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1

Managing electrical safety in power utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the OSHA, IEEE, and NFPA electrical safety requirements, procedures, and responsibilities for managing electrical safety when working with electric power utility systems and equipment. The three primary hazards of electricity; electrical shock, electrical arc flash, and electrical arc blast will be addressed. The requirements for an Electrical Safety Program, procedures, and personal protective equipment (PPE) will be

Dennis K. Neitzel

2011-01-01

2

Utility asset management in the electrical power distribution sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asset management is a concept that has been used in both the private and public sectors with a vast number of interpretations. In the context of an electricity distribution utility, asset management can be defined as a systematic process of, cost-effectively, operating, maintaining and upgrading of electrical assets by combining engineering practices and economic analysis with sound business practice. Any

Innocent E. Davidson

2005-01-01

3

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

NONE

1995-07-01

4

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-01-01

5

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

6

Forest carbon management, the greenhouse effect and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities in the US have initiated forestry projects to conserve energy and to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In 1995, 40 companies raised US$2.5 million to establish the non-profit UtiliTree Carbon Company which is now sponsoring eight projects representing a mix of rural tree planting, forest preservation, forest management and research efforts at both domestic (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and

John D. Kinsman; Gary Kaster; Eric C. Kuhn; James A. Smithson; Graham Brown

2000-01-01

7

Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

Glazner, Steve, Ed.

8

Managing for biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the electric utility industry-summary statement  

SciTech Connect

The conference entitled {open_quotes}Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the Electric Utility Industry{close_quotes} was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, during 19-20 March 1996. This paper provides an overview of the key points, conclusions, and recommendations from both the presentations/papers and the discussions throughout the conference. Topics covered in this article are the following: sustainable development: challenge for utilities; Stewardship issues; where do we go from here-EPRI perspective. 34 refs.

Mattice, J.; Fraser, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Ragone, S. [S.E. Ragone & Associates, Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

9

Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools  

SciTech Connect

This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and investment reversibility are discussed. Incorporating some of these attributes into an economic evaluation is illustrated using a municipal utility`s decision to invest in either wind generation or natural gas based generation. The research concludes that wind and other modular renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaics, have the potential to provide decision makers with physical risk-management investments.

Hoff, T E [Pacific Energy Group, Stanford, CA (United States); Parsons, B [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-06-01

10

Electric utilities in 2007  

SciTech Connect

A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1998-10-01

11

Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

12

Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and inv...

T. E. Hoff B. Parsons

1996-01-01

13

Electric utility deregulation: failure or success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utilities approach for restructuring the power market determines the failure or success of electric utility deregulation. It will cost billions of dollars, if restructuring is not done properly. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 2000 endorses competitive power markets, and price signals for the purpose of managing electricity grid congestion and achieving reliability. In a deregulated competitive electricity

Narinder K. Trehan; Rohit Saran

2004-01-01

14

Novel energy management system for hybrid electric vehicles utilizing car navigation over a commuting route  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel energy management system for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed system predicts a future driving pattern based on past driving data and determines the appropriate distribution of energy. In order to realize this strategy, previous driving data must be stored effectively because the large amount of driving data makes on-line realization of this strategy difficult. In this

Shinji Ichikawa; Yasuhiro Yokoi; Shinji Doki; Shigeru Okuma; Takashi Naitou; Toshihiro Shiimado; Nobuaki Miki

2004-01-01

15

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively

Weller

2001-01-01

16

Demand forecasting for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

For electric utilities, probably the most important element of providing reliable power supplies is the ability to forecast the demands of commercial, industrial and residential customers. The discipline of electric utility demand forecasting has evolved at a vigorous pace over the past two decades. The straight-line extrapolations of historical energy consumption trends that served well enough for the years of steady prices and steady growth became inadequate with the onset of inflation and rapidly rising energy prices. This book describes the most effective and accurate methods for forecasting of energy services appropriate for the parameters which can be expected to prevail in the 90s and beyond. The techniques which are described reflect the knowledge that the composite needs of utility customers can no longer be adequately represented by forecasts of peak demand and total energy use. Written specifically to meet the needs of utility managers, analysts, and planners, this authoritative presentation covers every aspect of state-of-the-art forecasting methods, addressing data acquisition and database construction, forecasting to innovative rates, load shape and forecasting, forecasting the impact of DSM strategies, and assessment of software systems available.

