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1

Risk Management Strategies for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

, utility forecasters were predicting brownouts or worse in the mid 1980s in the Pacific Northwest. Today, the Pacific Northwest has a surplus of electricity that could last five to twenty years. Two of the nuclear plants have been completed, two are on hold...

Sheets, E.

2

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

NONE

1995-07-01

3

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-01-01

4

US electric utility demand-side management, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

NONE

1995-12-26

5

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

6

The Impacts of Utility-Sponsored Demand-Side Management Programs on Industrial Electricity Consumers  

E-print Network

One of the most pressing issues in electric utility regulation today is the extent to which demand-side management (DSM) programs should be promoted by utilities. DSM refers to energy-efficiency or conservation measures, such as insulation, more...

Rosenblum, J. I.

7

DSM strikes again. [Demand-side management of gas and electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses and explains demand-side management (DSM) of the gas and electric utility companies. It contrasts the advantages that electric utilities offering economic incentives (with any cost passed on to rate payers) to increase demand while such offerings are rarely available from the gas utilities. It then discusses the cause and cost of pollution from conventional electrical facilities compared to gas-operated equipment and facilities. The paper goes on to discuss fuel switching and other incentives to get individuals and facilities to switch to natural gas.

Katz, M.

1994-02-01

8

Energy Conservation and Management for Electric Utility Industrial Customers  

E-print Network

&M Applications Identified from Plant Data EC&M Technology ? Heat Exchangers ? Waste heat boiler ? Rankine cycle ? Heat pump --Closed cycle --Open cycle ? Thermal energy storage ? GT/electric generator/chiller Industrial Application Process.../organic turbine ? Electric power generators generation ? Balance of plant ? Auxiliary auxil i ari es system equip ment ? Thermal energy storage ? Used in systems to store ther mal energy (hot or cold) until required. Equipment lists for each EC...

McChesney, H. R.; Obee, T. N.; Mangum, G. F.

9

Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

Glazner, Steve, Ed.

10

Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools  

SciTech Connect

This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and investment reversibility are discussed. Incorporating some of these attributes into an economic evaluation is illustrated using a municipal utility`s decision to invest in either wind generation or natural gas based generation. The research concludes that wind and other modular renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaics, have the potential to provide decision makers with physical risk-management investments.

Hoff, T E [Pacific Energy Group, Stanford, CA (United States); Parsons, B [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-06-01

11

An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to exist in a deregulated environment, it will be at a greatly reduced level. This conclusion holds unless utilities see advantages to DSM as a marketing tool to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Bock, Mark Joseph

12

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

13

Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

McDonald, Betsy

14

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Load Management - A Utility Viewpoint  

E-print Network

to the industrial user and the electric utility. Other options earn rate incentives for reducing utility load by scheduling maintenance on plant units during on-peak periods, or permit increases in electri cal load for short prearranged periods to accom modate... it to become more competitive. If this prevents or delays steps such as plant relocations or installation of costly co generation projects, the risks taken may well be justified. Slide 7 - Also, if rate design is sound then these options will reflect cost...

Richardson, J. A.

1984-01-01

15

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

16

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

to fulfill unmet long-term generation resource needs, Ukiah adopts and implements this RPS Procurement Plan retired for the specified year x; this may include excess procurement and historic carryover that the POUINTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Revision No.1 Per

17

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Per Senate Billlx 2 renewable energy resources, including renewable energy credits, as a specified percentage of Ukiah's total,2011 to December 31, 2013, Ukiah shall procure renewable energy resources equivalent to an average of at least

18

Decision-making in demand-side management collaboratives: The influence of non-utility parties on electric-utility policies and programs  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1980s, a number of electric utilities and interested non-utility parties (NUPs)-such as environmental groups, large industrial customers, and state government agencies-have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on program design and policy issues related to utility use of Demand-Side Management (DSM) resources. Through this new arrangement, known as the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries attempt to resolve their differences through compromise and consensus rather than by using traditional litigation. This paper-which is based on studies of over a dozen collaboratives nationwide-discusses the organizational structure of collaboratives, the ways in which NUPs have been involved in the decision-making process, and how the amount of influence exerted by the NUPs is related to collaborative accomplishments. Most of the collaboratives studied had two organizational levels: a {open_quotes}working group{close_quotes} that provided policy direction and guidance for the collaborative and {open_quotes}subgroups{close_quotes} that performed the detailed tasks necessary to flesh out individual DSM programs. Most collaboratives also had a coordinator who was charged with scheduling meetings, exchanging information, and performing other important organizational functions, and it was common for the utility to fund consultants to provide expert assistance for the NUPs. In general, the utilities reserved the final decision-making prerogative for themselves, in line with their ultimate responsibility to shareholders, customers, and regulators. Still, there was substantial variation among the collaboratives in terms of how actively consensus was sought and how seriously the inputs of the NUPs were taken. In general, the collaboratives that resulted in the largest effects on utility DSM usage were those in which the utilities were most willing to allow their decisions to be shaped by the NUPs.

Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-07-01

19

Optimized Energy Management for Large Organizations Utilizing an On-Site PHEV fleet, Storage Devices and Renewable Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the daily electricity management problem for organizations with a large number of employees working within a relatively small geographic location. The organization manages its electric grid including limited on-site energy generation facilities, energy storage facilities, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging stations installed in the parking lots. A mixed integer linear program (MILP) is modeled

Yogesh Dashora; J. Wesley Barnes; Rekha S Pillai; Todd E Combs; Michael R Hilliard

2012-01-01

20

Solar heating and the electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article considers the effect of widespread use of solar thermal systems on the role of electric utilities, emphasizing the foreseen short term economic problems. While the average electricity demand will be reduced, infrequent high demand peaks could occur when on nights and certain days, solar users with inadequate storage capacity are forced to depend upon conventional energy sources. Since utility costs are closely related to changes in peak demands, the modification of electricity rate structures as a load management technique is discussed. Some advantages of wide solar energy application for electric utilities are cited including the possibility of their key role in the development of solar heating.

Maidique, M. A.; Woo, B.

1980-05-01

21

The changing electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Opinions are presented regarding deregulation of the electricity market. A review of restructing in the U.S. natural gas and United Kingdom electric power industry is presented. Restructuring of the U.S. electric industry is analyzed with regard to changing relations between utilities, changing relations among a utility`s subsidiaries, and changing relationships between supplier and customer. The key issues impeding restructuring are identified as stranded cost recovery and forced divestiture.

Wharton, J.B. [Brattel Group, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

22

Diversification performance of electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the electric utility business environment has prompted a wave of diversification activity during the 1980s, although there has been little empirical research available to strategic decision makers in the utilities regarding most effective approaches to diversification. This study of 33 diversified electric utilities confirms that utilities pursuing investment in closely related businesses, rather than in financial services or other less related fields, have dramatically greater chances of succeeding. This article examines the extent and types of diversification pursued by investor-owned electric utilities as of 1990, and assesses the relationship between different approaches to diversification and resultant financial performance.

Silverman, M.

1993-03-01

23

Stakeholder management and firm performance: Reputation and financial relationships to US electric utility consumer-related strategies  

SciTech Connect

In this study, utility consumer-related stakeholders included state utility regulators and both publicly and privately funded consumer groups. Utility performance included reputation (self- and stakeholder evaluation) and financial (rate-request-allowance percentages, and financial statement) measures. The methodology employed to test part of Freeman's stakeholder management model included 3 sets of questionnaires, developed with the assistance of several dozen industry experts and utility and consumer-related stakeholder group representatives. The study's general thesis was that those utilities with more highly rated stakeholder management strategies derived from Freeman's model exhibited higher levels of reputation and financial performance, controlling for certain environment, strategic, and organization factors. Support for this study's thesis varied by stakeholder management strategy and performance variable. In general, this study found that regulator-perceived utility stakeholder management strategy was associated with utility reputation and that this relationship held when controlling for selected environment, strategy, and organization variables.

Starik, M.

1991-01-01

24

Broadband management • Municipal director of electric utilities • VP of network operations • Network construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology IQ's Optical Broadband Opportunities, taking place March 31 - April 1 at the Sheraton Atlanta , prepares both public and private sector companies to deploy and operate successful optical networks. The conference sessions and workshops are invaluable tools in helping local governments and public utilities devise successful business plans and financing programs. Real state developers will learn strategies for

Andy Green

25

Managing the nuclear utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork

J. W. Jr

1985-01-01

26

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

SciTech Connect

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

Weller, G.H.

2001-07-15

27

Utility experiences in redevelopment of formerly used sites -- Wisconsin Electric's risk management and economic development activities  

SciTech Connect

Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents.

Borofka, B.P.

1999-07-01

28

Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand  

E-print Network

Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 Resources Corporation and Enviro-Management and 3. J. Broehl, D. Jones, L. Lewis, D. Lenerz and J. Research Inc. for the Electric Power Research Skelton, Demand-Side Management Information Di... Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 Resources Corporation and Enviro-Management and 3. J. Broehl, D. Jones, L. Lewis, D. Lenerz and J. Research Inc. for the Electric Power Research Skelton, Demand-Side Management Information Di...

Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

29

Deregulating the electric utility industry  

E-print Network

Many functions must be performed in any large electric power system. A specific proposal for a deregulated power system, based on a real-time spot energy marketplace, is presented and analyzed. A central T&D utility acts ...

Bohn, Roger E.

1982-01-01

30

Utilization management in toxicology.  

PubMed

Recent upward trends in the prevalence of abuse of prescription drugs and illicit substances have resulted in increased demands for toxicology testing to support the emergency department and drug treatment in pain management programs. This review will discuss the challenges faced by clinical laboratories to manage the utilization of toxicology tests, particularly those ordered in managing poisoned patients in the emergency department and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Optimal utilization of toxicology tests to support the emergency department relies on selecting the appropriate tests for the patient, and the availability of the results in a timely fashion. Two tiers of toxicology testing systems with different requirements for turnaround time will be discussed. In patients with chronic pain urine drug testing, including screening and confirmation testing are used extensively in pain management to monitor patient compliance. A thorough understanding of the performance characteristics of the test methodologies and drug metabolism is a key to making a proper analytical and clinical interpretation of the test results and will contribute to effective utilization of these tests. In addition, the reimbursement system is an important factor in the decision making process for test selection utilization as significant costs can be incurred by both payers and patients. Collaboration, trust, and effective communication among clinicians, patients, and clinical laboratory professionals are essential for effective utilization of toxicology testing. PMID:24091099

Zhang, Yan; Kwong, Tai C

2014-01-01

31

Electric utility industry and planning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the workshop reported in these proceedings was to bring together planners, public officials, and community leaders with members of the utility industry to learn about utilities and to permit a meaningful exchange of information. This workshop was held at the Annual Meeting of the American Planning Association and its Energy Planning Division. The workshop was designed to inform planners about the electric-utility industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 4 individual presentations.

Schiffman, Y. (ed.)

1983-01-01

32

Managing the nuclear utility  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given.

Williams, J.W. Jr.

1985-11-01

33

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

34

Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

Niehus, T. L.

1994-01-01

35

Upper stages utilizing electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload characteristics of geocentric missions which utilize electron bombardment ion thruster systems are discussed. A baseline LEO to GEO orbit transfer mission was selected to describe the payload capabilities. The impacts on payloads of both mission parameters and electric propulsion technology options were evaluated. The characteristics of the electric propulsion thrust system and the power requirements were specified in order to predict payload mass. This was completed by utilizing a previously developed methodology which provides a detailed thrust system description after the final mass on orbit, the thrusting time, and the specific impulse are specified. The impact on payloads of total mass in LEO, thrusting time, propellant type, specific impulse, and power source characteristics was evaluated.

Byers, D. C.

1980-01-01

36

Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies  

E-print Network

electric utilities to file energy efficiency plans which include an assessment of conservation and load management alternatives and data to support their conservation programs (Sec. 23.22). The Commission evaluates the uti~ities' conservation programs... Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 I (' I I by the shift in revenue requirements are allocated to ~ll customers; An optional [uti 1ity] Revenue Requirements Test ?.? measures the impact on revenue requ i rements, apart from their distribution...

Treadway, N.

37

Thermal storage for electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

1977-01-01

38

Acid rain and electric utilities 2  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO{sub 2}, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO{sub x} control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances.

NONE

1997-12-31

39

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This publication is the fifth in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry,'' is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers and home office managers. Multiple volumes were planned, each to be produced sequentially over the period 1987--1992. Topics that are addressed include operating principles and terminology, baghouse design considerations, bags and fabrics, flue gas dynamics, reverse-gas cleaning, reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance, shake/deflate cleaning, pulse-jet cleaning, combined SO[sub 2] collection, and operation and maintenance. Volume 5, Guidelines for Fabric Filter Design, is intended as a guide for electric utilities assessing the application of fabric filters for particulate matter control from coal-fired utility boilers. This guideline describes how baghouses function, provides data that can be used to project performance for different coals and boilers, and reviews key design considerations. A step-by-step approach is included that will assist the utility engineer evaluate the potential applicability for a specific situation and specify the proper baghouse design. This report focuses on low-ratio (reverse-gas with or without sonic assist, shake-deflate) baghouses in PC applications. Baghouse performance for other types of boilers are discussed where data are available. Pulse-jet baghouses, an increasingly attractive particulate control option for utilities, will be discussed in future volumes.

Carr, R.C. (Electric Power Technologies, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Cushing, K.M. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Gallaer, C.A. (Gallaer (C.A.), Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Smith, W.B. (Southern Research Technologies, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1992-09-01

40

Fiber in the Local Loop: The Role of Electric Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric utilities are beginning to make heavy use of fiber for a number of applications beyond transmission of voice and data among operating centers and plant facilities which employed fiber on the electric transmission systems. These additional uses include load management and automatic meter reading. Thus, utilities are beginning to place fiber on the electric distribution systems which, in many cases covers the same customer base as the "local loop". This shift to fiber on the distribution system is due to the advantages offered by fiber and because of congestion in the radio bands used for load management. This shift to fiber has been facilitated by a regulatory policy permitting utilities to lease reserve capacity on their fiber systems on an unregulated basis. This, in turn, has interested electric utilities in building fiber to their residential and commercial customers for voice, data and video. This will also provide for sophisticated load management systems and, possibly, generation of revenue.

Meehan, Charles M.

1990-01-01

41

Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

1995-08-01

42

Income distribution effects of electric utility DSM programs  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income household. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding the costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Sutherland, R.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

43

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1979survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of surveys to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. It contains brief descriptions of 735 projects being conducted by 180 utility companies. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of

R. Furness

1979-01-01

44

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1983 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a survey to determine the scope of electric utility participation in solar energy projects in the United States. This ninth edition contains brief descriptions of 870 projects conducted by 184 utility companies. The report also includes an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of new reports on utility-sponsored projects, a

1984-01-01

45

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1979 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. It contains brief descriptions of 735 projects being conducted by 180 utility companies. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list

Furness

1979-01-01

46

Electric Utility Industrial DSM and M&V Program  

E-print Network

BC Hydro is an electric utility with a service area covering over 95% of the province of British Columbia in Canada. Power Smart is BC Hydro’s demand-side-management (DSM) division. Power Smart develops, operates and manages various DSM programs...

Lau, K. P. K.

2008-01-01

47

Utility management recruiting in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

Utilities of all types have historically been, by and large, excellent places to develop, execute, and enjoy one's career. The breadth of activities in each of the various industry sectors (electric, gas, telecommunications, water), combined with the mandate of an obligation to serve, has provided an arena for numerous challenging professional and personal opportunities. However, the 1990s have begun with a confluence of newly emphasized driving forces or issues - increasing competition (alternative services and suppliers, pricing strategies), energy supply security questions, environmental concerns, deregulation uncertainties, changing demographics, new technologies, increased consumer and regulatory awareness, and others - that are changing organizations (more teams, fewer layers) and stretching the abilities of managers at all levels. The result is that utility companies are looking to the outside marketplace for management talent. And they are looking for individuals who can both lead and manage today's organizations and who can help create and manage new business opportunities in the organizations of the future.

Dover, A.R. (Heidrick and Struggles, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-10-11

48

Management of information security for an electric power Utility-on security domains and use of ISO\\/IEC17799 standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of information security has become a major concern for the electric power utilities. An increasing amount of money is being spent on the handling of information security. But the issue is delicate. Even though a utility may spend a fortune, it cannot be sure that it is doing the right thing at the right level of expenditures. Therefore,

Göran N. Ericsson; Ĺge Torkilseng

2005-01-01

49

Rate making for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

Company, In re 1 P. S. C. 2nd B, (N.Y.) 106,177 March 30, 1908 Saratoga Springs V* ^Saratoga Springs Electric Light, Heat and Power Company 122 App. Div. (N.Y.) 203, 106 N. Y. Supp. 1148 November 20, 1907 Smyth v. Ames 169 U. S. 466, 18 Sup. Ct. 418... case, and apparently in­ sist upon only a minimum return to the owner of property devoted to public use which Trrill reasonable (say "or example 6 per cent) upon theproperty computed investment." In the case of Saratoga Springs ?. Saratoga Gas, Elec...

Hanson, Carl Falster

1911-01-01

50

Regulatory climate and electric-utility diversification  

SciTech Connect

Potential benefits from diversification are drawing increasing numbers of electric utilities into new lines of business. This article reviews the evidence of comparatively superior financial performance by diversified utility companies and poses the question: Has favorable regulatory climate been a significant factor in the achievement of improved performance for those companies. The article highlights some of the concerns which regulators have about diversification, and examines several studies which evaluate the regulatory climate in which diversified utilities operate. 9 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Welch, J.B.

1984-11-22

51

Fuel cell power plants for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Increase in power densities, and lifetime, has made phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) a possible, viable electric generator. A 4.5MW demonstrator produced by United Technologies has been installed at Con Edison in New York City. Modifications to simplify the process, use commercial parts, improve performance, and create fuel flexibility have been successful. A Fuel Cell Users Group serves as surrogate users, and provides information on applications and benefits of PAFC to utilities. The electric utility market for fuel cells was assessed using the novel ''utility generation expansion model'' and methodology.

Gillis, E.A.; Fickett, A.P.

1983-06-01

52

One utility's system in management planning and performance review  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities are under increasing pressure, internally and externally, to upgrade their management and planning systems to meet the challenges of the years ahead. In this article, the author details such an enterprise, and describes the positive consequences.

Fahnestock, C.M.

1984-07-19

53

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity  

E-print Network

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii Contents Introduction

54

Wind turbine value analysis for electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for the analysis of the value of large-scale wind turbines to electric utilities, and its application to utility, socioeconomic and meteorological data in two case studies is described. The value analysis was carried out for the year of reference 1985 and included different levels of wind turbine penetration. Results of the value analysis are given. The utility planning procedures in current use and the unique problems of the integration of wind power into the power system are discussed. Observations and conclusions regarding the current and future potential of wind power for utilities are presented.

Dub, W.

1982-06-01

55

DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective  

SciTech Connect

A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility`s ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term `DSM` is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility`s system. Depending on one`s perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility`s ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy.

Jackson, P.W.

1994-12-31

56

Case for marketing in today's electric utility movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issues surrounding the return to electric power marketing, and offers some examples of how marketing will mutually benefit the utility and its customers. The key challenge of the 1980s will be to integrate the emerging concept of demand-side management with traditional supply planning and to incorporate effective planning, evaluation of impacts, and customer orientation. The rationale

C. W. Gellings; D. E. Jones

1985-01-01

57

Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market  

SciTech Connect

During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

Hirst, E.

1994-04-01

58

Penalties for excess capacity in electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article tests to determine whether regulated electric utilities are penalized for overinvesting in generating capacity. The ordinary least-squares results indicate that there is a significant inverse relationship between excess capacity and profits. Apparently regulatory and market forces impose penalties upon utilities with excess capacity. Thus, regulatory scrutiny of investment in generating capacity serves not only to simulate competitive market forces under natural monopoly conditions by lowering profits for utilities with redundant capacity but also serves to moderate the Averch-Johnson incentive to pad the rate base with nonproductive capacity.

Humphreys, J.M. (Georgia Economic Forecasting Unit, Div. of Research, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (US)); Kamerschen, D.R. (Economics Dept., Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (US))

1989-07-01

59

Planning For The Future: Electric Utilities And Fiber Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American electric utilities are beginning to make heavy use of fiber for a number of applications beyond transmission of,voice and data among operating centers and plant facilities. These additional uses include load management and protective relaying. This shift to fiber is due to the advantages offered by fiber and because of congestion in the radio bands used for power line carrier and private microwave systems. This shift to fiber has been facilitated by a regulatory policy permitting utilities to lease reserve capacity on this fiber systems on an unregulated basis. This, in turn, has interested electric utilities in building fiber to their residential and commercial customers for voice data and video. This will also provide for sophisticated load management systems and generation of revenue.

Meehan, Charles M.

1988-09-01

60

Enhanced tubes for electric utility steam condensers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This enhanced'' tube

R. L. Webb; H. Jaber; L. Chamra; Nae-Hyun Kim

1990-01-01

61

Women in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Potomic Electric Power Co. (PEPCO) has won recognition for its progress in placing women in nontraditional jobs at all levels through its affirmative action program. PEPCO representatives and personnel managers take the initiative in making women aware of widening career opportunities and reversing the attitudes that have historically tied women to traditional employment. (DCK)

Reynolds, M.R.

1983-01-01

62

Fiber Optic Entrance Links For Electric Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the installation of a fiber optic entrance link in operation for nearly one year at Alabama Power Company's Barry Generating Plant. Optical and electronics selection and installation of this system are shown to be straightforward and trouble-free. The reasons why optical entrance links are the first electrical utility application to become technically and economically practical are reviewed. An economic analysis compares optical entrance link systems with conventional protection systems. This analysis shows that fiber optic entrance links should be used in the majority of future utility installations.

Fairaizl, Alan F.; Engineer, Carl P.

1980-09-01

63

Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint  

E-print Network

load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically...

Jackson, C. E.

1984-01-01

64

State and local taxes and electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article focuses on the state and local taxes imposed on electric-utility companies in the United States today. It demonstrates that such taxes are high in comparison with those imposed on all other industries and that they are especially so in Illinois, Missouri, New Jersey, and New York. This conclusion is probably not eye-opening for most readers, but the extensive documentation confirms (perhaps for the first time) the size of the tax differentials between industries, and between states. The article concludes with a discussion of the effect that higher-than-average state and local taxes on electric utilities have on two population groups - the elderly and the poor. A tax survey of New York State appears in the appendix. 6 references, 13 tables.

Reeb, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Albany); Shapiro, H.; Tomson, L.R.

1982-08-19

65

Electric utilities and the info-way - are electrics and telcos fellow travelers or competitors  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the future role of telecommunications and the so-called information superhighway in the operations of electric utilities. Utilities should take advantage of information technology through informal alliances with telecommunications hardware and service suppliers, should limit investments in alternative meter-level technologies to those that are cheap, easily integrated, and flexible, and should consider outsourcing network implementation, maintenance, and management functions.

Ashworth, M.J.

1994-03-15

66

Price impacts of electric-utility DSM programs  

SciTech Connect

As competition in the electricity industry increases, utilities (and others) worry more about the upward pressure on electricity prices that demand-side management (DSM) programs often impose. Because of these concerns, several utilities have recently reduced the scope of their DSM programs or focused these programs more on customer service and peak-demand reductions and less on improving energy efficiency. This study uses the Oak Ridge Financial Model (ORFIN) to calculate the rate impacts of DSM. The authors use ORFIN to examine the two factors that contribute to DSM`s upward pressure on prices: the cost of the programs themselves and the loss of revenue associated with fixed-cost recovery. This second factor reflects the reduction in revenues caused by the DSM-induced energy and demand savings that exceed the reduction in utility costs. This analysis examines DSM price impacts as functions of the following factors: the DSM program itself (cost, conservation load factor, geographic focus on deferral of transmission and distribution investments, and mix across customer classes); the utility`s cost and pricing structures (factors at least partly under the utility`s control, such as retail tariffs, fixed vs variable operating costs, and capital costs not related to kW or kWh growth); and external economic and regulatory factors (the level and temporal pattern of avoided energy and capacity costs; ratebasing vs expensing of DSM-program costs; shareholder incentives for DSM programs; load growth; and the rates for income, property, and revenue taxes).

