalent circuit of the generator is derived from the Mason equivalent circuit of a seismic harvester. Theoretical ideal impedance matching and optimal load analyze is then given emphasizing the fact that for a given acceleration a constant optimal output power is achievable for any frequency as long as the optimal load is feasible. Identification of the equivalent circuit of an experimental seismic harvester is then derived and matched impedance is defined both theoretically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that an optimal load can always be obtained and that the corresponding output power is constant. However, it is very sensitive to this impedance, and that even if impedance matching is a longtime well known technique, it is not really experimentally and practically achievable.

  7. Plasma Impedance Spectrum Analyzer (PISA): an advanced impedance probe for measuring plasma density and other parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Uribe, P.; Burchill, J.

    2006-12-01

    as close as possible to the plasma potential, collapsing the ion sheath and minimizing sheath-induced errors in the measurement of the temperature-dependent series resonance frequency. In addition, by stepping the bias voltage through a range of values, we can measure the sheath capacitance as a function of voltage and get an independent measure of the Debye length. 3) Drive voltage amplitude stepping which allows the diagnosis of sheath rectification and non-linear effects that may drive harmonics of the plasma / upper hybrid frequency. By stepping the amplitude through a range, we can also find the optimal drive voltage which provides a reasonable SNR while minimizing the impedance probe's impact on other instruments, such as high frequency electric field probes. We present flight data from representative souding rocket flights of the Goddard Impedance Probe and discuss the instrument performance, error bars, and future improvements.

  8. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  9. [Monitoring cervical dilatation by impedance].

    PubMed

    Salvat, J; Lassen, M; Sauze, C; Baud, S; Salvat, F

    1992-01-01

    Several different physics procedures have been tried to mechanize the recording of partograms. Can a measure of impedance of tissue Z using potential difference V, according to Ohm's law V = Z1, and 1 is a constant, be correlated with a measure of cervical dilatation using vaginal examination? This was our hypothesis. The tissue impedance meter was made to our design and applied according to a bipolar procedure. Our work was carried out on 28 patients. 10 patients were registered before labour started in order to test the apparatus and to record the impedance variations without labour taking place, and 18 patients were registered in labour to see whether there was any correlation. The level of impedance in the cervix without labour was 302.7 Ohms with a deviation of 8.2. Using student's t tests it was found that there was a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) in four measurements between the impedance measure and measures obtained by extrapolating the degrees of dilatation calculated from vaginal examination. This is a preliminary study in which we have defined the conditions that are necessary to confirm these first results and to further develop the method. PMID:1401774

  10. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  11. Study of electrical properties of meridian on human body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Uematsu, Haruyuki; Otani, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the subcutaneous electrical impedance on the human body surface. Measurements of the electrical impedance on five adult male subjects were carried out and analyzed for the possible detection of the acupuncture meridian lines of ancient Chinese medicine on the human body. The distribution of electrical impedance measured at 40 points over the volar side of the right upper limb of the subjects. The results show that electrical impedance varies at different locations of the human body surface, and the locations with lower electrical impedance coincide with the locations where the meridian is believed to exist.

  12. New Analysis Method for I-V and Complex Impedance Data of Transition-edge Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maasilta, I. J.; Kinnunen, K. M.

    2009-12-16

    Measurement of the complex impedance of a bolometric detector has become a standard technique to determine the important thermal and electrical parameters of the device. We present here a new way to analyze the complex impedance data of a TES detector, in combination with the DC I-V measurements. We show that the most important electrical parameters can be inferred from the low-frequency data only, without the need to rely on less reliable high-frequency measurements.

  13. Microfabricated Thin Film Impedance Sensor & AC Impedance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinsong; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2010-01-01

    Thin film microfabrication technique was employed to fabricate a platinum based parallel-electrode structured impedance sensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and equivalent circuit analysis of the small amplitude (±5 mV) AC impedance measurements (frequency range: 1 MHz to 0.1 Hz) at ambient temperature were carried out. Testing media include 0.001 M, 0.01 M, 0.1 M NaCl and KCl solutions, and alumina (∼3 μm) and sand (∼300 μm) particulate layers saturated with NaCl solutions with the thicknesses ranging from 0.6 mm to 8 mm in a testing cell, and the results were used to assess the effect of the thickness of the particulate layer on the conductivity of the testing solution. The calculated resistances were approximately around 20 MΩ, 4 MΩ, and 0.5 MΩ for 0.001 M, 0.01 M, and 0.1 M NaCl solutions, respectively. The presence of the sand particulates increased the impedance dramatically (6 times and 3 times for 0.001 M and 0.1 M NaCl solutions, respectively). A cell constant methodology was also developed to assess the measurement of the bulk conductivity of the electrolyte solution. The cell constant ranged from 1.2 to 0.8 and it decreased with the increase of the solution thickness. PMID:22219690

  14. Modeling of converter transformers using frequency domain terminal impedance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yilu; Sebo, S.A.; Caldecott, R.; Kasten, D.G. ); Wright, S.E. )

    1993-01-01

    HVDC converter stations generate radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) noise which could interfere with adjacent communication and computer equipment, and carrier system operations. In order to calculate and predict the RF EM noise produced by the valve ignition of a converter station, it is essential to develop accurate models of station equipment over a broad frequency range. Models of all station equipment can be characterized by frequency dependent impedances. The paper describes the frequency dependent node-to-node impedance function (NIF) models of power system equipment based on systematic broad frequency range (50 Hz to 1MHz) external driving point impedance measurements, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The regular structure, high accuracy, and virtually unlimited frequency range are important features of the NIF model. Examples of NIF model application in converter station RF EM noise calculations are presented.