Gellings, C.W. (ed.)

1992-01-01

17

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

SciTech Connect

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

Weller, G.H.

2001-07-15

18

Price impacts of electric-utility DSM programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As competition in the electricity industry increases, utilities (and others) worry more about the upward pressure on electricity prices that demand-side management (DSM) programs often impose. Because of these concerns, several utilities have recently red...

E. Hirst S. Hadley

1994-01-01

19

The evolution of utilization management.  

PubMed

Utilization management has been one of the most useful managed care tools since the early days of this health delivery model. Recently, utilization management has come under siege, not directly as a result of public outcry, but from within the industry itself. One expert describes how utilization management must evolve to keep pace with the changing managed care environment. PMID:11141731

Carneal, G

2000-12-01

20

Electric utility of the year for 1984: Potomac Electric Power  

SciTech Connect

High performance, efficiency improvements, a modest construction program, a clear balance sheet, and an effort to expend power plant life were among the qualities that earned Potomac Electric Power (PEPCO) the title of 1984 Utility of the Year. Other key elements in the utility's selection were its strategy for purchasing power, a load management plan, diversified investments into subsidiary businesses, community concern that considers the aesthetics of transmission facilities, and its interest in personnel development, especially among minorities. 3 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-01

21

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

22

Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

1980-01-01

23

Electrical utilities model for determining electrical distribution capacity  

SciTech Connect

In its simplest form, this model was to obtain meaningful data on the current state of the Site`s electrical transmission and distribution assets, and turn this vast collection of data into useful information. The resulting product is an Electrical Utilities Model for Determining Electrical Distribution Capacity which provides: current state of the electrical transmission and distribution systems; critical Hanford Site needs based on outyear planning documents; decision factor model. This model will enable Electrical Utilities management to improve forecasting requirements for service levels, budget, schedule, scope, and staffing, and recommend the best path forward to satisfy customer demands at the minimum risk and least cost to the government. A dynamic document, the model will be updated annually to reflect changes in Hanford Site activities.

Fritz, R.L., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-09-03

24

Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

25

Analysis of Electric Utility Load Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electric utility load forecasting is the process by which utilities project the demand for electricity at various points of time. The forecasts are then used by utilities to decide the amount of resources needed to meet projected demand. Load forecasting ...

1983-01-01

26

Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

None

1989-02-01

27

Electric utility systems and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a text for a college-level course or an in-house seminar for power system engineers, it also provides an in-depth survey of the electric utility system. It achieves its objectives of providing an overview of the technical challenges and opportunities in power system engineering by presenting a description of each power system component and how it integrates into

Rustebakke

1983-01-01

28

Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Olmsted, L.L. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States); Bolin, J.W. [Virginia Power, Ashland, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

29

Efficacy of Utility Database Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is needed to justify changes in current Law, Rules, Policy, Processes and Utility Data Management Requirements to affect savings in time and dollars to the Department's work Program. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the five...

A. Yalcin N. O. Collier S. Tsalatsanis S. C. Kranc

2007-01-01

30

SAGEWASP. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion  

SciTech Connect

SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansion configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.