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1994-11-01

67

Electricity pricing and load management for Maharashtra  

SciTech Connect

Electricity consumption in India is increasing rapidly. The increased demand forces the electricity boards to increase their generating capacity. The huge investments in generation, transmission, and distribution (at the cost of alternative development projects) adversely affect India`s foreign exchange reserves. Also, internal resources like coal are utilized at great risk to the environment. This article tries to shift the focus from supply augmentation to demand management by analyzing the existing pricing policy mechanism and suggests different tariffs based on long-range marginal costs. It is shown that the economic pricing based on long-run marginal costs is an indicator of efficient utilization of resources.

Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1995-05-01

68

Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

Not Available

1994-11-01

69

Utility competition urged for electricity reform  

SciTech Connect

Energy industries have been no exception to the restructuring changes that are taking place because of the emerging global economy, technical advances, and increasing competition. The market for electricity remains the last unrestructured energy market in the US, and generators and consumers will both suffer until regulation is updated and made responsive to today's economy. We must look for new approaches that will reduce the cost of power to consumers and enhance utility revenues at the same time. Regulations need to encourage productivity improvements. A task force in Pennsylvania studied these issues and concluded that the monopoly theory of utilities is obsolete and there should be incentives toward competitive behavior. The author describes the seven guiding principles of the task force and some experiments that would test the approach.

Scranton, W.W. III

1985-05-27

70

Bring real capitalism to electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

Powers, B.F.

1991-01-15

71

Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

72

Statistical recoupling: A new way to break the link between electric-utility sales and revenues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1991, US electric utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on demand-side management (DSM) programs. These programs cut peak demands 5% and reduced electricity sales 1% that year. Utility projections suggest that these reductions will increase to 9% and 3%,...

E. Hirst

1993-01-01

73

Pediatric electrical burns: management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to analyse the course of patients hospitalised with electrical burn wounds in the past 25 years at a major children's hospital in the United States in order to devise safe and cost effective management strategies for these patients. The study was a retrospective chart review of patients with electrical injuries admitted to the

Muhammad Zubair; Gail E. Besner

1997-01-01

74

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM HEALTH MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most critical systems in any aerospace vehicle is the electrical power system. Comprised of energy generation, energy storage, power distribution, and power management, the electrical power system (EPS) is relied upon by every major subsystem for proper operation. In order to meet the safety requirements of aeronautics and space systems - and provide for their reliability, maintainability,

Robert M. Button; Amy Chicatelli

75

Manager's guide to electrical power quality  

SciTech Connect

Electronic equipment has become exceedingly sensitive to the electrical environment. Industry standards to cope with this sensitivity have not been available when needed. Therefore, the term power quality has emerged as a catch-all to explain almost any malfunction of electronic equipment. When a malfunction occurs, for whatever reason, power quality can be invoked to make the power system the scapegoat and the equipment, or its installation, blameless. The power quality syndrome includes such issues as grounding, radio interference, transients, outages, harmonics, etc. Power compatibility or electrical environment compatibility (EEC) would be a more objective term to substitute for power quality. The sensitivity of today's electronic equipment arises from the equipment designers' lack of understanding and concern for the realities of the electrical environment and, to some extent, the utilities' lack of concern of the users' application problems. Consequently, to avoid process interruptions, the user's manager must mediate between the equipment and the power system. The manager must insure that specifications exist for both the equipment and all facets of the plant electrical environment, along with test procedures to insure that these specifications are met. The objective of this article is to show how a manager can handle EEC and, thus, avoid costly redesigns and down time of electrical equipment. Common fallacies, tools for defining the electrical equipment. Common fallacies, tools for defining the electrical environment and some applicable standards (existing and emerging) will also be discussed.

Ludbrook, A. (Ludbrook and Associates, Dundas, Ontario (Canada))

1993-05-01

76

Time management problems and discounted utility.  

PubMed

The lens of behavioral decision theory offers a new perspective for research on time management. The basic idea of this approach is that people discount future consequences of their time management decisions, meaning that they work on tasks with smaller but sooner outcomes rather than on tasks with larger but later outcomes. The authors performed 2 experimental studies to test whether people are sensitive to differences in the discounted utility of time management decisions. In Experiment 1, they used vignettes of typical time management situations; Experiment 2 was a laboratory simulation (an in-basket task that was part of a training assessment). Participants in both studies were German students. As expected, manipulating the discounted utility of options resulted in different time management decisions. In Experiment 1, reactions to time management situations were judged as less likely if the reactions had lower discounted utilities. In Experiment 2, people spent less time on an interruption. PMID:17564261

König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

2007-05-01

77

Industrial energy management and utilization  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a study of the technical, economic and management principles of effective energy use. The authors report on: energy consumption, conservation, and resources. They present an analysis of thermal-fluid systems. Energy conservation in combustion systems. Heat exchangers, heat recovery, energy conservation in industrial buildings, and industrial cogeneration are discussed.

Witte, L.C.; Schmidt, P.S.; Brown, D.R.

1988-01-01

78

Homeostatic control: the utility/customer marketplace for electric power  

SciTech Connect

A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the customer and the utility and on customer independence. The utility has no control beyond the customer's meter. Computers located at the customer's site are continuously fed data on weather conditions, utility generating costs, and demand requirements for space conditioning, lighting, and appliances. The customer then directs the computer to schedule and control the power allotted for these functions. On-site generation by the customer can be incorporated in the system. It is argued that homeostatic control is technically feasible, that the level of control equipment sophistication can be adapted to the benefits received by the customer, that such a system would encourage the use of customer-site energy storage and energy conservation equipment, and that it represents a realistic method for allowing the customer to decide how he will use electric power during an era of increasing costs for power generation. (LCL)

Schweppe, F.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Kirtley, J.L.

1981-09-01

79

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects,

M. C. Wentworth

1980-01-01

80

Cyber Security Management for Utility Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong identity management enforced with digital authentication mechanisms has become the leading requirement to improve cyber security for utility operations. Utility operators don?t really care how it works as long as they are confident that it does work. They want a solution that is standards-based, is interoperable with the commonly installed applications, and is extendable for legacy systems to lower

Dennis K. Holstein; Jose Diaz

2006-01-01

81

Agricultural waste utilization and management  

SciTech Connect

These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

Not Available

1985-01-01

82

Establishing benchmarks and metrics for utilization management.  

PubMed

The changing environment of healthcare reimbursement is rapidly leading to a renewed appreciation of the importance of utilization management in the clinical laboratory. The process of benchmarking of laboratory operations is well established for comparing organizational performance to other hospitals (peers) and for trending data over time through internal benchmarks. However, there are relatively few resources available to assist organizations in benchmarking for laboratory utilization management. This article will review the topic of laboratory benchmarking with a focus on the available literature and services to assist in managing physician requests for laboratory testing. PMID:24095835

Melanson, Stacy E F

2014-01-01

83

Fiber optic transmissions in electrical utility applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of optic and photonic technology in electric networks in many cases is subject to constraints that differ from telecommunication or commercial applications. Starting by an overview of the quality of service (QoS) needed, in the first part of this paper we summarise some issues that confronted Hydro-Quebec in applying fibre optic technologies to its network. We explore by presenting lab and field trials some issues related to optical ground wires (OPGW) design and network architecture. We present temperature, vibration, ageing and short circuit current effects. We submit the results and analysis of a first field trial of and OC-48 link over a 265 km OPGW line, PMD measurements and an overview of the final design that is being implemented presently using Raman amplification. In the last section of the paper, we will discuss shortly of non-conventional photonic based technologies, local and distributed sensors and optical phenomenon that are used or have been discovered in utilities optical networks.

Lamarche, Louis

2000-12-01

84

Enhanced tubes for electric utility steam condensers  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This enhanced'' tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes. This paper describes the program work, and defines the performance improvements possible. 11 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

Webb, R.L.; Jaber, H.; Chamra, L.; Kim, Nae-Hyun (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1990-05-03

85

The future of the US electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The future of the electricity industry will be shaped by five forces, already unleashed, and industry leaders` reaction to them. The opportunities for heady executives in well-positioned companies will extend far beyond the borders of today`s confined industry. How the game is played will determine whether utilities are the conquerors or vanquished. The future history of the industry will be written by those who are beginning to fashion their strategic responses to these forces: the deregulation of energy distribution, technological change, intellectual capital, interindustry convergence, and cultural dissonance. For most utilities, strategies are now being contemplated - come coherently, others inchoately - according to the perceived competences and weaknesses of each company in the eyes of its management and board.

Dar, V.K.

1995-07-01

86

Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1991-01-01

87

Future Competitive Positioning of Electric Utilities and their Customers  

E-print Network

This paper addresses the future competitive positioning of electric and gas utilities and their industrial customers. Each must respond to a dramatic reshaping of the utility industry while confronting aggressive environmental pressures and taking...

Schrock, D.; Parker, G.; Baechler, M.

88

Utility planning implications of efficient electric cooking in a developing country: Case of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine implications of electric cooking as a demand-side management (DSM) option for power development plans, as well as emission of pollutants, for the predominantly hydroelectric utility of Nepal. Options considered include seasonal and year-round electric cooking with high- and low-efficiency appliances. For both types of appliances, seasonal electric cooking is economically and environmentally attractive. However, substantial reductions in electricity

Ram M. Shrestha; Gopal B. Bhattarai

1995-01-01

89

DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

Klein, S. A.

1994-01-01

90

Practical uses of galvanized steel in electric utility applications  

SciTech Connect

Steel corrosion has been shown to be a major problem for the electric utility industry. Galvanizing has been shown to prevent or substantially slow steel corrosion. This paper describes the galvanizing process, discusses the properties associated with the galvanized coating, and demonstrates galvanizing`s durability in specific, real world applications in the electric utility industry.

Bueche, D.G. [American Galvanizers Association, Aurora, CO (United States)

1995-10-01

91

Costs and effects of electric-utility DSM programs: 1989--1997  

SciTech Connect

All US electric utilities are required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a comprehensive view of utility DSM-program costs and effects (energy savings and load reductions) for 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992 as well as projections for 1993 and 1997.

Hirst, E.

1994-06-01

92

Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complex nature of hybrid electric vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to achieve satisfactory overall system efficiency. This paper presents a procedure for improving the energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck on the basis of dynamic optimization over a given drive cycle. Dynamic programming techniques are utilized to determine the optimal

Chan-Chiao Lin; Jun-Mo Kang; J. W. Grizzle; Huei Peng

2001-01-01

93

Industrial customers and electric utilities -- The three Rs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes are coming to the electric utility industry. Industrial customers will benefit from most of these changes. In the years ahead there will likely be a variety of electric rates offered to industrial customers. Many industries may find themselves in a good position to take advantage of new electric rate options. Before too many years go by, there is a

Chatham

1995-01-01

94

Electric utility trends -- and how customers will benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

What`s ahead for the electric industry? What sort of changes are already taking place? How will energy users profit from these changes? And how will changes in electric utility structures affect the natural gas industry? The paper concludes that both costs and prices will go down. At the highest level, electric industry restructuring will affect the natural gas industry in

Rudden

1997-01-01

95

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

NONE

1995-07-14

96

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02

97

Electric-utility solar-energy activities: 1982 survey update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of electric utility participation in solar energy projects in the United States was determined. The projects for 1982 are described and significant changes from 1981 in ongoing projects are summarized. A total of 930 projects were reported by 235 utility companies. An index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts

J. R. Spelman

1982-01-01

98

Electric-utility solar-energy activities: 1981 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented are the results of a survey to determine the scope of electric participation in solar energy projects in the United States. Brief descriptions are given of 943 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies. An index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects

E. Baccelli; K. Gordon

1982-01-01

99

Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning  

SciTech Connect

Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

1994-09-01

100

Electric Power Controller for Steering Wheel Management in Electric Cars  

E-print Network

Electric Power Controller for Steering Wheel Management in Electric Cars Vicente Milanés, Joshué transportation systems. Among these topics, the automation of the actuators involved in the management of a car. An electric car has been equipped with the system designed and tests to prove the behavior of the system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Industrial customers and electric utilities -- The three Rs  

SciTech Connect

Changes are coming to the electric utility industry. Industrial customers will benefit from most of these changes. In the years ahead there will likely be a variety of electric rates offered to industrial customers. Many industries may find themselves in a good position to take advantage of new electric rate options. Before too many years go by, there is a good chance that industries (and large commercial customers) in some states may be able to choose their electric power supplier. Along with these changes, electric utilities must get closer to their industrial customers. Good business relationships are the foundation to practically every win-win outcome that involves electric utilities and their industrial customers. This article will explore these three areas--rates, retail access, and relationships.

Chatham, R.W. [Precision Strategies, Long Beach, MS (United States)

1995-12-01

102

Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn  

SciTech Connect

The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future.

Klein, R.

1991-10-01

103

Union Electric Company's Solid Waste Utilization System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Solid Waste Utilization System capable of processing 7300 metric tons of solid refuse from the St. Louis metropolitan area per day is under construction and scheduled for full operation in June 1977. Solid wastes collected at transfer stations will be transported to a 5500 ton\\/day processing facility associated with the 2400 MW Labadie power plant and to a 1800

D. Klumb

1976-01-01

104

Congestion management in electricity networks  

E-print Network

 large difference indicates that investors are provided with erroneous  price signals when choosing the site for new generations.    Leuthodl  et  al.  (2008).  analyze  the  impact  of  increased  wind  power  production  on  the  German power grid. They show that changing from a uniform national price to nodal pricing  in...  possibilities are negligible  in most electric power networks, so demand and supply  must be instantly balanced. The consequence is that transmission constraints and how they  are managed often have a large influence on market prices. The European Union’s regulation  1228...

Holmberg, Pärr; Lazarczyk, Ewa

2012-04-25

105

1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

Not Available

1982-01-01

106

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.307 Option for Electric...

2010-01-01

107

What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility  

E-print Network

The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...

Jensen, C. V.

108

An overview of large wind turbine tests by electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of recent plants and experiences on current large wind turbine (WT) tests being conducted by electric utilities is provided. The test programs discussed do not include federal research and development (R&D) programs, many of which are also being conducted in conjunction with electric utilities. The information presented is being assembled in a project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the objective of which is to provide electric utilities with timely summaries of test performance on key large wind turbines. A summary of key tests, test instrumentation, and recent results and plans is given. During the past year, many of the utility test programs initiated have encountered test difficulties that required specific WT design changes. However, test results to date continue to indicate that long-term machine performance and cost-effectiveness are achievable.

Vachon, W. A.; Schiff, D.

109

An overview of large wind turbine tests by electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of recent plants and experiences on current large wind turbine (WT) tests being conducted by electric utilities is provided. The test programs discussed do not include federal research and development (R&D) programs, many of which are also being conducted in conjunction with electric utilities. The information presented is being assembled in a project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the objective of which is to provide electric utilities with timely summaries of test performance on key large wind turbines. A summary of key tests, test instrumentation, and recent results and plans is given. During the past year, many of the utility test programs initiated have encountered test difficulties that required specific WT design changes. However, test results to date continue to indicate that long-term machine performance and cost-effectiveness are achievable.

Vachon, W. A.; Schiff, D.

1982-01-01

110

Marketing Reordering of the Electric Utility Industry  

E-print Network

foreign countries. Our members produce a wide range of products including steel, aluminum, chemicals, industrial gases, glass, motor vehicles, textiles and food. ELCON members consume approximately ten percent of all electricity sold to industrial... that now make small-scale generation economically attractive, if not downright desir able. Key regulatory and consumer institutions are taking fresh, new looks at issues such as wheeling and access to the grid that used to be considered sacred...

Anderson, J. A.

111

Electric utility fossil fuels beyond 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous research and development studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) identified candidate coal-liquefaction processes for commercialization beginning in the mid-1980's, i.e., the H-Coal and Exxon processes to produce liquid turbine fuels and distillate and heavy boiler fuels (DBF and HBF), the donor and solvent processes for DBF and HBF, and the Solvent-Refiner-Coal (SRC)-II process for DBF. The

R. H. Wolk; S. A. Vejtasa

1978-01-01

112

Sell lumens, not kilowatts: The future for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The key to the future for electric utilities will not be found in legislation or regulation. Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 will prove to be just as ineffectual in improving the industry's position as was the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. These legislative palliatives, which produced so much commotion and so many reams of heated commentary, are largely irrelevant to a successful future for electric utilities. The key will be found in economics, not in law, and the future will lie in completing Thomas A. Edison's century-old vision for the industry, half of which the industry has heretofore ignored. The industry must embrace the complete vision and evolve from electric utilities into [open quotes]end-use energy utilities.[close quotes

Piepmeier, J.M. (James M. Piepmeier Co., Evanston, IL (United States)); Jermain, D. (David O. Jermain Associates, Portland, OR (United States)); Egnor, T.L. (MicroGrid, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-04-01

113

The effect of deregulation on internal control of agency conflict: Evidence from the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigate how deregulation leads firms to modify their internal governance structures to help control owner-manager agency conflict. Specifically, I explore how electric utilities respond to wholesale-level deregulation during the ten years surrounding the 1992 Energy Policy Act. I apply factor analysis to observable governance variables that exhibit change among utilities relative to industrial firms, and show that a single common factor captures firms' reliance on internal governance structure to control owner-manager agency problems. I find that deregulating utilities reduce their reliance on internal governance relative to industrial firms. I also show that the negative relation between deregulation and electric utilities' relative reliance on internal governance structure is largely explained by increases in competition and takeover activity among utilities relative to industrial firms. I conclude that competition and takeover activity substitute for firms' relative reliance on internal control of agency conflict.

Rennie, Craig G.

114

Electricity privatization : should South Korea privatize its state-owned electric utility?  

E-print Network

The state-owned electric utility, Korea Electricity Power Cooperation (KEPCO), privatization has been a key word in South Korea since 1997, when the government received $55 billion from the International Monetary Fund in ...

Lim, Sungmin

2011-01-01

115

The electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the financial performance of electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s and the factors which have affected their performance. Topics include the effects of the energy crisis in 1973, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, the widespread use of imprudence disallowances by regulators after 1984, and the gradual extension of the nation's deregulation movement to the electric utilities.

Studness, C.M.

1990-02-15

116

Environmental implications of electric utility supply plans, 1978-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the environmental assessment of the current electricity supply plans of the California utilities are presented. Major areas of assessment were construction and operation of electric generation facilities, including air quality, land use, and solid waste disposal. Maps show the locations of utility proposed generation facilities and potential siting areas for additional facilities. Methods used to designate potential siting areas based on a statewide siting assessment are discussed.

MacDonald, T.

1980-05-01

117

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND ELECTRIC UTILITY INVESTMENT  

E-print Network

of California Energy Institute, a multicampus research unit of the University of California, located of California Energy Institute, the California Management Review, and from the cooperative agreement between flows are surging to levels not witnessed since before the Great Depression, the evaluation of political

California at Berkeley. University of

118

Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-04-01

119

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Volume 3, Guidelines for Fabrics and Bags, provides a comprehensive guide for the procurement of fiberglass filter bags for utility baghouses. Utility baghouse operators must have a knowledge of fabric and bag construction to specify and obtain fiberglass filter bags that will provide food service in their baghouses. This volume describes the type of glass used in fabric filter bags, the properties of glass that enable a bag made from fiberglass fabric to withstand baghouse operating conditions, and the manufacturing of fiberglass filaments, strands and yarns. The types of weaves most commonly used are included in a discussion of the production of fiberglass filter fabric, and the types of finishes used on bag fabrics to lubricate and protect the glass at high temperatures are described. In addition, this volume contains an explanation of proper filter bag construction procedures including lay-up and cutting, stitching, seaming, cuffing, ringing, fabricating caps, inspecting, and packaging. A list of bag manufacturers and a cross-reference of model and style numbers of these manufacturers is provided. Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications and quality control procedures for the acquisition of filter bags, along with a discussion of the test methods used to assure that the procurement specifications have been met. The steps involved in the installation of filter bags are explained. These steps include the inspection of bags when received; storage of bags; preparation, precautions, and procedures for hanging bags; attachment to thimbles at the tubesheet; attachment to bag suspension systems; tensioning; inspection; and retensioning. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fabric alternatives to glass are reviewed. At the end of this publication, an Appendix provides an example of a utility bag specification to aid in bag procurement.

Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (USA)); Grubb, W.T. (Grubb Filtration Testing Services, Inc., Delran, NJ (USA)); Giovanni, D.V. (Electric Power Technologies, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

120

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR MALFUNCTIONS IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses precipitation malfunctions in the electric utility industry. When a utility electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fails to achieve its design efficiency, there must be a reason. Although the reasons are numerous, they can be placed in two distinct categories: ESP ...

121

Reducing uncertainty - responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant) effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N - 1 reliability criterion. A utility's response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems planners and operators worldwide.

Gaunt, Charles Trevor

2014-01-01

122

Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

123

Utility system integration and optimization models for nuclear power management  

E-print Network

A nuclear power management model suitable for nuclear utility systems optimization has been developed for use in multi-reactor fuel management planning over periods of up to ten years. The overall utility planning model ...

Deaton, Paul Ferris

1973-01-01

124

Utilization of heterogeneous grasslands by domestic herbivores: Theory to management  

E-print Network

Review Utilization of heterogeneous grasslands by domestic herbivores: Theory to management Derek W 23 July 1998) Abstract - Domestic herbivores often utilize heterogeneous grasslands unevenly which grasslands, managers must be able to understand and manipulate livestock grazing patterns. Continued research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

2011-01-20

126

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric utility obligations under this subpart...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...Policies Act of 1978 § 292.303 Electric utility obligations under this...

2012-04-01

127

18 CFR 292.302 - Availability of electric utility system cost data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Availability of electric utility system cost data. 292.302...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...1978 § 292.302 Availability of electric utility system cost data. (a)...

2011-04-01

128

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric utility obligations under this subpart...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...Policies Act of 1978 § 292.303 Electric utility obligations under this...

2011-04-01

129

18 CFR 292.302 - Availability of electric utility system cost data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Availability of electric utility system cost data. 292.302...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...1978 § 292.302 Availability of electric utility system cost data. (a)...

2012-04-01

130

76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility...

2011-01-20

131

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy-efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and sales. It then recouples revenues to something else. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

132

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and kWh sales. It then recouples revenues to something else, such as growth in the number of customers, the determinants of changes in fixed costs, or the determinants of changes in electricity use. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling:revenue-per- customer (RPC) decoupling, RPC decoupling with a factor that allows for changes in electricity use per customer, and statistical recoupling. We used data from five utilities to see how the three methods perform in terms of electicity-price volatility and ease of implementation. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

133

An introduction to DSM: The business of energy conservation for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This is an introduction to business aspects of demand-side management at electric utilities. Geared toward students or those who are new to DSM, this compilation of current literature lays a foundation that will facilitate comprehension of more complex DSM issues. A DSM glossary is included.

Pye, M.