  15. Impedance characteristics of coaxial and planar magnetoplasma capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    A theory has been developed for the impedance of a homogeneous magnetoplasma enclosed between two specular reflecting coaxial electrodes, with a static magnetic field parallel to the electrode axes. The parallel-plate magnetoplasma capacitor is treated as a sub-case. Starting with the Vlasov equation, an integral equation is derived for the electric field. Solving this equation, and integrating to obtain the voltage, gives the capacitor impedance. This includes a capacitive component, and a resistive component expressing the Landau damping associated with the open orbits of electrons reflected at the electrodes. A direct numerical solution of the field integral equation has been carried out for a range of values of magnetic field, plasma density, and signal frequency. The values of impedance so obtained are compared with the predictions of macroscopic theory, and of an approximate microscopic theory in which open orbits are ignored and solutions are obtained using finite Fourier transform methods. The mathematical relations between these theories are demonstrated.

  16. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo O.; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Impedance metasurface is composed of electrical small scatters in two dimensional plane, of which the surface impedance can be designed to produce desired reflection phase. Tunable reflection phase can be achieved by incorporating active element into the scatters, but the tuning range of the reflection phase is limited. In this paper, an active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase control is presented to remove the phase tuning deficiency in conventional approach. The unit cell of the metasurface is a multiple resonance structure with two resonance poles and one resonance zero, capable of providing 360° reflection phase variation and active tuning within a finite frequency band. Linear reflection phase tuning can also be obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation are presented and validated by experiment at microwave frequency. The proposed approach can be applied to many cases where fine and full phase tuning is needed, such as beam steering in reflectarray antennas. PMID:24162366

  17. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo O; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Impedance metasurface is composed of electrical small scatters in two dimensional plane, of which the surface impedance can be designed to produce desired reflection phase. Tunable reflection phase can be achieved by incorporating active element into the scatters, but the tuning range of the reflection phase is limited. In this paper, an active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase control is presented to remove the phase tuning deficiency in conventional approach. The unit cell of the metasurface is a multiple resonance structure with two resonance poles and one resonance zero, capable of providing 360° reflection phase variation and active tuning within a finite frequency band. Linear reflection phase tuning can also be obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation are presented and validated by experiment at microwave frequency. The proposed approach can be applied to many cases where fine and full phase tuning is needed, such as beam steering in reflectarray antennas. PMID:24162366

  18. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  19. The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, V; Hutchison, J M; Mallard, J R

    1989-01-01

    The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System is designed to reconstruct 2 dimensional images of the average distribution of the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance within a 3 dimensional region. The system uses the four electrode technique in a 16 electrode split-array. The system hardware consists of task-orientated electronic modules for: driving a constant current, multiplexing the current drive, demultiplexing peripheral voltages, differential amplification, phase sensitive detection and low-pass filtration, digitisation with a 14 bit analog to digital converter (ADC), and -control logic for the ADC and multiplexors. A BBC microprocessor (Master series), initiates a controlled sequence for the collection of a number of data sets which are averaged and stored on disk. Image reconstruction is by a process of convolution-backprojection similar to the fan-beam reconstruction of computerised tomography and is also known as Equipotential Backprojection. In imaging impedance changes associated with fracture healing the changes may be large enough to allow retrieval of both the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance. Sequential imaging of these changes would necessitate monitoring electronic and electrode drift by imaging an equivalent region of the contralateral limb. Differential images could be retrieved when the image of the normal limb is the image template. Better characterisation of tissues would necessitate a cleaner retrieval of the quadrature signal. PMID:2742979

  20. High-precision impedance spectroscopy: a strategy demonstrated on PZT.

    PubMed

    Boukamp, Bernard A; Blank, Dave H A

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been recognized as a very powerful tool for studying charge and mass transport and transfer in a wide variety of electrically or electrochemically active systems. Sophisticated modeling programs make it possible to extract parameters from the impedance data, thus contributing to a better understanding of the system or material properties. For an accurate analysis, a correct modeling function is needed; this is often in the form of an equivalent circuit. It is not always possible to define the modeling function from visual inspection of the impedance dispersion. Small contributions to the overall dispersion can be masked, and hence overlooked. In this publication, a strategy is presented for high-precision impedance data analysis. A Kramers-Kronig test is used for the essential data validation. An iterative process of partial analysis and subtraction assists in deconvoluting the impedance spectrum, yielding both a vi- able model function and a set of necessary starting values for the full complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) modeling. The advantage and possibilities of this strategy are demonstrated with an analysis of the ionic and electronic conductivity of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as functions of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. PMID:23443688

  1. Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-06-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), a near-field microwave scanning probe technique, has become a powerful tool to characterize local electrical responses in solid state samples. We present the design of a new type of MIM sensor based on quartz tuning fork and electrochemically etched thin metal wires. Due to a higher aspect ratio tip and integration with tuning fork, such design achieves comparable MIM performance and enables easy self-sensing topography feedback in situations where the conventional optical feedback mechanism is not available, thus is complementary to microfabricated shielded stripline-type probes. The new design also enables stable differential mode MIM detection and multiple-frequency MIM measurements with a single sensor.

  2. Impedance characteristic of the GEC reference cell

    SciTech Connect

    Verdeyen, J.T.; Miller, P.A.

    1992-12-01

    One can make measurements of the electrical parameters (V, I, P) at the access terminals of a reactor, but it is more desirable to relate those parameters to that at the plasma terminals. Toward that end, the authors have made precision impedance measurements over the range of 1-108 MHz on the GEC RF Reference Cell with the plasma terminals open circuited, short circuited and inductively loaded. This enables them to infer an equivalent circuit which is consistent with the geometry of the cell and which agrees with the input measurements to a high degree of accuracy. Using this circuit, one can relate the plasma quantities to the terminal values with the standard ABCD matrix which is valid at all frequencies. The procedure for inferring this circuit and accounting for the resistive losses will be presented.