Clark, P.D.II; Ullrich, C.J. [Lakeland Electric and Water, FL (United States)

1989-10-10

31

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01

32

Optimization approach to electric utility corporate models  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a nonlinear programming approach to electric utility corporate models. The constraints of the model are of two types - plant sector (P) and financial (F). The model is driven via the P constraints by demand for electrical energy supplied as a load duration curve. The management decision is to configure new and existing plant so as to meet energy and power requirements for each period of a ten year planning horizon. There is a variable cost of operating the system and a capital cost for new plant. These costs as well as depreciation expenses link with the F constraints. These include equations that set the price of electricity using the cost-of-service method, limits on the interest coverage ratio on debt and bounds on the capital structure. The regulators' decision is endogenized by setting the allowed return on equity as a proportion of the market cost of equity capital. The model calculates the optimal issue of new securities, earned return on equity, market to book ratios of common stock, and optimal dividend payments. Two objective functions are examined - maximization of the total discounted consumers' and producers' surplus. The resulting nonlinear program is solved for parameter values typical of the investor-owned electric utility industry. The model provides insights into the effect of alternative regulatory policies on optimal investment and financing strategies for the firm. It is a useful supplement to the simulation results of the standard utility corporate model. The model, as formulated, is one of the largest problems solved by the nonlinear programming code GRG2, and is also a test of its capabilities.

Bose, R.

1982-01-01

33

Electric Utility Solar Energy Activities. 1976 Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a survey to determine the scope and extent of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities. Brief descriptions of the active operations along with information contacts are listed for each participating utility. ...

L. D. Cleary

1977-01-01

34

Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

Steven E. Letendre

1997-01-01

35

Applications of superconductors in electric utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconductors hold a level of attractiveness for electric utility applications because they can carry large electrical current densities with no or with very small electric power dissipation. Achievable current densities are large enough that it is possible, using superconductors, to produce magnetic flux densities higher than those required to saturate iron. This holds out the prospect for improving the energy

1999-01-01

36

Wind turbine value analysis for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for the analysis of the value of large-scale wind turbines to electric utilities, and its application to utility, socioeconomic and meteorological data in two case studies is described. The value analysis was carried out for the year of reference 1985 and included different levels of wind turbine penetration. Results of the value analysis are given. The utility planning

W. Dub

1982-01-01

37

Electric utility companies and geothermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1976-01-01

38

Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council's Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

Not Available

1992-09-01

39

Electric Utility Solar Energy Activities, 1978 Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a survey to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. Brief descriptions of 600 projects being conducted by 165 utility companies are given. Also included are a list of ...

W. L. York

1979-01-01

40

Homeostatic Control: The Utility/Customer Marketplace for Electric Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the custome...

F. C. Schweppe R. D. Tabors J. L. Kirtley

1981-01-01

41

29 CFR 1910.302 - Electric utilization systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Systems § 1910.302 Electric utilization systems...safety standards for electric utilization systems... (v) Recreational vehicles; (vi) Industrial...homes and recreational vehicles; (ii) Installations...exclusive control of electric utilities for...

2013-07-01

42

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job...

M. Jette C. Dunlap J. Garlick M. Grondona

2002-01-01

43

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple Linux utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job...

M. Jette M. Grondona

2002-01-01

44

Electric vehicles look promising for use in utility fleets  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Vehicle Development Corp. (EVDV) expects EV fleets to find a market for urban driving, especially among service fleets, once mass production begins. Electric utilities joined to form EVDC in order to keep abreast of research developments and the results of demonstrations taking place in several cities, where driver acceptance in utility demonstration programs is high. Major auto makers still need persuasion to develop a commercial prototype. Marketing will focus on controlled fleets having the management skills and the motivation to make the program work.

Minner, D.

1984-06-01

45

FDR's Condemnation of Electric Utility Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether Roosevelt's condemnation of electric utility public relations represented a fair interpretation of the Federal Trade Commission investigation into the issue as authorized by Senate Resolution 83 in February, 1928. Concludes that the condemnation was campaign rhetoric, but constituted a successful public relations campaign for the…

Jordan, Myron K.

