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Sample records for electric industry restructuring

  1. Electric industry restructuring in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective on November 25, 1997. The law will break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and it will allow non-utility generators access to the retail end user market. The law contains many compromises aimed at protecting consumers, ensuring savings, protecting employees and protecting the environment. While it appears that the legislation recognizes the sanctity of independent power producer contracts with utilities, it attempts to provide both carrots and sticks to the utilities and the IPP generators to encourage renegotiations and buy-down of the contracts. Waste-to-energy contracts are technically exempted from some of the obligations to remediate. Waste-to-energy facilities are classified as renewable energy sources which may have positive effects on the value to waste-to-energy derived power. On November 25, 1997, the law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective. The law will have two primary effects: (1) break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and (2) allow non-utility generators access to the retail end-user market.

  2. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan`s business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities.

  3. An introduction to electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J.F.; Berry, L.G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the electric industry, its residential markets, industry structure and current trends. Its purpose is to provide Weatherization grants managers with the background necessary to assess their leveraging opportunities in an industry that is experiencing sweeping changes, commonly known as electric industry restructuring. The study describes the terrain of a changing industry topography on a national and regional basis, with some state and local information also provided. Weatherization managers and subgrantees who read this paper should be better able to understand the leveraging opportunities that are emerging now in the electricity market place. The reader will be introduced to the basics of the electric industry as it presently operates, the nature of the changes that are in the process of occurring, and the driving forces that are behind those changes. The major industry players are described by type and their interests are explored in further depth. There will also be an overview of the regulatory process as it has operated historically, as well as the changes now underway at both the state and federal levels. Finally, the paper will conclude with a description of some of the assets and opportunities available to those who may be interested in participating in the restructuring process in order to expand or protect low-income programs in their own states.

  4. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  6. Technology opportunities in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Strategic Research & Development (SR&D) program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The intent of the program is to anticipate and shape the scientific and technological future of the electricity enterprise. SR&D serves those industry R&D needs that are more exploratory, precompetitive, and longer-term. To this end, SR&D seeks to anticipate technological change and, where possible, shape that change to the advantage of the electric utility enterprise and its customers. SR&D`s response to this challenge is research and development program that addresses the most probable future of the industry, but at the same time is robust against alternative futures. The EPRI SR&D program is organized into several vectors, each with a mission that relates directly to one or more EPRI industry goals, which are summarized in the paper. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, D.; Busch, J.; Starrs, T.

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  8. Restructuring the Philippine electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, S.; Ellis, M.

    1995-06-01

    The Philippine electricity industry has shown it can change, and change quickly. In contrast with the crises and changes imposed on it in the past, the industry now has as opportunity to forge a progressive, forward-looking strategy, This opportunity is enhanced by the force of law - the Department of Energy Act of 1992 mandates privatization of the National Power Corporation (NPC) - and by the easing of the power crisis which has significantly diminished political interference. In order to position the industry for growth and rising investment requirements and to support the growing role of the Philippine economy in international markets, that strategy must address the structural deficiencies that continue to plague the industry. By addressing structural changes that need to be made now, it can build on the impetus gained from its privatization mandate to improve accountability, increase efficiency and reduce government risk.

  9. Electric Industry Restructuring in Five States: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. M.

    1996-10-31

    The electric industry in the United States is undergoing fundamental changes; it is transitioning from regulated monopolies to competitive markets offering customer choice. In this process, the states have been in the forefront of considering the changes in the industry structure and regulation. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) spearheaded a project on electric restructuring in the United States. This is the final report prepared under the project. The purpose of the report is to describe and compare the overall restructuring processes that took place in five states through June 30, 1996. The five states are California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin. These are the first major states to consider restructuring or retail wheeling.

  10. Analysis of electric power industry restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Yahya

    1998-10-01

    This thesis evaluates alternative structures of the electric power industry in a competitive environment. One structure is based on the principle of creating a mandatory power pool to foster competition and manage system economics. The structure is PoolCo (pool coordination). A second structure is based on the principle of allowing independent multilateral trading and decentralized market coordination. The structure is DecCo (decentralized coordination). The criteria I use to evaluate these two structures are: economic efficiency, system reliability and freedom of choice. Economic efficiency evaluation considers strategic behavior of individual generators as well as behavioral variations of different classes of consumers. A supply-function equilibria model is characterized for deriving bidding strategies of competing generators under PoolCo. It is shown that asymmetric equilibria can exist within the capacities of generators. An augmented Lagrangian approach is introduced to solve iteratively for global optimal operations schedules. Under DecCo, the process involves solving iteratively for system operations schedules. The schedules reflect generators strategic behavior and brokers' interactions for arranging profitable trades, allocating losses and managing network congestion. In the determination of PoolCo and DecCo operations schedules, overall costs of power generation (start-up and shut-down costs and availability of hydro electric power) as well as losses and costs of transmission network are considered. For system reliability evaluation, I examine the effect of PoolCo and DecCo operating conditions on the system security. Random component failure perturbations are generated to simulate the actual system behavior. This is done using Monte Carlo simulation. Freedom of choice evaluation accounts for schemes' beneficial opportunities and capabilities to respond to consumers expressed preferences. An IEEE 24-bus test system is used to illustrate the concepts

  11. Restructuring, ownership and efficiency in the electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser

    The first chapter considers improvements in productive efficiency that can result from a movement from a regulated framework to one that allows for market-based incentives for industry participants. Specifically, I look at the case of restructuring in the electricity generation industry. Using data from the electricity industry, this analysis considers the total effect of restructuring on one input to the production process, labor, as reflected in employment levels, payroll per employee and aggregate establishment payroll. Using concurrent payroll and employment data from non-utility ("merchant") and utility generators in both restructured and nonrestructured states, I estimate the effect of market liberalization, comprising both new entry and state-level legislation, on employment and payroll in this industry. I find that merchant owners of divested generation assets employ significantly fewer people, but that the payroll per employee is not significantly different from what workers at utility-owned plants are paid. As a result, the new merchant owners of these plants have significantly lower aggregate payroll expenses. Decomposing the effect into a merchant effect and a divestiture effect, I find that merchant ownership is the primary driver of these results. As documented in Chapter 1, merchant power plants have lower overall payroll costs than plants owned by utilities. Employment at merchant power plants is characterized by reduced staffing levels but higher average payroll per employee. A hypothesis set forth in that paper is that merchant generators employ fewer workers at the lower end of the wage distribution, resulting in a higher average payroll per employee. The second chapter of this paper examines whether employment at nonutility power plants, that is, those that are either divested or native merchant power plants, is skewed towards more skilled labor. This chapter also considers the extent to which the difference in employment levels is the result of

  12. The status of electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, M.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation discusses current electric utility regulatory reform with a focus on the impacts of competition in the Midwest marketplace. Information and data are presented through 14 figures and 30 tables. Regulatory issues at the state and Federal levels are very briefly outlined, including reciprocity, unbundling, stranded cost recovery, and independent system operation. Graphical data on energy capacity by source, capacity additions, wholesale markets, electricity prices, and market development are also presented.

  13. Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.

    1997-05-01

    A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

  14. Local government: The sleeping giant in electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Public power has long been a cornerstone of consumer leverage in the electric industry. But its foundation consists of a much broader and deeper consumer authority. Understanding that authority - and present threats to it - is critical to restructuring of the electric industry as well as to the future of public power. The country has largely forgotten the role that local governments have played and continue to play in the development of the electric industry. Moreover, we risk losing sight of the options local governments may offer to protect consumers, to advance competition in the marketplace, and to enhance opportunities for technology and economic development. The future role of local government is one of the most important issues in the restructuring discussion. The basic authority of consumers rests at the local level. The resulting options consumers have to act as more than just respondents to private brokers and telemarketing calls are at the local level. And the ability for consumers to shape the marketplace and standards for what it will offer exists at the local level as well.

  15. Restructuring, ownership and efficiency in the electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser

    The first chapter considers improvements in productive efficiency that can result from a movement from a regulated framework to one that allows for market-based incentives for industry participants. Specifically, I look at the case of restructuring in the electricity generation industry. Using data from the electricity industry, this analysis considers the total effect of restructuring on one input to the production process, labor, as reflected in employment levels, payroll per employee and aggregate establishment payroll. Using concurrent payroll and employment data from non-utility ("merchant") and utility generators in both restructured and nonrestructured states, I estimate the effect of market liberalization, comprising both new entry and state-level legislation, on employment and payroll in this industry. I find that merchant owners of divested generation assets employ significantly fewer people, but that the payroll per employee is not significantly different from what workers at utility-owned plants are paid. As a result, the new merchant owners of these plants have significantly lower aggregate payroll expenses. Decomposing the effect into a merchant effect and a divestiture effect, I find that merchant ownership is the primary driver of these results. As documented in Chapter 1, merchant power plants have lower overall payroll costs than plants owned by utilities. Employment at merchant power plants is characterized by reduced staffing levels but higher average payroll per employee. A hypothesis set forth in that paper is that merchant generators employ fewer workers at the lower end of the wage distribution, resulting in a higher average payroll per employee. The second chapter of this paper examines whether employment at nonutility power plants, that is, those that are either divested or native merchant power plants, is skewed towards more skilled labor. This chapter also considers the extent to which the difference in employment levels is the result of

  16. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  17. Informatics requirements for a restructured competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pickle, S.; Marnay, C.; Olken, F.

    1996-08-01

    The electric power industry in the United States is undergoing a slow but nonetheless dramatic transformation. It is a transformation driven by technology, economics, and politics; one that will move the industry from its traditional mode of centralized system operations and regulated rates guaranteeing long-run cost recovery, to decentralized investment and operational decisionmaking and to customer access to true spot market prices. This transformation will revolutionize the technical, procedural, and informational requirements of the industry. A major milestone in this process occurred on December 20, 1995, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved its long-awaited electric utility industry restructuring decision. The decision directed the three major California investor-owned utilities to reorganize themselves by the beginning of 1998 into a supply pool, at the same time selling up to a half of their thermal generating plants. Generation will be bid into this pool and will be dispatched by an independent system operator. The dispatch could potentially involve bidders not only from California but from throughout western North America and include every conceivable generating technology and scale of operation. At the same time, large customers and aggregated customer groups will be able to contract independently for their supply and the utilities will be required to offer a real-time pricing tariff based on the pool price to all their customers, including residential. In related proceedings concerning competitive wholesale power markets, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recognized that real-time information flows between buyers and sellers are essential to efficient equitable market operation. The purpose of this meeting was to hold discussions on the information technologies that will be needed in the new, deregulated electric power industry.

  18. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  19. Assessing strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-08-01

    Restructuring the US electricity industry has become the nation`s central energy issue for the 1990s. Restructuring proposals at the federal and state levels focus on more competitive market structures for generation and the integration of transmission within those structures. The proposed move to more competitive generation markets will expose utility costs that are above those experienced by alternative suppliers. Debate about these above-market, or transition, costs (e.g., their size,who will pay for them and how) has played a prominent role in restructuring proceedings. This paper presents results from a project to systematically assess strategies to address transition costs exposed by restructuring the electricity industry.

  20. Restructuring the electric industry: Will competition help or hurt consumers?

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-17

    Competition is coming to one of the last remaining government-regulated monopolies: The electric power industry. Seven states have adopted policies within the past year that give electric customers the right to choose between competing suppliers. Many other states are considering similar moves, and Congress is being urged to make competition national policy.

  1. A guide to the Blue Book: Issues in California`s Electric Industry restructuring and reform

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, C.; Bushnell, J.

    1994-09-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission`s proposal to restructure the electricity industry in that state has implications that must be explicitly identified and addressed. Here is a short list of issues that should be confronted forthrightly as the process goes forward. This article is intended as a general guide to the policy issues raised by the California Public Utilities Commission`s Order Instituting Rulemaking on the Commission`s Restructuring California`s Electric Service Industry and Reforming Regulation (referred to as the `Blue Book`). The Blue Book proposes opening portions of the California electric power industry to further competition and introducing performance-based regulation for the remaining elements of the industry. The electric power market would be divided into two sectors: the direct sector, in which customers buy from their supplier of choice, and the utility service sector in which customers buy from the utility. The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to clarify the choices to be made in pursuing these changes, and the effects of those choices on criteria by which the results of such a restructuring could be evaluated; and (2) to identify issues that present the largest technical challenges to carrying out the Commission`s proposal.

  2. Electric power industry restructuring in Australia: Lessons from down-under. Occasional paper No. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.

    1997-01-01

    Australia`s electric power industry (EPI) is undergoing major restructuring. This restructuring includes commercialization of state-owned electric organization through privatization and through corporatization into separate governmental business units; structural unbundling of generation, transmission, retailing, and distribution; and creation of a National Electricity Market (NEM) organized as a centralized, market-based trading pool for buying and selling electricity. The principal rationales for change in the EPI were the related needs of enhancing international competitiveness, improving productivity, and lowering electric rates. Reducing public debt through privatization also played an important role. Reforms in the EPI are part of the overall economic reform package that is being implemented in Australia. Enhancing efficiency in the economy through competition is a key objective of the reforms. As the need for reform was being discussed in the early 1990s, Australia`s previous prime minister, Paul Keating, observed that {open_quotes}the engine which drives efficiency is free and open competition.{close_quotes} The optimism about the economic benefits of the full package of reforms across the different sectors of the economy, including the electricity industry, is reflected in estimated benefits of a 5.5 percent annual increase in real gross domestic product and the creation of 30,000 more jobs. The largest source of the benefits (estimated at 25 percent of total benefits) was projected to come from reform of the electricity and gas sectors.