  3. Scheme for rapid adjustment of network impedance

    DOEpatents

    Vithayathil, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A static controlled reactance device is inserted in series with an AC electric power transmission line to adjust its transfer impedance. An inductor (reactor) is serially connected with two back-to-back connected thyristors which control the conduction period and hence the effective reactance of the inductor. Additional reactive elements are provided in parallel with the thyristor controlled reactor to filter harmonics and to obtain required range of variable reactance. Alternatively, the static controlled reactance device discussed above may be connected to the secondary winding of a series transformer having its primary winding connected in series to the transmission line. In a three phase transmission system, the controlled reactance device may be connected in delta configuration on the secondary side of the series transformer to eliminate triplen harmonics.

  4. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivnay, Jonathan E-mail: owens@emse.fr; Ramuz, Marc; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M. E-mail: owens@emse.fr; Leleux, Pierre

    2015-01-26

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

  5. Impedance Changes Indicate Proximal Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Obstruction In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Tangen, Kevin; Hsu, Ying; Lin, Hanna; Frim, David; Linninger, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Extracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt obstruction is one of the most important problems in hydrocephalus patient management. Despite ongoing research into better shunt design, robust and reliable detection of shunt malfunction remains elusive. The authors present a novel method of correlating degree of tissue ingrowth into ventricular CSF drainage catheters with internal electrical impedance. The impedance based sensor is able to continuously monitor shunt patency using intraluminal electrodes. Prototype obstruction sensors were fabricated for in-vitro analysis of cellular ingrowth into a shunt under static and dynamic flow conditions. Primary astrocyte cell lines and C6 glioma cells were allowed to proliferate up to 7 days within a shunt catheter and the impedance waveform was observed. During cell ingrowth a significant change in the peak-to-peak voltage signal as well as the root-mean-square voltage level was observed, allowing the impedance sensor to potentially anticipate shunt malfunction long before it affects fluid drainage. Finite element modeling was employed to demonstrate that the electrical signal used to monitor tissue ingrowth is contained inside the catheter lumen and does not endanger tissue surrounding the shunt. These results may herald the development of "next generation" shunt technology that allows prediction of malfunction before it affects patient outcome. PMID:25014951

  6. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

  7. [Evaluation of orthostatic regulation by saddle support test using thoracic impedance].

    PubMed

    Gugova, F K; Lapin, V V

    2002-01-01

    We investigated 21 healthy volunteers (10 males and 11 females, mean age 23 +/- 4 years). All the subjects have undergone two 20 min head-up tilt tests using tilt table "TRI W.G. inc." (USA): the first with footplate support and the second with bicycle saddle. Thoracic electrical impedance was measured using impedance cardiography according to Kubicek et al. The protocols included an initial period of 20 min of supine rest while baseline thoracic impedance, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and then followed by a tilt to 65 degrees. Changes of impedance were measured at min 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 after the procedure. Women had higher values of thoracic impedance both at rest and during the tilt test than men. The value of impedance of the chest negatively correlated with the body mass index. We suppose that an increase of impedance more than 15% may be related with pathological venous pooling. Thoracic impedance may be used to monitor changes of thoracic fluid volumes with posture and possibly to assess orthostatic regulation. The contribution of leg muscles in orthostatic regulation does not reflect values of thoracic impedance. PMID:12152425

  8. Impedance spectra classification for determining the state of charge on a lithium iron phosphate cell using a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, P.; Vergossen, D.; Renner, D.; John, W.; Götze, J.

    2015-11-01

    An alternative method for determining the state of charge (SOC) on lithium iron phosphate cells by impedance spectra classification is given. Methods based on the electric equivalent circuit diagram (ECD), such as the Kalman Filter, the extended Kalman Filter and the state space observer, for instance, have reached their limits for this cell chemistry. The new method resigns on the open circuit voltage curve and the parameters for the electric ECD. Impedance spectra classification is implemented by a Support Vector Machine (SVM). The classes for the SVM-algorithm are represented by all the impedance spectra that correspond to the SOC (the SOC classes) for defined temperature and aging states. A divide and conquer based search algorithm on a binary search tree makes it possible to grade measured impedances using the SVM method. Statistical analysis is used to verify the concept by grading every single impedance from each impedance spectrum corresponding to the SOC by class with different magnitudes of charged error.

  9. Dielectrophoresis and dielectrophoretic impedance detection of adenovirus and rotavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Michihiko; Ding, Zhenhao; Suehiro, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the electrical detection of pathogenic viruses, namely, adenovirus and rotavirus, using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM). DEPIM consists of two simultaneous processes: dielectrophoretic trapping of the target and measurement of the impedance change and increase in conductance with the number of trapped targets. This is the first study of applying DEPIM, which was originally developed to detect bacteria suspended in aqueous solutions, to virus detection. The dielectric properties of the viruses were also investigated in terms of their dielectrophoretic behavior. Although their estimated dielectric properties were different from those of bacteria, the trapped viruses increased the conductance of the microelectrode in a manner similar to that in bacteria detection. We demonstrated the electrical detection of viruses within 60 s at concentrations as low as 70 ng/ml for adenovirus and 50 ng/ml for rotavirus.

  10. High accuracy particle analysis using sheathless microfluidic impedance cytometry.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Daniel; Caselli, Federica; Bisegna, Paolo; Morgan, Hywel

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new design of microfluidic impedance cytometer enabling accurate characterization of particles without the need for focusing. The approach uses multiple pairs of electrodes to measure the transit time of particles through the device in two simultaneous different current measurements, a transverse (top to bottom) current and an oblique current. This gives a new metric that can be used to estimate the vertical position of the particle trajectory through the microchannel. This parameter effectively compensates for the non-uniform electric field in the channel that is an unavoidable consequence of the use of planar parallel facing electrodes. The new technique is explained and validated using numerical modelling. Impedance data for 5, 6 and 7 μm particles are collected and compared with simulations. The method gives excellent coefficient of variation in (electrical) radius of particles of 1% for a sheathless configuration. PMID:27241585

  11. The quantum Hall impedance standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, J.; Kučera, J.; Pierz, K.; Kibble, B. P.