1989-01-01

46

How Electric Utilities Forecast: EPRI Symposium Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This symposium was organized to provide electric-utility forecasters an opportunity to learn from colleagues the current state of the forecaster's art. The emphasis of this symposium was on practice and application. Each person invited to give a paper was...

R. T. Crow

1979-01-01

47

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new cluster resource management system called Simple Linux Utility Resource Management (SLURM) is developed and presented in this paper. SLURM, initially developed for large Linux clusters at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a simpl...

M. A. Jette A. B. Yoo M. Grondona

2003-01-01

48

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management  

SciTech Connect

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

Jette, M; Grondona, M

2002-12-19

49

SLURM: Simplex Linux Utility for Resource Management  

SciTech Connect

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling, and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

Jette, M; Grondona, M

2003-04-22

50

A satellite communications system for electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of a study into the feasibility of using satellite communications for a country-wide system of electric distribution system monitoring and control. The concept selected for study involves the use of a geostationary satellite with a large multi-beam antenna to provide a major part of the communications and control network between participating utilities and various elements of their power distribution networks, including customer loads. Electric utility communications requirements are projected through 1995 in order to size the required capacity of the system. Two basic systems are examined: a one-way system for load control, and a two-way system for distribution system monitoring and control, including customer meter reading. An operating protocol is proposed for each system. Preliminary cost estimates are identified element by element. Finally, expansion of the basic system to include a set of ancillary communications functions is briefly discussed.

Vaisnys, A.; Bergen, L.

1980-01-01

51

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advancement of electric utility cell stack technology and reduction of cell stack cost was initiated. The cell stack has a nominal 10 ft (2) active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405(0)F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full height, 10-ft(2) stack verification test: (1) provides the information and services needed to manage the effort, including

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. Demarche; R. L. Gelting; G. J. Goller; W. I. Luoma; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. Obrien

1984-01-01

52

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1984-12-01

53

The laboratory test utilization management toolbox  

PubMed Central

Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure.

Baird, Geoffrey

2014-01-01

54

Electric Utilities at the crossroads. Part II  

SciTech Connect

This article, the second of a two-part series, reports signs that electric utilities will be allowed higher rates of return and that regulators are showing concern for the financial needs of utilities as well as consumers construction delays and cancellations in recent years reflect financial problems as well as a decline in the rate of power-demand growth. A reduction in regulatory lag time would help utilities more than any other reform. Diversification is viewed as a fad, although some value is seen in vertical integration. The report covers capacity and rate-planning procedures to meet new demand and some of the new technologies in coal cleaning, nuclear development, fuel cells, cogeneration, and alternative energy sources. (DCK)

Forker, J.; Glorioso, J.

1981-08-01

55

Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

56

Toward an electrical power utility for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future electrical power requirements for space exploration are discussed. Megawatts of power with enough reliability for multi-year missions and with enough flexibility to adapt to needs unanticipated at design time are some of the criteria which space power systems must be able to meet. The reasons for considering the power management and distribution in the various systems, from a total mission perspective rather than simply extrapolating current spacecraft design practice, are discussed. A utility approach to electric power integrating requirements from a broad selection of current development programs, with studies in which both space and terrestrial technologies are conceptually applied to exploration mission scenarios, is described.

Bercaw, Robert W.

1989-01-01

57

Electric-utility DSM programs: Terminology and reporting formats  

SciTech Connect

The number, scope, effects, and costs of electric-utility demand-site management programs are growing rapidly in the United States. Utilities, their regulators, and energy policy makers need reliable information on the costs of, participation in, and energy and load effects of these programs to make informed decisions. In particular, information is needed on the ability of these programs to cost-effectively provide energy and capacity resources that are alternatives to power plants. This handbook addresses the need for additional and better information in two ways. First, it discusses the key concepts associated with DSM-program types, participation, energy and load effects, and costs. Second, the handbook offers definitions and a sample reporting form for utility DSM programs. The primary purpose in developing these definitions and this form is to encourage consistency in the collection and reporting of data on DSM programs. To ensure that the discussions, reporting formats, and definitions will be useful and used, development of this handbook was managed by a committee, with membership from electric utilities, state regulatory commissions, and the US Department of Energy. Also, this data-collection form was pretested by seven people from six utilities, who completed the form for nine DSM programs.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sabo, C. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1991-10-01