1994-12-31

134

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the key technology of electric vehicle (EV), a battery management system (BMS) is proposed here to settle the critical issues. The system includes several common modules: data acquisition unit, communication unit and battery state estimation model. Two additional management units are developed here, one is thermal management and the other is high voltage management which improve

Jiaxi Qiang; Lin Yang; Guoqiang Ao; Hu Zhong

2006-01-01

135

Statistical recoupling: A new way to break the link between electric-utility sales and revenues  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, US electric utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on demand-side management (DSM) programs. These programs cut peak demands 5% and reduced electricity sales 1% that year. Utility projections suggest that these reductions will increase to 9% and 3%, respectively, by the year 2001. However, utility DSM efforts vary enormously across the country, concentrated in a few states along the east and west coasts and the upper midwest. To some extent, this concentration is a function of regulatory reforms that remove disincentives to utility shareholders for investments in DSM programs. A key component of these reforms is recovery of the net lost revenues caused by utility DSM programs. These lost revenues occur between rate cases when a utility encourages its customers to improve energy efficiency and cut demand. The reduction in sales means that the utility has less revenue to cover its fixed costs. This report describes a new method, statistical recoupling (SR), that addresses this net-lost-revenue problem. Like other decoupling approaches, SR breaks the link between electric-utility revenues and sales. Unlike other approaches, SR minimizes changes from traditional regulation. In particular, the risks of revenue swings associated with year-to-year changes in weather and the economy remain with the utility under SR. Statistical recoupling uses statistical models, based on historical data, that explain retail electricity sales as functions of the number of utility customers, winter and summer weather, the condition of the local economy, electricity price, and perhaps a few other key variables. These models, along with the actual values of the explanatory variables, are then used to estimate ``allowed`` electricity sales and revenues in future years.

Hirst, E.

1993-09-01

136

Reliability, cost, and performance of PV-powered water pumping systems: A survey for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Opportunities for electric utilities to utilize photovoltaic-powered systems to serve small utility and customer-owned loads have been documented by the Electric Power Research Institute and others. One application where PV-powered systems can save money for utilities and their customers is remote water pumping for ranch, farm, and domestic use. Information on system reliability, cost, and performance is key to utility management decisions regarding this alternative approach to serving their customers. A project was initiated by EPRI to obtain this information on PV-powered pumping systems installed in the western US. With assistance from three PV-pumping system suppliers, a survey was developed and mailed to 251 owners of PV-powered water pumping systems installed in the last five years. This paper presents the summary of the findings of that survey and includes information on owner preferences, system reliability and performance, and cost data.

Stokes, K. (NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Bigger, J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01

137

The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan's regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)) [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-06-17

138

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advancement of electric utility cell stack technology and reduction of cell stack cost was initiated. The cell stack has a nominal 10 ft (2) active area and operates at 120 psia/405(0)F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full height, 10-ft(2) stack verification test: (1) provides the information and services needed to manage the effort, including definition of the prototype commercial power plant; (2) develops the technical base for long term improvements to the cell stack; (3) develops materials and processing techniques for cell stack components incorporating the best available technology; (4) provides the design of hardware and conceptual processing layouts, and updates the power plant definition of Phase 1 to reflect the results of Phases 2 and 3; Phase 5 manufactures the hardware to verify the achievements of Phases 2 and 3, and analyzes the cost of this hardware; and Phase 6 tests the cell stacks assembled from the hardware of Phase 5 to assess the state of development.

Breault, R. D.; Briggs, T. A.; Congdon, J. V.; Demarche, T. E.; Gelting, R. L.; Goller, G. J.; Luoma, W. I.; McCloskey, M. W.; Mientek, A. P.; Obrien, J. J.

1984-01-01

139

Solar photovoltaic power systems: an electric utility R & d perspective.  

PubMed

Solar photovoltaic technology is receiving increasing attention as a prospective source of bulk, electric utility power within the next 10 to 20 years. Successful development will require solar energy conversion efficiencies of about 15 percent for photovoltaic flat-plate modules, or about 25 percent for photovoltaic cells using highly concentrated sunlight. Three different cell technologies have a better than even chance of achieving these target efficiencies with costs and operating lifetimes that would allow significant use by electric utilities. The challenge for the next decade is to push photovoltaic technology to its physical limits while expanding markets and user confidence with currently available systems. PMID:17734901

Demeo, E A; Taylor, R W

1984-04-20

140

Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dayal, P. [ed.] [Tucson Electric Power Co., AZ (United States)

1995-12-31

141

Interutility electricity pricing for optimal capacity utilization in power sector  

SciTech Connect

The cost of supplying electricity in a grid is minimized in a nonlinear optimization framework. The formulation of the problem gives the incentive-compatible trading prices of electricity among many independently operating state utilities. The problem is solved both for a central planner (central grid operator) and for the case of a state planner (independent state utility). It is proved that there exist trading prices that are compatible with both. Finally, as an example, the theorem is applied to the case of the Indian National Grid.

Majumdar, S. [Indian Inst. of Management, Ahmedabad (India). Public System Group; Sridhar, R. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Faculty of Management; Parikh, J. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

1997-06-01

142

Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA report Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities 1997 presents four years of summary financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities from 1993 to 1996. More detailed data is available for 1997, and highlights include an average sales for resale revenue per kilowatthour at 3.2 cent in 1997 and an average ultimate consumers revenue per kilowatthour at 6.8 cents. Strong economic growth and "close to normal" average heating and cooling degree days were cited as important factors.

1998-01-01

143

Effects of resource acquisitions on electric-utility shareholders  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to see how shareholders fare when the utility acquires different kinds of resources. The resources considered are utility-built, -operated, and -owned power plants with different combinations of construction and operation costs; purchases of power; and DSM programs. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility`s operating environment. Our treatment of regulation considers the frequency and type (future vs historic test year) of rate cases, inclusion of construction work in progress in ratebase vs allowance for funds used during construction, ratebase vs expensing of DSM programs, book and tax depreciation schedules, possible disallowances of ``excess`` power-plant or DSM capital costs, and possible lack of adjustment for ``excess`` fuel or purchased power costs. The tax policies we studied include the existence and rates for property, sales, and income taxes and the existence and regulatory treatment of deferred taxes. The utility`s operating environment includes the overall inflation rate, load-growth rate, escalation in nonproduction expenses, and nongeneration construction (capital) requirements. Finally, given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we briefly considered alternatives to traditional cost-of-service regulation. We examined shareholder returns for the resources described above in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1994-05-01

144

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

145

Electric utility mergers more likely as competition spreads  

SciTech Connect

Cincinnati Gas Electric and PSI Resources announced December 14 their agreement to merge through a stock swap. This is the first electric utility merger announced since the Energy Policy Act was passed by Congress in October. The new law clearly was an important factor in both motivating and timing the merger. The pressures that induced PSI and Cincinnati to enter into a merge agreement did not exist as little as five years ago. For almost 50 years, the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) provided utilities with protection from potential competitors and corporate raiders by threatening to engulf the predator in its regulatory net. A utility's monopoly position was secure whether it was efficient or not. The incentive for utilities to merge and to do so soon has increased dramatically. This stems partly from the increase in competition generally, but mostly from the Energy Policy Act's amendments to PUHCA that provide for exempt wholesale generators (EWGs). EWGs are companies that engage exclusively in the generation of electric power for sale at wholesale, and they may be owned by other companies without either the EWG or owner becoming subject to PUHCA jurisdiction. Thus, any company through an EWG can build a power plant to sell power at wholesale anywhere in the country without being subject to PUHCA jurisdiction. This has created a real and identifiable competitive threat for every utility.

Studness, C.M.

1993-02-15

146

Federal tax subsidies for electric utilities: an energy-policy perspective  

SciTech Connect

A number of analysts have recently concluded that for the US economy generally, and for electric utilities in particular, the most rational energy strategy would emphasize control of energy demand. In many cases, conservation and solar heating could displace the need for electricity and nonrenewable fuels, with potentially significant economic and environmental benefits. Yet, most US electric utilities are proceeding with an investment strategy based on large, conventional powerplants, and have shown little inclination to invest significantly in alternative technologies and conservation measures. While the situation differs for each utility, the author feels that the anomalous decision making evidenced by the above is at least in part an economically rational response by profit-maximizing utility managers to the tax and regulatory environment in which they operate. Electric utilities currently receive massive Federal income tax subsidies - notably accelerated depreciation and the investment tax credit - for investments in additional capacity. This article examines these and other tax incentives from an economic, tax, and energy policy perspective. It argues that Federal tax subsidies combine with the regulatory structure and various institutional factors unique to utilities to create perverse incentives for utility overexpansion, making profitable what could otherwise be uneconomic new-plant investments. The article demonstrates that such tax subsidies to utilities reflect poor tax policy in terms of need, cost, complexity, equity, and federalism; and produce effects squarely contrary to the goals of a viable national energy policy. The article concludes that, at a minimum, the tax subsidies for utilities should be repealed, but that the optimal solution is to replace utility income taxation with an excise tax on electricity usage.

Davis, C.P.

1980-01-01

147

Analysis of financial and regulatory models of electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes five financial and regulatory models in terms of their use in a larger modelling project to measure conservation impact on utilities (CIUS). The five models are the Over/Under Capacity Planning Model (Over/Under), the Regulatory Analysis Model (RAM), the Electric Utility Policy and Planning Analysis Model (EPPAM), the Regionalized Electricity Model (REM), and the Electric and Gas Utility Financial Simulation Model (ELFIN). None of the models discussed offers all of the features needed by the CIUS program. These features are summarized. It is recommended that the CIUS project use the Regulatory Analysis Model (RAM) with certain modifications because of the accuracy and completeness of RAM's accounting formulations which simulate the regulatory decision process. Its organization is straightforward and helpful data references also ease its use. In addition, the report module permits the user easily to output relevant measures of financial performance calculated from RAM's projected financial statements. Finally, it is highly desirable that the effects of regulatory lag be incorporated into the model. The impact of regulatory lag is complicated by the fact that rising per unit fuel costs are passed on to customers immediately while increases in other per unit variable costs and capital costs are delayed. Although the addition of regulatory lag is not trivial, it is important given the present cash flow problems of th electric utility industry.

Torre, A.

1981-04-01

148

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning

S. Swaminathan; R. K. Sen

1997-01-01

149

Power electronics in electric utilities: Static var compensators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with dynamic var compensation of electric power systems, applying power electronics for reactive power generation and control. After an overview of the emergence and status of modern, solid-state var compensators in utility and industrial applications, the first part of the paper explains how dynamic var compensation increases transmittable power by providing voltage support, transient stability improvement, and

L. Gyugyi

1988-01-01

150

Fuel cell power plants for electric utilities and hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants are nearing commercial status as multimegawatt electric power generators. These power plants are being designed to use a wide range of utility fuels that are converted to hydrogen within the power plant. This paper explores the status of fuel cell power plants and the prospects for pure hydrogen as the fuel.

Fickett, A. P.

151

Electric utility mergers: Competition, deregulation and the evolving federal policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the electric utility industry moves from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated competitive market, horizontal and vertical merger activity has increased substantially. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") generally takes the lead at the federal level for reviewing the competitive effects of electric utility mergers. Shortly after it issued its order open access order requiring utilities to allow others to use their transmission systems in 1996, FERC issued a merger policy statement outlining a new analytic approach that more accurately reflects the physical and economic realities of competition in a deregulated electric industry. This study will critically examine the federal merger review process and policies seeking to determine whether (1) the Commission's methodology provides an accurate and reliable measure of the effects of a merger on competition, (2) the market power remedies that the Commission has required from merger applicants mitigate potential market power and improve economic efficiency, and (3) transactions costs provide an alternative explanation for horizontal electric utility mergers. In addition to the economic analysis of these issues, the study includes an empirical analysis of the effects of three recent mergers.

Patton, David Baird

152

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains annual information on the cost and quality of fossil-fuel receipts to electric utility plants in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia with a combined steam capacity of 50 megawatts or larger. Prev...

1984-01-01

153

Using utility information to calibrate customer demand management behavior models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of stress customers can help a utility by means of voluntary demand management programs if they are offered the right incentives. The incentives offered can be optimized if the utility can estimate the outage or substitution costs of its customers. This paper illustrates how existing utility data can be used to predict customer demand management behavior. More specifically,

Murat Fahrioglu; Fernando L. Alvarado

2001-01-01

154

The electric power rationing program through the energy quota system; A utility's experience  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an energy quota is defined as the maximum kWh that can be used by individual customers during the rationing period. This quota is assigned by the utility and calculated on the basis of average energy consumption during the previous year. This rationing system was used by utilities in northeastern Brazil when a severe water shortage occurred in 1987. Although it is democratic and participative, this method requires balanced quota assignment criteria, efficient management and effective communication with customers to be viable. The utility's experience in the state of Bahia, Brazil, was satisfactory and played a vital role in overcoming the 1987 electric power shortage.

Bastos, A.C.F. (Companhia de Electricidade do Estado da Bahia, COELBA, Av. Edgar Santos, 300 40100 Salvador, Bahia (BR))

1992-08-01

155

EPRI guide to managing nuclear utility protective clothing programs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controlling the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

Kelly, J.J. (Right Angle Industries, Melbourne, FL (USA))

1991-05-01

156

Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

157

Importance of strategic maintenance management for Indian utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic maintenance management (SMM) forms an integral part of the management process in a power utility industry in a deregulated market. Hence this is one of the most important and critical management areas in deregulated power market. High value equipment-intensive utility industries that successfully adopt SMM practice can reduce maintenance costs and improve productivity through superior planning and may

R. N. Lahiri; Arup Sinha; S. P. Chowdhury; P. A. Crossley

2008-01-01

158

Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry  

SciTech Connect

A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

159

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

1997-10-15

160

Electric Utility Strategic Planning at the PUCT: An Overview  

E-print Network

's planning programs should not be relied upon to supplan t any major part of a utiIity' s planning responsibilities. INTRODUCTION, In the late 1970's and early 1980'a, the electric utilities in Texas came under increasing public scrutiny, while greater... not be neede~ when its construction is completed. Its in troduction into the uti Iity' s rate base drives customers (particularly large industrial ratepayers) off the' utility's system or induces them to conserve. However, if the project is not undertaken...

Zarnikau, J.

161

Review article Influence of electric conductivity management  

E-print Network

Review article Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality Martine DORAISa,b*, Athanasios P. PAPADOPOULOSa, André GOSSELINb a Greenhouse and Processing Crops / tomato / electrical conductivity / salinity / fruit quality / greenhouse Résumé ­ Influence de la régie

Boyer, Edmond

162

A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

Hill, L.J.

1995-10-01

163

A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets  

SciTech Connect

This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

Warwick, William M.

2002-06-03

164

Dynamics of Wind Generators on Electric Utility Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic interaction of wind-turbine-driven generators on electric utility networks was studied by computer simulation. Nonlinear representations of wind-turbine and various drive train elements and Park equation representations of synchronous and induction generators were implemented. An infinite capacity network was assumed. Time history responses for various system configurations were computed using as the input function severe wind gust data added to

CRAIGC. JOHNSON; RICHARDT. SMITH

1976-01-01

165

Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

van der Werf, Ysbrand John

166

User Friendly Cyberinfrastructures and Their Utility for Scholarly Knowledge Management  

E-print Network

1 User Friendly Cyberinfrastructures and Their Utility for Scholarly Knowledge Management Dr. Katy ToolsKM Tools CI This Talk has Three Parts: 1. Knowledge Management Tools for Scholars 2. Knowledge Management Tools for General Public 2 #12;2 Cyberinfrastructure Development Knowledge Management

Menczer, Filippo

167

Electric-utility DSM-program costs and effects, 1991 to 2001  

SciTech Connect

For the past three years (1989, 1990, and 1991), all US electric utilities that sell more than 120 GWh/year have been required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a rich and uniquely comprehensive picture of electric-utility DSM programs in the United States. Altogether, 890 utilities (of about 3250 in the United States) ran DSM programs in 1991; of these, 439 sold more than 120 GWh and reported details on their DSM programs. These 439 utilities represent more than 80% of total US electricity sales and revenues. Altogether, these utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on DSM programs in 1991, equal to 1.0% of total utility revenues that year. In return for these (and prior-year) expenditures, utility DSM programs cut potential peak demand by 26,700 MW (4.8% of the national total) and cut annual electricity use by 23,300 GWh (0.9% of the national total). These 1991 numbers represent substantial increases over the 1989 and 1990 numbers on utility DSM programs. Specifically, utility DSM expenditures doubled, energy savings increased by almost 50%, and demand reductions increased by one-third between 1989 and 1991. Utilities differed enormously in their DSM-program expenditures and effects. Almost 12% of the reporting utilities spent more than 2% of total revenues on DSM programs in 1991, while almost 60% spent less than 0.5% of revenues on DSM. Utility estimates of future DSM-program expenditures and benefits show continuing growth. By the year 2001, US utilities expect to spend 1.2% of revenues on DSM and to cut demand by 8.8% and annual sales by 2.7%. Here, too, expectations vary by region. Utilities in the West and Northwest plan to spend more than 2% of revenues on DSM that year, while utilities in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southwest, Central, and North Central regions plan to spend less than 1% of revenues on DSM.

Hirst, E.

1993-05-01

168

Solar hot water manual for electric utilities: Domestic hot water systems: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This manual is a consolidation of research quantifying the potential of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems to satisfy electric utility load management objectives, especially peak clipping. Performance data on solar, heat pump, and utility-controlled DHW systems were collected and analyzed; computer simulations were also performed to obtain hour-by-hour demand curves during typical summer and winter days in seven geographic regions. The results show promise for solar and heat pump water heaters in all parts of the country when compared with conventional electric water heaters. Demand reduction by solar DHW systems during the peak period ranges from 12 to 78% in summer and 0 to 36% in winter, depending on geographic location. Demand reduction by heat pump water heaters during the peak period averages around 50% in both summer and winter in all locations. Load management of solar DHW systems can shift demand to evening hours, but provides only limited energy savings to homeowners.

Ahmed, S.F.; Estoque, J.

1986-12-01

169

Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

1996-07-01

170

A battery management system for electric buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a contract funded by the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), the author was given the task of developing an advanced monitoring and control technology (MACT) to manage lead acid batteries used in electric vehicles. Using the latest semiconductor technology, his goal is to develop a battery management system that focuses on maximizing the discharge and recharge efficiency of

B. O'Brien

1994-01-01

171

Capture Utility Savings Using Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS)  

E-print Network

Capture Utility Savings Using Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) James E Robinson PE, P.Eng., CEM, CEP DES Global, LLC Greenville, SC ABSTRACT Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) have proven effective in reducing... REFERENCES 1 Bamber, D.; Childress, R. L.; Robinson, J.; Rule Based Energy Management and Reporting System (EMRS) Applied to a Large Utility Power Station Complex, Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Energy Systems Laboratory, May 2004, http...

Robinson, James E.

2012-01-01

172

The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.

1980-12-01

173

Data and projections on US electric-utility DSM programs: 1989--1997  

SciTech Connect

All US electric utilities are required to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a comprehensive view of utility DSM-program costs and effects (energy savings and load reductions) for 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992 as well as projections for 1993 and 1997. For 1992, US utility DSM programs cost almost $2.4 billion, saved 31,800 GWh, and cut potential peak demand by 32,900 MW. Normalized by retail revenues, sales, and peak demand, utilities spent 1.3% of their revenues to achieve energy and demand reductions of 1.2 and 6.0%, respectively.

Hirst, E.

1994-12-01

174

Creative utility right-of-way management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility rights-of-way, representing about four million acres, can be effectively used for compatible purposes. A task force determined that use of easement land on private property would differ from fee-owned land, which can be more readily turned over to recreation and other public uses. A national and international survey of utilities indicates that fee-owned lands are more widely used and

Clemence

1977-01-01

175

Determining the value of conservation to Thailand's electric utility  

SciTech Connect

Incorporating demand-side resources into the planning regime of fast-growing electric utilities in developing countries is a particular challenge. In this paper, a method is developed for valuing the contribution of conservation under these circumstances and illustrated through scenarios of electricity savings in Thailand's large commercials sector. The primary value of these scenarios is in the creation of opportunities to defer or cancel plants planned for future inclusion in the system. The benefits of such deferments are twofold: a direct reduction in capacity needs commensurate with the load impacts of the scenario, plus a reduction in the reserve margin required to maintain system reliability. Comparison of the capital requirements of the conservation scenarios versus the deferrable plant capacity showed that conservation is substantially less capital intensive.

Busch, J.F. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US))

1992-08-01

176

The design of optimal electric power demand management contracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. Electric utilities try to provide reliable supply of electric power to their customers. Maximum customer benefit derives from minimum cost and sufficient supply availability. Customers willing to share in "availability risk" can derive further benefit by participating in controlled outage programs. Specifically, whenever utilities foresee dangerous loading patterns, there is a need for a rapid reduction in demand either system-wide or at specific locations. The utility needs to get relief in order to solve its problems quickly and efficiently. This relief can come from customers who agree to curtail their loads upon request in exchange for an incentive fee. This thesis shows how utilities can get efficient load relief while maximizing their economic benefit. This work also shows how estimated customer cost functions can be calibrated, using existing utility data, to help in designing efficient demand management contracts. In order to design such contracts, optimal mechanism design is adopted from "Game Theory" and applied to the interaction between a utility and its customers. The idea behind mechanism design is to design an incentive structure that encourages customers to sign up for the right contract and reveal their true value of power. If a utility has demand management contracts with customers at critical locations, most operational problems can be solved efficiently. This thesis illustrates how locational attributes of customers incorporated into demand management contract design can have a significant impact in solving system problems. This kind of demand management contracts can also be used by an Independent System Operator (ISO). During times of congestion a loss of economic surplus occurs. When the market is too slow or cannot help relieve congestion, demand management can help solve the problem. Another tool the ISO requires for security purposes is reserves. Even though demand management contracts may not be a good substitute for spinning reserves, they are adequate to augment or replace supplemental and backup reserves.

Fahrioglu, Murat

1999-11-01

177

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT THROUGH LINK TOLLS---AN APPROACH UTILIZING SIDE  

E-print Network

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT THROUGH LINK TOLLS---AN APPROACH UTILIZING SIDE CONSTRAINED TRAFFIC EQUILIBRIUM a set of overall traffic manage­ ment or planning goals with respect to the performance of the traffic) describing a Stackelberg game involving the traffic manager and the users of the network. The model is shown

Patriksson, Michael

178

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT THROUGH LINK TOLLS_AN APPROACH UTILIZING SIDE  

E-print Network

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT THROUGH LINK TOLLS_AN APPROACH UTILIZING SIDE CONSTRAINED a systematic means for achieving a set of overall traffic manage- ment or planning goals with respect with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) describing a Stackelberg game involving the traffic manager and the users

Patriksson, Michael

179

Productivity analysis of the United States electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using stochastic distance and directional distance functions I assess the efficiency of firms in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry. Further, I compare utilities' marginal control costs for SO2 emissions to prices observed in the SO2 allowance marketplace to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting permit prices. I estimate stochastic distance functions and use them to calculate Malmquist productivity change (PC) indices which I decompose into efficiency change and technical change. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which uses linear programming techniques, has been widely used to compute Malmquist indices as ratios of fitted distances from a convex hull frontier. As an alternative, I develop and estimate a flexible, stochastic distance frontier, using a generalized method of moments strategy. This allows for statistical inference and imposes no restrictions on returns to scale, Finally, comparisons are drawn between the stochastic approach and the less flexible non-parametric and non-stochastic DEA method using a panel of 43 electric utilities over a time period from 1961 to 1992. Applying the same methodology I analyze a panel of 78 firms over the time period from 1988 to 1997. Based on my results I identify the most and least efficient firms in the industry. Further, I develop a methodology to explicitly take into account undesirable outputs. These outputs are produced in conjunction with desirable outputs and are not costlessly disposable. I specify and estimate input and output based stochastic distance and directional distance functions and compare the alternative approaches using panel data on 41 U.S. electric utilities observed in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. I apply the preferred approach, the output directional distance function, to a sample of 56 primarily coal-burning utilities observed in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Of particular interest is the shadow price for the undesirable output. I compare the shadow values to prices from the SO2 allowance market and find that the estimated marginal industry control cost is reasonably close to prices observed in the marketplace.