    2011-02-01

    Alternating current measurements of double-shielded quantum Hall devices have revealed a fascinating property of which only a quantum effect is capable: it can detect its own frequency dependence and convert it to a current dependence which can be used to eliminate both of them. According to an experimentally verified model, the residual frequency dependence is smaller than the measuring uncertainty of 1.3 × 10-9 kHz-1. In this way, a highly precise quantum standard of impedance can be established, without having to correct for any calculated frequency dependence and without the need for any artefact with a calculated frequency dependence. Nothing else like that is known to us and we hope that our results encourage other national metrology institutes to also apply it to impedance metrology and further explore its beautiful properties.

  12. FXR accelerator cavity impedance experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Avalle, C.A.

    1998-01-05

    One of the goals of the present Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator upgrade effort [1][2] at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to reduce the cavity transverse impedance, since it has been shown that beam stability is significantly affected by this parameter [3]. Recently, we have evaluated various techniques and cell modifications to accomplish that, both through lab measurements and computer models. A spare cell, identical in every way to cells in the accelerator, was specially modified for the experiments. The impedance measurements were done without the beam, by applying twin-wire techniques. This report describes the results of these experiments and suggests possible cell modifications to improve their performance. The techniques and modifications which are suggested might also be applicable to AHF and DARHT-2 long-pulse accelerator development.

  13. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2750 - Impedance phlebograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance phlebograph. 870.2750 Section 870.2750...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2750 Impedance phlebograph. (a) Identification. An impedance phlebograph is a device used to provide a visual display of...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  1. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2770 - Impedance plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impedance plethysmograph. 870.2770 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2770 Impedance plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An impedance plethysmograph is a device used to estimate peripheral...

  3. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukučka, Marek; Ondrejkovičová, Alena

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  4. Impedance spectroscopic characterization of gadolinium substituted cobalt ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md. T. Ramana, C. V.

    2014-10-28

    Gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFGO) with variable Gd content (x = 0.0–0.4) have been synthesized by solid state ceramic method. The crystal structure and impedance properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFGO crystallize in the inverse spinel phase. The CFGO compounds exhibit lattice expansion due to substitution of larger Gd ions into the crystal lattice. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was performed under a wide range of frequency (f = 20 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (T = 303–573 K). Electrical properties of Gd incorporated Co ferrite ceramics are enhanced compared to pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to the lattice distortion. Impedance spectroscopic analysis illustrates the variation of bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions towards the electrical resistance and capacitance of CFGO materials with temperature. A two-layer heterogeneous model consisting of moderately conducting grain interior (ferrite-phase) regions separated by insulating grain boundaries (resistive-phase) accurately account for the observed temperature and frequency dependent electrical characteristic of CFGO ceramics.

  5. Consideration of impedance matching techniques for efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank; Stephanou, Harry; Uchino, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates multiple levels of impedance-matching methods for piezoelectric energy harvesting in order to enhance the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. First, the transduction rate was improved by using a high piezoelectric voltage constant (g) ceramic material having a magnitude of g33 = 40 x 10(-3) V m/N. Second, a transducer structure, cymbal, was optimized and fabricated to match the mechanical impedance of vibration source to that of the piezoelectric transducer. The cymbal transducer was found to exhibit approximately 40 times higher effective strain coefficient than the piezoelectric ceramics. Third, the electrical impedance matching for the energy harvesting circuit was considered to allow the transfer of generated power to a storage media. It was found that, by using the 10-layer ceramics instead of the single layer, the output current can be increased by 10 times, and the output load can be reduced by 40 times. Furthermore, by using the multilayer ceramics the output power was found to increase by 100%. A direct current (DC)-DC buck converter was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy in a capacitor to a lower output load. The converter was optimized such that it required less than 5 mW for operation. PMID:17941391

  6. Dielectric and impedance spectroscopic studies of neodymium gallate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-05-01

    The AC electrical properties of a polycrystalline neodymium gallate, NdGaO3 (NGO), synthesized by the sol-gel method have been investigated by employing impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range from 323 K to 593 K. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic phase with Pbnm space group at room temperature. Two relaxation processes with different relaxation times are observed from the impedance as well as modulus spectroscopic measurements, which have been attributed to the grain and the grain boundary effects at different temperatures in NGO. The complex impedance data are analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant phase element in parallel. It has been observed that the value of the capacitance and the resistance associated with the grain boundary is higher than those associated with the grain. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity shows the negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to follow the power law.

  7. Joint Impedance Decreases during Movement Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ludvig, Daniel; Antos, Stephen A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the joint influence how we interact with our environment and hence are important in the control of both posture and movement. Many studies have investigated how the mechanical properties—specifically the impedance—of different joints vary with different postural tasks. However, studies on how joint impedance varies with movement remain limited. The few studies that have investigated how impedance varies with movement have found that impedance is lower during movement than during posture. In this study we investigated how impedance changed as people transitioned from a postural task to a movement task. We found that subjects’ joint impedances decreased at the initiation of movement, prior to increasing at the cessation of movement. This decrease in impedance occurred even though the subjects’ torque and EMG levels increased. These findings suggest that during movement the central nervous system may control joint impedance independently of muscle activation. PMID:23366632

  8. Numerical solutions to ill-posed and well-posed impedance boundary condition integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. R.