58

Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

Not Available

1994-11-01

59

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management  

SciTech Connect

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

2002-07-08

60

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

61

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

62

Business case for implementing two ergonomic interventions at an electric power utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergonomics analysis of line workers in the electric power industry who work overhead on utility poles revealed some tasks for which less than 1% of the general population had sufficient strength to perform. During a 2-year study, a large Midwestern US electric utility provided a university with a team of represented workers and management. They evaluated, recommended, and monitored interventions

Patricia A. Seeley; Richard W. Marklin

2003-01-01

63

Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States  

EIA Publications

Final issue of this report. Provides detailed statistics on existing generating units operated by electric utilities as of December 31, 2000, and certain summary statistics about new generators planned for operation by electric utilities during the next 5 years.

Information Center

2002-03-01

64

Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1993-03-31

65

How utilities can build quality into their energy management systems  

SciTech Connect

Energy management systems (EMS) are computer-based systems designed to monitor, control, and analyze a utility company's generation and transmission power system. An EMS gathers real-time data from monitoring devices located throughout the power system, calculates a range of economic and operating results, and enables high-speed control of generation and transmission equipment to ensure the economic and reliable operation of the electrical system. Since the EMS is the mission-critical component of a utility's day-to-day operations, it should be a quality system. The following seven steps outline an approach that will help ensure a quality EMS: Change your mindset on how to develop an EMS; use a proven systems development methodology; form a working partnership with the vendor; improve continuously; maximize hands-on utility participation; incorporate change-management techniques; and employ staff-dedicated utility resources for utility tasks.

Not Available

1993-09-01

66

Integration of the satellite power system into electric utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of integrating the satellite power system (SPS) into the electric utility system are defined from the perspective of the utility industry. It is assumed that in the post-2000 period when the SPS becomes commercial, regulated private utilities will continue as the major generators and distributors of electrical energy. In these roles, the utilities must interact with federal and

Hub

1978-01-01

67

Methods of nuclear fuel management for utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic evaluation and optimization techniques were developed for utility nuclear fuel management. Analytical expressions for cashflows, using a continuous discounted worth method of economic analysis, were determined for a general cost component of a nuclear fuel batch. Expressions for levelized energy requirements were then calculated on a batch, year, cycle, and case basis. A computerized multipurpose nuclear fuel management economics

J. A. Hughes

1975-01-01

68

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new cluster resource management system called Simple Linux Utility Resource Management (SLURM) is described in this paper.\\u000a SLURM, initially developed for large Linux clusters at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a simple cluster\\u000a manager that can scale to thousands of processors. SLURM is designed to be flexible and fault-tolerant and can be ported to\\u000a other clusters of

Andy B. Yoo; Morris A. Jette; Mark Grondona

2003-01-01

69

Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement, 1986 (EIA-826). Data file  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of Form EIA-826 formerly FERC-5, Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement, is to collect data necessary to fulfill regulatory responsibility; identify near-term trends in energy use; and contingency analysis. This form is filed monthly by approximately 150 electric utilities. All privately owned electric utilities with annual electric operating revenues of $100,000,000 or more must respond. In addition, the sample includes other selected electric utilities. The reported data is expanded by factors, calculated using annual data from a previous period, to give electric sales data by state and sector. Other information collected includes data gathered on depreciation, construction, net income before taxes, and extraordinary items.

Harris-Russell, C.; Marcotte, R.