  3. Electric industry restructuring, ancillary services, and the potential impact on wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Parsons, B.; Porter, K.

    1997-12-31

    The new competitive electric power environment raises increased challenges for wind power. The DOE and EPRI wind programs have dealt extensively with the traditional vertically integrated utility planning and operating environment in which the host utility owns the generation (or purchases the power) and provides dispatch and transmission services. Under this traditional environment, 1794 MW of wind power, principally in California, have been successfully integrated into the U.S. electric power system. Another 4200 MW are installed elsewhere in the world. As issues have arisen, such as intermittency and voltage regulation, they have been successfully addressed with accepted power system procedures and practices. For an intermittent, non-dispatchable resource such as wind, new regulatory rules affecting power transmission services, raise questions about which ancillary services wind plants will be able to sell, which they will be required to purchase, and what the economic impacts will be on individual wind projects. This paper begins to look at issues of concern to wind in a restructured electric industry. The paper first briefly looks at the range of unbundled services and comments on their unique significance to wind. To illustrate the concerns that arise with restructuring, the paper then takes a more detailed look at a single service: regulation. Finally, the paper takes a brief look at technologies and strategies that could improve the competitive position of wind.

  4. Efficiency, equity and the environment: Institutional challenges in the restructuring of the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Haeri, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    In the electric power industry, fundamental changes are underway in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand and, more recently, in Asia. Rooted in increased deregulation and competition, these changes are likely to radically alter the structure of the industry. Liberalization of electric power markets in the United Kingdom is, for the most part, complete. The generation market in the United States began opening to competition following the 1987 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set the stage for a much more dramatic change in the industry. The most far-reaching provision of the Act was its electricity title, which opened access to the electric transmission grid. With legal barriers now removed, the traditionally sheltered US electric utility market is becoming increasingly open to entry and competition. A number of important legislative, regulatory and governmental policy initiatives are underway in the Philippines that will have a profound effect on the electric power industry. In Thailand, the National Energy Planning Organization (NEPO) has undertaken a thorough investigation of industry restructuring. This paper summarizes recent international developments in the deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets in the U.K., U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. It focuses on the relevance of these experiences to development underway in the Philippines and Thailand, and presents alternative possible structures likely to emerge in these countries, drawing heavily on the authors' recent experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. The impact of these changes on the business environment for power generation and marketing will be discussed in detail, as will the opportunities these changes create for investment among private power producers.

  5. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  6. Open access and transition costs: Will the electric industry transition track the natural gas industry restructuring?

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, D.F. Jr.; Sikora, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) marked the first comprehensive energy policy legislation enacted in the United States in over a decade. Title VII of the EPAct amended the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA), two New Deal era laws that constitute much of the statutory framework for federal regulation of the electric power industry. These amendments have been hailed as {open_quotes}two notable revisions to previous law that will eventually reshape the electric power business in North America.{close_quotes} While competitive forces already were taking root in the electric power industry prior to the enactment of the EPAct, the new law has been a catalyst for change in the industry and its regulatory environment. Even the EPAct`s authors have been surprised by the pace of change that has occurred in the two years following the statute`s enactment.

  7. Maintaining Generation Adequacy in a Restructuring U.S. Electricity Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1999-10-01

    Historically, decisions on the amounts, locations, types, and timing of investments in new generation have been made by vertically integrated utilities with approval from state public utility commissions. As the U.S. electricity industry is restructured, these decisions are being fragmented and dispersed among a variety of organizations. As generation is deregulated and becomes increasingly competitive, decisions on whether to build new generators and to retire, maintain, or repower existing units will increasingly be made by unregulated for-profit corporations. These decisions will be based largely on investor assessments of future profitability and only secondarily on regional reliability requirements. In addition, some customers will choose to face real-time (spot) prices and will respond to the occasionally very high prices by reducing electricity use at those times. Market-determined generation levels will, relative to centrally mandated reserve margins, lead to: (1) more volatile energy prices; (2) lower electricity costs and prices; and (3) a generation mix with more baseload, and less peaking, capacity. During the transition from a vertically integrated, regulated industry to a deintegrated, competitive industry, government regulators and system operators may continue to impose minimum-installed-capacity requirements on load-serving entities. As the industry gains experience with customer responses to real-time pricing and with operation of competitive intrahour energy markets, these requirements will likely disappear. We quantitatively analyzed these issues with the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model (ORCED). Model results show that the optimal reserve margin depends on various factors, including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices (load shapes and system load factor). Because the correct reserve margin depends on these generally unpredictable factors, mandated reserve margins might be

  8. Electric Industry Restructuring in Ohio: Residential and Low Income Customer Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    Throughout the country the long standing administratively based regulatory structure for determining the cost and service parameters for electric utilities is changing. More and more market elements are coming into the structure. There is a push by many players to eliminate much of the current regulation. For the production side of electricity at least, these players argue that a market approach will do a better n job of pricing power and making it available to customers. However, the electricity industry currently has a large base of investment in power production equipment, some of which may have difficulty competing in a market-based system. What to do about this potentially uneconomic existing investment is an important question receiving a great deal of attention at the policy discussion level. Some argue that if the investment in existing facilities is uneconomic in a new market based system, that is too bad for the owners of the above-market cost facilities, and customers should bear no responsibility to help make those owners whole. Others argue that the owners of above-market cost facilities invested in those facilities in good faith and should not be made to bear the cost of a changing underlying industry structure. The arguments on both sides are long and involved, and this paper is not the place to explore them. However, it is clear that the result of the debate is uncertain, and both approaches must be explored. The purpose of this report is to analyze the current electric utility cost structure in Ohio, estimate the expected changes in that structure and cost levels under various restructuring proposals, and determine the likely impact on low income and other residential customers. The report analyzes the likely cost impacts of a variety of approaches to the above-market cost facility problem. The range of potential outcomes is very wide.

  9. Essays on the investment behavior of independent power producers in the United States electricity industry under regulatory restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jingming

    2002-09-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts at both the federal and state level to introduce greater competition and markets into the US electricity industry through regulatory restructuring. A key to the success of such efforts is the ability of the restructuring to attract investment from non-utility, independent power producers (IPPs). The two essays in this dissertation examine empirically the investment behavior of IPPs under the regulatory restructuring between 1996 and 2000. In both essays, the effects of restructuring on a firm's investment decision are decomposed into the effects that work through the investment cost and that through the expected profit from the investment. The first essay studies the entry behavior of IPPs under the restructuring. The main finding of the essay is that the restructuring has done little to lower the entry barrier faced by IPPs-high fixed cost to entry is still a main factor that hinders IPP investment. The second essay studies IPPs' decisions between investing through building new power plants ("make") and investing through acquiring divested plants ("buy"). It finds that the availability of the "buy" option does not "squeeze" out investment on new capacities. IPPs that chose to "buy" did so because they expected a lower return from "make" and hence would not have switched their investment to new capacities even if the "buy" option were not available. Therefore, divestiture is a viable policy tool for state regulators to attract more IPP investment.

  10. Electric industry restructuring and environmental issues: A comparative analysis of the experience in California, New York, and Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1996-08-01

    Since the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued its April 20, 1994, Blue Book proposal to restructure the regulation of electric utilities in California to allow more competition, over 40 states have initiated similar activities. The question of how major public policy objectives such as environmental protection, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and assistance to low-income customers can be sustained in the new competitive environment is also an important element being considered. Because many other states will undergo restructuring in the future, the experience of the {open_quotes}early adopter{close_quotes} states in addressing public policy objectives in their electric service industry restructuring processes can provide useful information to other states. The Competitive Resource Strategies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Utility Technologies, is interested in documenting and disseminating the experience of the pioneering states. The Center for Energy Analysis and Applications of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory assisted the Office of Utility Technologies in this effort with a project on the treatment of environmental issues in electric industry restructuring.

  11. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  12. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  13. Electricity Restructuring and Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Joseph Dean

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation research concentrates on the causes, motivations, and results of electricity restructuring, and research on the effectiveness of economic teaching and retention. The first chapter looks at motivations for electricity restructuring in the United States in terms of the Interest Group and Public Interest setting. The second chapter…

  14. Getting to Grips with Industry Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Geoff

    This booklet is written for the general reader who wants to understand important trends in vocational education and training. It aims to give the reader an understanding of industry restructuring by answering three key questions: What is industry restructuring? Why restructure? How is industry restructuring achieved? The first part describes…

  15. The regulatory divide: Federal and state jurisdiction in a restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jubien, S.M.

    1996-11-01

    In any restructuring, close attention should be paid to how transactions are characterized. The approach adopted in California tends to minimize jurisdictional complications and preserve state jurisdiction over local distribution, while a retail wheeling approach may raise preemption and Commerce Clause concerns. In the United States, the wholesale electricity market and the interstate transmission of electricity have been subject to exclusive federal jurisdiction, while the retail sale and local distribution of electricity have been subject to the jurisdiction of the separate states. Until recently, the jurisdictional dividing line has been relatively clear. Indeed, Congress intended to establish a {open_quotes}bright line{close_quotes} between state and federal jurisdiction. This bright line, however, is becoming blurred by proposals to allow retail customers direct access to competitive generation markets. Regulation of transactions relating to the transmission and sale of electricity at wholesale is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government. Thus, historically, {open_quotes}transmission{close_quotes} has coincided precisely with wholesale transactions, while {open_quotes}local distribution{close_quotes} has coincided precisely with retail transactions. Since 1978, Congress and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) have promulgated statutes and regulations to enhance the competitiveness of the wholesale generation market. As a consequence, there are many more non-utility entities competing as sellers of wholesale electricity. Now the push is on at the state level to introduce retail competition in the generation supply side of the electricity market. Introduction of retail competition has the potential to upset, if not extinguish, the traditional bright line between federal and state jurisdiction.

  16. Deregulation-restructuring: Evidence for individual industries

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Graniere, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    Several studies have measured the effects of regulation on a particular industry. These studies range widely in sophistication, from simple observation (comparison) of pre-transformation and post-transformation actual industry performance to econometric analysis that attempt to separate the effects of deregulation from other factors in explaining changes in an industry`s performance. The major problem with observation studies is that they are unable to measure the effect of one particular event, such as deregulation, on an industry`s performance. For example, at the same time that the United Kingdom privatized its electric power industry, it also radically restructured the industry to encourage competition and instituted a price-cap mechanism to regulate the prices of transmission, distribution, and bundled retail services. Subsequent to these changes in 1991, real prices for most UK electricity customers have fallen. It is not certain however, which of these factors was most important or even contributed to the decline in price. In any event, one must be cautious in interpreting the results of studies that attempt to measure the effect of deregulation per se for a specific industry. This report highlights major outcomes for five industries undergoing deregulation or major regulatory and restructuring reforms. These include the natural gas, transportation, UK electric power, financial, and telecommunications industries. Particular attention was given to the historical development of events in the telecommunications industry.

  17. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  18. Comparative governance and regulatory restructuring of the electric utilities industry in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksh, Andre Haroun

    This dissertation seeks to identify internal and external institutional arrangements that would allow investor owned utility companies to best economize on costs. The main body of this work is structured around three interdependent essays. The first essay is a theoretical exploration from which a synthesis between Transaction Costs Economics and the Theory of Contestable Markets is derived. The second essay utilizes the framework developed in the essay to explore the institutional changes associated with regulatory restructuring. The third essay is an empirical analysis using iterated seemingly unrelated regression with a one-way fixed effects specification. Findings show a strong relationship economies of vertical separation and short-term contracting.

  19. Essays on restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Emma Leah

    This dissertation focuses on the performance of restructured electricity markets in the United States. In chapter 1, I study bidder-specific offer caps ("BSOCs") which are used to mitigate market power in three wholesale electricity markets. The price of electricity is determined through multi-unit uniform price auctions and BSOCs impose an upper limit, which is increasing in marginal cost, on each generator's bid. I apply BSOCs in both the uniform and discriminatory price auctions and characterize the equilibria in a two firm model with stochastic demand. BSOCs unambiguously increase expected production efficiency in the uniform price auction and they can increase the expected profit of the generator with the lower cap. Chapter 2, coauthored with Ramteen Sioshansi, Ph.D., compares two types of uniform price auction formats used in wholesale electricity markets, centrally committed markets and self committed markets. In centrally committed markets, generators submit two-part bids consisting of a fixed startup cost and a variable (per MWh) energy cost, and the auctioneer ensures that no generator operates at a loss. Generators in self committed markets must incorporate their startup costs into their one part energy bids. We derive Nash equilibria for both the centrally and self committed electricity markets in a model with two symmetric generators with nonconvex costs and deterministic demand. Using a numerical example, we demonstrate that if the caps on the bid elements are chosen appropriately, the two market designs are equivalent in terms of generator revenues and settlement costs. Regulators and prominent academic experts believe that electric restructuring polices have stifled investment in new generation capacity. In chapter 3 I seek to determine whether these fears are supported by empirical evidence. I examine both total investment in megawatts and the number of new investments across regions that adopted different electric restructuring policies to

  20. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  1. Restructuring the energy industry: A financial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper present eight tables summarizing financial aspects of energy industry restructuring. Historical, current, and future business characteristics of energy industries are outlined. Projections of industry characteristics are listed for the next five years and for the 21st century. Future independent power procedures related to financial aspects are also outlined. 8 tabs.