Honerkamp, Olaf

1999-11-01

180

18 CFR 292.302 - Availability of electric utility system cost data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources...Availability of electric utility system cost data. ...Conservation of Power and Water Resources...Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities...Availability of electric utility system cost data....

2010-04-01

181

Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

Payne, S M

1987-01-01

182

Managing congestive heart failure with thoracic electrical bioimpedance.  

PubMed

Because of clinical utility, immediate feedback, absence of risk to the patient, portability, and use in virtually any practice setting, facilities using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring are increasing throughout the world. Specialized centers treating patients with heart failure have shown remarkable benefits, both in health care costs and patient morbidity, attributable to the careful monitoring and management of patients with heart failure. The ability of thoracic bioimpedance monitoring to provide objective data in the management of congestive heart failure provides practitioners with the clinical reassurance to optimize pharmacologic therapy safely. PMID:10745709

Gilbert, J; Lazio, L

1999-08-01

183

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Choosing Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Photo from Infrastructure Successfully deploying plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging infrastructure requires

184

Utility Systems Management and Operational Optimization  

E-print Network

Utilities? provides a single "model-centric" solution that companies can use to perform all their energy business processes. 73 ESL-IE-02-04-10 Proceedings from the Twenty-fourth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 16... Utilities is a common model and optimization basis for strategic and operations decisions in a site. 74 ESL-IE-02-04-10 Proceedings from the Twenty-fourth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 16-19, 2002 1. Overview...

Dhole, V.; Seillier, D.; Garza, K.

185

A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals  

SciTech Connect

In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.

Porter, K.

1995-11-01

186

Fabric filters for the Electric Utility Industry: Volume 1, General concepts  

SciTech Connect

This publication is the first in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Multiple volumes are planned, each to be produced sequentially over the period 1987-1989. Topics to be addressed include operating principles and terminology, baghouse design considerations, bags and fabrics, flue gas dynamics, reverse-gas cleaning, reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance, shake/deflate cleaning, pulse-jet cleaning, combined SO/sub 2/ collection, and operation and maintenance. Volume 1, General Concepts contains a discussion of fly ash formation, technologies for particulate control, baghouse operating principles and terminology, filtration mechanisms, the filtration process, and baghouse application in the US utility industry. 24 refs., 20 figs.

Bustard, C.J.; Cushing, K.M.; Pontius, D.H.; Smith, W.B.; Carr, R.C.

1988-01-01

187

Utilizing optimization in municipal stormwater management  

E-print Network

104 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Activities Requiring an Industrial Permit Table 2. USGS Coefficients for OLS Method (Driver and Tasker, 1990) Table 3. USGS Coefficients for GLS Method (Driver and Tasker, 1990) 68 69 Table 4. Physical... loading estimation 4. U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for mean annual loads 5. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments method. Each of these methods utilize a set of equations that were developed from either parameter calibration studies...

Dorman, Stephen Paul

2012-06-07

188

The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs  

SciTech Connect

Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests.

Eto, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

1996-12-01

189

UTILITY DATA ARCHIVING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA let a contract for a consultant to collect information about historical changes in operations and maintenance, design and construction, and planning and siting for water and wastewater infrastructure. The goal of this research study is to determine risk management alternativ...

190

The next decade and emission controls for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The historical efforts to achieve attainment with the ozone and particulate related standards span over 25 years and involve billions of dollars with only minimal success related to ozone and unknown success related to certain fine particulates. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated significant new efforts, including Title IV - Acid Rain, to achieve reductions in ozone and fine particulate precursors and attainment with the standards. Initial reduction efforts have only recently been implemented and yet another hot summer continues to portray our futile efforts to gain much ground towards attainment with existing and revised or new standards. In order to review the issues more fully and to investigate the issue of regional transport. EPA has given the states a reprieve on ozone attainment plans until mid-1997 and set up the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) structure to review implementation issues with new or revised standards. The states and other stockholders are involved in these EPA processes through the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the CAAAC along with numerous working groups to get new answers arid help towards innovative solutions. A major target in these efforts is emissions from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. The OTAG process has developed regional control strategy targets for utility NO{sub x} sources at three levels. These levels include consideration of costs, timing and availability of controls, and the anticipated reductions in NO{sub x}. The CAAAC is also considering regional controls and the associated implementation issues for both ozone and fine particulates. EPA is also considering a Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) to wrap all the utility control issues in a single consensus package. The next 10 years will be a crucial time for electric utilities in juggling environmental and competitive issues.

Herrin, W.D. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1997-12-31

191

Using Utility Information to Calibrate Customer Demand Management Behavior Models  

E-print Network

of voluntary demand management programs if they are offered the right incentives. The incentives offered can and calibrated. Util- ities around the country are using nonlinear pricing to sell their power (anytime a utility suggest different ways of estimat- ing the outage costs of customers mainly by way of interacting

192

Managing projects utilizing self-managed teams and managerial toolkits  

E-print Network

Project Management is an essential function in most software companies today. With increasing complexity and inter connectivity between software projects, it is not surprising that managing such large scale development ...

Mathur, Praveen, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

193

Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not have any apparent structure, and that using overly simple policies can be considerably suboptimal. I thus develop and analyze a triple-threshold policy that I show to be near-optimal. Using a financial engineering price model and calibrating it to data from the New York Independent System Operator, I show that storage can substantially increase the monetary value of a wind farm: If transmission capacity is tight, the majority of this value arises from reducing curtailment and time-shifting generation; if transmission capacity is abundant this value stems primarily from time-shifting generation and arbitrage. In addition, I find that while more storage capacity always increases the average energy sold to the market, it may actually decrease the average wind energy sold when transmission capacity is abundant. In Chapter 3, I examine how electricity storage can be used to help match electricity supply and demand. Conventional wisdom suggests that when supply exceeds demand, any electricity surpluses should be stored for future resale. However, because electricity prices can be negative, another potential strategy of dealing with surpluses is to destroy them. Using real data, I find that for a merchant who trades electricity in a market, the strategy of destroying surpluses is potentially more valuable than the conventional strategy of storing surpluses. In Chapter 4, I study how the operation and valuation of electricity storage facilities can be affected by their physical characteristics and operating dynamics. Examples are the degradation of energy capacity over time and the variation of round-trip efficiency at different charging/discharging rates. These dynamics are often ignored in the literature, thus it has not been established whether it is important to model these characteristics. Specifically, it remains an open question whether modeling these dynamics might materially change the prescribed operating policy and the resulting valuation of a storage facility. I answer this question using a representative setting, in which a battery is utilized to trade el

Zhou, Yangfang

194

Personnel safety for electric utilities with dispersed storage and generation (DSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day safety practices and hardware employed by electric utilities in electric distribution systems have evolved consistent with the unidirectional flow of electric power from central production facilities at the generation level to dispersed loads at the electric distribution level. The interconnection of dispersed production devices, such as wind powered ac generators and photovoltaic powered dc-to-ac inverters, to the electric

Rizy

1982-01-01

195

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

196

European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market  

SciTech Connect

The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

Berbey, Pierre [Electricite de France / SEPTEN, 12 avenue Dutrievoz, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik [Vattenfall / Elproduktion Norden, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 16287 Stockholm (Sweden)

2004-07-01

197

Optimal management of batteries in electric systems  

DOEpatents

An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

2002-01-01

198

Policies, Management, Technologies and Facilities for the Treatment of Electrical and Electronic Wastes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the development of information technologies, the amount of electrical and electronic wastes continues to increase rapidly. Social request for comprehensive electronic scrap utilization is stronger than ever in China. In order to achieve sustainable development of the society, relevant policies, management, technologies and facilities for the treatment of electrical and electronic wastes in China were analyzed in details.

Jinhui Li; Xuefeng Wen; Tongzhou Liu

199

Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to relate to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) “Everything is interconnected” (and should usually stay that way), and (2) “We can never do merely one thing.” The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced—or even turned into conservation benefits—by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry's programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones.

Temple, Stanley A.

1996-11-01

200

The role of informatics and decision support in utilization management.  

PubMed

Information systems provide a critical link between clinical laboratories and the clinicians and patients they serve. Strategic deployment of informatics resources can enable a wide array of utilization initiatives and can substantially improve the appropriateness of test selection and results interpretation. In this article, we review information systems including computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, laboratory information systems (LISs), electronic health records (EHRs), laboratory middleware, knowledge management systems and systems for data extraction and analysis, and describe the role that each can play in utilization management. We also discuss specific utilization strategies that laboratories can employ within these systems, citing examples both from our own institution and from the literature. Finally, we review how emerging applications of decision support technologies may help to further refine test utilization, "personalize" laboratory diagnosis, and enhance the diagnostic value of laboratory testing. PMID:24084507

Baron, Jason M; Dighe, Anand S

2014-01-01

201

Locating and parameters setting of TCSC for congestion management in deregulated electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major operating challenges in the electricity markets is to manage transmission system congestion to ensure its secure operation. This paper has mainly addressed the issue of congestion management utilizing Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC). Proper location of a FACTS controller is key to maximize its benefits. This paper presents an LMP based method for locating TCSC, as

M. Joorabian; M. Saniei; H. Sepahvand

2011-01-01

202

Driving Water and Wastewater Utilities to More Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT Enable Integrate Optimize Electricity Costs and Billing GET ORGANIZED ? Historical electricity bills are analyzed (2+ years of data is preferred) UNDERSTAND... Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Coming Attractions ? Case Studies ? Global successes ? Pilot testing the Roadmap Interested? Contact WSEC@wef.org ? Guidance Document ? Resources ? Interpretations ESL-IE-13-05-09 Proceedings...

Ferrel, L.; Liner, B.

2013-01-01

203

National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

Save, Phil

1994-05-01

204

National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

Save, Phil

1994-01-01

205

Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine mortality from suicide in relation to estimated exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields in a cohort of138,905 male electric utility workers. Methods Case-control sampling, which included 536 deaths from suicide and 5,348 eligible controls. Exposure was classified based on work in the most common jobs with increased exposure to magnetic fields and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey. Results Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR, 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-3.80) or line worker(OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18-2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.33-1.40). A dose-response gradient withexposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.00-2.90) in the highest exposure category.Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12 to 3.62, were found for men younger than 50 years. Conclusions These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research and epidemiologic evaluation. PMID:10924428

van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Savitz, David A; Kleckner, Robert C; Cai, Jianwen; Loomis, Dana

2000-01-01

206

Electrical characterization of a Space Station Freedom alpha utility transfer assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, command signals and data are transferred across the Space Station Freedom solar alpha rotary joint by roll rings, which are incorporated within the Utility Transfer Assembly (UTA) designed and manufactured by Honeywell Space Systems Operations. A developmental Model of the UTA was tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center using the Power Management and Distribution DC test bed. The objectives of these tests were to obtain data for calibrating system models and to support final design of qualification and flight units. This testing marked the first time the UTA was operated at high power levels and exposed to electrical conditions similar to that which it will encounter on the actual Space Station. Satisfactory UTA system performance was demonstrated within the scope of this testing.

Yenni, Edward J.

1994-01-01

207

Secret weapon. [The Energy Act's assault against in-house utility demand side management (DSM)  

SciTech Connect

With all the attention focused on electric transmission and reform of the Public Utility Holding Company Act, few people noticed new provisions in the Energy Policy Act protecting small business from unfair utility competition in demand-side management. Congressional staffers reportedly received more mail supporting a ban on unfair utility competition than for all of the rest of the energy bill. As a result, the Act directs state utility commissions to consider the effect of DSM programs on small business and to assure that utility actions would not provide such utilities with unfair competitive advantages over such small businesses. It also requires a report by the Federal Trade Commission on the competitive effects of DSM programs and whether any unfair, deceptive, or predatory acts or practices exist, or are likely to exist, from implementation of such programs. Where did this anti-utility weapon come from What does it do And, now that it has been adopted into law, how can electric utilities deal with it

Howard, J.H.

1993-01-15

208

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

NONE

1995-12-01

209

Mercury stack emissions from U.S. electric utility power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature estimates for worldwide anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions range from 900 to 6200 t\\/yr. EPA recently estimated that U.S. electric utilities emit about 93 t\\/yr. EPRI, DOE, and others have recently conducted field measurements to better quantify electric utility emissions of Hg and other trace substances. Hg emissions inventories based on these recent measurements indicate that total electric utility Hg

P. Chu; D. B. Porcella

1995-01-01

210

The ICF, Inc. coal and electric utilities model : an analysis and evaluation  

E-print Network

v.1. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is sponsoring a series of evaluations of important energy policy and electric utility industry models by the MIT Energy Model Analysis Program (EMAP). The subject of this ...

Wood, David O.

1981-01-01

211

Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Con...

L. Baxter, E. Hirst

1995-01-01

212

Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

None

1980-08-01

213

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOEpatents

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2011-12-06

214

18 CFR Appendix A to Part 290 - Nonexempt Electric Utilities  

...as follows: Department of Water and Power of the City of Los Angeles, California. Pacific Gas & Electric Co. San Diego Gas and Electric Co. Southern California Edison Co. Western Area Power Administration. [Order 545, 57 FR...

2014-04-01

215

Electric utilities and clean air; The progress continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In

1991-01-01

216

Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

Walls, B.

1995-07-01

217

Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

Walls, B.

1995-01-01

218

Human factors primer for nuclear utility managers: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to increase managers' awareness of the effects of human factors on plant performance, help them to recognize when decisions have underlying human factors implications, provide a basis for determing how to improve personnel performance, and indicate how they can get help for planning and staffing a human factors program. To develop the document, a team of recognized human factors experts constructed lists of topics, then outlines, and, finally, chapter material designed to be responsive to the information needs of nuclear power utility managers. Successive drafts were then reviewed by utility representatives and a variety of human factors engineers. The format, style, and page layout was designed to attract interest and enhance comprehension. The document contains five brief chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of human factors engineering, what it is concerned with; its objectives, methods, and benefits; as well as some common misconceptions about it. Chapter 2 addresses decisions that managers might make to improve the task requirements imposed on plant personnel. Chapter 3 describes what decisions managers might make to improve the human capabilities of plant personnel. Chapter 4 completes the picture by addressing decisions related to interface designs. Finally, Chapter 5 presents information about how utility managers can get help to satisfy human factors engineering needs.

Kinkade, R.G.

1988-03-01

219

Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs cause cancer, with malignant melanoma being of particular concern in this industry. PMID:9404319

Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

1997-01-01

220

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

2014-01-01

221

Electromagnetic Fields, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Prostate Cancer Mortality in Electric Utility Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mortality from prostate cancer among US electric utility workers. Data on participants, who were current and former employees of five large US electric utility companies, had been collected during 1987-1994, and the mortality of the

Luenda E. Charles; Dana Loomis; Carl M. Shy; Beth Newman; Robert Millikan; Leena A. Nylander-French; David Couper

2003-01-01

222

Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near-term electric utility applications. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed evaluation is made of TES through a careful screening, analysis, conceptual design, and evaluation to determine if it can meet the peak power needs of electric utilities for near-term applications. Primary emphasis is on electric utilities developing new plants, planned and designed to incorporate the TES. The new plants considered are conventional coal and nuclear fueled, which represent

E. W. Hall; W. Hausz; R. Anand; N. LaMarche; J. Oplinger; M. Katzer

1979-01-01

223

The utilization of wind energy in the Brazilian electric sector’s expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian electric sector’s supply crisis established in 2001 urges for short, medium and long term solutions. In this scenario, renewable energy sources, specially wind energy, gain distinction as a feasible alternative of seasonal stability in energy supply by means of complementation between natural wind regimes and hydro utilization, the basis of Brazilian’s electric origin, as well as the utilization

Neilton Fidelis da Silva; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa; Maria Regina Araújo

2005-01-01

224

Utility-Aware Deferred Load Balancing in the Cloud Driven by Dynamic Pricing of Electricity  

E-print Network

in energy prices along with the rise of cloud computing brings up the issue of making clouds energy. In this paper, we use deferral with dynamic pricing of electricity for energy efficiency while using utilityUtility-Aware Deferred Load Balancing in the Cloud Driven by Dynamic Pricing of Electricity

Gupta, Rajesh

225

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

Not Available

1993-12-28

226

Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.

1991-03-20

227

Carbon Management in the Electric Power Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 53States in 2000 came from the combustion of coal in Rankine cycle plant; 16principally in Brayton cycle or combined cycle units. Electricity generation is responsible for 36amthropogenic CO2. This compares with 32transportation sector, but since the electric utility generators are large fixed sources it is likely that any legislation designed to reduce CO2 production will adress the utility generators first. Over the last 100 years there has been a continuous decrease in the carbon fraction of the fuels used for energy production world wide, and it is expected that this will continue, principally as a result of the increasing fraction of natural gas. It appears probable that the retirement of the existing nuclear fleet will be delayed by relicensing, and it seems more possible that new nuclear plant will be built than seemed likely even a couple of years ago. The impact of renewables should be increasing, but currently only about 2way currently, and without some considerable incentives, the rate of increase in this component over the next twenty years will probably be small. Currently, hydroelectric plants account for 7indication that this will increase appreciably. At the moment, a significant change would appear to require the capture of CO2 from the exhaust of the combustion plants, and particularly the large existing fleet of coal-fired Rankine units. Following the capture, the CO2 must then be sequestered in secure long-term locations. In addition, increases in the efficiency of power generation, and increases in the efficiency of end use leading to reductions in the energy intensity of the Gross Domestic Product, will be necessary. This paper will review the current state of art in these various approaches to the problem.

Stringer, John

2002-03-01

228

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997  

SciTech Connect

The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

229

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

2013-10-01

230

Is strategic asset management applicable to small and medium utilities?  

PubMed

Urban water infrastructures provide essential services to modern societies and represent a major portion of the value of municipal physical assets. Managing these assets rationally is therefore fundamental for the sustainability of the services and to the economy of societies. "Asset Management" (AM) is a modern term for an old practice--assets have always been managed. In recent years, significant evolution occurred in terms of the AM formal approaches, of the monitoring and decision support tools and of the implementation success cases. However, most tools developed are too sophisticated and data seek for small utilities. The European R&D network COST Action C18 ( E-mail: www.costc18.org) identified key research problems related to the management of urban water infrastructures, currently not covered by on-going projects of the European Framework Program. The top 1 topic is "Efficient management of small community". This paper addresses challenges and opportunities for small and medium utilities with regard to infrastructure AM (IAM). To put this into context, the first sections discuss the need for IAM, highlight key recent developments, and present IAM drivers, as well as research and development gaps, priorities and products needed. PMID:21045331

Alegre, Helena

2010-01-01

231

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey. [Descriptions of 839 projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list

Wentworth

1980-01-01

232

Utility -Owned Central Plant Load Management at the Domain  

E-print Network

Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP Customer Energy Solutions, Austin Energy Mission: Deliver clean, affordable, reliable energy and excellent customer service. Utility Owned Load Management – Thermal Energy Storage ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air... intensive than ice > Pro – Can use existing chillers > Pro – Can be below ground (dual use of space) > Pro – Can be used for fire fighting or cooling tower backup water source > Con – Larger footprint 7 Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Options ESL-KT-13...

Lilley, D.

2013-01-01

233

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational

R. Malkin; C. E. Moss; C. M. Reh; M. Ragab

1996-01-01

234

An advanced smart management system for electric vehicle recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies about climate change are mandating a drastic reduction of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Solutions include the utilization of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar energy) and the increased utilization of hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). In this scenario ICT can play a significant role by fostering the smart utilization of current energy and transportation infrastructures (smart grid

M. Gharbaoui; L. Valcarenghi; R. Brunoi; B. Martini; M. Conti; P. Castoldi

2012-01-01

235

Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues  

SciTech Connect

A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-09-01

236

Energy management of a university campus utilizing short-term load forecasting with an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical load forecasting is a tool that has been utilized by distribution designers and operators as a means for resource planning and generation dispatch. The techniques employed in these predictions are proving useful in the growing market of consumer, or end-user, participation in electrical energy consumption. These predictions are based on exogenous variables, such as weather, and time variables, such as day of week and time of day as well as prior energy consumption patterns. The participation of the end-user is a cornerstone of the Smart Grid initiative presented in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and is being made possible by the emergence of enabling technologies such as advanced metering infrastructure. The optimal application of the data provided by an advanced metering infrastructure is the primary motivation for the work done in this thesis. The methodology for using this data in an energy management scheme that utilizes a short-term load forecast is presented. The objective of this research is to quantify opportunities for a range of energy management and operation cost savings of a university campus through the use of a forecasted daily electrical load profile. The proposed algorithm for short-term load forecasting is optimized for Colorado State University's main campus, and utilizes an artificial neural network that accepts weather and time variables as inputs. The performance of the predicted daily electrical load is evaluated using a number of error measurements that seek to quantify the best application of the forecast. The energy management presented utilizes historical electrical load data from the local service provider to optimize the time of day that electrical loads are being managed. Finally, the utilization of forecasts in the presented energy management scenario is evaluated based on cost and energy savings.

Palchak, David

237

Power Management Strategy with Regenerative Braking For Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel power management strategy based on regenerative braking is proposed to make optimal power distribution between fuel cell system and batteries in order to improve the utility of braking energy and decrease the power loss for fuel cell electric vehicle. With the integrated regenerative braking strategy, the novel control algorithm takes the charging power loss from regenerated energy into

Yu Shuang; Zhang Junzhi; Wang Lifang

2009-01-01

238

Research on battery management system for light electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the operation characteristics of light electric vehicle, the paper developed a battery management system of light electric vehicle. The system mainly contains battery protection module, battery equalization module, battery data management module. It could be real-time monitoring the operation parameters of batteries effectively: rotational speed of motor, State of Charge (SOC) of the batteries, voltage and current of

Feng Nenglian; Yong Jiawang; Bin Yang; Peng Jiankun; Tang Yanrong

2011-01-01

239

Research on battery management system in electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the bridge of battery and vehicle management system and the drivers, battery management system (BMS) for electric vehicle performance is playing a more and more key role. This article introduces several kinds of battery display methods and displays, and for each display method on the feasibility study, also focuses on the electric car batteries systematic, modular design and the

Cuicui Yin; Yuqun Wang

2012-01-01

240

Energy Management for an Electric Vehicle Based on Combinatorial Modeling  

E-print Network

of the energy system The energy chain of the vehicle concerned is composed of a Fuel Cell System (FCS) usingEnergy Management for an Electric Vehicle Based on Combinatorial Modeling Yacine GAOUA a,b,c , St Toulouse, France Abstract This paper describes the process of electrical energy management and optimization

Boyer, Edmond

241

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Energy Conservation - A Utility Viewpiont  

E-print Network

As the price of energy rises, changes in industrial electric rates will have an impact on energy usage and conservation. Utilities interested in reducing system peak demands may reflect this need in the rate structure as an incentive...

Williams, M. M.

1981-01-01

242

Climate change adaptation in the U.S. electric utility sector  

E-print Network

The electric utility sector has been a focus of policy efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but even if these efforts are successful, the sector will need to adapt to the impacts of climate change. These are likely ...

Higbee, Melissa (Melissa Aura)

2013-01-01

243

CO? abatement by multi-fueled electric utilities: an analysis based on Japanese data  

E-print Network

Multi-fueled electric utilities are commonly seen as offering relatively greater opportunities for reasonably priced carbon abatement through changes in the dispatch of generating units from capacity using high emission ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.; Tsukada, Natsuki.

244

Electrically Small Folded Slot Antenna Utilizing Capacitive Loaded Slot Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an electrically small, coplanar waveguide fed, folded slot antenna that uses capacitive loading. Several antennas are fabricated with and without capacitive loading to demonstrate the ability of this design approach to reduce the resonant frequency of the antenna, which is analogous to reducing the antenna size. The antennas are fabricated on Cu-clad Rogers Duriod(TM) 6006 with multilayer chip capacitors to load the antennas. Simulated and measured results show close agreement, thus, validating the approach. The electrically small antennas have a measured return loss greater than 15 dB and a gain of 5.4, 5.6, and 2.7 dBi at 4.3, 3.95, and 3.65 GHz, respectively.

Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Merritt, Shane; Minor, John S.; Zorman, Christian A.

2007-01-01

245

Pro-ACT II: integrating utilization management, discharge planning, and nursing case management into the outcomes manager role.  

PubMed

Building on redesign efforts that created case management, clinical care technicians, support service hosts, and pharmacy technician roles, this redesign focused on integrating case management, utilization management, and discharge planning functions into a new outcomes manager role. The authors describe the process of developing and implementing the new role and outline specific actions that eliminated redundancy and inefficiency. Results of the evaluation of the project are reviewed, including full-time equivalent and salary savings and employee and physician satisfaction improvements. PMID:9031661

Brett, J L; Bueno, M; Royal, N; Kendall-Sengin, K

1997-02-01

246

Physics of Electrical Discharges to Control and to Utilize Them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three topics related to the field of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) are summarized for this special issue. First one deals with the fundamental process of long gap discharge. As the second one, the topics of a vacuum discharge occurred on the solar cell of the spacecraft is introduced. The last one shows the arc motion in the rail-gun.

Yumoto, Motoshige

247

Electric utility mergers and acquisitions seen in a larger perspective  

SciTech Connect

Merger negotiations are intricate and sensitive dances which, far more often than not, may end in failure. The famed prediction of {open_quotes}50 in five{close_quotes} may prove correct - though it may be 50 utilities in 2005. Still, mergers are only a partial hedge against what may, after all, be 10 years of better prices for customers and tougher times for shareholders.

Hawes, D.W.

1995-10-01

248

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

SciTech Connect

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

249

Experimental investigation of a variable speed constant frequency electric generating system from a utility perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As efforts are accelerated to improve the overall capability and performance of wind electric systems, increased attention to variable speed configurations has developed. A number of potentially viable configurations have emerged. Various attributes of variable speed systems need to be carefully tested to evaluate their performance from the utility points of view. With this purpose, the NASA experimental variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system has been tested. In order to determine the usefulness of these systems in utility applications, tests are required to resolve issues fundamental to electric utility systems. Legitimate questions exist regarding how variable speed generators will influence the performance of electric utility systems; therefore, tests from a utility perspective, have been performed on the VSCF system and an induction generator at an operating power level of 30 kW on a system rated at 200 kVA and 0.8 power factor.

Herrera, J. I.; Reddoch, T. W.; Lawler, J. S.

1985-01-01

250

Electric utilities, fiscal illusion and the provision of local public services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restructuring activity in the electric utility industry is threatening a once stable and significant source of revenue for local governments. Potentially declining revenues from electric utilities leaves local policymakers with the unpopular decision of raising taxes or reducing the level of public services provided. This has led to pressure on state governments to introduce legislation aimed at mitigating potential revenue loss for local government due to restructuring activity. However, before imposing such legislation, a better understanding of the potential distortionary effects of internal subsidization by electric utilities is needed. Two models of the demand for local public services--a structural model using the Stone-Geary utility framework and a reduced form model--are developed in an attempt to model the behavioral responses of local public expenditures to revenue contributions from electric utilities. Empirical analysis of both models is conducted using a panel data set for 242 municipalities in Tennessee from 1988 to 1998. Aggregate spending and expenditures on four specific service functions are examined. The results provide evidence of a positive flypaper effect. Furthermore, the source of the flypaper effect is attributed to fiscal illusion caused by price distortions. The stimulative effect of electric utility revenue contributions on the level of local public services indicate that a 1.00 change in electric utility subsidies results in a change in local expenditures ranging from 0.22 to 1.32 for the structural model and 1.97 to 2.51 for the reduced form model. The amount of the marginal effect directly attributed to price illusion is estimated to range from 0.04 to $0.85. In addition, the elasticities of electric utility revenue contributions are estimated to range from 0.05 to 0.90. The results raise a number of interesting issues regarding municipal ownership of utilities and legislation regarding tax treatment of utilities after restructuring. The fact that the current study suggests that electric utility subsidies give rise to fiscal illusion raises new questions regarding the justification of safeguarding the exclusive franchise of municipally-owned utilities and revenues from electric utilities in the era of restructuring.

Dowell, Paula Elizabeth Kay

2000-10-01

251

Evaluating an electric utility`s total potential for DG&S and DSM  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, system average costs have been the standard used by utility planners to develop system integrated resource plans. However, because utilities and regulatory agencies have recognized that costs vary by area and over time within an area, area- and time-specific (ATS) costs have replaced system average costs as a better tool for resource planning. Instead of performing system integrated resource planning (IRP), several leader utilities have begun to use ATS costs to perform local integrated resource planning (LIRP). ATS costs were first adopted by the California Public Utilities Commission in PG&E`s 1993 GRC and were first applied to local area resource planning in PG&E`s Delta district study. This study used the original Delta Model to evaluate cost-effective applications of DSM programs and provide detailed program design and analysis. Since then, the model has been used to determine cost-effective applications of both DG&S and DSM and develop a local integrated plan in PG&E`s Livermore/Pleasanton area. In order to perform such detailed program design and analysis for specific areas, however, extensive data sets are necessary. For example, extensive area load data is necessary in the evaluation of DSM programs for a specific area. The extraordinary amount of data and time necessary to perform such detailed analysis make it very costly for any utility to develop a full-scale local integrated resource plan for each of its local areas. Thus, utilities have been unable to use ATS costs to fully evaluate their entire system. The ability of utilities to accurately evaluate all local area potential becomes extremely important given PG&E`s recent {open_quotes}Integrated Generation Transmission and Distribution Planning{close_quotes} (IGTD) project.

Heffner, G.; Woo, L.

1995-12-31

252

Control of new energy sources in an electric utility system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The addition of generators based on renewable resources to the electric power system brings new problems of control and communication if the generators are to be controlled as an integrated part of the power system. Since many of these generators are small, it will require a large number of them, connected to the distribution system, to represent an appreciable fraction of the total generation. This situation contrasts with present day generation control which typically involves only the control of a small number of large generators. This paper examines the system requirements for integrated control, and proposes a control arrangement in which the incremental cost of power is an important parameter.

Kirkham, H.

1981-01-01

253

The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states with Republican governors, Democratic and professionalized legislatures, dominant interest groups, higher levels of GSP, greater growth in per capita personal income, traditionalistic political cultures, and lower levels of environmental commitment. Moreover, economics is not always the most influential factor in determining regulatory policy. Rather, political institutions and government bureaucracies make a considerable difference.

Altman, John Arthur

254

Complete IT solution for Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) in Indian power utility business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enterprise asset management system forms an integral part of the management process in a utility businesses and hence there is significant role of EAM system to cope the Indian utility businesses in competitive market, and is one of the most critical areas. It deals with the management of total life cycle of asset in a utility businesses related to

Arup Sinha; R. N. Lahir; S. Chowdhury; Y. H. Song

2007-01-01

255

Pilot Measurements of ELF Contact Currents in Some Electric Utility Occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact currents from touching objects with different voltages can produce electric fields within the body that produce neurological and other biological effects. To begin measuring these exposures among electric utility workers, a new contact current meter (CCM) was tested in a pilot study at Southern California Edison. The CCM was worn for 82 full-shift measurements by 76 volunteers from eight

Joseph Bowman; John Niple; Rob Kavet

2006-01-01

256

Electric-utility solar-energy activities: 1982 survey update. Special report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of a survey to determine the scope of electric utility participation in solar energy projects in the United States. This eighth edition of the survey contains brief descriptions of 128 new projects for 1982 and summarizes significant changes from 1981 in ongoing projects. A total of 930 projects were reported by 235 utility companies. An index

1982-01-01

257

Value of Wind and Solar Thermal Energy: Computer programs allow utilities to determine overall electric-energy production costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Two reports describe computer models for determining the value of solar-energy power systems to electric utilities. The models allow utility planners to integrate in...

1984-01-01

258

Effect of economic regulation on risk and financial performance in the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Regulation has often been cited as the major impediment to quick, efficient utility response to changing economic conditions. The quality of regulation, as assessed from an investor's viewpoint, has had an impact on the financial health of electric utilities. Firms with good regulation experienced a smaller increase in investment risk and a smaller decline in financial condition than utilities with poor regulation. While the purpose of regulation is not to ensure that utilities make profits, regulation is supposed to maintain the capital integrity of the firm. The eroding financial position of the electric utilities indicates that, in general, regulators have not maintained the capital integrity of the firms. Regulators of above-average quality were only marginally more able to mitigate the damaging effects of a changing environment on electric utility financial condition than below-average regulators. The effect of regulatory quality on risk and financial performance was relatively small when compared to other operating and environmental factors that affect utilities. The fuel mix, dividend policy, accounting practices and economy have all affected utility stocks to a far greater degree than the regulatory environment. While regulatory quality did have some impact on the performance of utility securities from 1972 to 1982, it was not the major factor affecting the securities.

Smith, D.M.

1984-01-01

259

Recent Developments in the Regulation of Electric Utility Resource Planning in Texas  

E-print Network

-fired generating units in Robertson County.7 Just prior to that, TU Electric received 7 Application of Texas-New Mexico Power Company, Docket No. 6397, 12 PUC Bull. 131 (1986) and Application of Texas-New Mexico Power Company, Docket No. 6992,16 PUC Bull... recent long-tenn forecast" of the Commission. In the 8 Application of Texas Utilities Electric Company, Docket No. 6190, (unpubI. Aug. 12, 1985) and Application of Texas Utilities Electric Company, Docket No. 6526, 12 PUC Bull. 82 (1986). 9...

Totten, J.; Adib, P.; Matlock, R.; Treadway, N.

260

The effect of downsizing on the financial performance of consumer-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to answer the question of whether downsizing influences the financial performance of consumer-owned electric utilities in terms of profitability, as measured by profit margins and return on assets in the year of downsizing and during the subsequent two years relative to stable employers. The retail electric industry is being restructured to make it more competitive. In anticipation of increased competitive pressure, some electric utilities have already downsized while others are in the planning stage. Conventional wisdom holds that downsizing lowers cost and improves efficiency. In turn, this more enhances a firm's financial performance. The research design was modeled after the work of Cascio, Young, and Morris (1997). The data consisted of fifty-four consumer-owned electric utilities that were studied over a 15-year period. Since these utilities were all active federal borrowers under the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Utilities Service Loan Program, the data were obtained from governmental statistical reports. T-tests were used to compare the mean financial performance of downsized employers with stable employers in the event year and during the subsequent two years. This study supports the findings of Cascio, Young, and Morris (1997) that downsizing does not improve firm profitability. More specifically, the study found that consumer-owned electric utilities that downsized employment do not influence profit margins nor return on assets in the year of downsizing and during the subsequent two years when compared to stable employers.

Dupont, Randall Luke

1999-06-01

261

Flow-Level Fair Queue Management Scheme Stabilizing Buffer Utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimedia traffic on the Internet is rapidly increasing with the advent of broadband networks. However, the Best-Effort (BE) service used with Internet Protocol (IP) networking was never intended to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) for each user. Therefore, the realization of QoS guarantees has become a very important issue. Previously, we have proposed a queue management scheme, called Dual Metrics Fair Queuing (DMFQ), to improve fairness and to guarantee QoS. DMFQ improves fairness and throughput by considering the amount of instantaneous and historical network resources consumed per flow. In addition, DMFQ has characteristics of high speed and high scalability because it is hardware oriented. However, DMFQ may be unable to adapt to network fluctuations, given that it has static setup parameters. Moreover, DMFQ is unable to support a multiclass environment. In this paper, we propose a new buffer management scheme based on DMFQ that can adapt flexibly to network conditions and can provide classified services. The proposed scheme stabilizes buffer utilization within a fixed range by controlling the buffer threshold, which affects the calculated packet discard probability. Moreover, by applying the proposed scheme to Differentiated Services (DiffServ), we achieve prioritized buffer management.

Shinohara, Yusuke; Yamagaki, Norio; Tode, Hideki; Murakami, Koso

262

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

263

Estimating Potential Stranded Commitments for U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regulations are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. We developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing U.S. investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

Baxter, L.

1995-01-01

264

Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

1995-01-01

265

Decisions on innovations in electric-utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

Two innovations were studied: an incentives program to improve power-plant productivity and use of future test periods to estimate utility costs. The study used a structured telephone survey to find out how commissioners and their staff are assessing the actual and potential impact of the innovations on their agencies' tasks, resources, environmental dependencies and goals; their attitudes and intentions towards the innovations; and the commissions' existing extent of adoption. The major findings of the study are: (1) adoption of an innovation by a commission is contingent on the type of innovation and the commission's situation at a particular time, (2) the locus of external support for an innovation aids or inhibits use, (3) the regulatory philosophy of the decision-maker at the commission is associated with attitude towards the innovation, and (4) decision makers at different levels of the commissions apply their beliefs about potential innovations differently in making up their minds about use. Commissioners focused more on issues surrounding adoption of the innovations, while staff were more concerned with the problems of implementation.

Davis, V.W.

1982-01-01

266

Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of the electric utility. The negative impact of the regulatory environment declined with the increase in the size of the utility, indicating favorable treatment for larger utilities by financial markets. Similarly, for the electric utility industry as a whole, financial markets reacted negatively to nuclear power generation.

Vishwanathan, Raman

267

The effects of state regulation on the use of DSM resources by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Support from regulators, coming in a variety of forms, has led to substantial utility efforts to secure demand-side management cost and energy savings, but without continued regulatory support these utility efforts could fall off sharply. Regulators that wish to continue to promote cost-effective DSM must understand the changing dynamics of the new competitive industry and the factors that will influence utility actions.

Schweitzer, M.; Young, T.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-10-01

268

Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and affordable technology for providing detailed feedback on household electricity usage presents a host of opportunities for utilities and policy-makers to manage demand. This dissertation examines ways to use these devices to reduce - and shift the timing of - energy use in the residential sector by influencing consumers' behavior. The first portion of the study analyzes the impact of programmable thermostats (PTs) on energy use, focusing on residents' knowledge of climate control settings in the dwelling. I found that of households with natural gas heating systems, young households with PTs used 17 percent less heating energy on average. In addition, residents who did not know their thermostat settings tended to use 10 percent more energy for heating. The main portion of the dissertation focuses specifically on the potential for better feedback on electricity usage to reduce household energy consumption. The existing literature suggests that feedback can reduce electricity consumption in homes by 5 to 20 percent, but that significant uncertainties remain in our knowledge of the effectiveness of feedback. These uncertainties include the variation in feedback effectiveness between demographic groups and consumers in different climate regions. This analysis uses these uncertainties to perform an exploratory analysis to determine the conditions under which the benefits of feedback outweigh the costs and to compare the cost-effectiveness of providing feedback against that of other DSM programs. I found that benefits would likely outweigh costs for enhanced monthly billing and real-time feedback and that cost-effectiveness was superior to that of other DSM programs for these types of feedback. For feedback that is disaggregated by appliance type, cost effectiveness was competitive with other DSM programs under a limited set of cases. This study also examines how energy consumption devices should display feedback on GHG emissions from electricity use under a real-time pricing program. I found that load-shifting can cause GHG emissions to increase or decrease depending on region and season and in no discernable pattern. Therefore, feedback may be more useful and comprehensible to households in the form of total GHG emissions attributable to electricity usage instead of the emission rate of the marginal power plant. Finally, this dissertation explores ways to maximize the effect of feedback by evaluating which appliances may be best suited for appliance-specific feedback. Due to the energy use and behavioral factors associated with each appliance, the most promising appliances were those that heat water for taps, showers, hot tubs, and waterbeds.

Collins, Myles

269

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's  

E-print Network

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P o Contribution of Renewable Energy to Total Electricity Generation? 15 ManaGInG VaRIablE EnERGy REsouRCEs 16 What l i c y m a k e r G u i d e #12;Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 3

270

Electrical-power-system data base for consumables analysis. Volume 2: Electrical equipment utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalogue is presented of space shuttle electrical equipment as used within a standardized data base for EPS consumables analyses. The general function and expected usage of each type of electrical equipment are described, and the usage of specific equipment of each type in the performance of EPS consumables analyses is defined.

Pipher, M. D.; Green, P. A.; Wolfgram, D. F.

1975-01-01

271

Innovative and Progressive Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Strategies  

E-print Network

motors, and hot gas defrost and heat recovery systems for commercial refrigerat ion. The prepared list of potential measures is quite comprehensive; however, the program allows for custom measures which will qualify for incentive payments which are a... motors, and hot gas defrost and heat recovery systems for commercial refrigerat ion. The prepared list of potential measures is quite comprehensive; however, the program allows for custom measures which will qualify for incentive payments which are a...

Epstein, G. J.; Fuller, W. H.

272

Managing for biodiversity from the electric utilities` perspective  

SciTech Connect

The quality and sustainability of the natural environment is a matter of inestimable value and is critical to public health and welfare. All species have a purpose, and they exist for the betterment of other species. It is, therefore, incumbent on all humans to do their part in the preservation of this vast, diverse ecosystem called Earth. All humans are the beneficiaries, the ultimate customers, of a sound environment-water that is safe to drink, air that can breathed, and soil that will sustain crops. There must be a commitment to leaving a clean and healthy planet for generations to follow, an earth which is enhanced, not diminished, by humans` presence. 1 ref.

Heydlauff, D.E. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-11-01

273

Application of artificial intelligence and non-intrusive energy-managing system to economic dispatch strategy for cogeneration system and utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that artificial intelligence techniques and non-intrusive energy-managing technology (NIEM) will effectively manage energy demands within economic dispatch strategy analysis for the cogeneration plant and power utility. To test the performance of the proposed approach, data sets for electrical loads in the factories were analyzed and established using an electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) and onsite load measurement. The

Hsueh-hsien Chang; Ching-lung Lin; Lin-song Weng

2009-01-01

274

Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

1997-08-01

275

The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-06-17

276

Managing Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty in Electric Brandon Keith Mauch  

E-print Network

i Managing Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty in Electric Grids Brandon Keith Mauch Co Paulina Jaramillo Doctor Paul Fischbeck 2012 #12;ii #12;iii Managing Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty generated from wind power is both variable and uncertain. Wind forecasts provide valuable information

277

Decision factors affecting transmission and distribution efficiency improvements by Northwest electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this report was to assess and document the attitude of Northwest electric utilities toward possible BPA conservation acquisition programs that may provide incentive(s) to reduce losses on T and D lines. Secondary objectives were to examine existing incentives for making such improvements, to categorize prior T and D efficiency improvements, and to examine factors affecting the decision-making process for system improvements. Much of the information presented in the report is derived from a survey administered during personal interviews at 29 Northwest electric utilities between November 1984 and January 1985.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Darwin, R.F.

1986-01-01

278

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-25

279

What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?  

SciTech Connect

This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2008-11-15

280

A study of the data management construct: design, construction, and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data management problems in organizations are investigated. Past research indicates that data management practices are not part of the mainstream of corporate information management. Using the literature in database and information management, the authors have defined the data management construct as consisting of three theoretical entities: database design, database construction, and data utilization. A survey was administered to 49 high-level

Donald L. Amoroso; John Atkinson; Susan Secor

1993-01-01

281

Assessment of potential and existing problems concerning interface between electric utilities and cogenerators  

SciTech Connect

The potential and existing problems concerning the interface between US electric utilities and cogenerators are considered by region. Also considered are regulatory barriers, rates and contracts, economic feasibility, and impact on system planning. Finally, the impact of the National Energy Act on the marketability potential of cogeneration is reviewed. The three appendixes summarize the utility meetings on cogeneration held in Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.

Not Available

1980-03-01

282

Service Entrance Conductor Taps for Utility-Interactive Inverter Systems Section 690.64 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) establishes how and where a utility-  

E-print Network

). The actual rating should be based on 125% of the rated output current for the utility-interactive PV inverter1 of 3 Service Entrance Conductor Taps for Utility-Interactive Inverter Systems Section 690.64 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) establishes how and where a utility- interactive PV system may be connected

Johnson, Eric E.

283

An intelligent battery management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the keys to the acceptance of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the increased longevity of the large battery packs used in the vehicles. The objective of this research is to develop an intelligent battery management system that will lengthen the lifetime of the battery pack. The key to this operation is monitoring and charging of individual batteries

Manoj Maskey; Micheal Parten; Darrell Vines; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

284

Envisaging links between fundamental research in electrical insulation and electrical asset management  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing gap of misperception between the contribution of fundamental research to applications of technologies for electrical apparatus and systems and this paper aims at highlighting the contribution of base research to electrical asset management, referring to some of the major research themes in recent years, from partial discharge to space charge measurements.

G. C. Montanari

2008-01-01

285

Resource utilization and outcomes management: opportunities for the entrepreneurial pathologist.  

PubMed

Pathologists and laboratory managers are facing an increasingly uncertain place in the emerging managed care marketplace. Among the various opportunities available is outcomes management. The role of benchmarking in outcomes management and the initial steps in developing outcomes management programs are presented. PMID:10175174

Vance, R P

1997-01-01

286

TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by URS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

2010-02-26

287

Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

Fisher, S.C.

1995-12-31

288

COMPARISON OF THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF EQUIPMENT IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to compare the reliability/availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems with equipment commonly used in the electric utility industry. Because many parameters used in reporting performance data for these systems have different definit...

289

EPA DETERMINATION STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to determine whether the regulation of hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions from electric utility generating plants is necessary. This determination is to be made on or before December 15, 2000. It focuses primarily on the nee...

290

Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings

Blair

1988-01-01

291

CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

292

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

293

Dual Measures of Monopoly and Monopsony Power: An Application to Regulated Electric Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inefficiency from monopoly pricing, monopsony pricing, and other institutional factors should be simultaneously estimated to avoid misspecification. Estimation of a behavioral profit function, where input and output shadow prices may diverge from their market values, allows unbiased simultaneous estimation of inefficiencies if its normalized form is employed. In an application to electric utilities consuming western coal, the authors cannot

Scott E Atkinson; Joe Kerkvliet

1989-01-01

294

Assessing the effect of fuel adjustment clauses on electric utility efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel adjustment clauses (FACs) have been adopted by state and federal regulatory authorities on a widespread basis to help preserve electric utility revenues during times of rapid, unexpected fuel price inflation. Economic theory suggests, however, that FAC use may generate several inefficiencies. These include a factor bias where fuel is favored relative to other productive inputs, managerial inefficiency, and a

Mahrenholz

1984-01-01

295

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate

Goodin

1984-01-01

296

College Students and Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback and Relaxation Skills Training.  

E-print Network

??ABSTRACT College Students and Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback and Relaxation Skills Training Shannon Jones Anstead Department of Counseling Psychology and Special Education Education Specialist This… (more)

Anstead, Shannon Jones

2009-01-01

297

Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost function obtained from Independent Service Operators. A consumer experiment is established to replicate the peak load behavior. As a result, consumers' utility function is estimated and optimal retail electricity prices are computed.

Kazan, Osman

298

Integrating demand side options in electric utility planning: A multiobjective approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes simultaneous integration of DSM options in a multiobjective framework (using compromise programming technique) for electric utility planning. The two distinct advantages of this method are: (1) explicit consideration of all associated benefits of DSM options viz. cost reduction, emissions reduction and improvement of supply system reliability; (2) consideration of the integration method specific characteristics of various types of DSM options depending upon the control of utility on their usage. The methodology is applied for an Indian utility (Maharashtra State Electricity System (MSES)) for its integrated resource planning for the period 1990--2000 to illustrate the methodological issues. Various methodological issues related to the specific nature of DSM options and multiobjective framework are discussed in the context of MSES.