    1983-11-01

    Exterior scattering from a three-dimensional impedance body can be formulated in terms of various integral equations derived from the Leontovich impedance boundary condition (IBC). The electric and magnetic field integral equations are ill-posed because they theoretically admit spurious solutions at the frequencies of interior perfect conductor cavity resonances. A combined field formulation is well-posed because it does not allow the spurious solutions. This report outlines the derivation of IBC integral equations and describes a procedure for constructing moment-method solutions for bodies of revolution. Numerical results for scattering from impedance spheres are presented which contrast the stability and accuracy of solutions to the ill-posed equations with those of the well-posed equation. The results show that numerical solutions for exterior scattering to the electric and magnetic field integral equations can be severely contaminated by spurious resonant solutions regardless of whether the surface impedance of the body is lossy or lossless.

  9. Tunable nanogap devices for ultra-sensitive electrochemical impedance biosensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong; Guo, Zheng; Song, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qin-An; Zhu, Si-Wei; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Wei, Yan

    2016-01-28

    A wealth of research has been available discussing nanogap devices for detecting very small quantities of biomolecules by observing their electrical behavior generally performed in dry conditions. We report that a gold nanogapped electrode with tunable gap length for ultra-sensitive detection of streptavidin based on electrochemical impedance technique. The gold nanogap is fabricated using simple monolayer film deposition and in-situ growth of gold nanoparticles in a traditional interdigitated array (IDA) microelectrode. The electrochemical impedance biosensor with a 25-nm nanogap is found to be ultra-sensitive to the specific binding of streptavidin to biotin. The binding of the streptavidin hinder the electron transfer between two electrodes, resulting in a large increase in electron-transfer resistance (Ret) for operating the impedance. A linear relation between the relative Ret and the logarithmic value of streptavidin concentration is observed in the concentration range from 1 pM (picomolar) to 100 nM (nanomolar). The lowest detectable concentration actually measured reaches 1 pM. We believe that such an electrochemical impedance nanogap biosensor provides a useful approach towards biomolecular detection that could be extended to a number of other systems. PMID:26755137

  10. Label-free impedance detection of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J

    2013-02-19

    Ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3, have been immobilized onto platinum microelectrodes using anti-EPCAM capture antibodies and detected with high sensitivity using electrochemical impedance. The change in impedance following cell capture is strongly dependent on the supporting electrolyte concentration. By controlling the concentration of Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) electrolyte, the double layer thickness can be manipulated so that the interfacial electric field interacts with the bound cells, rather than simply decaying across the antibody capture layer. Significantly, the impedance changes markedly upon cell capture over the frequency range from 3 Hz to 90 kHz. For example, using an alternating-current (ac) amplitude of 25 mV, a frequency of 81.3 kHz, and an open circuit potential (OCP) as the direct-current (dc) voltage, a detection limit of 4 captured cells was achieved. Assuming an average cell radius of 5 μm, the linear dynamic range is from 4 captured cells to 650 ± 2 captured cells, which is approximately equivalent to fractional coverages from 0.1% to 29%. An equivalent circuit that models the impedance response of the cell capture is discussed. PMID:23331159

  11. Transition metal oxide as anode interface buffer for impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Tang, Chao; Wang, Xu-Liang; Zhai, Wen-Juan; Liu, Rui-Lan; Rong, Zhou; Pang, Zong-Qiang; Jiang, Bing; Fan, Qu-Li; Huang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a strong method in electric measurement, which also shows powerful function in research of carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors when suitable mathematical physical models are used. Apart from this, another requirement is that the contact interface between the electrode and materials should at least be quasi-ohmic contact. So in this report, three different transitional metal oxides, V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were used as hole injection buffer for interface of ITO/NPB. Through the impedance spectroscopy and PSO algorithm, the carrier mobilities and I-V characteristics of the NPB in different devices were measured. Then the data curves were compared with the single layer device without the interface layer in order to investigate the influence of transitional metal oxides on the carrier mobility. The careful research showed that when the work function (WF) of the buffer material was just between the work function of anode and the HOMO of the organic material, such interface material could work as a good bridge for carrier injection. Under such condition, the carrier mobility measured through impedance spectroscopy should be close to the intrinsic value. Considering that the HOMO (or LUMO) of most organic semiconductors did not match with the work function of the electrode, this report also provides a method for wide application of impedance spectroscopy to the research of carrier dynamics.

  12. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2002-08-30

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a thin film sensor conformal with the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is capacitively coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD

  13. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2004-10-29

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or non-metallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  14. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2004-05-03

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  15. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2004-02-01

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  16. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2005-01-17

    This project aimed at developing a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GTI. GTI proposed to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or non-metallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment

  17. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba

    2003-10-01

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  18. Bilateral Impedance Control For Telemanipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    Telemanipulator system includes master robot manipulated by human operator, and slave robot performing tasks at remote location. Two robots electronically coupled so slave robot moves in response to commands from master robot. Teleoperation greatly enhanced if forces acting on slave robot fed back to operator, giving operator feeling he or she manipulates remote environment directly. Main advantage of bilateral impedance control: enables arbitrary specification of desired performance characteristics for telemanipulator system. Relationship between force and position modulated at both ends of system to suit requirements of task.

  19. DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maximillian J. Kieba; Christopher J. Ziolkowski

    2004-06-30

    This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a simple sensor incorporated into the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging

  20. Cell-substrate impedance fluctuations of single amoeboid cells encode cell-shape and adhesion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Gerhardt, Matthias; Höppner, Nadine; Krüger, Kirsten; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We show systematic electrical impedance measurements of single motile cells on microelectrodes. Wild-type cells and mutant strains were studied that differ in their cell-substrate adhesion strength. We recorded the projected cell area by time-lapse microscopy and observed irregular oscillations of the cell shape. These oscillations were correlated with long-term variations in the impedance signal. Superposed to these long-term trends, we observed fluctuations in the impedance signal. Their magnitude clearly correlated with the adhesion strength, suggesting that strongly adherent cells display more dynamic cell-substrate interactions.