  2. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry`s efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets.

  3. Restructuring and performance in India's electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Arun Kumar

    Restructuring and privatization, used as major tools in electricity sector reform, are often viewed as part of the same process and the terms used interchangeably. Although related, they represent quite different dimensions of change and reform. Privatization is the result of change in the management/ownership. Restructuring, on the other hand, refers to changes in structure such as the unbundling of vertically integrated utilities, and the introduction of competition. Most studies attempt to assess the impact of privatization of the electric utilities on their tariff structure, performance and efficiency. They have not tried to estimate the effect of restructuring on the performance of the unbundled utilities. Using panel data on the state electricity boards and the thermal power plants, and employing variance-component fixed effects and random effects models, this study examines the effects of restructuring and ownership on the performance of India's electricity sector. We also study the effects of absolute majority of political parties on performance. The study also uses a cross-country-comparison-framework to compare the electricity sector reforms of India with those of Chile, Hungary and Norway. Results show that restructuring has significantly positive effects on such performance indicators as plant availability, plant load factor, forced outage, average tariff collection, and sales revenue as a ratio of cost. With regard to labor efficiency indicators, we find mixed results. Restructuring also appears to entail reduction in the extent of cross-subsidization. However, the cost of supply seems to be unaffected by restructuring. Absolute majority of the party in government shows adverse effects on costs, sales revenue as a ratio of cost, and labor efficiency. The effects of ownership are somewhat mixed, with state ownership (as opposed to federal or private) indicating adverse effects on plant performance. Interestingly, after controlling for location

  4. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructured electricity industry: Issues, options, and unanswered questions

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Goldman, C.; Kito, S.

    1996-08-01

    Regulated utilities have, in the past, been responsible for {open_quotes}Public purpose{close_quotes} programs that contribute to the general social good, such as energy-efficiency programs. In several states, continuation of these programs has become a critical issue in forging the consensus required to proceed with restructuring. As a result of reviewing the restructuring process in several states, we expect this trend to continue, but do not believe a single, generic approach can or should be defined. Instead, we expect a variety of solutions based on considerations unique to individual states or regions. To help structure these discussions in states struggling with this issue, we pose a series of questions and describe a range of possible answers: (1) We encourage state public utility commissions and legislatures to provide clear guidance on goals. (2) Close attention to the primary objectives for energy efficiency is important because the objectives influence the choices of programs and activities to be supported. (3) We advocate that states adopt a pragmatic approach to resolving the potentially contentious issue of determining whether or not utilities should continue to have primary responsibility for program administration, management, and design. The approach we propose involves assessing a utility`s past performance, its cur-rent commitment to energy-efficiency activities, and the potential conflicts of interest presented, if the utility retains a central role in administering energy-efficiency programs after restructuring. (4) A state should first assess policy options to mitigate adverse incentives and conflicts of interest in the utility before examining the possibility of having a non-utility entity assume responsibility for designing and managing energy-efficiency activities. (5) If a state does pursue non-utility administration for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, explicit attention must be paid to governance and accountability issues.

  5. Electric restructuring: Observations about what is in the public interest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoecker, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding restructuring of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. A brief assessment is made of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission orders requiring open access transmission services and open access same-time information systems. Three subtopics are pursued in some detail: competition between renewables and conservation, the role of government, and the impact of government on the market for renewables. It is concluded that renewable programs can be incorporated into competitive markets through regulatory agencies.

  6. Three essays on U.S. electricity restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergici, Sanem I.

    2008-04-01

    The traditional structure of the electricity sector in the U.S. has been that of large vertically integrated companies with sole responsibility for distributing power to end users within a franchise area. The restructuring of this sector that has occurred in the past 10-20 years has profoundly altered this picture. This dissertation examines three aspects of that restructuring process. First chapter of my dissertation investigates the impacts of divestitures of generation, an important part of the process of restructuring, on the efficiency of distribution systems. We find that while all divestitures as a group do not significantly affect distribution efficiency, those mandated by state public utility commissions have resulted in large and statistically significant adverse effects on distribution efficiency. Second chapter of my dissertation explores whether independent system operator (ISO) formation in New York has led to operating efficiencies at the unit and the system level. ISOs oversee the centralized management of the grid and the energy market and are expected to promote more efficient power generation. We test these efficiencies focusing on the generation units in New York ISO region from 1998 to 2004 and find that the NYISO formation has introduced limited efficiencies at the unit and the system level. Restructuring in the electricity industry has spawned a new wave of mergers, both raising questions and providing opportunities to examine these mergers. Third chapter of my dissertation investigates the drivers of electric utility mergers consummated between 1992 and 2004. My results provide support for disturbance theory of mergers, size hypothesis, and inefficient management hypothesis as drivers of electric utility mergers. I also find that the adjacency of the service territories is the most noteworthy determinant of the pairings between IOUs.

  7. Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western…

  8. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  9. A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, K.

    1995-11-01

    In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.

  10. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    When electricity restructuring initiatives were introduced in Alberta, and finalized with the institution of retail electricity market competition in 2001, it was argued that the changes would deliver lower electricity prices to residential consumers. However, residential electricity prices in Alberta increased dramatically in 2001, and have never returned to their pre-restructuring levels. Proponents of restructuring argue that electricity prices would have been even higher under continued regulation, citing the effect of considerably higher natural gas prices and the roles of other variables. However, many Alberta residential electricity consumers tend to attribute their higher electricity prices to factors such as market power and manipulation associated with restructuring. Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential electricity prices is developed, estimated for the prerestructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the postrestructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential

  11. Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and increased competition bring with them many benefits for business, consumers and the economy. But they can also result in the restructuring of industries not able to compete with changing economic markets. In the past, Australia has witnessed restructuring in many high-profile businesses, especially those in its manufacturing…

  12. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e

  13. Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

  14. Reshaping the electric utility industry: Competitive implications for Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper briefly outlines some of the issues in the electric power industry restructuring. In addition, the impacts of these changes on the energy marketplace are discussed. Federal policy initiatives, state regulatory response, and utility management response are each described. Management skills are identified as the critical success factor for competition in the utility market.

  15. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  16. Venezuela 2000 restructures its electric power sector to ensure competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.E.

    1999-11-01

    Today, it is well known that the countries that are best equipped to develop their production are not those with the most natural resources but those who have the best trained people, most technical resources and that base their development on competitiveness. The State model is, definitely, not one that offers the greatest advantages, and Venezuela is an example of this. Even when, thanks to the economic boom the country enjoyed in the 70s and 80s, it was able to cost the investments required to develop its infrastructure and to prepare a first class human contingent, over the long term, competition was discouraged and waste encouraged. The result was that, even when Venezuela had vast economic resources compared to its relatively small population, it was not able to become the exception to the rule and succeed in applying this model--now considered obsolete in many countries--indefinitely. Another model based on private ownership has begun to take its place, one that has made it possible to cost the increasingly large investments required, involves opening up these sectors to private capital, and uses the phenomenon of globalization--a major driving force behind competition and one that has wrought considerable change in all corners of the increasingly smaller planet. This paper describes the steps that different sectors in the country have been taking to implement this new model in the electric power sector, such as developing draft legislation for regulating the Sector, very shortly to culminate in the passing of an electric power law by Congress; opening up the Sector to private investors (privatization); dividing the electric power industry into four business units (generation, transmission, distribution and marketing); the electric power market; and other innovations currently being implemented.

  17. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  18. Fossil generation restructuring in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Galambas, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Ukrainian electrical system as it was in 1991, defines the need for restructuring, outlines the restructuring process, identifies a number of major obstacles that are hindering the implementation of the fossil generation, restructuring process, and points out major problems in the coal procurement system. It describes the visits to several Ukrainian power plants, defines restructuring success to date, makes suggestions for improved restructuring progress, highlights lessons learned, and enlightens the audience on the opportunities of investing in the Ukrainian power generation industry. The primary focus is on the Fossil Generator Advisor task, which was carried out under the direction of Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (Hagler Bailly).

  19. Avant le deluge: An investigation of some neglected dimensions of electricity restructuring in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golove, William Harry

    Chapter One of this dissertation focuses on describing the key participant groups and their principle interests in the restructuring process. The process of reaching agreement on the restructuring plan turned on each major interest group receiving satisfaction of all of its key objectives. Chapter Two explores the effective use of rhetoric in the electricity restructuring debate. Despite a lack of public involvement, the use of rhetoric appears to have been a prominent feature of the public policy process. A series of rhetorical concepts and mechanisms defined. Of these, the notions of rhetorical salience and rhetorical efficacy are most significant. The results of a field test on the impact of the particular examples of these tropes prominent in the restructuring debate on opinions regarding some of the key restructuring issues are presented. Chapter Three describes the sea change in the nature of demand side management (DSM) policy in the state, brought about by the restructuring of the electricity market. Whereas the primary goal of DSM had been resource acquisition, the new policy goal was to be market transformation. This chapter reviews the economic, and other social science theory that led to the development of demand side management programs based on a resource acquisition goal prior to restructuring and, subsequently, to a market transformation objective. Chapter Four examines the performance of the market during the period beginning in early 1998 through the first few months of 2000 at which time both the wholesale and retail markets in California were apparently functioning relatively well. The findings presented in this chapter are the result of a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with non-residential electricity customers that had chosen to receive electric service and, in some cases, value-added services from a competitive retail electricity service provider One of the key conclusions is that market rules appear to be critical to customer

  20. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  1. Tinker, Tory, Wobbler, why? The political economy of electricity restructuring in Ontario, 1995--2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Charles Francis James

    The Ontario Tories' 42-year hegemony in government (1943-1985) was wrought through clever policies which often utilized Crown institutions to promote prosperity or to oblige or mollify vying interests. Ousted in 1985, though, they used their time in opposition to revise the Tory doctrine. In the 1995 election, the Tories emerged a tougher, more truculent group quite unlike their predecessors. Campaigning on their Common Sense Revolution (CSR) platform, they promised to eliminate red tape and vowed to obliterate all ostensible economic barriers which were impeding commerce in the province. In the CSR, the Tories identified Ontario Hydro (OH), the province's lauded publicly-owned power monopoly, as a troublesome and inefficient Crown entity which required fundamental reform. Portions of OH, they hinted, would likely be sold. Once elected, the Tories worked hurriedly to demolish OH and destroy public power in Ontario. For nearly 100 years, OH proved a pivotal component within the province's political economy for its provision of affordable, reliable power and its function as a policy tool to incite and direct development. A Tory government fought to instigate public power in the early 1900s and, in the late 1900s, a Tory government was fighting vigorously to rescind it. Why would they now renounce Crown power? It is the intent of this thesis to elucidate the Tory government's involvement in the transformation of Ontario's electricity industry from 1995 to 2003. Distinguishing electricity as a special, strategic staple, this thesis uses a pro-state, pro-staples industry political economy approach to discern how and why the Tory government sought to restructure the electricity sector. Essentially, it posits that the onslaught of neoliberalism, the emergence of novel generating technology, and the faltering of OH's nuclear wing all had a huge part to play in provoking the Tory government to initiate its reforms. Their reforms, though, proved too hasty, haughty, and

  2. Privatization and reform in the global electricity supply industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, R.W.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the origins of the current global interest in the privatization and reform of the electricity supply industry. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues of restructuring the industry into separate firms and the difficulties of attracting private capital into an industry in which some state ownership remains. The targets to be met, the means of achieving them, and potential difficulties in implementing such changes are analyzed. An overview of actual experience is provided, along with a discussion of the problems of assessing whether these changes have been successful. Finally, some lessons are drawn for the future development of the process. 62 refs.

  3. NUGs and the new electric industry: Dream or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    It is the best of times and the worst of times for independent power. The future looks bright, as markets are opening rapidly and transmission access is fast disappearing as a problem. But in the short run a capacity glut in the US and uncertainty about the industry`s future pose real problems. Since Congress enacted the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, non-utility generators (NUGs) have grown from what many in the electric industry regarded as a radical fringe element into mature, well-established players in the business. But today, as the electric industry moves from a stodgy, heavily-regulated climate to a fast-paced, competitive environment, what is the outlook for NUGs? Are they poised for a boom, or is this the beginning of a downward spiral? How will NUGs cope with the industry`s transition to competition, and regulatory and corporate restructuring?

  4. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  5. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  6. Economic and financial restructuring of the petroleum industry: strategies for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between economics, finance, and geopolitics in the oil market is examined. Furthermore, the structural changes that have occurred in the petroleum industry are analyzed. Recent developments have greatly influenced oil prices, and the supply of and demand for oil. The research clearly points to an increasing U.S. reliance on the Middle East oil in the future. Large U.S. oil companies are emphasizing overseas oil exploration and development. The volatility and competitiveness in the market have led to a new oil-pricing mechanisms in international oil trade. Netback pricing, the growth of the crude-oil futures market, and an increase in barter agreements are important developments. Several factors, including the decline in oil prices, and the lack of investor interest in oil investments have reduced the capital available to the industry. This has created the need for new financing techniques. Companies are devising strategies to protect their financial strength. A survey of the restructuring of the petroleum industry was conducted. The survey examined the problems of the petroleum industry, strategies of the oil companies, and the future role of OPEC. The consensus amongst the respondents was that misjudgment regarding future oil prices was the leading cause of the industry's problems, and that the U.S. will be more vulnerable to oil-supply disruptions in the future.