Chattopadhyay, D.; Banerjee, R.; Parikh, J. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)] [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1995-05-01

299

Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential concepts for near term electric utility applications were identified. The most promising ones for conceptual design were evaluated for their economic feasibility and cost benefits. The screening process resulted in selecting two coal-fired and two nuclear plants for detailed conceptual design. The coal plants utilized peaking turbines and the nuclear plants varied the feedwater extraction to change power output. It was shown that the performance and costs of even the best of these systems could not compete in near term utility applications with cycling coal plants and typical gas turbines available for peaking power. Lower electricity costs, greater flexibility of operation, and other benefits can be provided by cycling coal plants for greater than 1500 hours of peaking or by gas turbines for less than 1500 hours if oil is available and its cost does not increase significantly.

Hall, E. W.; Hausz, W.; Anand, R.; Lamarche, N.; Oplinger, J.; Katzer, M.

1979-01-01

300

Ventricular Defibrillation: Problems of Electrical Management  

PubMed Central

Correction of anoxia, acidosis and intracellular potassium derangement coupled with ECG monitoring is critical to the successful treatment of ventricular fibrillation. Many reports of problems with cardiac defibrillators necessitate review of the energy levels required to achieve an optimum therapeutic effect with electrical countershock. Factors influencing therapeutic threshold, particularly the dose per body weight and adverse side effects of electro-shock, are discussed. Many experts now believe that the maximal delivered energy for each single delivery should not be higher than 250-300 joules. PMID:21286548

Orpin, John A.; Smith, May

1982-01-01

301

Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of waste heat utilization in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander). The advantages associated with the SRG110 as they relate to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings for a spacecraft will be highlighted.

Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

2005-01-01

302

From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4) prevented industry profits from declining. This research adds to the existing literature on industry regulation in general, and specifically to the literature on the effects of regulation of the electric utility industry.

Reutter, Keith Alan

1997-09-01

303

Long-range PV R&D and the electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the short term, photovoltaics will probably continue to enjoy great success in niche markets and non-utility businesses, but see relatively little use within utilities. Deregulation is driving major restructuring of the electric-utility sector, causing great uncertainty among its planners and executives, and leading them to favor cost-cutting over other corporate strategies. However, the competitive motives at the root of that restructuring will ultimately induce resourceful utility executives to seek novel non-commodity energy-service businesses to sustain their companies' success in the deregulated industry of the future. In that industry, technology innovation will play a very important role. Specifically, photovoltaics will be highly valued in light of its unsurpassed modularity, extreme siting ease, very low operation and maintenance costs, and public popularity. The eventual leaders in wielding that powerful technology likely will be among those who recognize those assets earliest and strive to bring its promises to reality through innovative applications.

Peterson, Terry M.

1997-04-01

304

An actions-based estimate of the free rider fraction in electric utility DSM programs  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility DSM program `free riders` are participants who would have made program-supported changes even in the absence of an efficiency program. From the utility perspective, free riders impose costs without yielding any changes in behavior and tend to decrease program performance. From a societal perspective free riders impose administrative costs on the system without providing benefits; the incentive payment itself is treated as an income transfer. In the current regulatory climate, free ridership gains importance as utilities attempt to meet customers needs as efficiently as possible. By targeting spending at specific customer groups utilities can potentially reduce the cost of increasing efficiency. The author provides an estimate of the free rider fraction based on consumer actions.

Malm, E. [Insights Unlimited, Devon, PA (United States)

1996-12-01

305

Electric power processing, distribution, management and energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power distribution subsystems are required for three elements of the SPS program: (1) orbiting satellite, (2) ground rectenna, and (3) Electric Orbiting Transfer Vehicle (EOTV). Power distribution subsystems receive electrical power from the energy conversion subsystem and provide the power busses rotary power transfer devices, switchgear, power processing, energy storage, and power management required to deliver control, high voltage plasma interactions, electric thruster interactions, and spacecraft charging of the SPS and the EOTV are also included as part of the power distribution subsystem design.

Giudici, R. J.

1980-01-01

306

Characterization of foreign electric-utility experiences for potential useful applications in the US  

SciTech Connect

A review and comparison of foreign electric-utility experiences reveals that different nations actively endorse different levels of government activity in the generation and delivery of electric power. The degree and manner of endorsement and subsequent governmental activity reflects the perception of electric power in respective societies. These perceptions, in most of the reviewed, energy-poor industrialized societies, are based on an acute awareness of fuel-supply vulnerability. In these societies planning on how to respond and capability to respond and adapt quickly is essential to survival. A strong governmental role, exerting either direct control or exerting indirect control through financial incentives and penalties (subsidies, tax breaks, etc.) and active government participation in the development and implementation and contingency planning for fuel supply interruptions is the typical instrument to respond to external events and economics. The overall goal of foreign nation utility policies has been to provide for secure and reliable electric power into the future at reasonable rates to consumers. Among the key guiding features of government utility policy has been the recognition of power as a strategic resource, as well as the need to seek system-wide cost recovery through rate mechanisms, as well as indirect tax-based subsidies and direct financial concessions.

Not Available

1982-12-01

307

Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

Baxter, L.W.

1995-10-01

308

Management by Objectives: Practice, Pitfalls and Utility for Small Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management by objectives (MBO), a participative management process, is discussed with specific reference to helping small colleges deal with enrollment and financial decline. Recommendations for implementation of MBO and some common pitfalls to be avoided are included. (BH)

Cigler, Beverly A.

1979-01-01

309

The Utilization of Project Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 99 pharmaceutical companies concerning their organization and use of project management techniques for research and development found that the industry is using project management increasingly in a variety of ways for better business planning and operations. (MSE)

Krusko, Diane; Cangemi, Robert R.

1987-01-01

310

Oligopoly market models applied to electric utilities: How will generating companies behave in a deregulated industry?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An oligopoly market is analyzed which compares the oligopoly uniform market price to a fully competitive market price. The oligopoly consists of three electric utilities that behave as Cournot and Stackelberg leader---followers. A market simulation of the ERCOT market is also presented which includes the impact on market price when there are new market entrants into the oligopoly. The two case studies analyze the market with and without transmission constraints and identify how various transmission limitations can support strategic behavior by the utilities and ultimately impact the market price.

Cunningham, Lance Brian

311

A research agenda for muti-attribute utility analysis in human resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most applications of utility analysis in Human Resource Management have focussed upon only one outcome of a selection system-the value of job performance in dollars. Multi-attribute utility (MAU) analysis allows decision makers to incorporate multiple outcomes into their analytic decisions. MAU also increases the participation of decision makers in the utility analysis process by asking them what factors to consider,

Philip Bobko

1997-01-01

312

Application of scheduling models for utility management of process plants and its extension to DG networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling models are one of the main parts of computer-aided process design research in recent years. One of the novel applications of scheduling models is their usage for in-site utility management of a process plant. It is very common for huge process plants to provide their utility by themselves; therefore, they shall make decision on utility supply and demand simultaneously.

B. Behdani; M. R. Pishvaie

2008-01-01

313

Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented changes in its structure worldwide. With the advent of an open market environment and competition in the industry, and restructuring of the industry into separate generation, transmission, and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and planning are inevitable. One of the major consequences of this new electric utility environment is the

Vijay Vittal

2000-01-01

314

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational standard of 10 gauss. The use of an organophosphate containing fire resistant hydraulic fluid, Fyrquel-EH (1330785), was reported by employees. A significant correlation was identified between memory of past symptoms indicative of acute organophosphate exposure after working with Fyrquel-EH and current symptoms; however, blood cholinesterase levels were all within the normal range and no relevant neurologic abnormalities were noted on neurological examinations. The authors conclude that a hazard existed from the use of Fyrquel-EH. The authors recommend measures for the safe handling of organophosphate compounds.

Malkin, R.; Moss, C.E.; Reh, C.M.; Ragab, M.

1996-01-01

315

A study on battery management system for blade electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blade electric vehicles (BEVs) use batteries, by which the performance and security of the BEVs is determined, as its only source of energy. However, there are so many cells, connected in series-parallel combination to match the load requirement, needed to be monitored and controlled that making it a great challenge to manage all the cells timely and efficiently. Thus, a

Kun Zheng; Dong Chen; Yunfeng Liu

2011-01-01

316

Battery management system for series-hybrid electric shuttle bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a battery management system (BMS) of a lead-acid battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) shuttle bus is presented. The BMS is a necessary component for an optimal operation of power-train in the SHE V shuttle bus including for timely detection of an abnormal condition during charging and discharging the battery pack. The presented BMS

Teerayut Piboonrujananon; Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2011-01-01

317

Energy management strategy for Diesel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The paper presents an adaptation of the equivalent consumption minimization strat- egy (ECMS) dedicated to the Diesel HEV control issues. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an additional degree of freedom into the ECMS that allows to modify the optimization tradeoffs from the pure

Olivier Grondin; Laurent Thibault; Philippe Moulin; Alexandre Chasse; Antonio Sciarretta

2011-01-01

318

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT: OPTIMAL CONTROL AND BATTERY SIZING by Scott J like to acknowledge my girlfriend, Jovauna Currey, whose love and support was instrumental in making want to thank the love and support of my parents, Manny and Bonnie Moura. I cannot imagine two better

Krstic, Miroslav

319

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2012-04-01

320

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-01-01

321

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

1995-03-01

322

Lightning Occurrence Data Observed with Lightning Location Systems of Electric Utilities in Japan: 1992-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud-to-ground lightning frequency is one of the most important factors to establish the rational insulation design of power transmission systems. Ten-year lightning occurrence data 1992 through 2001 with lightning location systems of electric utilities in Japan have been collected and analyzed. As a result, it is found that the annual number of the lightning strokes varies at the level of

2004-01-01

323

Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

1974-01-01

324

Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What Are the Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) established a market for transferable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances among electric utilities. This market offers firms facing high marginal abatement costs the opportunity to purchase the right to emit SO2 from firms with lower costs, and this is expected to yield cost savings compared to a command-and-control approach to

Curtis Carlson; Dallas Burtraw; Maureen Cropper; Karen L. Palmer

2000-01-01

325

Impacts of electric demand-side management programs on fuel choice: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make $2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has rapidly penetrated nearly 100% of the potential market, and (4) over 90% of the affected homes in the participating region have traditionally used electricity for space heating. Heating equipment data for all manufactured homes built in the region since 1987 were sampled and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the DSM program and fuel shares. The quantitative data were supplemented with interview data to better understand the relationship between the program and fuel choice. The results should be useful for program design and evaluation.

Lee, A.D.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Vinnard, A.B. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1994-04-01

326

Management Skills and Attitudes of Principals Toward Energy Utilization  

E-print Network

parts: (1) a questionnaire re- garding factors which influenced energy utilization during fall 1985, (2) an opinionnaire relating to attitudes and managerial skills which affected energy utilization, and (3) a subjective questionnaire for historical.... AULYSIS OF DATA For the purpose of this study, Questionnaire Item 14 addressed the principal 's training: "Have you received energy conservation training as support for your current responsibilities?" Table 2 indi- cates that 30 (58...

Huntington, P.; Mayfield, E.

1987-01-01

327

Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission  

SciTech Connect

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2009-07-01

328

Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1994-06-01

329

Evaluation of energy recovery and CO{sub 2} reduction potential in Japan through integrated waste and utility management  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the potential of integrated waste and utility power management over the mid-term planning horizon in Japan. Energy recovery and CO{sub 2} emission reduction were estimated under two situations: (1) energy recovery efforts within the current waste management/power generation framework and (2) integrated waste management with sewage treatment systems and electric power industries. Scenario simulation results showed that under the current policy framework it is not feasible to achieve large energy recovery and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, while the integrated waste management scenarios show the potential of large energy recovery which is equivalent to about an 18 million t-CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The utilization of dry wastes for power generation at existing fossil power stations is significant in achieving the result. We also consider the effects of the 'CO{sub 2} emission per GW generated' for electric power generation on the total CO{sub 2} emission reduction because it varies by country and assumptions selected. Although this research did not include an economic analysis, based on estimated CO{sub 2} emissions and energy recovery, the integrated scenarios indicate a large potential in countries that have high dependence of fossil power generation and relatively low power generation efficiency.

Horio, M. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), BASE, 2-24-16, Naka-machi, Koganei-City, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Shigeto, S. [Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 18F Risona-MARUHA Bldg., 1-1-2 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004 (Japan)], E-mail: shigeto@ristex.jst.go.jp; Shiga, M. [Pacific Consultants Co. Ltd., 1-7-5, Sekido, Tama-shi, Tokyo, 206-8550 (Japan)

2009-07-15

330

Electric utility pole yard training facility: Designing an effective learning environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary responsibility of electric utilities is to supply consistent, dependable, and affordable energy to private customers, businesses, and industries. As with many businesses, electric utilities are experiencing the effects of an aging workforce and expending considerable resources to train their current and replacement workers. Community colleges can partner with electric utilities to provide effective learning environments for these workers, and gain access to new sources of revenue and community support for the colleges. The purpose of this study was to describe the functions, features, and major design issues of an effective learning environment for training electric utility industry workers, the electric utility line-worker pole yard. Case studies of three "state of the art" line-worker pole yard training environments provide the basis for the study's findings and implications. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What is the function of a line-worker pole yard in supporting effective training? (2) What are the features of present day ("state of the art") line-worker pole yard learning environments? and (3) What are the major issues that need to be addressed in designing a line-worker pole yard learning environment for the future? The study participants included industry representatives, training coordinators, instructors, and students from the three selected "state of the art" line-worker pole yard sites. The overall findings from the study resulted in composites of the desired features of learning outcomes, learning process, and learning environment for a line-worker pole yard training program and major issues that are affecting the future design of these training programs. Composite findings of a pole-yard training environment included unique features associated with: (a) outdoor, (b) indoor, (c) underground, (d) classroom, (e) gathering places, and (f) work-based learning components. Composite findings with regard to major issues that need to be considered in future designs of pole-yard training environments included: (a) available unrestricted land for expansion, (b) resource commitment level, (c) workforce demographics, (d) aging industrial infrastructure, (e) electronic information and communication capability, (f) quality and quantity of available instructors, and (g) environmental and economic impact.

Topping, Robert P.

331

Electric Field Measurements of the Capacitively Coupled Magnetized RF Sheath Utilizing Passive Optical Emission Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge facing magnetic confinement fusion is the implementation of reliable plasma heating systems. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a key technique utilized to achieve the ion temperatures necessary for desirable fusion reaction rates. ICRH systems are designed to couple energy into the core plasma ions through a resonant interaction with an electromagnetic wave in the radio frequency range. The interaction of the wave with the scrape off layer plasma establishes an electric field which terminates directly on the plasma facing surfaces and is referred to as the near-field. In order to bridge the gap between the theoretical and actual performance of ICRF antennas, experimental measurement of this electric field is highly desired. However, due to the large amount of power launched by ICRF antennas only non-local measurements have thus far been obtained. The research presented in this dissertation is centered on the development of a non-perturbative diagnostic to locally measure the near-field with high spatial and temporal resolution. The main objective of the research presented in this dissertation is to develop and validate a spectroscopic diagnostic capable of measuring local time periodic electric fields. The development phase of the diagnostic consisted of atomic physics formulation and was carried out in two steps. The first involved the calculation of the electronic structure of the one and two-electron atom utilizing the hydrogenic wave function. The second involved the calculation of the spectral line profile based on the electric dipole connection operator. The validate phase of the diagnostic consisted of implementation of the atomic physics to measure the electric field topology associated with the capacitively coupled magnetized RF sheath using passive OES. The experimental measurements are then compared to a simple one-dimensional analytical model providing the validation of the developed atomic physics.

Martin, Elijah Henry

332

Public Utility Commissioner selection and electric utilities' cost of capital: Part 1, The overall cost of capital: Final report for 1986/87 SOMED Project  

SciTech Connect

Utilities in states with elected Public Utility Commissioners (PUC)'s may face a higher cost of capital. The objective of this project is to determine if the direct election of PUC's has any effect on electric utilities cost of capital. The first part of the project is an analysis of the overall cost of capital of electric utilities. We use a book-value-weighted average of the costs of short and long term debt and common and preferred equity for 1982. A random coefficient regression model is used to analyze the effects of political and financial variables on the overall cost of capital. We find that direct election of the PUC has no effect on this measure of the overall cost of capital. This analysis is presented in Part 1 of the report. The second part of the project is an analysis of electric utility bond ratings for the period 1979-1983. Bond ratings are widely used to assess the quality of bonds, and are viewed as reflecting the degree of credit and default risk. An N-chotomous probit model is used to analyze the effects of political and financial variables on bond ratings. We find that direct election of the PUC has a significant negative effect on electric utilities bond ratings. This analysis is presented in Part 2 of the report.

Thistle, P.D.; Mishra, B.; McLeod, R.W.

1987-09-01

333

Impact of regulation on electric utility pricing: an econometric test of Ramsey pricing  

SciTech Connect

This study develops an econometric model to test several hypotheses pertaining to the rate structure of the electric utility industry. The marginal cost estimates used allow consideration of the joint nature of the cost of producing electricity for different user groups, and the Ramsey number is modeled to capture various details of the rate-setting procedures. The model is used to estimate a set of Ramsey optimal prices and the pattern of inefficiency in the rate structures, and to calculate the potential welfare gains from more efficient regulation. The model estimates also provide a simple, direct test of the hypothesis that there is optimal second-best or Ramsey pricing, marginal cost pricing, or monopolistic pricing in the electric utility industry. The empirical results indicate that regulation has failed to achieve efficiency in pricing. On average, in 1970, residential and commercial users were being subsidized by industrial customers while, in 1978, residential customers were being subsidized by the other two groups. The results also indicate that an increase in the size of a customer class increases the price that class has to pay relative to the cost of serving that class. The efficiency losses associated with current rate structures set by regulatory agencies are estimated to be substantial. Finally, an attempt is made to determine whether the pattern of inefficiencies present in the rate structure is systematically affected by differences in regulatory environments. The empirical results indicate that the inefficiencies can be explained in part by differences in regulatory environments.

Tromp, E.D.

1985-01-01

334

The Chloroplast Tat Pathway Utilizes the Transmembrane Electric Potential as an Energy Source  

PubMed Central

The thylakoid membrane, located inside the chloroplast, requires proteins transported across it for plastid biogenesis and functional photosynthetic electron transport. The chloroplast Tat translocator found on thylakoids transports proteins from the plastid stroma to the thylakoid lumen. Previous studies have shown that the chloroplast Tat pathway is independent of NTP hydrolysis as an energy source and instead depends on the thylakoid transmembrane proton gradient to power protein translocation. Because of its localization on the same membrane as the proton motive force–dependent F0F1 ATPase, we believed that the chloroplast Tat pathway also made use of the thylakoid electric potential for transporting substrates. By adjusting the rate of photosynthetic proton pumping and by utilizing ionophores, we show that the chloroplast Tat pathway can also utilize the transmembrane electric potential for protein transport. Our findings indicate that the chloroplast Tat pathway is likely dependent on the total protonmotive force (PMF) as an energy source. As a protonmotive-dependent device, certain predictions can be made about structural features expected to be found in the Tat translocon, specifically, the presence of a proton well, a device in the membrane that converts electrical potential into chemical potential. PMID:17513364

Braun, Nikolai A.; Davis, Andrew W.; Theg, Steven M.

2007-01-01

335

Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA.

Moslin, S. I.; Wahap, N. A.; Han, O. W.

2014-02-01

336

Water works, electric utilities, and cable television: Contrasting historical patterns of ownership and regulation  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explicates some of the factors that have, in practice, shaped the choice and functioning of forms of government involvement in the provision of different goods and services. The inquiry focuses on the evolution of government involvement in three different urban public utility industries - water works, electric utilities, and cable television. Because they each employ fixed, specialized, and networked distribution systems, the three industries manifest similar natural monopoly forms of market failure. From similar beginnings, however, forms of government involvement in the three industries have evolved differently. In water works, the predominant trend has been to direct provision under municipal ownership; in electric utilities the trend has been toward continued private provision under state regulation; in cable television, franchise contracting has thus far survived, but in vitiated form. Detailed examinations of case studies as well as broad trend analyses are employed to help explain this outcome. It is found that neither direct competition between operating firms nor short-term contracting and recurrent bidding arrangements can be relied upon to consistently protect public interests in these services.

Jacobson, C.D.

1988-01-01

337

7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding...72 Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of...

2010-01-01

338

7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...  

...false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding...72 Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of...

2014-01-01

339

7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding...72 Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of...

2013-01-01

340

7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding...72 Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of...

2011-01-01

341

7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding...72 Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of...

2012-01-01

342

CSREES 406 National Integrated Water Quality Program-Nutrient Science Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in  

E-print Network

;2 Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in a Louisiana Coastal Watershed (NUMAN1 \\ CSREES 406 National Integrated Water Quality Program-Nutrient Science Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in a Louisiana Coastal Watershed (NUMAN) PPROGRESS REPORT

343

Electric utility/advocacy group interaction: A case history report on the key outcomes of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the findings derived from ten case studies of activities undertaken by energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) to influence the use of cost-effective Demand-Side Management (DSM) by electric utilities and to promote Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). Nine of these ten cases included some form of interactive effort involving utilities and, in almost all cases, other nonutility parties (NUPs) as well. All ten cases also included other EEAG activities. Key findings of the study include the following: interactive efforts had substantially greater effects on utility DSM usage and on relations among the involved parties than on regulatory policy; other EEAG activities had the great effect on regulatory policy and the least direct effect on utility DSM usage; and the discernible overall effects of interactive efforts were somewhat greater than those of the EEAGs' other activities, which often had less tangible and immediate effects.

Schweitzer, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); English, M.; Schexnayder, S. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Altman, J.

1995-01-01

344

Utilizing Virtual Teams in a Management Principles Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe development of a component in a management principles course to develop university students' virtual team skills. There were several challenges in creating and implementing this new component. The paper aims to describe how these challenges were addressed and discusses outcomes associated with this…

Olson-Buchanan, Julie B.; Rechner, Paula L.; Sanchez, Rudolph J.; Schmidtke, James M.

2007-01-01

345

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF LANDFILL GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3) for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the ...

346

Analysis of Energy Management System Control Philosophies Utilizing Collected Field Data  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CONTROL PHILOSOPHIES UTILIZING COLLECTED FIELD DATA Gary W. Gerloff R. Page Heller, P.E. Lesl ie W. Perry MICON Engineering, Inc. College Station, Texas ABSTRACT Small commercial and light...ANALYSIS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CONTROL PHILOSOPHIES UTILIZING COLLECTED FIELD DATA Gary W. Gerloff R. Page Heller, P.E. Lesl ie W. Perry MICON Engineering, Inc. College Station, Texas ABSTRACT Small commercial and light...

Russell, B. D.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller; R. P.; Perry, L. W.

1983-01-01

347

Estimating the impact of residential gas cooling equipment on electric utility summer peak in northern California  

SciTech Connect

Residential gas-fired cooling equipment helps electric utilities trim a portion of the summer peak load curve. This paper details a methodology for developing initial estimates of such peak reduction and the consequent savings in plant costs by taking into account a set of key variables. The key variables include the weather patterns over the service territory, the size and distribution of building stock for the residential sector, the availability of gas distribution lines, the market penetration of gas cooling equipment, as a fraction of the maximum possible penetration, and the historical plant cost for generating power. The application of the methodology is illustrated in detail by using a Northern California utility service territory as a case study.

Kumar, B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Nowakowski, G.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

348

Usability of Forest Residue Biomass for Electric Utility Production in Wisconsin  

E-print Network

A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to estimate the amount of available forest residue biomass from timber harvests within the State of Wisconsin, USA and within a 50 mile radius of power plants that burn biomass for energy production. Publically available land cover, soil, and elevation data were used to ascertain the available forested areas for biomass harvest. Approximately 5.8 million oven dry tons of forest residue biomass are considered available statewide, the majority located in the northern part of the state. While further consideration should be done on a site by site basis, Wisconsin’s forests hold the potential to aid in electric utility production.

unknown authors

349

Three essays on productivity and research and development in United States investor-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the effects regulation, participation in EPRI, diversification, and features of the utility's technology have on the utility's own R&D. R&D rises with the size of the utility; as the investor-friendliness of regulation worsens, R&D falls.