  1. A unified approach to dielectric single cell analysis: impedance and dielectrophoretic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Valero, Ana; Braschler, Thomas; Renaud, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    In this review we present a unified approach for single cell dielectric spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy and dielectrophoretic cell sorting, current microtechnologies applied in electrical analysis of single cells are discussed based on their closely related physical principles. In addition, examples of microfluidic devices will be presented: a microfabricated flow cytometer for single cell discrimination based on impedance analysis and a miniaturized continuous dielectrophoretic cell sorter, both using the concept of liquid electrodes. Using the experimental results obtained from both microdevices, we give a comparative overview over the dielectrophoretic sorting and impedance spectroscopy. PMID:20664865

  2. Recent advancements in the electromechanical (E/M) impedance method for structural health monitoring and NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Rogers, Craig A.

    1998-07-01

    The emerging electro-mechanical impedance technology has high potential for in-situ health monitoring and NDE of structural systems and complex machinery. At first, the fundamental principles of the electro-mechanical impedance method are briefly reviewed and ways for practical implementation are highlighted. The equations of piezo- electric material response are given, and the coupled electro-mechanical impedance of a piezo-electric wafer transducer as affixed to the monitored structure is discussed. Due to the high frequency operation of this NDE method, wave propagation phenomena are identified as the primary coupling method between the structural substrate and the piezo-electric wafer transducer. Attention is then focused on several recent advancements that have extended the electro-mechanical impedance method into new areas of applications and/or have developed its underlying principles. US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory used the electro-mechanical impedance method to monitor damage development in composite overlaid civil infrastructure specimens under full-scale static testing. A simplified E/M impedance measuring technique was employed at the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, to detect damage in GFRP composite specimens. The development of miniaturized `bare-bones' impedance analyzer equipment that could be easily packaged into transponder-size dimensions is being studied at the University of South Carolina. US Army Research Laboratory developed novel piezo-composite film transducers for embedment into composite structures. Disbond gauges for monitoring the structural joints of adhesively bonded rotor blades have been studies in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of South Carolina. These recent developments accentuate the importance and benefits of using the electro-mechanical impedance method for on-line health monitoring and damage detection in a variety of applications. Further investigation of the electro

  3. Development of an attachable piezoelectric impedance measuring device for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Jiang, Zhongwei; Morisaki, Tetsuya

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a field-portable small-size impedance measurement system for structural health monitoring. The system consists of a rectangle wave generator, computer (or microcomputer), AD converter and piezo-electric element. We present some experimental results for testing the torque loose in the bolt for a truss structure. The results indicate that an accuracy of the impedance measurement system proposed in this paper is almost as accurate as the commercial multipurpose impedance analyzer, and it could be used on the structures for health monitoring.

  4. Membrane Operational Impedance Spectra in Chara corallina Estimated by Laplace Transforms Analysis 1

    PubMed Central

    Homblé, Fabrice; Jenard, André

    1986-01-01

    The membrane operational impedance spectrum of Chara corallina Klein ex Willd. (R. Brown) cells is investigated using Laplace transform analysis. The spectrum changes with both amplitude and sign of the electrical stimulation when time- and voltage-dependent K+ channels contribute to the membrane conductance. We compare the advantages and disadvantage of this technique for studying membrane impedance with those of the alternating current method and the white noise method. PMID:16664925

  5. The fabrication of low-impedance nanoporous gold multiple-electrode arrays for neural electrophysiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Seker, Erkin; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Begley, Matthew R; Reed, Michael L; Staley, Kevin J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2011-01-01

    Neural electrodes are essential tools for the study of the nervous system and related diseases. Low electrode impedance is a figure of merit for sensitive detection of neural electrical activity and numerous studies have aimed to reduce impedance. Unfortunately, most of these efforts have been tethered by a combination of poor functional coating adhesion, complicated fabrication techniques, and poor fabrication repeatability. We address these issues with a facile method for reliably producing multiple-electrode arrays with low impedance by patterning highly adherent nanoporous gold films using conventional microfabrication techniques. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of self-assembled nanoporous gold results in a more than 25-fold improvement in the electrode-electrolyte impedance, where at 1 kHz, 850 kΩ impedance for conventional Au electrodes is reduced to 30 kΩ for nanoporous gold electrodes. Low impedance provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio for detection of neural activity in noisy environments. We systematically studied the effect of film morphology on electrode impedance and successfully recorded field potentials from rat hippocampal slices. Here, we present our fabrication approach, the relationship between film morphology and impedance, and field potential recordings. PMID:20203356

  6. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-31

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, {tau}{sub REC}, which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI{sub TOR}{sup 2}/dt {approx} I{sup 2}/{tau}{sub REC} - I{sub TOR}{sup 2}/{tau}{sub closed} where I is the gun current, I{sub TOR} is the spheromak toroidal current and {tau}{sub CLOSED} is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I{sub TOR} >> I, requires {tau}{sub REC} <<{tau}{sub CLOSED}. For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that {tau}{sub REC} actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B {proportional_to} I, or I{sub TOR} {approx} I. Program implications are discussed.

  7. A model of end-expiratory lung impedance dependency on total extracellular body water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, J.; Sobota, V.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinical monitoring of patients during mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates lung impedance measurements using Dräger PulmoVista 500 EIT system on an animal model. Mechanically ventilated model was created. Vital signs were monitored as well as mechanical ventilation parameters. Extracellular fluid balance and blood volume were handled as follows: 30-40% of total blood volume were removed and returned back, 0.5 to 1 litre of Ringer's solution was injected afterwards. The quantity of injected fluids was recorded for each animal. During this process thoracic electrical impedance measurement was performed. Recorded data from PulmoVista 500 EIT system were analysed using the official Dräger EIT Data Analysis Tool. The dependency of end-expiratory lung impedance on the change of fluid balance was observed. The relation between end-expiratory (minimum impedance value) frames and changes of fluid balance is shown. Preliminary results strongly support the expectation that electrical impedance of thorax can be affected by total extracellular fluid change.