  7. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Outlook for the electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Allday, M.L.

    1991-05-15

    This article proposes the idea that the key to meeting the energy needs of the future is to encourage even more competition in the energy source industries especially the electric industry. Topics discussed include supplying the nation's rising need for power, choosing wisely among potential sources of new power, taking advantage of the global shift toward market systems, market approaches, regulating for markets, and federal and state relations.

  9. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  10. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  11. Transition costs in the electricity industry: A summary of issues

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is evident as the restructuring debate in the U.S. electricity industry completes its third year. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission released a final rule on transmission open access-a key element to facilitate more efficient wholesale markets. The majority of states have initiated investigations or discussions on restructuring retail markets. Yet hurdles remain in formulating and implementing state-level restructuring proposals. Perhaps foremost among these hurdles is the issue of transition costs (the potential monetary losses experienced by utilities, consumers, and other economic actors as a result of government initiatives to transform electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market). Transition costs are approximately equal to the difference between the embedded cost for generation services under traditional cost-of-service regulation and the competitive-market price for power. When government takes action to open current monopoly franchises to multiple generation providers and the competitive-market price falls below embedded generation costs, then transition costs will arise. Transition costs will include one or more of the following four classes of costs: (1) assets, primarily utility-owned power plants; (2) liabilities, primarily long-term power-purchase and fuel-supply contracts; (3) regulatory assets, including deferred expenses and costs that regulators allow utilities to place on their balance sheets; and (4) public-policy programs, such as energy efficiency, low-income programs, and research and development. What is at issue in the transition-cost debate? The debate turns on four questions: (1) How large are the potential transition costs from restructuring? (2) How are these costs estimated? (3) What, if anything, might be done to address these costs? (4) Who will ultimately pay for any remaining costs and how? This paper summarizes some of the key results from a project at ORNL that addresses these four questions.

  12. Issues in the deregulation of the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Cleve Brent

    The electric industry is undergoing a major restructuring which allows competition in the generation portion of the industry. This dissertation explores several pricing issues relevant to this restructuring. First, an extensive overview examines the industry's history, discusses major regulation theories, and relays the major issues of deregulation. Second, a literature review recounts major works in the economics literature on price discrimination, pricing efficiency, and cost estimation. Then, customer specific generation, transmission, distribution, and general and administration costs are estimated for each company. The customer classes are residential, general service, large general service, and large industrial, representing a finer division of customer classes than found in previous studies. Average prices are compiled and marginal prices are determined from a set of utility schedules. Average and marginal price/cost ratios are computed for each customer class. These ratios show that larger use customers face relative price discrimination but operate under more efficient price structures than small use consumers. Finally, issues in peak load pricing are discussed using a model which predicts inefficient capital choice by regulated utilities. Efficiency losses are estimated to be $620 million dollars a year from the lack of peak load prices under regulation. This result is based on the time-of-use pricing predictions from the Department of Energy.

  13. IRP and the electricity industry of the future: Workshop results

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1994-09-01

    During the next several years, the U.S. electricity industry is likely to change dramatically. Instead of an industry dominated by vertically integrated companies that are regulated primarily by state public utility commissions, we may see an industry with many more participants and less regulation. These new participants may include independent power producers, entities that dispatch and control power plants on a real-time basis, entities that build and maintain transmission networks, entities that build and maintain distribution systems and also sell electricity and related to services to some retail customers, and a variety of other organizations that sell electricity and other services to retail customers. Because markets are intended to be the primary determinant of success, the role of state and federal regulators might be less than it has been in the past. During the past decade, utilities and state regulators have developed new ways to meet customer energy-service needs, called integrated resource planning (IRP). IRP provides substantial societal benefits through the consideration and acquisition of a broad array of resources, including renewables and demand-side management (DSM) programs as well as traditional power plants-, explicit consideration of the environmental effects of electricity production and transmission; public participation in utility planning; and attention to the uncertainties associated with different resources, future demands for electricity, and other factors. IRP might evolve in different ways as the electricity industry is restructured (Table S-I). To explore these issues, we ran a Workshop on IRP and the Electricity Industry of the Future in July 1994. This report presents the wisdom and experience of the 30 workshop participants. To focus discussions, we created three scenarios to represent a few of the many ways that the electricity industry might develop.

  14. Banking the Furnace: Restructuring of the Steel Industry in Eight Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Trevor

    A study examined how the cross-national differences in the social contract among managers, unions, and government influenced adjustment strategies in steel. The restructuring process in eight major steel-producing countries was studied to determine who bore the costs of restructuring--employers, employees, or government--and which industrial…

  15. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  16. Some perspectives on the electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Winer, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding future directions of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. Pertinent historical aspects and current industry rules are summarized. Major issues and trends in the electricity market are outlined, and recommendations are presented. It is concluded that new rules in the industry will be set directly by customers, and that customers want renewable energy resources.

  17. Electricity system expansion studies to consider uncertainties and interactions in restructured markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shan

    This dissertation concerns power system expansion planning under different market mechanisms. The thesis follows a three paper format, in which each paper emphasizes a different perspective. The first paper investigates the impact of market uncertainties on a long term centralized generation expansion planning problem. The problem is modeled as a two-stage stochastic program with uncertain fuel prices and demands, which are represented as probabilistic scenario paths in a multi-period tree. Two measurements, expected cost (EC) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), are used to minimize, respectively, the total expected cost among scenarios and the risk of incurring high costs in unfavorable scenarios. We sample paths from the scenario tree to reduce the problem scale and determine the sufficient number of scenarios by computing confidence intervals on the objective values. The second paper studies an integrated electricity supply system including generation, transmission and fuel transportation with a restructured wholesale electricity market. This integrated system expansion problem is modeled as a bi-level program in which a centralized system expansion decision is made in the upper level and the operational decisions of multiple market participants are made in the lower level. The difficulty of solving a bi-level programming problem to global optimality is discussed and three problem relaxations obtained by reformulation are explored. The third paper solves a more realistic market-based generation and transmission expansion problem. It focuses on interactions among a centralized transmission expansion decision and decentralized generation expansion decisions. It allows each generator to make its own strategic investment and operational decisions both in response to a transmission expansion decision and in anticipation of a market price settled by an Independent System Operator (ISO) market clearing problem. The model poses a complicated tri-level structure

  18. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  19. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  20. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  1. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

  2. Education and Training Policies and Programmes To Support Industrial Restructuring in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore and the United States. Training Discussion Paper No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilowitz, Janet

    This literature survey analyzes the process of industrial restructuring as it is occurring in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore, and the United States. It looks in particular at how various agents of education and training in these countries--the school system, public and private education and training institutions and firms--are responding…

  3. Competitive restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Onetto, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    A brief summary of efforts to privatize the electric power industry in Argentina is provided in this article. The 1992 Regulatory Act, which provided seperate regulation for the generation, transportation, and distribution of electricity, is discussed with emphasis on pricing structures. Economic impacts of the Regulatory Act are described for each area of regulation.

  4. Industrial Electricity: Motors. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide provides competency-based instructional materials for training in the field of industrial electricity. Materials are not geared to a specific grade level and may be used with secondary and postsecondary students as well as part- and full-time adult students. The guide includes three sections and ten instructional units. Each…

  5. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  6. The Role of Anomalous Data in Restructuring Fourth Graders' Frameworks for Understanding Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on students' understanding of electric circuits. Findings suggest that children's interpretive frameworks of electric circuits are reflected in the specificity of the details, consistency, and coherence of their understanding. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  7. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  8. The New Industrial Electrics/Electronics Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Federal Inst. for Vocational Training Affairs, Berlin (Germany).

    This publication provides information on occupations in industrial electrics/electronics in the Federal Republic of Germany. Section I contains the German vocational training regulations for these occupations, including an overview of training, examinations, and the new notion of qualification. A chart illustrates the structure for training in…

  9. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  10. Restructurable Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J. (Compiler); Howell, W. E. (Compiler); Bundick, W. T. (Compiler); Ostroff, A. J. (Compiler); Hueschen, R. M. (Compiler); Belcastro, C. M. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Restructurable control system theory, robust reconfiguration for high reliability and survivability for advanced aircraft, restructurable controls problem definition and research, experimentation, system identification methods applied to aircraft, a self-repairing digital flight control system, and state-of-the-art theory application are addressed.

  11. Industrial Restructuring and Retraining in Singapore. Training Policy Study No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Eng Fong; Low, Chee Kiat

    The transformation of Singapore from a stagnating colonial port city in the late 1950s into a newly industrialized city-state in the early 1990s was the outcome of planned adjustments to changing internal and external conditions. Training and retraining programs played a role in these adjustments. Although full employment prevailed in 1979, the…

  12. Structural evolution in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P. )

    1990-01-04

    This article anticipates (and discusses) the changes in structure, planning, and operations that will be thrust upon the electric utility industry by the emergency of competition, which is assumed to have reached nearly irreversible momentum. Some of them present problems for solution. The significance of others is uncertain from a public interest standpoint, or that of cost and reliability of service for consumers. The author also considers the possibility that the decentralization which accompanies increased competition initially will ultimately eventuate in a greater degree of consolidation in this industry.

  13. Human Resource Development and New Technology in the Automobile Industry: A Case Study of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant. The Development and Utilization of Human Resources in the Context of Technological Change and Industrial Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kan; And Others

    This report centers around a plant-level study of the development and utilization of human resources in the context of technological change and industrial restructuring in the crankshaft production area of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant (DEP). The introductory chapter describes how the study was conducted, provides an introduction to…

  14. Image is all: Deregulation, restructuring and reputation in the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Does image affect how one views his local utility company--or energy supplier? Does one value his utility companies more if one sees a lot of image advertising and public relations stories about community involvement, environmental action and charitable work? Or does one view utilities as faceless and anonymous entities that provide necessary services one thinks little about until there`s a problem? And, more important, what is the role of utility image in an era of deregulation, as companies begin a new scramble for customers? To find an answer to these questions, American Gas and Christopher Bonner Consultants conducted a survey of A.G.A. member companies to learn what, if anything, utility companies are doing in the areas of image assessment and change. The survey was sent to more than 200 A.G.A. member companies; written responses were received from 35. In addition, 13 follow-up telephone interviews were conducted, including four with companies that had not responded in writing. The picture that emerges if of an industry that is starting to pay greater and greater attention to image. And, as utilities reorganize and redefine themselves, they are also reexamining the ways they communicate with key audiences, including employees, customers, legislators, the financial community and the news media.

  15. U.S. hospital industry restructuring and the hospital safety net.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Manheim, Larry M; Waters, Teresa M

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. hospital industry was reshaped during the 1990s, with many hospitals becoming members of health systems and networks. Our research examines whether safety net hospitals (SNHs) were generally included or excluded from these arrangements, and the factors associated with their involvement. Our analysis draws on the earlier work of Alexander and Morrisey (1988), and not only studies factors affecting SNH participation in multihospital arrangements but also updates their earlier study. We constructed measures for hospital market conditions, management, and mission, and examined network and system affiliation patterns between 1994 and 1998. Our findings suggest that larger and more technically advanced hospitals joined systems in the 1990s, which contrasts with 1980s findings that smaller, financially weak institutions joined systems. Further, SNH participation in networks and systems was more common when hospitals faced less market pressure and where only a limited number of unaffiliated hospitals remained. If networks and systems are key parties in negotiating with private payers, SNHs may be going it alone in these negotiations in highly competitive markets. PMID:12836905

  16. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  17. Guided self-assembly and directed restructuring of mesoscopic silica using electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung

    Surfactant-templated synthesis of ceramics has received considerable attention due to the ease with which these methods produce materials with well-controlled nanometer-sized porosity. A key limitation with this approach is the pores produced by the surfactant template do not always adopt the desired long-range order. Specifically, the ability to straighten the pores, orient them in desired directions, and eliminate domain boundaries must be improved in order for these materials to be useful as membranes for filtration, sensing or catalysis. One solution to this problem is to guide the self-assembly using applied fields. The idea is to produce short-range order using self-assembly while generating long-range order using the field. Electric fields are an intriguing option because they are easily controlled and can produce orientation in different directions. Recent work by Trau et al. found that mesoscopic silica prepared under the combined influence of high strength electric fields, surface registry and confinement effects possessed oriented nanochannels. The goal of this project was to study the effects of electric fields on surfactant-templated mesoscopic silica. It was found that low strength (E ˜ 200 V/m) electric fields can both guide the self-assembly of the structure as it forms and alter the organization of material that has already ordered. This is the first demonstration of the latter effect in a templated ceramic system. Experimentally, micron-sized particles transformed into continuous fibers under the influence of the field. This macroscopic change in morphology was accompanied by alignment of the surfactant-templated pores in the direction of the field. Quantitative analysis of the response indicates these structural changes occur through an electrokinetic mechanism rather than dielectric polarization. The distinction is important as electrokinetic phenomena arise from the action of a field on free charge while polarization depends on the dielectric

  18. Automatized disassembly of electrical industrial motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Bjoern; Fugger, Erwin

    1998-10-01

    Since February 1996 a large-scale European project called REMPRODUSE-Cu has been in progress. Its main objective is to provide a comprehensive approach to overcome the problems found when electromechanical systems reach the end of their useful life. How these problems could be overcome by a smarter recycling system and a smarter product design is in this project exemplified for electric motors. Today small electric motors when worn out are put in a shredder, due to problems with the disassembly. To be able to perform the disassembly in a proper way measurement and sensing as well as industrial robots will play an important part. In this paper a robotized work station for end-of-life treatment of industrial motors is presented. There are two main steps in the work. The first step is an inspection where the functionality of the motor is checked and the second step is robotized automatic disassembly for motors that can not be reused. This paper deals mainly with the second step. The robotized disassembly station consists of two industrial robots with appliances.