1986-01-01

70

Homeostatic control: the utility/customer marketplace for electric power  

SciTech Connect

A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the customer and the utility and on customer independence. The utility has no control beyond the customer's meter. Computers located at the customer's site are continuously fed data on weather conditions, utility generating costs, and demand requirements for space conditioning, lighting, and appliances. The customer then directs the computer to schedule and control the power allotted for these functions. On-site generation by the customer can be incorporated in the system. It is argued that homeostatic control is technically feasible, that the level of control equipment sophistication can be adapted to the benefits received by the customer, that such a system would encourage the use of customer-site energy storage and energy conservation equipment, and that it represents a realistic method for allowing the customer to decide how he will use electric power during an era of increasing costs for power generation. (LCL)

Schweppe, F.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Kirtley, J.L.

1981-09-01

71

Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

NONE

1995-12-15

72

Utility load management using home automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utility industry is investigating methods for controlling the customer demand for power. The present techniques involve denying power to selected appliances. The author proposes a novel strategy for appliance control using a home automation communications network. The objective is to allow continued appliance operation during energy shortages. The appliances would operate at reduced modes of power consumption while

Kenneth P. Wacks

1991-01-01

73

Toward an electrical power utility for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for space exploration depend on today's technology programs addressing the novel requirements of space-based enterprise. The requirements for electrical power will be formidable: megawatts in magnitude, reliability for multi-year missions and the flexibility to adapt to needs unanticipated at design time. The reasons for considering the power management and distribution in the various systems from a total mission perspective, rather than simply extrapolating current spacecraft design practice, are discussed. A utility approach to electric power being developed at the Lewis Research Center is described. It integrates requirements from a broad selection of current development programs with studies in which both space and terrestrial technologies are conceptually applied to exploration mission scenarios.

Bercaw, Robert W.

1989-01-01

74

Financial Implications of Retrospective Premium Assessments on Electric Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the present financial condition and capital requirement forecasts of the electric utility industry in terms of the need for future electric generating capacity. It focuses on recent accounting developments pertinent to accounting for ...

R. W. Melcher

1976-01-01

75

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management  

SciTech Connect

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, and scheduling modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. Development will take place in four phases: Phase I results in a solid infrastructure; Phase II produces a functional but limited interactive job initiation capability without use of the interconnect/switch; Phase III provides switch support and documentation; Phase IV provides job status, fault-tolerance, and job queuing and control through Livermore's Distributed Production Control System (DPCS), a meta-batch and resource management system.

Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

2002-04-24

76

Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

Not Available

1995-02-01

77

Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into

F. Gutiérrez-Martín; J. M. García-De María; A. Baďri; N. Laraqi

2009-01-01

78

Electric-utility solar-energy activities: 1982 survey update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of electric utility participation in solar energy projects in the United States was determined. The projects for 1982 are described and significant changes from 1981 in ongoing projects are summarized. A total of 930 projects were reported by 235 utility companies. An index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities organized by state, and a list of new reports on utility sponsored projects are included.

Spelman, J. R.

1982-12-01

79

Electric utilities offer discounts for new load  

SciTech Connect

Utilities and public utility commissions defend new discounts of up to 25% offered to new and expanding users to compensate for lower demand during the recession on the grounds that employment and economic development will benefit. Critics argue that these utilities generally have excess capacity to sell and that the discounts are unfair to older customers. A poll of users found them to be pleased with the rates, but uncomfortable with the discrimination inherent in vintage pricing. (DCK)

Slaff, J.