  8. Pathogen identification using peptide nanotube biosensors and impedance AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccuspie, Robert I.

    Pathogen identification at highly sensitive levels is crucial to meet urgent needs in fighting the spread of disease or detecting bioterrorism events. Toward that end, a new method for biosensing utilizing fluorescent antibody nanotubes is proposed. Fundamental studies on the self-assembly of these peptide nanotubes are performed, as are applications of aligning these nanotubes on surfaces. As biosensors, these nanotubes incorporate recognition units with antibodies at their ends and fluorescent signaling units at their sidewalls. When viral pathogens were mixed with these antibody nanotubes in solution, the nanotubes rapidly aggregated around the viruses. The size of the aggregates increased as the concentration of viruses increased, as detected by flow cytometry on the order of attomolar concentrations by changes in fluorescence and light scattering intensities. This enabled determination of the concentrations of viruses at trace levels (102 to 106 pfu/mL) within 30 minutes from the receipt of samples to the final quantitative data analysis, as demonstrated on Adenovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Influenza, and Vaccinia virus. As another separate approach, impedance AFM is used to study the electrical properties of individual viruses and nanoparticles used as model systems. The design, development, and implementation of the impedance AFM for an Asylum Research platform is described, as well as its application towards studying the impedance of individual nanoparticles as a model system for understanding the fundamental science of how the life cycle of a virus affects its electrical properties. In combination, these approaches fill a pressing need to quantify viruses both rapidly and sensitively.

  9. A comprehensive impedance journey to continuous microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sevda, Surajbhan; Chayambuka, Kudakwashe; Sreekrishnan, T R; Pant, Deepak; Dominguez-Benetton, Xochitl

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the impedance response of an air-cathode MFC operating in a continuous mode and to determine intrinsic properties that define its performance which are crucial to be controlled for scalability purposes. The limiting step on electricity generation is the anodic electrochemically-active biofilm, independently of the external resistance, Rext, utilized. However, for Rext below 3 kΩ the internal impedance of the bioanode remained invariable, in good correspondence to the power density profile. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) had an effect on the impedance of both the bioanode and the air-cathode and especially on the overall MFC. The lowest HRT at which the MFC was operable was 3h. Yet, the variation on the HRT did not have a significant impact on power generation. A two constant phase element-model was associated with the EIS response of both bioanode and air-cathode, respectively. Consistency was found between the CPE behaviour and the normal power-law distribution of local resistivity with a uniform dielectric constant, which represented consistent values with the electrical double layer, the Nernst diffusion layer and presumably the biofilm thickness. These results have future implications on MFC monitoring and control, as well as in providing critical parameters for scale-up. PMID:25921205

  10. Frequency domain impedance measurements of erythrocytes. Constant phase angle impedance characteristics and a phase transition.

    PubMed Central

    Bao, J Z; Davis, C C; Schmukler, R E

    1992-01-01

    We report measurements of the electrical impedance of human erythrocytes in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 MHz, and for temperatures from 4 to 40 degrees C. In order to achieve high sensitivity in this frequency range, we embedded the cells in the pores of a filter, which constrains the current to pass through the cells in the pores. Based on the geometry of the cells embedded in the filter a circuit model is proposed for the cell-filter saline system. A constant phase angle (CPA) element, i.e., an impedance of the form Z = A/(j omega)alpha, where A is a constant, j = square root of -1, omega is angular frequency, and 0 less than alpha less than 1 has been used to describe the ac response of the interface between the cell surface and the electrolyte solution, i.e., the electrical double layer. The CPA and other elements of the circuit model are determined by a complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) fit, which simultaneously fits the real and imaginary parts of the experimental data to the circuit model. The specific membrane capacitance is determined to be 0.901 +/- 0.036 microF/cm2, and the specific cytoplasm conductivity to be 0.413 +/- 0.031 S/m at 26 degrees C. The temperature dependence of the cytoplasm conductivity, membrane capacitance, and CPA element has been obtained. The membrane capacitance increases markedly at approximately 37 degrees C, which suggests a phase transition in the cell membrane. PMID:1600086

  11. Frequency domain impedance measurements of erythrocytes. Constant phase angle impedance characteristics and a phase transition.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Z; Davis, C C; Schmukler, R E

    1992-05-01

    We report measurements of the electrical impedance of human erythrocytes in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 MHz, and for temperatures from 4 to 40 degrees C. In order to achieve high sensitivity in this frequency range, we embedded the cells in the pores of a filter, which constrains the current to pass through the cells in the pores. Based on the geometry of the cells embedded in the filter a circuit model is proposed for the cell-filter saline system. A constant phase angle (CPA) element, i.e., an impedance of the form Z = A/(j omega)alpha, where A is a constant, j = square root of -1, omega is angular frequency, and 0 less than alpha less than 1 has been used to describe the ac response of the interface between the cell surface and the electrolyte solution, i.e., the electrical double layer. The CPA and other elements of the circuit model are determined by a complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) fit, which simultaneously fits the real and imaginary parts of the experimental data to the circuit model. The specific membrane capacitance is determined to be 0.901 +/- 0.036 microF/cm2, and the specific cytoplasm conductivity to be 0.413 +/- 0.031 S/m at 26 degrees C. The temperature dependence of the cytoplasm conductivity, membrane capacitance, and CPA element has been obtained. The membrane capacitance increases markedly at approximately 37 degrees C, which suggests a phase transition in the cell membrane. PMID:1600086