  19. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  20. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview of the electric power industry, selected NASA contributions to progress in the industry, linkages affecting the transfer and diffusion of technology, and, finally, a perspective on technology transfer issues are presented.

  2. Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olmsted, L.L.; Bolin, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Private wind powered electricity generators for industry in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabit, S. S.; Stark, J.

    This paper investigates the impact of the provisions of the new Energy Act, 1983 on industrial wind-powered private generators of electricity and the effects of published tariffs on various industrial working patterns. Up to 30 percent savings can be achieved in annual electricity bill costs for an industrial generator/user of electricity working a single daily shift, if located in a favorable, 7 m/s mean annual wind speed regime. Variation of the availability charge between Electricity Boards about a base value of 0.70 pounds sterling/kVA was found to have insignificant (+ or - 1.3 percent) impact on total electricity bill costs. It was also shown that for industrial users of electricity, the simpler two-rate purchase terms were commercially adequate when compared with the four-rate alternative where expensive metering becomes necessary.

  4. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  5. Exploring Electricity/Electronics. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with electricity and electronics. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: the…

  6. Restructuring the rotor analysis program C-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The continuing evolution of the rotary wing industry demands increasing analytical capabilities. To keep up with this demand, software must be structured to accommodate change. The approach discussed for meeting this demand is to restructure an existing analysis. The motivational factors, basic principles, application techniques, and practical lessons from experience with this restructuring effort are reviewed.

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  9. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  10. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: Selected Issues, 1998

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Provides an analytical assessment of the changes taking place in the electric power industry, including market structure, consumer choice, and ratesetting and transition costs. Also presents federal and state initiatives in promoting competition.

  11. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  12. Industrial Electricity. In-Plant Distribution. Vocational Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Cash; Pewewardy, Garner

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of industrial electricity curriculum guides, consists of materials for use in teaching a course on the in-plant distribution of electricity. Discussed in the introductory lessons are the National Electrical Code, power equipment, and blueprint reading. The next section, a series of units on branch-circuit…

  13. The role of electricity in American industry: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, C.C.

    1985-06-01

    Between 1960 and 1982 US industry reduced its use of energy by 41% for each unit of output. This astonishing increase in energy efficiency was accompanied by an equally notable trend. Over that same period, while energy use dropped, the amount of electricity needed per unit of industrial output actually increased by almost 10%. These two phenomena - reduced energy consumption and increased electricity consumption - point to an important trend that has been generally overlooked in energy analyses: the continuing electrification of US industry. The prospects for increased electrification are substantial. There are a variety of economic, productivity, and environmental advantages to the use of electricity in various process industries. For example, processing industries such as glass-making, primary metals production, chemicals, pulp and paper, and petroleum refining are making major changes toward increased electrification and associated improvements in overall energy efficiency, productivity, and economic competitiveness. Since the process industries are not labor-intensive, further electrification is unlikely to introduce unemployment problems. In fact, it is probable that the increased use of electricity in the future will actually increase job opportunities in the areas of electric generating station construction and electric equipment manufacture and maintenance.

  14. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  15. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  16. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  17. Electricity restructuring and nuclear power renewal in Ontario: A glossary and list of acronyms. Backgrounder Number 13

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, L.; Mills, C.

    1997-12-31

    This glossary is arranged in alphabetical order in three sections: Electrical planning and generation terms; electrical power and nuclear generation acronyms and abbreviations; and radiological quantities and units. The glossary provides a handy reference for those interested in policy issues involving the electricity sector.

  18. Structural change in industry and futures for the electricity industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.; Harris, G.

    1995-06-01

    The electricity supply industry in the United States has been experiencing major technological changes and economics of the business have altered dramatically since the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This opening of power generation business to competition was under-pinned by significant increases in gas turbine efficiency, commercialization of smaller units with high efficiencies, low gas prices, and cost consciousness on the part of independent power producers (IPPs) and major industrial customers. The pace of change continues to accelerate, driven by ongoing technological innovations and customer demands for better, more customized services and lower costs. The purpose of this report is to provoke further thought on the likely course of structural change in the electric utility industry over the next twenty years. The prime focus of the report is on technological change and its impact on economics, and the resulting organizational and structural change. This report begins with a brief look at structural change in several capital-intensive industries to identify common patterns applicable to the electricity industry. The industries selected have network-like operations, similar to the electric utility industry. This is followed by two scenarios which illuminate different plausible futures for the electric power industry. The report concludes with insights on the potential course of regulations and suitable strategies to prosper during the transition phase.

  19. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Erdman, Bill; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  20. Transition to competition in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, P.R.; Levin, S.L.; Cahill, J.J.; Keenan, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Changing technological and supply conditions have dramatically altered the structure and costs of the electric utility industry. Assurance of the continued financial viability of the industry, maintenance of adequate levels of supply reserves, and reliability and protection of interests of residential and industrial consumers requires that a fundamental re-examination of traditional power-delivery institutions occur. The purpose of this article is to begin such an inquiry by proposing a menu of positive solutions to some of the basic problems facing the electric-utility industry. This article, however, is not intended, nor is it structured, as a traditional review of the law, and relatively little attention is paid to legal precedent. The framework that regulates the electric-utility industry today was built in the first forty years of this century, without any precedent, and structured to adapt to the changing environment of that time. Now that the industry has matured, it is only reasonable to look at how it can be shaped to reflect today's dynamic environment. Thus, it is the intent of this article to be a prospective policy paper that coherently addresses the problems of the industry and presents the solutions necessary for it to thrive in the future. 1 table.

  1. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. REMOTE CONTROL BY INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRY. UNIT 9C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Industrial Education Div.

    THIS SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TEXT IS FOR STUDENT USE IN STUDYING INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRY CONTROL SYSTEMS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS AND TESTED BY STUDENT USE. THE MATERIAL IS DIVIDED INTO FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS AND LANGUAGE OF INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRY AND THE LOGIC OF THE…

  2. Introduction to Industrial Electricity-Electronics. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Leo N.; Pierce, Greg

    This manual provides a basic core of instruction for both industrial electricity and industrial electronics. The information should be adapted and modified to coincide with local conditions and supplemented by the instructor's own methods and materials. The manual includes 6 sections (instructional areas) and 24 units. Each unit of instruction…

  3. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  4. Electrical studies for an industrial gas turbine cogeneration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, R.L.; Kalkstein, E.W. and Co., Newark, DE . Engineering Dept. Parsons Co., Pasadena, CA ); Willoughby, R.D. )

    1989-07-01

    Electrical studies are required to assure the proper integration of a gas-turbine cogeneration facility into an existing industrial-plant electrical system and the connected utility grid. Details of such a study effort are presented, including boundary-limit definition for the system model, individual component modeling, load-flow and short-circuit studies, stability studies, and simulation of on-line isolation from the electric utility during system undervoltage or underfrequency conditions. The impact of the studies on the design process and plant system reliability is discussed.

  5. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  6. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR MALFUNCTIONS IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses precipitation malfunctions in the electric utility industry. When a utility electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fails to achieve its design efficiency, there must be a reason. Although the reasons are numerous, they can be placed in two distinct categories: ESP ...

  7. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  9. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Electricity/Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum provides a behaviorally written guide that offers a possible list of objectives to assist in establishing or revising an electrical/electronics curriculum. Teachers may choose specific objectives to suit age group and educational level or expertise. Introductory material describes the scope and sequence of an Industrial Arts…

  10. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  11. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  12. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoesung

    1994-12-31

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market.

  13. Application of Laser Ablation Processing in Electric Power System Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konagai, Chikara; Sano, Yuji; Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira

    The present status of laser ablation processing applied in electric power system industries is reviewed. High average power LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with Q-switch have been developed and currently introduced into various applications. Optical fiber based laser beam delivery systems for Q-switched pulse laser are also being developed these years. Based on such laser and beam delivery technology, laser ablation processes are gradually introduced in maintenance of nuclear power plant, thermal power plant and electrical power distribution system. Cost effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the process is highly required for wide utilization in these fields.

  14. The new electricity industry: What`s at stake?

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, W.; Jansen, P.; Silverman, L.

    1996-08-01

    There is enough potential for value creation and growth in the emerging electric industry to overcome the very significant downside facing today`s utilities. In the transition to competition, electricity customers will gain lower prices, and new or retooled competitors will take market share. To emerge a winner, utilities will have to move quickly on three fronts-strategic, organizational, and regulatory. Market forces, now being accommodated by deregulation, are remaking the electric utility industry. As in banking and telecommunications before it, this industry is now in the early stages of a complete transformation. There will be mergers and massive consolidation. There will be new competitors who will redefine the economics and competitive dynamics of the business, as MCI did in telecom and Fidelity has done in banking. As in banking and telecom, there will be traditional players, like Citibank or ATT, who make and actually shape the transition, and others who dwindle, vanish or are subsumed. The winners will create significant value for their shareholders. The once vertically integrated electric industry will fragment into three distinct, but linked, businesses - generation, wires and power services - plus a dispatch function. Each will have its own competitors and particular competitive dynamics. Generation will be a highly competitive, cost-based commodity business. Wires businesses, comprised of transmission and distribution functions, will be regulated, open access networks. Power services, encompassing wholesale and retail commodity sales and including other energy and non-energy products, will be provided by a third set of services competitors. Scheduling and dispatch, grid control and price settlements will be provided by independent, regulated entities and are outside the scope of this article.

  15. Paradise lost: A study of the decline of institutions and the restructuring of organizational fields in the United States power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sine, Wesley David

    Institutional theorists have a long tradition of examining the persistence organizational forms and practices. Most institutional analysis, however, fails to discuss change in organizational forms and practices that at one time were highly taken for granted. This dissertation presents three papers that explore questions of institutional change in the context of the evolving power industry. The first paper, Dimensions of Institutional Resistance to Change, examines the qualities that make institutions more or less resistant to change. This paper surveys the literature on institutional change and suggests four institutional qualities for indexing institutional change: taken for grantedness, diffuseness, symbolic value, and integrativeness. I argue that these qualities can be used to measure the extent to which an institution is resistant to change, thus providing a means for studying and predicting the life spans of institutions. The second paper, From Hierarchies to Markets: The Deregulation of the Electric Generating Industry, uses the dimensions proposed in the first paper to understand the structural changes in the electric utility industry between 1935 and 1978. It theorizes that crisis catalyzes both organizational scrutiny, which erodes institutional symbolic value and taken-for-grantedness, and search processes for solutions, which redefine fringe alternatives within an institutional field as possible solutions. The net result is the delegitimation of incumbent institutions and the recognition of alternative solutions, creating a solution bazaar, where solutions compete to solve organizational inefficiencies made relevant by the crisis. The third paper, The Institutional Context of Founding Variation in the Emerging Independent Power Industry, presents and tests a theory of the effects of institutional structures on the genesis, development, and variation of organizational forms in a newborn industry created by radical regulatory change. Nascent industries

  16. Is there a future for electric-industry IRP?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1996-05-01

    Historically, regulators imposed resource-planning rules on electric utilities because of the utility`s obligation to serve. Given that obligation, regulators wanted utilities to plan for and procure a portfolio of resources that provided customers with low-cost electricity, stable prices, and a clean environment. What, if any, portfolio-management responsibilities will the future utility have? To answer that question, one must first define a ``utility`` in the future industry. If utilities are distribution entities with an obligation only to connect customers to the grid, then integrated resource planning (IRP) as it has been practiced during the past decade is over. If distribution entities retain an obligation to serve ``core`` customers, then IRP will continue in some form. This paper reviews recent IRPs to see how utilities and their regulators are responding to current and likely changes in the electricity industry. The paper then discusses how IRP might change in the future. These changes include the use of shorter time horizons for planning, a focus on contracts rather than utility built power plants, an emphasis on transmission and distribution planning, treatment of electricity pricing (with time and location dependence) as a resource, and substantial changes in how demand-side management (DSM) is treated. In summary, resource planning will continue. But integrated resource planning will either disappear or will play a much smaller role in utility and regulatory affairs and be conducted quite differently than in the past.

  17. Electric utility industry addresses issue of global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Global climate change is a high priority issue for the electric utility industry, and careful consideration is under-way of numerous options to deal effectively with the potential consequences. The earth's temperature has risen about 0.5 degrees Celsius during the past 100 years. It is not known, however, whether this warning is part of a natural cycle or whether man-made emissions will cause additional warning. Scientists speculate the earth's temperature would have to rise another four to five degrees Celsius for significant adverse effects to result from global warming. The utility industry plans to give careful consideration to an array of supply and demand options, he said. Reliable and affordable electric generation is imperative to our society and will be increasingly important in helping societies adapt if global warning does occur. The nation needs a balanced energy mix to ensure an adequate energy supply. The development of new clean coal burning technologies is essential and should be accelerated to increase efficiency and minimize atmospheric emissions. The utility industry is also looking at processes that will reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial and transportation sectors.