Connolly, Haru

350

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

Eltimsahy, A.H.

1980-06-01

351

Utilization management and data acquisition: a case study.  

PubMed

The more a company knows about the source and nature of its health care costs, the more likely it is to make good cost-effective decisions. Three different companies, with the help of health care management vendors, were able to make significant health cost savings by organizing their data in creative ways. Combining different sources of cost data enabled them to answer questions they could not have answered through any single source. PMID:10136671

Blackwood, M J

1994-01-01

352

Florida utility employs automated system to manage outages  

SciTech Connect

A Florida Power and Light Co. study and demonstration of automated system control to manage nuclear plant outages and reduce downtime found the system improved reaction to problems and shortened the length of outages for refueling. The use of PROJECT/2 at Turkey Point improved early warning, interdepartmental planning, and support estimates. The study established a reduction in manpower needs, operating costs, and refueling days. It also identified some areas for plant improvements. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-11-10

353

Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

Denholm, P.; Short, W.

2006-10-01

354

Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement. The scores were given for Rate Achievement from 1 to 5 and Rank Importance from 1 to 10 to the survey outcomes for each topic. Then, rating and ranking matrix was constructed according to score ranges. Results show that Product Quality, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Infrastructure Stability and Customer Satisfaction are the major topics that needs to be improved according to the utility managers in Turkey. According to the outcomes of the study, water losses and unbilled unmetered consumption of water appeared to be the most important issues with the utility management. The utility managers also think there is still room for improvement to satisfy the needs of the users. Even though the rehabilitation of the infrastructure is a costly investment, it can be compensated with the help of the increased revenues as a result of improvement in water loss and unbilled water use. Suggestions given as a result of this study aim to aid decision makers and local authorities to overcome the significant problems faced during management and to achieve a sustainable utility management.

Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

2013-12-01

355

Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

Not Available

1980-03-01

356

David and the Goliaths: How a small environmental group helps reform electric-utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 the Land and Water Fund of the Rockies (LAW Fund), a regional environmental organization, started an Energy Project with two lawyers and a scientist to challenge the energy-efficiency, renewable-resource and environmental-protection practices of utilities in the vast six-state Rocky Mountain region. Within three years, Colorado and Utah had adopted comprehensive integrated resource planning (IRP) rules, and several utilities had developed plans to expand their demand-side management (DSM) activities. The authors discuss the role that this small band of lawyers and policy analysts played in stimulating these changes, based on their first-hand experience with the LAW Fund. They also comment on the substantial influence and valuable services that such a small group can provide.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Swanson, S. [New York State Dept. of Public Services, Albany, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

357

Utility of Preoperative Anesthesia Clinic Videoendoscopy for Airway Management Planning  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The authors performed videolaryngoscopy during the preoperative anesthesia clinic evaluation of a patient with chronic dyspnea, stridor, and a previous hemilaryngectomy scheduled to undergo a series of orthopedic surgery procedures for an infected knee arthroplasty. The findings proved crucial for determining airway management. Case Presentation: A 68-year-old man presented to the preoperative anesthesia clinic for work-up before anticipated removal of infected total knee arthroplasty hardware, placement of antibiotic spacers, incision and drainage procedures, and revision arthroplasty. The patient had previously undergone a hemilaryngectomy and tracheostomy (now closed) for squamous cell carcinoma of the right true vocal cord. The patient described chronic dyspnea with minimal exertion. Inspiratory and expiratory wheezes and intermittent inspiratory stridor were present. A transnasal videolaryngoscopy examination was performed using topical anesthesia and demonstrated significant supraglottic scarring, a narrowed glottis, and subglottic stenosis. A computed tomography study confirmed the presence of tracheomalacia with subglottic stenosis. A permanent tracheostomy was performed to establish a definitive airway before the knee arthroplasty was removed. Conclusions: The case illustrates that transnasal videolaryngoscopy conducted in the preoperative anesthesia clinic is capable of providing key information to guide airway management in patients with significant upper airway pathology. PMID:25337475

Kallio, Peter J; Cox, Ana E; Pagel, Paul S

2014-01-01

358

Tool Helps Utilities Assess Readiness for Electric Vehicle Charging (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL research helps answer a fundamental question regarding electric vehicles: Is the grid ready to handle them? Environmental, economic and security concerns regarding oil consumption make electrifying the transportation sector a high national priority. NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies & Systems (CTTS) has developed a framework for utilities to evaluate the plug-in vehicle (PEV) readiness of distribution transformers. Combining a wealth of vehicle performance statistics with load data from partner utilities including the Hawaiian Electric Company and Xcel Energy, NREL analyzed the thermal loading characteristics of distribution transformers due to vehicle charging. After running millions of simulations replicating varying climates and conditions, NREL is now able to predict aging rates for transformers when PEVs are added to existing building loads. With the NREL tool, users define simulation parameters by inputting vehicle trip and weather data; transformer load profiles and ratings; PEV penetration, charging rates and battery sizes; utility rates; the number of houses on each transformer; and public charging availability. Transformer load profiles, drive cycles, and ambient temperature data are then run through the thermal model to produce a one-year timeseries of the hotspot temperature. Annual temperature durations are calculated to help determine the annual aging rate. Annual aging rate results are grouped by independent variables. The most useful measure is transformer mileage, a measure of how many electrically-driven miles must be supplied by the transformer. Once the spectrum analysis has been conducted for an area or utility, the outputs can be used to help determine if more detailed evaluation is necessary, or if transformer replacement is required. In the majority of scenarios, transformers have enough excess capacity to charge PEVs. Only in extreme cases does vehicle charging have negative long-term impact on transformers. In those cases, upgrades to larger transformers would be recommended. NREL analysis also showed opportunity for newly-installed smart grids to offset distribution demands by time-shifting the charging loads. Most importantly, the model demonstrated synergies between PEVs and distributed renewables, not only providing clean renewable energy for vehicles, but also reducing demand on the entire distribution infrastructure by supplying loads at the point of consumption.

Not Available

2011-10-01

359

Project demonstration of wind-turbine electricity: Interconnecting a northern Michigan fruit farm with a major utility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reviewed in a project to test the economic feasibility of wind turbine technology for generating electricity. The use of wind generating electricity on a commercial fruit farm interconnecting a commercial fruit farm with a major utility to sell power are the find project goals.

Amon, D. M.

360

Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper

Ville Niutanen; Jouni Korhonen

2002-01-01

361

Electric power annual 1995. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

NONE

1996-12-01

362

A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific to each set of parameters, lead to the identification of stranded generation facilities. Stranded costs of non-dispatched and uneconomically dispatched generation facilities can then be estimated to indicate, arguably, the largest portion of restructuring transition costs as the industry is transformed from its present monopolistic structure to a competitive one.

Cope, Robert Frank, III

363

Economic theory of marginal cost pricing and its application by electric utilities in France and Great Britain  

SciTech Connect

The theory of marginal cost pricing and examines interpretation and applications of the theory by electric utilities in France and Great Britain is reviewed. A general overview is provided of the economic rationale for marginal cost pricing. Ideal marginal cost pricing as applied to electricity is described and explained. Practical problems related to electricity rate making according to marginal cost are analyzed. Experience in France and the UK is discussed.

Westfield, F.M.

1980-01-01

364

Dependence of delivered energy on power conditioner electrical characteristics for utility-interactive PV systems  

SciTech Connect

In a utility-interactive photovoltaic system, the electrical characteristics of the dc-to-ac power-conditioning unit (inverter) influence the quantity of electrical energy delivered by the system, and therefore, affect the user worth of the system. An analysis of the effect of relevant inverter electrical characteristics on the quantity of system-delivered energy is undertaken using computer simulations of system behavior. Significant conclusions are that: (1) the annual system performance advantage of maximum-power-point voltage tracking is small compared with fixed-dc-input voltage operation; (2) low levels of inverter ac-power consumption during times of zero insolation can significantly degrade system performance; (3) the effect of small changes in the array-to-inverter size ratio on the user worth of the system is small; and (4) most of the system energy is delivered at power levels greater than one-half of the nominal array rating, and consequently, the inverter low-power efficiency is less important than is its full-power efficiency. A formula that approximates the inverter annual throughput efficiency with only four laboratory measurements on the inverter is presented.

Rasmussen, N. E.; Branz, H. M.

1981-01-01

365

Nonparametric approach to production analysis: a case study on a regulated electric utility  

SciTech Connect

An econometric analysis of production data generally involves the estimation of a system of parametric input demands. The validity of the econometric results clearly depends on whether the data could have been generated by the parametrized theoretical model. Some independent tests of model-data consistency are obviously desirable. This thesis proposes the econometric approach and the nonparametric approach to test model-data consistency. The econometric approach relies on statistical tests of linear restrictions on the parameters of a short-run cost function. It is computationally burdensome and the test results are sensitive to parametrization. The nonparametric approach involves algebraic comparisons of an observation to every feasible alternative in the data sample. This approach does not consider random errors in the data. Thus, the nonparametric approach is more computationally efficient and more general than the econometric method. The major disadvantage of the nonparametric approach is it is deterministic. The author proposes eleven data samples for empirical implementation of the nonparametric tests. This exercise shows how useful information can be obtained from the data without committing a lot of time and effort in parametrization and estimation. The first eight samples are annual observations on four California baseload electric-power plants. The remaining three samples come directly from a cost study on electricity generation. The nonparametric test results suggest that a regulated electric utility minimizes the total cost of production.

Woo, C.K.

1982-01-01

366

Clinical utility of pharmacogenomics in the management of hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified for the first time more than 20 years ago. Since then, several studies have highlighted the complicated aspects of this viral infection in relation to its worldwide prevalence, its clinical presentation, and its therapeutic response. Recently, two landmark scientific breakthroughs have moved us closer to the successful eradication of chronic HCV infection. First, response rates in treatment-naďve patients and in prior non-responders to pegylated-interferon-? and ribavirin therapy are increasing as a direct consequence of the development of direct-acting antiviral drugs. Secondly, the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms near the interleukin 28B gene significantly related to spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance represents a milestone in the HCV therapeutic landscape. The implementation of this pharmacogenomics finding as a routine test for HCV-infected patients has enhanced our understanding of viral pathogenesis, has encouraged the design of ground-breaking antiviral treatment regimens, and has become useful for pretreatment decision making. Nowadays, interleukin 28B genotyping is considered to be a key diagnostic tool for the management of HCV-infected patients and will maintain its significance for new combination treatment schemes using direct-acting antiviral agents and even in interferon-free regimens. Such pharmacogenomics insights represent a challenge to clinicians, researchers, and health administrators to transform this information into knowledge with the aim of elaborating safer and more effective therapeutic strategies specifically designed for each patient. In conclusion, the individualization of treatment regimens for patients with hepatitis C, that may lead to a universal cure in future years, is becoming a reality due to recent developments in biomarker and genomic medicine. In light of these advances, we review the scientific evidence and clinical implications of recent findings related to host genetic factors in the management of HCV infection.

Trinks, Julieta; Hulaniuk, Maria Laura; Redal, Maria Ana; Flichman, Diego

2014-01-01

367

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

368

Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

SciTech Connect

The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

2009-06-01

369

Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the values for the same amount of energy during different time and at different location can vary dramatically. Moreover, for the same hour, the values for the same amount of power at base load level or at peak load level are different due to the different generation technologies and other non-convex constraints like unit commitment. The multiple market products at zonal/nodal levels with different time horizon and time of use categories are designed to reflect more realistic demand and supply conditions at various temporal and spatial granularities. Detailed market rules, rights and regulations (3Rs) concerning the sub-markets interactions, product hierarchy and financial settlements are also examined.

Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

370

The Potential of Energy Management and Control Systems for Real-Time Electricity Pricing Programs  

E-print Network

In implementing an integrated electric utility network, direct communication between the utility and customers is an important component. The rapid penetration of computer building control technology in larger commercial and industrial customers...

Akbari, H.; Heinemeier, K. E.

1990-01-01

371

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2012-10-01

372

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2013-10-01

373

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2011-10-01

374

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2010-10-01

375

Pilot measurements of ELF contact currents in some electric utility occupations.  

PubMed

Contact currents from touching objects with different voltages can produce electric fields within the body that produce neurological and other biological effects. To begin measuring these exposures among electric utility workers, a new contact current meter (CCM) was tested in a pilot study at Southern California Edison. The CCM was worn for 82 full-shift measurements by 76 volunteers from eight occupations who did not work directly with energized electrical equipment. The volunteers were exposed to an average of 285.8 contact current events above the meter's 1-microA threshold, but most of these were electrostatic spark discharges. Fourteen employees experienced an average of 135.1 contact currents events whose primary frequency was 60 Hz. Using a circuit model of the human body, the average contact currents going from arm to arm was 9.8 microA (maximum = 178.0 microA), and the average going down the torso was 25.5 microA (maximum = 662.0). The maximum exposures were experienced by a technical support employee working in a substation. All measurements in this pilot study were below the 3000 microA maximum permissible exposure for contact currents set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Combining these current measurements with the results of high-resolution dosimetry, the internal electric fields averaged an estimated 1.7 mV/m in the heart (maximum = 21.0 mV/m), and 1.9 mV/m in the hematopoietic bone marrow in the torso (maximum = 56.5 mV/m). These internal electric fields from contact currents are below the basic restriction of 943 mV/m in the IEEE exposure standards but are above 1 mV/m, a level where biological effects have been often reported in laboratory studies. Safety concerns limited the measurements to de-energized equipment, so we did not obtain data on work in energized high-voltage environments, the most likely sources of high contact currents. This pilot study identified other improvements to the contact current meter that would make it better able to measure exposures in future health studies. PMID:16718950

Bowman, Joseph; Niple, John; Kavet, Rob

2006-06-01

376

Utility of flood warning systems for emergency management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation is focused on a simple and crucial question for warning systems: are flood and hydrological modelling and forecasting helpful to manage flood events? Indeed, it is well known that a warning process can be invalidated by inadequate forecasts so that the accuracy and robustness of the previsional model is a key issue for any flood warning procedure. However, one problem still arises at this perspective: when forecasts can be considered to be adequate? According to Murphy (1993, Wea. Forecasting 8, 281-293), forecasts hold no intrinsic value but they acquire it through their ability to influence the decisions made by their users. Moreover, we can add that forecasts value depends on the particular problem at stake showing, this way, a multifaceted nature. As a result, forecasts verification should not be seen as a universal process, instead it should be tailored to the particular context in which forecasts are implemented. This presentation focuses on warning problems in mountain regions, whereas the short time which is distinctive of flood events makes the provision of adequate forecasts particularly significant. In this context, the quality of a forecast is linked to its capability to reduce the impact of a flood by improving the correctness of the decision about issuing (or not) a warning as well as of the implementation of a proper set of actions aimed at lowering potential flood damages. The present study evaluates the performance of a real flood forecasting system from this perspective. In detail, a back analysis of past flood events and available verification tools have been implemented. The final objective was to evaluate the system ability to support appropriate decisions with respect not only to the flood characteristics but also to the peculiarities of the area at risk as well as to the uncertainty of forecasts. This meant to consider also flood damages and forecasting uncertainty among the decision variables. Last but not least, the presentation explains how the procedure implemented in the case study could support the definition of a proper warning rule.

Molinari, Daniela; Ballio, Francesco; Menoni, Scira

2010-05-01

377

The impact of deregulation and restructuring: An empirical case study of the electric utility industry from 1998 through 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study analyzed the residential electricity prices in the competitive U.S. electric market from 1998 to 2007. This analysis revealed that electricity restructuring has not yet resulted in lower prices for the majority of residential consumers in areas open to competition. This study reviewed actual experiences of eight states in the deregulated and restructured electricity markets: Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The study began with a historical look at the deregulated and restructured electricity market from 1990 to 2007. The electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition and price caps. The results indicated that both had an effect on residential prices. This study used data from the Energy Information Administration and the 8 public utility commissions. Contrary to common expectations, residential electricity costs for consumers have increased rather than decreased.

Robinson, Deborah E.

378

Mechanisms of electromagnetic interference between electrical networks and neighboring metallic utilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the mechanisms of electromagnetic interference between a power line and a neighboring pipeline. An electromagnetic field theory approach is used to carry out the study. First, the field theory approach is used to model the complete conductor network under consideration as is. The inductive, capacitive and conductive interference effects between all the elements in the network are simultaneously taken into account in one single step. The computed results are then used to develop a network model whereby the inductive, capacitive and conductive interference effects can be separated. This approach allows one to better understand the effects of each individual component and compare the field-theory (inductive) based results with those obtained from a circuit model approach. The effects of a typical mitigation system on the interference levels are also studied. The results presented in this paper clearly illustrate the mechanisms of electromagnetic interference and mitigation between electrical networks and neighboring metallic utilities.

Dawalibi, F.P.; Ma, J.; Li, Y. [Safe Engineering Services and Technologies Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1999-11-01

379

Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

1985-09-01

380

Improved regional water management utilizing climate forecasts: An interbasin transfer model with a risk management framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water supply systems undergo surplus and deficit conditions due to differences in inflow characteristics as well as due to their seasonal demand patterns. This study proposes a framework for regional water management by proposing an interbasin transfer (IBT) model that uses climate-information-based inflow forecast for minimizing the deviations from the end-of-season target storage across the participating pools. Using the ensemble streamflow forecast, the IBT water allocation model was applied for two reservoir systems in the North Carolina Triangle Area. Results show that interbasin transfers initiated by the ensemble streamflow forecast could potentially improve the overall water supply reliability as the demand continues to grow in the Triangle Area. To further understand the utility of climate forecasts in facilitating IBT under different spatial correlation structures between inflows and between the initial storages of the two systems, a synthetic experiment was designed to evaluate the framework under inflow forecast having different skills. Findings from the synthetic study can be summarized as follows: (a) inflow forecasts combined with the proposed IBT optimization model provide improved allocation in comparison to the allocations obtained under the no-transfer scenario as well as under transfers obtained with climatology; (b) spatial correlations between inflows and between initial storages among participating reservoirs could also influence the potential benefits that could be achieved through IBT; (c) IBT is particularly beneficial for systems that experience low correlations between inflows or between initial storages or on both attributes of the regional water supply system. Thus, if both infrastructure and permitting structures exist for promoting interbasin transfers, season-ahead inflow forecasts could provide added benefits in forecasting surplus/deficit conditions among the participating pools in the regional water supply system.

Li, Weihua; Sankarasubramanian, A.; Ranjithan, R. S.; Brill, E. D.

2014-08-01

381

Firm-stakeholder connectedness in the deregulating electric utility business: Exchange relationships in a network context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation extends current research on firm-stakeholder relationships by proposing a stakeholder connectedness model in a network context involving the deregulating electric utility industry. Connectedness involves the degree to which firms and stakeholders form dependent-interdependent relationships in a network context. First, this dissertation suggests that firm-stakeholder relationships are multilateral and multidirectional. Evolving business practices increasingly involve models in which firms and stakeholders are connected through complex dependent-interdependent exchange relationships. Depending on the type of exchange involved, these relationships often are multilateral and multidirectional, particularly in a network context. Second, this dissertation presents a network-based model in which the degree of connectedness among firms and stakeholders are defined based on types of dependence-interdependence. Recognizing the social and economic nature of exchange among firms and stakeholders, this paper suggests that differing types of trust and control can effectively describe both dependence-interdependence and the degree of connectedness among firms and stakeholders. Third, this dissertation suggests that, from the perspective of exchange relationships in a network environment, power-based relationships provide only a partial explanation of firm-stakeholder interaction. This dissertation conceptualizes power as a subset of dependent-interdependent relationships and one of several factors that influence connectedness among firms and stakeholders in a network. The general proposition of this paper is that firms increasingly are interconnected through exchange relationships. Connectedness among firms and stakeholders in a network can be developed and maintained more effectively when based on long-term relationships. To support this proposition, models of differing types of firm-stakeholder connectedness are provided. Through case study research of firms and stakeholder involved in all segments of the electric utility industry, the propositions are evaluated. The exploratory results suggest support for the propositions in this dissertation.

Heuer, Mark Alan

2001-12-01

382

Lung cancer in relation to employment in the electrical utility industry and exposure to magnetic fields.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A recent study found that lung cancer may be associated with exposures encountered in the electrical utility industry. To further evaluate this possibility, data were collected and analysed from five large electrical utility companies in the United States. METHODS: A cohort of 138905 male workers employed between 1950 and 1986 was followed up for mortality to the end of 1988, with 20733 deaths identified of which 1692 were due to lung cancer. Mortality from lung cancer was examined in relation to the duration of employment in specific jobs thought to have high exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields and to an index of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on personal measurements. Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) as estimated from another study was also considered. Poisson regression generated rate ratios for categories of exposure based on comparisons within the cohort adjusted for age, calendar year, race, socioeconomic status, work status, and estimated exposure to asbestos. RESULTS: Mortality rose modestly with duration of work as an electrician or power plant operator reaching rate ratios of 1.4 with > or = 20 years in those jobs but not with duration of work as a lineman or a combination of jobs thought to have high exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields or PEMFs. Cumulative indices of exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields and PEMFs were both associated with rate ratios of 1.2-1.3 in the highest intervals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lung cancer is not strongly associated with duration of employment in specific jobs associated with high potential exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields or to PEMFs. Small associations of lung cancer with indices of both 60 Hz magnetic fields and PEMFs leave open the possibility that larger associations have been diluted through exposure misclassification. Refined exposure assessment, especially to PEMFs, would be required to evaluate that possibility. PMID:9245945

Savitz, D A; Dufort, V; Armstrong, B; Theriault, G

1997-01-01

383

Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

NONE

1997-12-01

384

Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on  

E-print Network

Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based. Index Terms--Energy management, dynamic programming, hybrid energy storage system, electric vehicle I the sizing of the battery and the DLC, and secondly the determination of an online, causal energy management

Paderborn, Universität

385

Field test of electric vehicle battery chargers: Customer and utility acceptance: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test was implemented to evaluate the electrical system and customer impacts of recharging up to 10 electric cars. The test was performed in a suburban community during an off-peak electricity demand period. The electrical service in this community is representative of the type of service found throughout the country. The predominant load - electric vehicle battery chargers -

R. A. Popeck; K. Tolios

1987-01-01

386

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1994-08-01

387

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1994-08-01

388

The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand  

E-print Network

Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

1984-01-01

389

The Market for Capital and the Origins of State Regulation of Electric Utilities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence that the problem of raising capital in the early days of the U.S. electric-utility industry motivated industry leaders to embrace state rate-of-return regulation in return for a secure territorial monopoly. Utility executives anticipated that this would lead to a reduction in borrowing costs. Using firm-level bond data for 1910 1919, we estimate a model and find that

William J. Hausman; John L. Neufeld

2002-01-01

390

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among electric utility workers in Ontario: the evaluation of alternate indices of exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To examine associations between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and exposures to 60 Hz magnetic and electric fields in electric utility workers with a series of indices that capture a variety of aspects of field strength.?METHODS—The study population consisted of 51 cases of NHL and 203 individually matched controls identified from within a cohort of male electric utility workers in Ontario. Odds ratios were calculated for several exposure indices with conditional logistic regression models. Aspects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields that were modelled included: the percentage of time spent above selected threshold field intensities, mean transitions in field strength, SD, and the arithmetic and geometric mean field intensities.?RESULTS—For the most part, there was a lack of an association between exposure indices of magnetic fields and the incidence of NHL. Subjects in the upper tertile of percentage of time spent above electric field intensities of 10 and 40 V/m had odds ratios of 3.05 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07 to 8.80) and 3.57 (1.30 to 9.80), respectively, when compared with those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, the percentages of time spent above these electric field thresholds were significant predictors of case status over and above the association explained by duration of employment and the arithmetic or geometric mean exposure.?CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that exposures above electric field threshold intensities of 10 and 40 V/m are important predictors of NHL. Consequently, the findings support the hypothesis that electric fields may play a promoting part in the aetiology of this cancer. Further occupational studies that include assessment of exposure to electric fields and measures of field strength above similar threshold cut off points are needed to confirm these findings.???Keywords: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; electric fields; magnetic fields PMID:10810111

Villeneuve, P.; Agnew, D.; Miller, A.; Corey, P.