1983-10-31

80

Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning  

SciTech Connect

Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

1994-09-01

81

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

82

Prospects of Hydropower Utilization for Electricity Generation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospects of hydropower utilization as a renewable energy source for electricity generation in Jordan are assessed. A hydroelectric power system is proposed for generating electricity by exploiting the resulted hydropower (due to the 400 m difference in elevation) from linking the Red Sea with the Dead Sea. A simulation model is suggested for the evaluation of electricity produced by the

E. S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

83

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

NONE

1995-07-14

84

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02

85

The 24 benefits of energy efficiency to electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

While electric utilities in the United States brace themselves for a more competitive era, many advocates of energy efficiency are concerned that such an era may exclude utilities` new-found emphasis on energy efficiency programs. Utilities are ``right-sizing`` (cutting staff) and reducing their operating budgets in every way possible to stabilize if not lower their rates... all as a means of

Flanigan

1995-01-01

86

Improving electric power utility efficiency: Issues and recommendations. World Bank technical paper  

SciTech Connect

The volume presents the issues and recommendations that emerged from the Electric Power Utility Efficiency Improvement Study conducted by the World Bank and nine other internatinal technical and financial assistance organizations during 1989-91. The present volume extracts from the main study a set of efficiency guidelines for power utility planners and policymakers emphasizing the objectives of developing the power sector (including appropriate demand-side management) while sustaining the financial/commercial viability of the utilities; rationalizing the organizational and fiscal interactions between utilities and governments; enhancing the utilities' institutional capacity for governance and staff management; structuring utility organizations for operational efficiency; and coordinating utility activities with financing agencies' policies and procedures. A checklist, presented as an annex, provides point-by-point review of quantitative and qualitative factors that can be used to rate the performance of a utility. Quantitative measures are accompanied by target values where appropriate. (Copyright (c) 1994 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).

Menke, C.; Fazzari, P.G.

1994-01-01

87

Ecological Principles, Biodiversity, and the Electric Utility Industry  

PubMed

/ The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to relate to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) "Everything is interconnected" (and should usually stay that way), and (2) "We can never do merely one thing." The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry's programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Ecological principles; Habitat fragmentation; Edge effects; Greenhouse gases; Carbon dioxide; Electric utilities PMID:8895409

TEMPLE

1996-11-01

88

Alternative Regulation for North American Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

After a decade of favorable operating conditions, utilities find themselves faced with accelerating prices for key inputs and a growing need for new capacity. These pressures are likely to prompt increasingly frequent, and perhaps more contentious, rate cases. Steady progress in the development of alternative regulation provides hope that the utility industry will respond to these challenges much better than in 1975-85. (author)

Lowry, Mark Newton; Kaufmann, Lawrence

2006-06-15

89

Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

2006-09-01

90

Electric-utility solar-energy activities: 1981 survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented are the results of a survey to determine the scope of electric participation in solar energy projects in the United States. Brief descriptions are given of 943 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies. An index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects organized by technology, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility-sponsored projects, and a list of projects having multiple utility participants are included.

Baccelli, E.; Gordon, K.

1982-07-01

91

Electric utility dividend changes during 1991  

SciTech Connect

Utility dividend declarations during 1991 reflected a normalcy of years gone by that has been absent since the early 1980s. There were no new dividend cuts or omissions for the first time since 1983, and dividends were increased by 68 percent (55 of a sample of 81 utilities that account for about 95 percent of investor-owned utility capital). This contrasts with the periodic dividend cuts and omissions of the previous seven years and is a milestone in the ending of the era of nuclear imprudence disallowances. Dividend cuts and omissions, of course, have been the most visible aspects of the financial distress caused by large imprudence disallowances. Nuclear plant construction has all but ended, and the related financial distress and dividend retrenchments are passing as well.

Studness, C.M.

1992-02-15

92

Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn  

SciTech Connect

The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future.

Klein, R.

1991-10-01

93

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data,

J. A. Flannick; R. H. Stamm; M. M. Calle; J. C. Gomolla

1994-01-01

94

Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

Not Available

1994-01-01

95

Electric utility benefits of superconducting magnetic energy storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes a preliminary scoping analysis to illustrate examples of the benefits electric utilities might derive from Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). A major objective of the study was to show that, even though SMES technology i...