  18. Sourcebook of Restructuring Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A., Ed.

    This three-part sourcebook identifies school restructuring initiatives with a national scope and presents comprehensive information about them. Part 1 identifies and describes national restructuring programs (e.g., Coalition of Essential Schools, Learning Tomorrow, Success for All). Each program description provides an overview of the program as…

  19. Leadership for School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    School restructuring creates new expectations of administrators that transcend instructional leadership notions. Describes a 4-year research program exploring transformational forms of leadership in restructuring schools. Summarizes evidence about transformational leadership practices and behaviors, their effects on school and teacher variables,…

  20. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  1. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  2. Hydrazine: usage and exposure in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The likelihood of employee exposure to hydrazine, dimethylhydrazines (DMH), and nitrosamines was studied in the coal-fired electric power generation industry. Included in the study were a literature search, contacts with suppliers, contacts with Environmental Protection Agency scientists, and two industrial hygiene surveys at representative power facilities. At each of these facilities hydrazine-hydrate (7803578) was added to the boiler water system to act as an oxygen scavenger. The technician adding the hydrazine at one facility wore a face shield, a rubber apron and rubber gloves. At the second facility the employee wore rubber gloves and goggles. None of the employees at either site had experienced any problems of irritation from hydrazine exposure. Even the distinctive odor of hydrazine was not noticeable. The findings suggest that employee exposures to hydrazine were well below federal standards and that exposures to DMH and nitrosamines appeared unlikely.

  3. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  4. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 4. The aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Coward, H.; Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.A.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US aluminum industry. The model consists of the major process steps in the manufacture of milled and cast aluminum products and is designed to select modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting projected demands for the industry's products. Domestic refineries and primary smelters are represented individually in the model. Industry structure in terms of plant ownership and allowed transfers of aluminum-bearing materials is explicitly modeled. With a growth in product demand of 4.2% per year, model results show a decline in electricity intensity of primary production.

  5. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  6. Risk management in the competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, Robert William

    From 1990 until present day, the electric power industry has experienced dramatic changes worldwide. This recent evolution of the power industry has included creation and multiple iterations of competitive wholesale markets in many different forms. The creation of these competitive markets has resulted in increased short-term volatility of power prices. Vertically integrated utilities emerged from years of regulatory controls to now experience the need to perform risk assessment. The goal of this dissertation is to provide background and details of the evolution of market structures combined with examples of how to apply price risk assessment techniques such as Value-at-Risk (VaR). In Chapter 1, the history and evolution of three selected regional markets, PJM, California, and England and Wales is presented. A summary of the commonalities and differences is presented to provide an overview of the rate of transformation of the industry in recent years. The broad area of risk management in the power industry is also explored through a State-of-the-Art Literature Survey. In Chapter 2, an illustration of risk assessment to power trading is presented. The techniques of Value-at-Risk and Conditional Value-at-Risk are introduced and applied to a common scenario. The advantages and limitations of the techniques are compared through observation of their results against the common example. Volatility in the California Power Markets is presented in Chapter 3. This analysis explores the California markets in the summer of 2000 including the application of VaR analysis to the extreme volatility observed during this period. In Chapter 4, CVaR is applied to the same California historical data used in Chapter 3. In addition, the unique application of minimizing the risk of a power portfolio by minimizing CVaR is presented. The application relies on recent research into CVaR whereby the portfolio optimization problem can be reduced to a Linear Programming problem.

  7. Public power: Creating success in the evolving electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, K.D.

    1997-11-01

    Public power needs to challenge the status quo, identify and focus on its core competencies, and find partners that possess the financial strength and complementary skills to help it better serve its communities in a competitive marketplace. The energy industry in North America is undergoing a rapid and profound transformation as natural gas, electric power, and energy services evolve from a regulated structure to a competitive one. This evolution will have dramatic effects on the public power sector. The complexities created by the transition to a multidimensional open market will make it increasingly difficult for those in public power to remain competitive. However, public power can thrive in an open market by resisting the status quo, capitalizing on its strengths, and developing the complementary skills necessary for success through alliances and partnerships.

  8. Electrical conduction phenomena in coked industrial reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Daveau, S.; Bonanos, N.

    1997-02-01

    Industrial Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalysts containing up to 26 wt% of carbon have been studied by admittance spectroscopy. Spectra obtained on heating in nitrogen in the range 200--500 C displayed low frequency relaxations, which were interpreted in terms of a network of carbon islands linked by surface ionic conduction. During subsequent cooling, these features disappeared, suggesting that they were generated by dissociation of strongly bound water. Isothermal ac measurements in nitrogen showed that the conductance was determined by the carbon content. Similar measurements made in dilute oxygen showed that the conductance decreased with burn-off of carbon. Analysis of gases evolved on heating revealed aqueous and chloride species, originating from acid sites on the catalyst support. The results suggest that electrical techniques could be used to characterize coked reforming catalysts.

  9. Optimum control of electric motor drives for industrial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guez, A.; Roberts, M.

    1983-04-01

    The industrial robot employs many actuators (electric motor drives) to perform a variety of tasks. Multilink manipulator arms, metal contouring machines, remote control tanks, and solar panels for satellites are just a few examples of applications for multiactuator systems. The first major problem is in the coupled, nonlinear structure of the interacting actuators. The second major problem is to find the optimum trajectories of motion. Determining the optimum control input for each drive is a difficult problem to solve. Due to the complex set of equations which govern the system, a great deal of simplification is necessary if a real-time computer is to be used to optimally control the motor drives. This paper describes a method for optimizing the performance (in this case, to minimize time of control) of these motorized actuators by automatically generating the input voltage signals.

  10. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 2. The pulp and paper industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Pilati, D.A.; Chang, J.; Sparrow, F.T.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US pulp and paper industry. The model is based on data from economic and engineering analyses of the major manufacturing processes in pulp and papermaking and includes Standard Industrial Classifications 2611, 2621, 2631, and 2661. Energy conserving alternatives to conventional technologies are included. The pulp and paper model is a dynamic and regional process optimization model incorporating the Bureau of Census defined regions of the Northeast, North Central, South and West. It is dynamic in that it analyzes a 25-year time horizon. Given fuel prices and product demand projections, the model selects modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting the projected demands. With a projected average annual growth rate of 3.3% for paper products, model results show a decline in the energy intensity of paper production and an increase in the demand for electricity.

  11. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  12. To wheel or deal?: Electric industrial pricing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, R.L.

    1995-04-15

    Retail wheeling by commission fiat is nothing more than a regulatory sanction of bypass: a means to make nonutility power available to lage industrial (direct access) customers. The initial California timetable, which was delayed again and again, would have made retail wheeling available to these customers by January 1, 1996. The presumption was that large customers could buy nonutility power at cheaper rates than the utility company could offer. But bypass under this mindset will only exaggerate - not mitigate - the enormously expensive issue of stranded costs. By any standard, a ruch to mandatory retail wheeling signifies an extreme measure, an overreaction to a condition for which there is an easier and better remedy. Mandated retail wheeling as proposed in California stemmed from a perception that electricity prices, particularly for large industrial customers, were too high - that bypass would cut prices to competitive levels. The economies of scale, the lowre costs associated with bulk deliveries, and the economics of unutilized spare capacity have, more frequently than not, been downplayed.

  13. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  14. Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural

  15. ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS: FOSSIL FUEL, STEAM ELECTRIC GENERATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report addresses the energy requirements for environmental control in the fossil fuel, steam electric industry. These requirements arise through a number of mechanisms, including: direct fuel or electricity requirements for operating pollution control equipment, including pro...

  16. Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-03-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and finance. A cash-flow model is used to estimate the impact of various financing variables on renewable energy costs. Past and current renewable energy policies are then evaluated to demonstrate the influence of policy design on the financing process and on financing costs. The possible impacts of electricity restructuring on power plant financing are discussed and key design issues are identified for three specific renewable energy programs being considered in the restructuring process: (1) surcharge-funded policies; (2) renewables portfolio standards; and (3) green marketing programs. Finally, several policies that are intended to directly reduce financing costs and barriers are analyzed. The authors find that one of the key reasons that renewables policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy incentives. A policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums.

  17. A study of hierarchical structure on South China industrial electricity-consumption correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on industrial electricity-consumption data of five southern provinces of China from 2005 to 2013, we study the industrial correlation mechanism with MST (minimal spanning tree) and HT (hierarchical tree) models. First, we comparatively analyze the industrial electricity-consumption correlation structure in pre-crisis and after-crisis period using MST model and Bootstrap technique of statistical reliability test of links. Results exhibit that all industrial electricity-consumption trees of five southern provinces of China in pre-crisis and after-crisis time are in formation of chain, and the "center-periphery structure" of those chain-like trees is consistent with industrial specialization in classical industrial chain theory. Additionally, the industrial structure of some provinces is reorganized and transferred in pre-crisis and after-crisis time. Further, the comparative analysis with hierarchical tree and Bootstrap technique demonstrates that as for both observations of GD and overall NF, the industrial electricity-consumption correlation is non-significant clustered in pre-crisis period, whereas it turns significant clustered in after-crisis time. Therefore we propose that in perspective of electricity-consumption, their industrial structures are directed to optimized organization and global correlation. Finally, the analysis of distance of HTs verifies that industrial reorganization and development may strengthen market integration, coordination and correlation of industrial production. Except GZ, other four provinces have a shorter distance of industrial electricity-consumption correlation in after-crisis period, revealing a better performance of regional specialization and integration.

  18. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  19. Sensor system for disassembly of electrical industrial motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Bjoern; Karlsson, Nils; Wide, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The role of reuse and recycling has become more and more important due to environmental reasons during the last years. To realize this goal, flexible automatic disassembly is needed. We have investigated a robotized work station supported by sensors as one possible solution. As an example an electrical motor has in detail been disassembled with the aim to separate the different materials. In an industrial motor the copper is situated in the stator windings and in the junction box. There are three pats in the proposed disassembly work, an inspection phase where the functionality of the motor is determined, a manual disassembly task where the junction box, the shields and the rotor are removed and finally the last part is an automatic removal of the stator windings. The focus in this paper is on the first part, the functionality test. In this test different faults of the motor is identified and a decision in made whether the motor should be repaired or disassembled. The test is performed during start-up of the motor without any load. Current, voltage, vibration and rotation sped is measured. The tested conditions results in a performance classification of the motor by Principal Component Analysis, PCA.

  20. Restructuring the School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brison, David W.

    1972-01-01

    A plan to restructure existing school systems is proposed in order to develop in youth the commitment and skills necessary for collective solutions for social problems. Commentaries on the plan by Everett Reimer, H. L. Willis and Paul Paschke as well as Brison's reaction to the commentaries are included. (MM)

  1. Hospital restructuring and burnout.

    PubMed

    Greenglass, Esther R; Burke, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations are experiencing changes as a result of extensive downsizing, restructuring, and merging. In Canada, government-sponsored medicine has been affected as hospitals have merged or closed, reducing essential medical services and resulting in extensive job loss for hospital workers, particularly nurses. Hospital restructuring has also resulted in greater stress and job insecurity in nurses. The escalation of stressors has created burnout in nurses. This study examines predictors of burnout in nurses experiencing hospital restructuring using the MBI-General Survey which yields scores on three scales: Emotional exhaustion, Cynicism, and Professional efficacy. Multiple regressions were conducted where each burnout scale was the criterion and stressors (e.g., amount of work, use of generic workers to do nurses' work), restructuring effects, social support, and individual resources (e.g., control coping, self-efficacy, prior organizational commitment) were predictors. There were differences in the amount of variance accounted for in the burnout components by stressors and resources. Stressors contributed most to emotional exhaustion and least to professional efficacy. Individual resources were more likely to contribute to professional efficacy and least to emotional exhaustion. Stressors and resources accounted for approximately equal amounts of variance in cynicism. Three conclusions were drawn. First, present findings parallel others by showing that individual coping patterns contribute to professional efficacy. Second, emotional exhaustion was found to be the prototype of stress. Third, prior organizational commitment, self-efficacy, and control coping resulted in lower burnout. PMID:15137570

  2. Restructuring America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne

    In 11 chapters, this book objectively looks at school restructuring on the basis of prominent reports on education; materials submitted by local schools and school systems; results from the AASA (American Association of School Administrators) survey; and interviews with local school leaders, prominent reformers, as well as several state and…

  3. First Restructure: Then Empower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Although empowerment is a necessary change in improving education, the typical school system is not organized or governed in a way that encourages significant change. Educational systems need to be restructured to achieve decentralization in order for organizations to be ready for changes like empowerment. The current structure encourages…

  4. Deregulation of the Electric Industry and Its Potential Benefits for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkiss, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the electric-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…

  5. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  6. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Electricity/Industrial Electricity. Development Period, July, 1983--June, 1984. Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Wm. Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist vocational educators in presenting an articulated, performance-based course in electricity and industrial electricity. Addressed in the individual units of the course (included in 11 modules) are the following topics: safety, leadership, communication skills, career preparation, good work habits and…

  7. Conserving Electrical Energy in Commerce and Industry. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module contains readings which explain the need to conserve electricity and describe how major electric energy users (the industrial and commercial groups) use and conserve electricity. The module also contains 10 self-check questions (with answers) and a list of references. Students completing the module should be able to: (1) compare the…

  8. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Industrial Arts: Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    Units of instruction at four levels are designed for use by teachers preparing industrial arts courses in electricity and electronics in junior high and high school. Exploring Electricity-Electronics introduces the subject with attention to circuits, laws, and applications. Basic Electricity-Electronics covers batteries, magnetism, transformers,…

  9. Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

  10. The Energy Opportunity: A View from an Electric Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the rapid expansion of electric power use in the United States and contends that the current emphasis must be on expanding the generating capacity of electricity from coal and nuclear fuels. Journal available from Energy Information Associates, Inc., P. O. Box 18076, Capitol Hill Station, Denver, Colorado 80218. (KC)

  11. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Gorham, Bethany

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  12. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-01

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors. PMID:23441588

  13. Organizing the University-Industry Relationship: A Case Study of Research Policy and Curriculum Restructuring at the North-West University in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, F. K.; Reinecke, C. J.; Gibbons, M.