  12. Impedance studies on Li-ion cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    NAGASUBRAMANIAN, GANESAN

    2000-04-17

    This paper describes the author's 2- and 3-electrode impedance results of metal oxide cathodes. These results were extracted from impedance data on 18650 Li-ion cells. The impedance results indicate that the ohmic resistance of the cell is very nearly constant with state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature. For example, the ohmic resistance of 18650 Li-ion cells is around 60 m{Omega} for different SOCS (4.1V to 3.0V) and temperatures from 35 C to {minus}20 C. However, the interfacial impedance shows a modest increase with SOC and a huge increase of between 10 and 100 times with decreasing temperature. For example, in the temperature regime (35 C down to {minus}20 C) the overall cell impedance has increased from nearly 200 m{Omega} to 8,000 m{Omega}. Most of the increase in cell impedance comes from the metal oxide cathode/electrolyte interface.

  13. TRANSVERSE IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT AT THE RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.; HUANG,H.; CAMERON,P.; DREES,A.; FLILLER,R.; SATOGATA,T.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC transverse impedance was measured during the last operation run. Measurement of the imaginary part of the broadband impedance was the main goal. No large difference between the two rings was found nor in either plane. The measured tune shift is larger than the expected by a factor of 2.5 to 3. Several other issues such as the real part impedance measurement are also presented.

  14. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  15. Robust recursive impedance estimation for automotive lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridholm, Björn; Wik, Torsten; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    Recursive algorithms, such as recursive least squares (RLS) or Kalman filters, are commonly used in battery management systems to estimate the electrical impedance of the battery cell. However, these algorithms can in some cases run into problems with bias and even divergence of the estimates. This article illuminates problems that can arise in the online estimation using recursive methods, and lists modifications to handle these issues. An algorithm is also proposed that estimates the impedance by separating the problem in two parts; one estimating the ohmic resistance with an RLS approach, and another one where the dynamic effects are estimated using an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) that is novel in the battery field. The algorithm produces robust estimates of ohmic resistance and time constant of the battery cell in closed loop with SoC estimation, as demonstrated by both in simulations and with experimental data from a lithium-ion battery cell.

  16. An impedance-based integrated biosensor for suspended DNA characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hanbin; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Chaji, Reza; Li, Jiahao; Suzuki, Yuji; Jiggins, Chris; Nathan, Arokia

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe a novel integrated biosensor for performing dielectric spectroscopy to analyze biological samples. We analyzed biomolecule samples with different concentrations and demonstrated that the solution's impedance is highly correlated with the concentration, indicating that it may be possible to use this sensor as a concentration sensor. In contrast with standard spectrophotometers, this sensor offers a low-cost and purely electrical solution for the quantitative analysis of biomolecule solutions. In addition to determining concentrations, we found that the sample solution impedance is highly correlated with the length of the DNA fragments, indicating that the sizes of PCR products could be validated with an integrated chip-based, sample-friendly system within a few minutes. The system could be the basis of a rapid, low-cost platform for DNA characterization with broad applications in cancer and genetic disease research. PMID:24060937

  17. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  18. Non-Intrusive Impedance-Based Cable Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A non-intrusive electrical cable tester determines the nature and location of a discontinuity in a cable through application of an oscillating signal to one end of the cable. The frequency of the oscillating signal is varied in increments until a minimum, close to zero voltage is measured at a signal injection point which is indicative of a minimum impedance at that point. The frequency of the test signal at which the minimum impedance occurs is then employed to determine the distance to the discontinuity by employing a formula which relates this distance to the signal frequency and the velocity factor of the cable. A numerically controlled oscillator is provided to generate the oscillating signal, and a microcontroller automatically controls operation of the cable tester to make the desired measurements and display the results. The device is contained in a portable housing which may be hand held to facilitate convenient use of the device in difficult to access locations.

  19. Potassium polytitanate gas-sensor study by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, F S; Varezhnikov, A S; Kiselev, I; Kolesnichenko, V V; Burmistrov, I N; Sommer, M; Fuchs, D; Kübel, C; Gorokhovsky, A V; Sysoev, V V

    2015-10-15

    Nanocrystalline potassium polytitanates K2O·nTiO2·mH2O represent a new type of semiconducting compounds which are characterized by a high specific surface that makes them promising for use in gas sensors. In this work, we have studied potassium polytitanate mesoporous nanoparticle agglomerates placed over a SiO2/Si substrate equipped with multiple coplanar electrodes to measure the electrical response to various organic vapors, 1000 ppm of concentration, mixed with air by impedance spectrometry in range of the 10(-2)-10(6) Hz. The recorded impedance data for each sensor segment are associated with RC components of an equivalent circuit which are applied to selectively recognize the test vapors exploiting a "multisensor array" approach. PMID:26515008

  20. Semi-solid state adaptive impedance composites for HIRF protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramlette, Richard B.; Barrett, Ronald M.

    2010-04-01

    The feasibility of piezoelectric-based Adaptive-Impedance Composites (AIC) as a method of protecting aircraft equipment from lightning strike events and the resultant High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) was investigated. Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) and sheet vibration theory were applied to analytically derive the performance of the AIC. Multiple prototypes were built for high voltage testing which revealed closed- to open-circuit switching as fast as 77 μs. It was observed that slight geometric variations of the AIC strongly influenced the activation voltage. The voltage necessary to trigger the 85mm long, 3rd generation AIC's impedance could be set between 10 and 60 V. The test data and the analytical predictions were compared with the lightning strike data gathered by ONERA. The comparison indicated the AIC switching speed was over 30 times faster than the necessary minimum to shield typical avionics and flight control mechanisms from lightning-strike induced electrical eddy currents and HIRF.