2000-01-01

391

Centralized care management support for "high utilizers" in primary care practices at an academic medical center.  

PubMed

Although evidence of effectiveness is limited, care management based outside primary care practices or hospitals is receiving increased attention. The University of Michigan (UM) Complex Care Management Program (CCMP) provides care management for uninsured and underinsured, high-utilizing patients in multiple primary care practices. To inform development of optimal care management models, we describe the CCMP model and characteristics and health care utilization patterns of its patients. Of a consecutive series of 49 patients enrolled at CCMP in 2011, the mean (SD) age was 48 (+/- 14); 23 (47%) were women; and 29 (59%) were White. Twenty-eight (57%) had two or more chronic medical conditions, 39 (80%) had one or more psychiatric condition, 28 (57%) had a substance abuse disorder, and 11 (22%) were homeless. Through phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contact with patients and primary care providers (PCPs), care managers coordinated health and social services and facilitated access to medical and mental health care. Patients had a mean (SD) number of hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in 6 months prior to enrollment of2.2 (2.5) and 4.2 (4.3), respectively, with a nonstatistically significant decrease in hospitalizations, hospital days, and emergency room visits in 6 months following enrollment in CCMP. Centralized care management support for primary care practices engages high-utilizing patients with complex medical and behavioral conditions in care management that would be difficult to provide through individual practices and may decrease health care utilization by these patients. PMID:24761538

Williams, Brent C; Paik, Jamie L; Haley, Laura L; Grammatico, Gina M

2014-01-01

392

The Utility and Organization of a College Field Course: Examining National Park Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the theory and educational utility of field-based instruction. Discusses an effective field-course structure, focusing on the planning process, pre- and post-trip meetings, and student activities and assignments. Describes a field course on resource management in national parks based at Oklahoma State University. (CMK)

Tueth, Matthew W.; Wikle, Thomas A.

2000-01-01

393

Management support services to the Office of Utility Technologies. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Utility Technologies works cooperatively with industry and the utility sector to realize the market potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Under this contract, BNF has provided management support services for OUT R&D activities for the following Program offices: (1) Office of Energy Management; (2) Office of Solar Energy Conversion; (3) Office of Renewable Energy Conversion; and (4) Deputy Assistant Secretary. During the period between 4/17/91 and 9/17/93, BNF furnished the necessary personnel, equipment, materials, facilities and travel required to provide management support services for each of the above Program Offices. From 9/18/93 to 12/17/93, BNF has been involved in closeout activities, including final product deliverables. Research efforts that have been supported in these Program Offices are: (1) for Energy Management -- Advanced Utility Concepts Division; Utility Systems Division; Integrated Planning; (2) for Solar Energy Conversion -- Photovoltaics Division; Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division; (3) for Renewable Energy Conversion -- Geothermal Division; Wind, Hydroelectric and Ocean Systems Division; (4) for the Deputy Assistant Secretary -- support as required by the Supporting Staff. This final report contains summaries of the work accomplished for each of the Program Offices listed above.

Not Available

1993-12-16

394

Utility of social network analysis for primate behavioral management and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

New management strategies for detecting social instabilities and promoting social cohesion are needed to reduce aggression-based morbidity and mortality among captive groups of rhesus macaques. This study was conducted to determine the utility of social network analysis for deciphering patterns of aggression and wounding in rhesus macaques. Over 37,000 observations of affiliative, submissive and aggressive activities were collected over a

Brenda McCowan; Kristen Anderson; Allison Heagarty; Ashley Cameron

2008-01-01

395

BEREA COLLEGE DEBT POLICY A Means to Effectively Utilize and Manage Debt-Financing Resources for  

E-print Network

1 BEREA COLLEGE DEBT POLICY A Means to Effectively Utilize and Manage Debt-Financing Resources for Capital Improvements and Renovations Background Debt financing allows the College to pay for an asset over's Investors Service. Financial Analysis Principles for Structuring Debt Financing 1. The College will seek

Baltisberger, Jay H.

396

Navy Family Advocacy Program: The Management and Utilization of Program Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a study of the management and utilization of program information in the Department of the Navy's Family Advocacy Program. The study examines the processes by which information on family violence cases flow through the system, from case iden...

L. B. Suski, P. Schene, J. D. Fluke, A. M. Bycer, T. C. Allen

1984-01-01

397

Utility Demand Side Management- DSM Lessons: Experience is the Toughest Teacher  

E-print Network

management forerunners is rich in learning experiences that were both painful and rewarding. Based on A&C Enercom's (A&CE's) 13 years of experience assisting utilities, state energy offices, the Department of Defense and the federal government in reaching...

Gilbert, S. M.

398

Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change  

SciTech Connect

In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

1996-07-01

399

Electric Utilities' Role in Industrial Competitiveness: Going Beyond the Energy Audit  

E-print Network

Gas & Electric ? Commonwealth Edison ? Duke Power ? Florida Power & Light ? Houston Lighting and Power ? Illinois Power ? Niagara Mohawk ? Northern States Power ? Pennsylvania Power & Light ? Philadelphia Electric ? Salt River Project... Gas & Electric ? Commonwealth Edison ? Duke Power ? Florida Power & Light ? Houston Lighting and Power ? Illinois Power ? Niagara Mohawk ? Northern States Power ? Pennsylvania Power & Light ? Philadelphia Electric ? Salt River Project...

Jeffress, R. D.

400

Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

1982-01-01

401

Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition.

Cox, A.J.

1999-05-01

402

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Goodin, J.R.

1984-09-01

403

The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

2014-07-01

404

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-P- 574 Srivastava*, R.K., Sedman*, C.B., Kilgroe*, J.D., Smith D., and Renninger, S. Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers. 01/24/2001 Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Envir...

405

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/SR-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control, following release of Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units Final Report to Congress, in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPAs December 2000 deci...

406

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-237 Kilgroe*, J.D., Sedman*, C.B., Srivastava*, R.K., Ryan*, J.V., and Thorneloe*, S. Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers: Interim Report. EPA-600/R-01-109, Available: NTIS. 12/20/2001 The report provides additional information on mer...

407

Patient assessments of care and utilization in Medicaid managed care: PCCMs vs. PSOs.  

PubMed

States are experimenting with different forms of delivery and financing to make Medicaid expenditures more predictable. Florida Medicaid is experimenting with a relatively new form of managed care, the provider-sponsored organization (PSO). Using the Donabedian structure-process-outcome (SPO) model, patient experiences and utilization in Florida PSOs and primary care case management (PCCM) were compared. The study analyzed Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) data for 1,257 Medicaid beneficiaries in Florida in 2005. Results showed that beneficiaries in the PSOs had similar ratings and reports of care to those in the PCCM. However, PSOs had lower physician visits compared to the PCCM, indicating potential access barriers to primary care. The PSO's impact on emergency department (ED) utilization and specialist utilization was similar to that of the PCCM. The PSOs may lower costs, but the savings may be due to lower physician utilization rather than better case management. This is important since states that are experimenting with PSOs in their Medicaid programs are looking to these organizations to improve beneficiary care while lowering costs. PMID:22329327

Schiller, K Cameron; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Hall, Allyson G

2010-01-01

408

Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

1978-01-01

409

Frequency-Dependent Activation of Glucose Utilization in the Superior Cervical Ganglion by Electrical Stimulation of Cervical Sympathetic Trunk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical stimulation of the distal stump of the transected cervical sympathetic trunk produces a frequency-dependent activation of glucose utilization, measured by the deoxy[14C]glucose method, in the superior cervical ganglion of the urethane-anesthetized rat. The frequency dependence falls between 0-15 Hz; at 20 Hz the activation of glucose utilization is no greater than at 15 Hz. Deafferentation of the superior cervical ganglion by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk does not diminish the rate of glucose utilization in the ganglion in the urethane-anesthetized rat. These results indicate that the rate of energy metabolism in an innervated neural structure is, at least in part, regulated by the impulse frequency of the electrical input to the structure, and this regulation may be an essential component of the mechanism of the coupling of metabolic activity to functional activity in the nervous system.

Yarowsky, Paul; Kadekaro, Massako; Sokoloff, Louis

1983-07-01

410

Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.  

PubMed

Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds. PMID:20586458

Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

2011-06-01

411

Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management  

PubMed Central

Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds. PMID:20586458

2010-01-01

412

Development of battery management system for nickel–metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of

Do Yang Jung; Baek Haeng Lee; Sun Wook Kim

2002-01-01

413

A Battery Management System for electric vehicle based on Zigbee and CAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the wireless sensor networks (WSN) are adopted for electric vehicle BMS (Battery Management System) to observe the battery signals by ZigBee. The BMS is composed of LECU (Local Electrical Control Unit) and BMU (Battery Management Control Unit). This paper develops LECU as ZigBee end device, which is embedded two sensors (temperature sensor and voltage sensor for single

Yun Wu; Xiaofei Liao; Wen Chen; Dao Chen

2011-01-01

414

Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Citizens Utility Board); (BuildingIQ Pty Ltd, Australia); (PJM Interconnection LLC)

2011-08-11

415

Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional, procedural, and interactional fairness. This research illustrates the need for leaders to consider the culture in their organizations and its readiness for change prior to implementation of significant transformation.

Korns, Michael T.

416

Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—This nested case-control study examines mortality from suicide in relation to estimated exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a cohort of 138 905 male electric utility workers.?METHODS—Case-control sampling included 536 deaths from suicide and 5348 eligible controls. Exposure was classified based on work in the most common jobs with increased exposure to magnetic fields and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.?RESULTS—Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR 2.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25 to 3.80) or lineman (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.40). A dose response gradient with exposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.90) in the highest exposure category. Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12-3.62, were found for men <50 years of age.?CONCLUSION—These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research as well as epidemiological evaluation.???Keywords: electromagnetic fields; suicide; nested case-control PMID:10810112

van Wijngaarden, E.; Savitz, D.; Kleckner, R.; Cai, J.; Loomis, D.

2000-01-01

417

Cost-effective applications of photovoltaics for electric utilities: An overview  

SciTech Connect

Cost targets for the large-scale entry of photovoltaic (PV) systems keep moving, subject to the vagaries of global oil prices and the economic health of the world. Over the last four decades since a practical PV device was announced, costs have come down by a factor of 20 or more and this downward trend is expected to continue, albeit at a slower pace. Simultaneously, conversion efficiencies have nearly tripled. There are many applications today for which PV is cost-effective. In recognition of this, utility interest in PV is increasing and this is manifested by projects such as PVUSA and Central and South West`s renewable resource development effort. While no major technical barriers for the entry of PV systems have been uncovered, several key issues such as power quality, system reliability, ramp rates, spinning reserve requirements, and misoperation of protection schemes will have to be dealt with as the penetration of this technology increases. PV is still in the evolutionary phase and is expected to grow for several decades to come. Fueled by environmental considerations, interest in PV is showing a healthy rise both in the minds of the public and in the planning realms of the electric power community. In recognition of this, the Energy Development Subcommittee of the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation Committee organized a Panel Session on photovoltaics applications at the 1993 International Joint Power Generation Conference held in Kansas City, Missouri. Summaries of the four presentations are assembled here for the benefit of the readers of this Review.

Bigger, J.E. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

418

Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

419

Costs in electric utilities in the US: A comparison of publicly-owned and privately-owned utilities in different market structures  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses the effects of ownership and market structure on cost in electric utilities in the U.S. and consists of three parts. The first part is a brief survey of the literature on the relative efficiency of the different types of ownership and on the relative importance of a competitive environment in attaining a successful privatization program. In the second part, the authors construct a theoretical and empirical model which can consider the relative efficiency of publicly-owned and privately-owned utilities allowing simultaneously for the impacts of ownership type, market structure and regulation. The concept is employed of shadow price rather that actual price to reflect the effect of government's regulation. The method of data construction and empirical results are presented in the third part. The estimation results indicate that privately-owned utilities are more cost efficient than publicly-owned utilities at very large output levels and are less efficient at very small output levels. Contrary to the authors' expectations, the estimates of parameters reflecting different market structure are insignificant. Estimates were also produced of economics of scale, demand, and elasticity of substitution.

Koh, D.S.

1992-01-01

420

The Effects of Moving Clouds on Electric Utilities with Dispersed Photovoltaic Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the incident solar radiation on a utility service area changes, the power generated by utility-interactive solar photovoltaic (PV) generators dispersed throughout that area also changes. The utility must follow these changes with its own generation, just as it now follows normal fluctuations in customer load. This paper presents the results of a simulation designed to assess the maximum possible

Ward Jewell; R. Ramakumar

1987-01-01

421

Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ˘28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

2014-02-01

422

Access, satisfaction, and utilization in two forms of Medicaid managed care  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined access and satisfaction of 2,598 recipients of Virginia’s Medicaid program, comparing its health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to its primary care case management (PCCM) program. Positive responses were summed as sub-domains either of access, satisfaction, or of utilization, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for HMO (vs. PCCM) sub-domain scores. The response rate was 47 per cent. We found

Wally R. Smith; J. James Cotter; Donna K. McClish; Viktor E. Bovbjerg; Louis F. Rossiter

2000-01-01

423

The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

424

An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy efficiency programs. Market dissemination potential and program development and implementation potential are the second and third most important, whereas ancillary benefits potential is the least important program management consideration. The results imply that program value considerations, comprised of energy savings potential and ancillary benefits potential; and program feasibility considerations, comprised of program development and implementation potential and market dissemination potential, have almost equal impacts on assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs. Considering the overwhelming number of value-focused studies and the few feasibility-focused studies in the literature, this finding clearly shows that feasibility-focused studies are greatly understudied. The hierarchical decision model developed in this dissertation is generalizable. Thus, other utilities or power systems can adopt the research steps employed in this study as guidelines and conduct similar assessment studies on emerging energy efficiency programs of their interest.

Iskin, Ibrahim

425

Assessment of electric-utility ownership and operation of industrial-cogeneration facilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the opportunities for direct utility involvement in the ownership and operation of industrial cogeneration facilities, the Department of Energy requested a study of the factors affecting utility ownership and operation of these facilities. The study team, with the assistance of a utility steering committee composed of representatives of 10 major investor-owned utilities, reviewed pertinent laws and regulations, held discussions with key regulatory personnel, defined prototypical ownership and operating arrangements, evaluated cogeneration facility technical characteristics and financial attractiveness, and determined specific measures designed to encourage greater utility involvement in the ownership and operation of industrial cogeneration facilities. This report discusses factors affecting utility involvement in cogeneration facilities, the positive effects of deregulation on such involvement, measures to improve the regulatory environment, and measures to improve the financial performance of utility-owned cogenerating facilities. (LCL)

Not Available

1982-12-01

426

Battery choice and management for new-generation electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of electric vehicles (EVs) have been recently designed with the aim of solving pollution problems caused by the emission of gasoline-powered engines. Environmental problems promote the adoption of new-generation electric vehicles for urban transportation. As it is well known, one of the weakest points of electric vehicles is the battery system. Vehicle autonomy and, therefore, accurate detection of

Antonio Affanni; Alberto Bellini; Giovanni Franceschini; Paolo Guglielmi; Carla Tassoni

2005-01-01

427

Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

1990-01-01

428

Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 2. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Solano County project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the wind turbine's first rotation. This technical report presents the experiences of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) with its wind turbine installation at Solano County, California. All documents and reports pertaining to PG and E's experience with wind energy at Solano County were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. The chronology of steps taken by PG and E in implementing the Solano wind turbine experience and some of the lessons learned are included in the report. In each section, important activities, critical assumptions, and interesting insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

1984-01-01

429

Illegal, Unethical or Just Fattening? A Revisionist Look at the FTC Hearings on Electric Utility Public Relations and Franklin Roosevelt's 1932 Public Power Pledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Did President Franklin D. Roosevelt's condemnation of electric utility public relations represent a fair interpretation of the findings of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigation into the electric utility industry as authorized by Senate Resolution 83 in February, 1928, or were Roosevelt's statements simply campaign hyperbole that met the…

Jordan, Myron K.

430

Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

2011-01-01

431

Business Plan for a New Engineering Consulting Firm in the Electrical Utility Market  

E-print Network

Engineering Design Detailed electrical design, including: electrical one-line diagrams, electrical layout, conduit and grounding layouts, control and protection design (AC and DC schematics design), relay setting, lightning protection calculations... design, including protective relaying, power factor correction, substation lighting, grounding, and lightning protection designs. (11) EMGT 835 Field Project GCS Business Plan Page 22 of 51 4.2.3 Competitive Advantage Competitive Strategy...

Gois, Roberto Cavalcanti

2009-05-15

432

Community Collaboration and Public Policy MakingExamining the Long-Term Utility of Training in Conflict Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of conflict in organizations and communities is intrinsic to the policy development process. Many communities across the United States are searching for more effective ways of building consensus and managing conflict. A variety of training programs in conflict management are available, but there is little evidence either supporting or disputing the long-term utility of these interventions. Will an

Patricia J. Fredericksen

1996-01-01

433

Overview and discussion of the key regulatory issues in implementing the electric utility provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

SciTech Connect

Title 4 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expand in order to emit sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system created by the CAAA will be grafted onto an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. How public utility commissions (PUCs) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulate these allowances will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and, therefore, the cost of compliance to ratepayers. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

1991-06-01

434

Rule Based Energy Management and Reporting System (EMRS) Applied to a Large Utility Power Station Complex  

E-print Network

utilities using petroleum coke, coke gas and lean gas waste fuels in response to rapidly changing plant steam and electric demand. An additional factor is the requirement to reports the operating status of the EMS critical parameters of a dynamically... PEW PEW Description Equipment NumberNatural GasOilPulverized CokeCoke GasLean Gas Power Boiler F01XXX Power Boiler F02XXX Power Boiler F03X XXX Power Boiler F04 X X X Gas Turbine #5 TG5 X HRSG#1 Duct Burner F05 X Gas Turbine #6 TG6 X HRSG#2 Duct...

Bamber, D.; Childress, R.; Robinson, J.

2004-01-01

435

An Investigation Utilizing an Electrical Analogue of Cyclic Deicing of Hollow Steel Propellers with Internal Electric Heaters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been made of the heating requirements for the cyclic de?icing of hollow steel propellers fitted with two types of internal electric heaters. Solutions to the transient?teat?flow equations depicting the cyclic de?icing of propellers were obtained by use of an electrical analogy. The study showed the impracticability of using an internal tubular heater and illustrated the advantages of employing an internal shoe?type heater, which distributes the heat more evenly to the blade surface. The importance of minimizing the thermal inertia of the system was demonstrated, and the magnitude of reductions in the total energy requirement made possible through reductions in the heating period was indicated.

Neel, Carr B., Jr.

1953-01-01

436

Multicriteria modelling of repair contract based on utility and ELECTRE I method with dependability and service quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DM faces a choice among several alternatives of repair contract for a\\u000a system. Each alternative of a repair contract implies specific results\\u000a regarding the following characteristics or criteria: response time,\\u000a quality service, dependability and related cost. This problem has been\\u000a analysed through a multicriteria decision model. The model is based on\\u000a the ELECTRE method combined with utility functions. Main

Adiel Teixeira De Almeida

2005-01-01

437

Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States 1999 With Data as of January 1, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this 357-page document from the Energy Information Administration, "the existing capacity of U.S. electric utilities totaled 686,692 megawatts (Table 1), a net change of -25,197 megawatts (-3.5 percent) from the total reported as of January 1, 1998." Forty-four percent of the United States's existing capacity was coal-fired, gas-fired capacity represented eighteen percent, while nuclear capacity accounted for fourteen percent.

1999-01-01

438

Power to the People: Electric Utility Restructuring and the Commitment to Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With electric generation responsible for 41 percent of U.S anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use, development of clean energy sources is essential if the United States is to reduce release of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Many proponents of sustainable energy anticipate that electric generation from renewable sources would thrive in a deregulated market, driven by consumer

Michael K. Heiman; Barry D. Solomon

2004-01-01

439

Panel session: structural reliability-based design of utility poles and the national electrical safety code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2002 Edition of the national electrical safety code provides basic safety rules for outdoor electric power and telecommunications lines and structures. The NESC specifies overload factors and strength factors in its strength and loading rules for transmission and distribution structures and poles. These factors have been selected based upon subjective criteria, including a combination of engineering judgment and experience.

N. Bingel; H. Dagher; R. Randle; R. Wolfe; L. Slavin; M. Voda; J. Wong

2003-01-01

440

17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...distribution of electric energy is the ownership...the production of heat or steam from special...nuclear material which heat or steam is used...generation of electric energy shall not be deemed...facilities, or of the heat or energy produced...

2011-04-01

441

17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distribution of electric energy is the ownership...the production of heat or steam from special...nuclear material which heat or steam is used...generation of electric energy shall not be deemed...facilities, or of the heat or energy produced...

2010-04-01

442

Empirical tests of cost subadditivity in the investor-owned electric-utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the hypothesis that the social cost of electricity is reduced by concentrating the sale of electricity in one firm instead of several. The criterion for exploring the validity of the hypothesis was cost subadditivity. When costs are subadditive, the industry is said to be a multiple product natural monopoly. The presence of cost subadditivity was tested by

Finder

1985-01-01

443

Batteries and battery management systems for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The battery is a fundamental component of electric vehicles, which represent a step forward towards sustainable mobility. Lithium chemistry is now acknowledged as the technology of choice for energy storage in electric vehicles. However, several research points are still open. They include the best choice of the cell materials and the development of electronic circuits and algorithms for a more

M. Brandl; H. Gall; M. Wenger; V. Lorentz; M. Giegerich; F. Baronti; G. Fantechi; L. Fanucci; R. Roncella; R. Saletti; S. Saponara; A. Thaler; M. Cifrain; W. Prochazka

2012-01-01

444

Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles -Prediction horizon and  

E-print Network

transmission is composed of a planetary gear sets arrangement and two electric motors (Villeneuve (2004 vehicle studied uses a complex transmission composed of planetary gear sets and two electric motors, it is necessary to reduce computational time so as to embed this control on an automotive calculator. This paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

Optimal Generation Expansion Planning for Electric Utilities Using Decomposition and Probabilistic Simulation Techniques  

E-print Network

Three related methods are presented for determining the least-cost generating capacity investments required to meet given future demands for electricity. The models are based on application of large-scale mathematical ...

Bloom, Jeremy A.

446

Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States  

E-print Network

Road, MS 90R4000 Berkeley CA 94720-8136 Environmental Energy Technologies Division June 2009 http Administration, Duke Energy, Mid America Power, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Puget Sound Energy, Salt River

447

73 FR 7270 - Proposed Methodology for Determining the Average System Cost of Resources for Electric Utilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Proposed Methodology for Determining...5(c) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), DOE. ACTION:...

2008-02-07

448

Benchmarking and Regulation of Electricity Transmission and Distribution Utilities: Lessons from International Experience  

E-print Network

Since the early 1980?s, many countries have implemented electricity sector reform, many of which have bundled generation, transmission, distribution and supply activities, and have introduced competition in generation and supply. An increasing...

Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-06-16

449

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...292.310, any energy and capacity which...292.312, energy and capacity requested...of the Federal Power Act. (d) Transmission to other electric...obligated to purchase energy or capacity from...down to reflect line losses...

2010-04-01

450

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the applicability of control technologies for reducing priority pollutants in effluents from the steam-electric power generating industry. It surveys control technologies, identifying those that have demonstrated some control effectiveness for priority polluta...

451