    2008-01-01

    A major requirement for transformation contained in the new education policy in South Africa is that the graduate outputs of the higher education system should match the needs of a modernizing economy. This paper addresses the organizational aspect of university-industry relationships that is an element of the transformation. In empirical terms,…

  14. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some ...

  15. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

  17. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry 1999: Mergers and Other Corporate Combinations, The

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Presents data about corporate combinations involving investor-owned utilities in the United States, discusses corporate objectives for entering into such combinations, and assesses their cumulative effects on the structure of the electric power industry.

  18. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

  19. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  20. Electricity-Electronics for Industrial Arts. Instructors Lesson Plans. Industrial Arts Series, Publication Number 10,010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Roy S., Comp.

    Thirty-one lesson plans on electricity-electronics are presented in this guide designed for industrial arts instructors. Each lesson plan is organized into the following format: (1) lesson objective; (2) supplementary teaching items; (3) presentation; (4) demonstration; (5) laboratory or other activities; and (6) test items (oral, written, or…

  1. Federal restructuring legislation: A recipe for successful action

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, M.

    1997-03-01

    Without a doubt, electric restructuring legislation will assume a prominent position during the 105th Congress. But whether this attention results in enactment of meaningful legislation or simply wheel-spinning exercises will depend on the substantive approach Congress seeks to take. There is both the political will and the substantive need to enact legislation: (1) The base of political support for retail competition has expanded well beyond a handful of large industrial consumers. Retail chains, small commercial establishments and residential consumer representatives in some states see the potential savings and benefits that can result from choosing power suppliers. (2) States are moving forward--with various degrees of seriousness--to test or implement retail competition. But the authority of the states is ambiguous, and a successful legal challenge could bring this progress to a halt. (3) While a `cookie-cutter` approach to retail wheeling may not be necessary, there are substantive and economic reasons to promote certain consistent (though not necessarily identical) policies and actions. (4) Congress cannot stand aside and passively watch the states (and the market) act. Certain actions are needed to promote effective retail competition that only Congress can take. Congress should send to the President a comprehensive restructuring package during the 105th Congress. If Congress fails to act, it will increase the political risks of any subsequent legislative effort to `get it right.` This article attempts to outline a legislative package that should gather sufficient support for enactment in the 105th Congress. The author asks the reader`s indulgence to remember the prime objective--passage of meaningful legislation that extends the option of choice to electricity customers. While the proposal below will fall short of the objectives of some, the author believes it embraces the most comprehensive approach to a package that is politically feasible.

  2. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  3. Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

  4. Industrial Arts Electricity/Electronics. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist administrators and teachers of industrial arts and vocational and technical school programs with the development of a meaningful curriculum in the area of electricity and electronics. Included in the volume are curriculum guides for the following courses: Self- and Career Awareness of Electricity and…

  5. Vocational Schools: Relation of Curricula To Needs in the Fields of the Electrical and Electronic Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitzan, Esther

    The primary purpose of this survey was to bring about closer contacts between vocational education and the electrical and electronic goods industry of Israel. In addition to a review of literature, engineers and managers were surveyed, via questionnaires, with respect to: (1) The various occupations existing in electricity and electronics, (2)…

  6. A Survey of the Training Needs for the Metal Casting Industry's Electrical Skilled Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mary Ann

    Additional training needs desired by the electrical skilled personnel of the metal casting industry were the focus of a study. A questionnaire was distributed to electricians and electrical engineers employed in 39 foundries in over 20 states. Of the 150 surveys, 63 responded for a 42 percent return. The questionnaire was divided into three…

  7. Fee electricity - a new headache for the gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.

    1980-01-01

    Stray current from underground primary electric cables and electric grounds can occasionally cause unusually high voltages at certain points along gas-distribution systems. Because of the parallel paths and many sources of stray neutral currents, the circuitry and voltage drops are complex. Washington Power's experience shows that (1) bare gas pipe systems remain relatively free of neutral currents because they are grounded along their entire length, (2) plastic and coated-steel pipe systems pick up stray neutral currents through holidays, bare valves, etc., and develop hazardous voltages because the steel pipe or the tracer wire of the plastic pipe is insulated from the soil, (3) pipeline voltages occur in areas having very high soil resistivities because of the poor return circuit for neutral currents back to the electric substation, and (4) the pipelines most distant from the substation experience the highest voltages because those areas contain the greatest imbalance of primary currents.

  8. Impact of Computers on Electrical Engineering Education--A View from Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Commission on Education.

    A two-day conference was held in 1969 with industrial representatives and COSINE members to examine the impact that computer technology has had upon the practice of engineering in industry and to assess the meaning of these changes upon the structure of electrical engineering education. The major conclusions and recommendations of the meeting may…

  9. Pricing competitive electricity services: Principles and segmentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, L.D.; Hamm, G.L.; Flaherty, C.P.; Wong, K.L.; Wood, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses pricing principles and approaches that electric utilities will need to consider as industry restructuring leads to increasing competition at the retail level. This study supplies information that utilities can use in planning new pricing schemes and in developing the market information necessary to implement these schemes.

  10. Restructuring Schooling: The Equity Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the school restructuring movement offers considerable promise for enhancing educational equity. Reviews equity definitions, outlines restructuring principles, and describes three powerful ethics (competitive/utilitarian, social justice, and caring) underlying current attempts to highlight equity values in education. Presents a strategy…

  11. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  12. Performance Issues for a Changing Electric Power Industry

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the factors affecting reliability within the electric bulk power system. Historical and projected data related to reliability issues are discussed on a national and regional basis. Current research on economic considerations associated with reliability levels is also reviewed.

  13. Electricity (Construction). Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the electricity trade as recommended by the successful electrician. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  14. Restructurable Controls Problem Definition and Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Restructurable controls, failure classification, airframe design, failure type, control system type, post failure mission, plant identification, controller design techniques, and restructurable control concept validation tools are considered.

  15. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  16. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    SciTech Connect

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  17. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185967

  18. Voluntary GHG reduction in the US electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-15

    The report is a study of efforts by members of the industry to voluntarily reduce their greenhouse gas emission. Dozens of US utilities are leveraging voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction programs to help develop cost-effective plans for responding to future potential regulation. Many of these utilities are taking aggressive steps to reduce their GHG emissions and positioning themselves as leaders. They are participating in voluntary programs for reasons ranging from pressure by environmental groups and investors to a desire for a stronger voice in shaping climate change policy. The report takes a comprehensive look at what is driving these voluntary efforts, what government and industry help is available to support them, and what specific activities are being undertaken to reduce GHG emissions. It explains the features of the most prominent voluntary utility programs to help companies determine which might best suit their needs. 1 app.

  19. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  20. The political economy of United States multiutilities: The United States electric power industry and communication services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quail, Christine M.

    This study consists of a political economic analysis of the multiutility industry, the industry located at the confluence of electric utilities, telephone, cable, and Internet markets. The study uses a theoretical framework based in political economy and urban theory. Methodologies used include industrial analysis and instrumental analysis. A discussion of technological convergence establishes the technical means by which multiutilities developed. Refusing technological determinism, however, the study presents a critical analysis of the history, philosophy, and regulation of utilities. Distinctions are made between public and private ownership structures in the electric utility industry. Next, the study embarks on an industrial analysis of the multiutility industry. The industrial analysis includes a discussion of the industry's history, markets, ownership types, and legal struggles. Following the broad industrial overview, two case studies are presented: Hawarden Integrated Technology, Energy and Communications (HITEC), and Con Edison Communications, LLC. HITEC is a public multiutility in the City of Hawarden, Iowa. Con Edison Communications is a private multiutility, based in New York City. The case studies provide a vehicle by which theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, as well as general trends, in the multiutility industry are localized and concretized. Finally, the study draws conclusions about the nature, history, and future of public versus private control of multiutilities' converged communications infrastructures. Questions of democratic control of media infrastructures are raised.

  1. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  2. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  3. Development and Industrial Application of Electric Capacitance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Masahiro; Zhao, Tong

    2008-09-01

    A new reconstruction method called Generalized Vector Sampled Pattern Matching (GVSPM) has been applied to an ill-posed inverse problem involving an electrical capacitance CT for solid air two-phase flow. The characteristics of GVSPM method were examined using a simulation for pseudo particle concentration distribution images and real experiment data. Overall, the accuracy is strongly dependent upon the image type and the iteration number. However the GVSPM method was proved superior to the LW and the ITR methods in the case of annular pseudo particle images and particles with relatively low electric charge. Then, a sensor for capacitance CT was designed to visualize the powder concentration in the process of mixing air and FCC catalysts in a vertical pipeline. The concentration distribution images are obtained under certain air-catalyst parameter conditions. The relationship between the air-catalyst parameter condition and the powder distribution is analyzed in detail. The accuracy of the reconstructed image was also discussed systemically in terms of volume fraction, residual capacitance, and capacitance correlation. Moreover, the particle concentration distribution images of a dense two-phase solid/air (plug) flow have been obtained at 10 milli-second intervals in a horizontal pipeline using capacitance computed tomography. The formation of plug was clarified by these reconstructed images.

  4. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  5. Electrical Occupations and Residential Electricity. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains eight units that provide the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the electrical occupations/residential electricity curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the…

  6. Proceedings of Wireless Technology in the Electric Power Industry Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    A one-day workshop was conducted at EPRI Charlotte to identify technology issues related to wireless technology in nuclear power plants. The meeting concluded with a roundtable discussion to determine what projects could be conducted to address opportunities and gaps in this technology; the three projects recommended for further investigation were a risk analysis, development of a technology strategy, and development of guidelines for reliable implementation of wireless technologies. The Proceedings CD includes workshop presentations in PowerPoint format. The presentations cover the following topics: (1) Wireless Project at TXU: Integration of Voice, Data, and Video; (2) Radio Upgrade Project at Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) of New Jersey; and (3) Operational Experience with Wireless Communication at Nuclear Plants.

  7. Europe's last chance to restructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1992-12-23

    Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

  8. Could energy-intensive industries be powered by carbon-free electricity?

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-03-13

    While the main thrust of the Discussion Meeting Issue on 'Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production' was to explore ways in which society's net demand for materials could be reduced, this review examines the possibility of converting industrial energy demand to electricity, and switching to clean electricity sources. This review quantifies the scale of infrastructure required in the UK, focusing on wind and nuclear power as the clean electricity sources, and sets these requirements in the context of the decarbonization of the whole energy system using wind, biomass, solar power in deserts and nuclear options. The transition of industry to a clean low-carbon electricity supply, although technically possible with several different technologies, would have very significant infrastructure requirements. PMID:23359732

  9. Capacity-expansion planning under uncertainty in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Soyster, A.L.

    1980-07-25

    This document basically represents a comparison between theory and practice of capacity-expansion planning in the electric-utility industry. The purpose of the comparison is to provide avenues for further exploration in utility decision making. The focus of the Phase II study is upon the role of uncertainty in the decision-making process. The Phase I effort was directed at modeling the Averch-Johnson theory of the regulated utility. Part I of this report reviews the Anderson study (D. Anderson, Models for Determining Least-Cost Investments in Electricity Supply). The Anderson paper has become a standard reference for capacity-planning studies in the electric-utility industry. Part II examines uncertainty and the behavior of the firm. Part III reviews 5 models of electric-utility capacity planning under uncertainty, and Part IV is concerned with capacity-planning models in practice.

  10. Paper Institute Restructures Grad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes a restructuring program that places more emphasis on blending research and teaching at the practical level. Heavier emphasis will be placed on engineering and additional consideration given to environmental technology, economics, business, and law. (GS)

  11. Survey of earthquake-induced fires in electric power and industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, S.W.; Harris, S.P. )

    1990-09-01

    Fires following earthquakes are a dramatic image, largely due to the destruction of much of the city of San Francisco by fire following the great earthquake of 1906. This report addresses the incidence of earthquake-induced fires, specifically in power and industrial facilities. Industrial and power facilities (including nuclear) share similar types of building construction and internal installations. More importantly, they share similar potential sources of ignition, such as electric power cable and bus bars, gas lines, furnaces, boilers, and water sources located in proximity to electrical equipment. 22 refs.

  12. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  13. Economics of scale in the electric-utility industry: a review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Purpose of this paper is to examine the literature dealing with the issue of economy of scale, outline its effects on, and implications for, the electric utility industry, and to review the economies of scale for both conventional and renewable (or inexhaustible) utility technologies. The key characteristics of utility technology and other factors which influence economies of scale are included to provide historical and future perspective on the importance of the economy-of-scale issue. Intent of this paper is to review the role of scale economies in the electric utility industry in order to structure the discussion on and gain perspective on their continued importance.

  14. The electric industry's gyrations are giving some telecommunications experts that old familiar feeling

    SciTech Connect

    Graniere, R.J.

    1993-06-15

    A timeline of the past 20 years would characterize an American telecommunications policy revolution dominated by alternating periods of market structure and access. It also would reveal that this cycle is not a casual phenomenon but the result of procompetitive regulatory and judicial decisions that spawn equal and open access issues whose resolution is, in turn, a source of additional market structure issues. Passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 has started a similar cogenerative process in the electricity industry. How can electric utility executives and regulators use the lessons of the telecommunications industry to deal with emerging transmission issues in the electricity industry They can begin by realizing that multiple forms of mandatory transmission access may be new to electric utilities, but they are second nature to telephone local exchange companies (LECs). For example, LECs have been providing local access services to equipment manufacturers and long-distance companies for over a decade. These firms also are deploying local access services for the enhanced and information-services providers under the rubric of open network architecture (ONA). This full range of access services might soon be commonplace in the electricity industry, too, as exempt wholesale generators (EWGs) enter the wholesale power markets.

  15. Post-Socialist Restructuring and Population Redistribution in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David L.; Kulcsar, Laszlo J.; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Obadovics, Csilla

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on pathways by which national level macro-social transformations are transmitted to local communities. Our case is Hungary where we examine the relationship between post-socialist economic restructuring, widespread industrial dislocations, and urban-rural migration. Using secondary data from the Hungarian Central Statistical…

  16. Potential for cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.; Edelson, E.; Kashani, A. K.; Slonski, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The nontechnical issues of industrial cogeneration for 12 California firms were analyzed under three categories of institutional settings: (1) industrial ownership without firm sales of power; (2) industrial ownership with firm sales of power; and (3) utility or third party ownership. Institutional issues were analyzed from the independent viewpoints of the primary parties of interest: the industrial firms, the electric utilities and the California Public utilities Commission. Air quality regulations and the agencies responsible for their promulgation were examined, and a life cycle costing model was used to evaluate the economic merits of representative conceptual cogeneration systems at these sites. Specific recommendations were made for mitigating measures and regulatory action relevant to industrial cogeneration in California.

  17. Performance-based ratemaking: Opportunities and risks in a competitive electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Woolf, T.; Michals, J.

    1995-10-01

    Performance-based ratemaking is increasingly being considered an alternative to traditional regulation within a more competitive electricity industry. If designed well, PBR can provide better financial incentives than exist today. But regulators should carefully design PBR mechanisms that incorporate long-term public policy objectives as well as short-term profit incentives.

  18. Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

  19. THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It reviews the status of the electric utility industry in the six ORBES states: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Topics in...

  20. COMPARISON OF THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF EQUIPMENT IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to compare the reliability/availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems with equipment commonly used in the electric utility industry. Because many parameters used in reporting performance data for these systems have different definit...

  1. Apprentice and Ongoing Training Needs in the Electrical and Associated Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughney, James; Howes, Jenny; Worland, David; Wragg, Cheryl

    A study investigated skill shortages in the electrical and associated industries in Victoria and their nature and contributing factors. Research methods were a literature review, data analysis, and qualitative and quantitative research into apprentices, employers, and practitioners. Findings indicated a decline in the number of apprentices in…

  2. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  3. 77 FR 43015 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Conservation Standards Rulemaking Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors'' (75 FR... energy savings (NES) and the net present value (NPV) of total customer costs and savings expected to... determined over a specified time period. The national NPV is the sum over time of the discounted net...

  4. Basic Electricity/Electronics (Industrial Arts). Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1724.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist industrial arts teachers, counselors, and administrators in improving instruction in the areas of electricity and basic electronics. Included in the first part of the guide are a course flow chart, a course description, a discussion of target grade levels and prerequisites, course goals and objectives,…

  5. Industrial Education. Mini-Course Cluster: Bikes, Electricity, Small Engines. [Grade 9].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides three units to be used in a one semester course in grade 9 on the subjects of bikes, electricity, and small engines. The section on bicycles is divided into two parts, mechanical and power (i.e. motorcycles) and covers the topics of…

  6. Industrial Electrical Maintenance Learning Guides and Task Listing by Occupational Titles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmer, Melvin

    Seven student learning guides are provided for an industrial electrical maintenance program at the secondary, postsecondary, or adult level. Each learning guide is composed of these component parts: a title page that states the task, purpose, program and task numbers, estimated time, and prerequisites; an optional learning contract that includes…

  7. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  8. From gas to electric at FERC: Will it be deja vu all over again. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbish, D.J. )

    1992-06-01

    Recent legislative proposals to increase FERC's authority to require electric utilities to provide transmission service to third parties ( wheeling') and to encourage the development of independent power producers (IPPs) suggest that FERC may soon have the necessary legislative mandate to 436' the electric utility industry - to pursue at a faster pace the same sort of restructuring it has been following since at least 1988. In view of the possibility that the electric industry may be reformed in a way that parallels the natural gas industry in some fashion, this paper examines how the Commission has gone about restructuring the natural gas industry over the past seven years, and what lessons the Commission should have learned from that experience and whether recent developments at FERC on the electric side indicate that it has learned those lessons.

  9. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  10. Efficiency measurement for regulatory market-structure regimes of the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Cecilia Maria

    This dissertation provides an empirical evaluation of market structure reforms that have been implemented in the Electric Power Industry between 1980 and 1999. The analysis is based on the experience of Latin American countries and to some extent of OECD countries. Market structure reforms pose certain tradeoffs. Economic theory suggests that such tradeoffs depend on parameters that can only be estimated econometrically. The tradeoffs arise in industries where vertical relationships between production layers result from the interaction between competitive markets and regulated markets. The implications of different structural arrangements can be clarified by empirical work. This comparative analysis of the recent international experience in the electric power industry addresses these implications. The results of this research support the claim that vertical separation between generation, transmission and distribution is the most efficient regulatory regime, and, as such, a central feature of reform processes in the electric power industry. The empirical analysis uses the distance function as an analytical tool to estimate relative efficiency for each market structure arrangement. For this purpose, the present study assembles a panel set covering 40 countries during a 20-year period.

  11. NASA Restructuring Draws Mixed Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-07-01

    Some scientists are optimistic about what they say will be new opportunities and clout that the Earth and space sciences will have under the organizational restructuring that NASA announced 24 June, while others are concerned that these sciences may be buried bureaucratically, and suffer fiscally. Under the restructuring, which takes effect on 1 August, Goddard Space Flight Center director Alphonso Diaz will become the Science associate administrator. Associate administrator for space science Edward Weiler will become the new head of Goddard. Associate administrator for Earth Science, Ghassem Asrar, will become science deputy associate administrator and chief scientist for exploration.

  12. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  13. U.S. and Chinese experts perspectives on IGCC technology for Chinese electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.C.B.; Wang Yingshi

    1997-11-01

    Although China is a very large and populous nation, and has one of the longest known histories in the world, it has only lately begun to seek its place among modern industrial nations. This move, precipitated by the government`s relatively recently adopted strategic goals of economic development, societal reform and promotion of engagement with other industrial nations, has brought to the fore the serious situation in which the Chinese electric power industry finds itself. Owing to the advanced average age of generation facilities and the technology used in them, serious expansion and modernization of this industry needs to take place, and soon, if it is to support the rapid industrial development already taking place in China. While China does have some oil and gas, coal constitutes its largest indigenous energy supply, by far. Coal has been mined and utilized for years in China. It is used directly to provide heat for homes, businesses and in industrial applications, and used to raise steam for the generation of electricity. The presently dominant coal utilization methods are characterized by low or marginal efficiencies and an almost universal lack of pollution control equipment. Because there is so much of it, coal is destined to be China`s predominant source of thermal energy for decades to come. Realizing these things--the rapidly increasing demand for more electric power than China presently can produce, the need to raise coal utilization efficiencies, and the corresponding need to preserve the environment--the Chinese government moved to commission several official working organizations to tackle these problems.

  14. SO{sub 2} trading program as a metaphor for a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    This very brief presentation focuses on the competitive market impacts of sulfur dioxide SO{sub 2} emissions trading. Key points of the presentation are highlighted in four tables. The main principles and results of the emissions trading program are outlined, and the implications of SO{sub 2} trading for the electric industry are listed. Parallels between SO{sub 2} trading and electric utility restructing identified include no market distortion by avoiding serious disadvantages to competitors, and avoidance of stranded costs through compliance flexibility. 4 tabs.

  15. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  16. Educational Restructuring and the Community Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E., Ed.; Romney, Valerie A., Ed.

    This document explores the application of the community education process to restructuring activities at both the state and local level. The monograph contains the following papers: "In the Forefront of Restructuring" (Larry Decker, Valerie Romney); "Building Learning Communities: Realities of Educational Restructuring" (Larry Decker); "The…

  17. Error-Driven Knowledge Restructuring in Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Michael L.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Davies, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge restructuring occurs when people shift to a new strategy or representation during learning. Although knowledge restructuring can frequently be experimentally encouraged, there are instances in which people resist restructuring and continue to use an expedient but imperfect initial strategy. The authors report 3 category learning…

  18. Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

    Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

  19. Estimating the Extent of School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brief to Policymakers, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Findings of three studies that investigated the extent of school restructuring in American schools are presented in this paper. The data are combined from three different sources: (1) a national survey of 268 schools nominated for their successful restructuring programs; (2) a survey of 100 restructuring proposals submitted to a funding…

  20. Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry. Volume 3. Groundwater investigation and mitigation techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, J.

    1985-05-01

    The leaching of fly ash, bottom ash, coal piles, and other materials has recently developed into an area of major environmental concern. Federal, state, and local regulations require various degrees of leachate monitoring. Land subsidence and sinkhole development can adversely affect power-generating facilities and frequently result in substantial property losses. Seepage from impoundments of all sorts (for example, ash ponds or hydroelectric facilities) may results in substantial water losses, lost generation, reduced stability of structures, and in extreme cases, abandonment or failure of dikes and dams. The groundwater manual is organized into three volumes. Volume 1 provides basic background geological and hydrogeological material. Volume 2 describes specific electric utility industry groundwater related problems. Volume 3 discusses the techniques and instrumentation necessary to detect, evaluate, monitor, remedy, or prevent groundwater related problems experienced by the electric utility industry.

  1. Fabric filters for the Electric Utility Industry: Volume 1, General concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Cushing, K.M.; Pontius, D.H.; Smith, W.B.; Carr, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This publication is the first in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Multiple volumes are planned, each to be produced sequentially over the period 1987-1989. Topics to be addressed include operating principles and terminology, baghouse design considerations, bags and fabrics, flue gas dynamics, reverse-gas cleaning, reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance, shake/deflate cleaning, pulse-jet cleaning, combined SO/sub 2/ collection, and operation and maintenance. Volume 1, General Concepts contains a discussion of fly ash formation, technologies for particulate control, baghouse operating principles and terminology, filtration mechanisms, the filtration process, and baghouse application in the US utility industry. 24 refs., 20 figs.

  2. Antitrust Enforcement in the Electricity and Gas Industries: Problems and Solutions for the EU

    SciTech Connect

    Leveque, Francois

    2006-06-15

    Antitrust enforcement in the electricity and gas industries raises specific problems that call for specific solutions. Among the issues: How can the anticompetitive effects of mergers be assessed in a changing regulatory environment? Should long-term agreements in energy purchasing be prohibited? What are the benefits of preventive action such as competition advocacy and market surveillance committees? Should Article 82 (a) of the EC Treaty be used to curb excessive pricing?. (author)

  3. Anti-competitive impacts of secret strategic pricing in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.G.

    1997-02-15

    Strategic price discrimination in the electric power industry is the topic of the article. In particular, long-term and secret price discounts are discussed in terms of their effect on utility competition. It is stated that such discounts may arrest or block movement toward competition, allowing many or most private utilities to remain near monopolies. Regulatory action is identified as a mean to control anti-competitive pricing tactics.

  4. Managing for biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the electric utility industry-summary statement

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.; Fraser, M.; Ragone, S.

    1996-11-01

    The conference entitled {open_quotes}Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the Electric Utility Industry{close_quotes} was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, during 19-20 March 1996. This paper provides an overview of the key points, conclusions, and recommendations from both the presentations/papers and the discussions throughout the conference. Topics covered in this article are the following: sustainable development: challenge for utilities; Stewardship issues; where do we go from here-EPRI perspective. 34 refs.

  5. Corporate Restructuring and Liberal Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This paper contends that trends in business (restructuring, downsizing, decentralization, managerial empowerment, internationalization) strongly imply a need to reorganize the college curriculum to provide future professionals with the skills and intellect to meet multiple economic and organizational challenges. This means a new learning model and…

  6. Early Lessons in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; And Others

    Restructuring schools has become a rallying cry among educators. It aims to create schools that are more centered on learner's needs for active, experiential, cooperative, and culturally connected learning opportunities supportive of individual talents and learning styles. This report is based on an early evaluation of the process of restructuring…

  7. Electrical/Electronic Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an electrical/electronic technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a…

  8. Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

  9. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  10. State electricity profiles, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.