J. G. De Steese J. E. Dagle

1990-01-01

96

Assessment of SMES benefits in electric utility applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A scoping study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), to evaluate the multiple benefits electric utilities might realize from superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Benefits an...

J. G. De Steese D. K. Kreid J. M. Haner W. E. Myers

1991-01-01

97

Sell lumens, not kilowatts: The future for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The key to the future for electric utilities will not be found in legislation or regulation. Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 will prove to be just as ineffectual in improving the industry's position as was the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. These legislative palliatives, which produced so much commotion and so many reams of heated commentary, are largely irrelevant to a successful future for electric utilities. The key will be found in economics, not in law, and the future will lie in completing Thomas A. Edison's century-old vision for the industry, half of which the industry has heretofore ignored. The industry must embrace the complete vision and evolve from electric utilities into [open quotes]end-use energy utilities.[close quotes

Piepmeier, J.M. (James M. Piepmeier Co., Evanston, IL (United States)); Jermain, D. (David O. Jermain Associates, Portland, OR (United States)); Egnor, T.L. (MicroGrid, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-04-01

98

Superconducting energy storage development for electric utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

High load factors are desirable goals for all electric utilities to reduce the total power generation cost. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology has progressed to the point where it shows promise as an alternate energy-storage method to pumped hydrostorage for improving electric-utility load factors. Experiments indicate that a SMES system responds quickly (i.e., in milliseconds) to power-system demand and

R. D. Turner; H. J. Boenig; W. V. Hassenzahl

1977-01-01

99

The electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the financial performance of electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s and the factors which have affected their performance. Topics include the effects of the energy crisis in 1973, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, the widespread use of imprudence disallowances by regulators after 1984, and the gradual extension of the nation's deregulation movement to the electric utilities.

Studness, C.M.

1990-02-15

100

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

SciTech Connect

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

Hirst, E.

1991-11-01

101

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

SciTech Connect

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

Hirst, E.

1991-11-01

102

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Volume 3, Guidelines for Fabrics and Bags, provides a comprehensive guide for the procurement of fiberglass filter bags for utility baghouses. Utility baghouse operators must have a knowledge of fabric and bag construction to specify and obtain fiberglass filter bags that will provide food service in their baghouses. This volume describes the type of glass used in fabric filter bags, the properties of glass that enable a bag made from fiberglass fabric to withstand baghouse operating conditions, and the manufacturing of fiberglass filaments, strands and yarns. The types of weaves most commonly used are included in a discussion of the production of fiberglass filter fabric, and the types of finishes used on bag fabrics to lubricate and protect the glass at high temperatures are described. In addition, this volume contains an explanation of proper filter bag construction procedures including lay-up and cutting, stitching, seaming, cuffing, ringing, fabricating caps, inspecting, and packaging. A list of bag manufacturers and a cross-reference of model and style numbers of these manufacturers is provided. Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications and quality control procedures for the acquisition of filter bags, along with a discussion of the test methods used to assure that the procurement specifications have been met. The steps involved in the installation of filter bags are explained. These steps include the inspection of bags when received; storage of bags; preparation, precautions, and procedures for hanging bags; attachment to thimbles at the tubesheet; attachment to bag suspension systems; tensioning; inspection; and retensioning. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fabric alternatives to glass are reviewed. At the end of this publication, an Appendix provides an example of a utility bag specification to aid in bag procurement.

Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (USA)); Grubb, W.T. (Grubb Filtration Testing Services, Inc., Delran, NJ (USA)); Giovanni, D.V. (Electric Power Technologies, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

103

Electric Utility Coal Consumption and Generation Trends, 1976-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1975, electric utilities accounted for roughly 400 million tons or 73 percent of total domestic coal consumption, a dramatic increase of 45% since 1955. For these and other reasons, well-founded estimates of future coal consumption for electricity gene...

1976-01-01

104

Electric-utility financing: let's ease off the panic button  

SciTech Connect

The author makes two points: (1) the deterioration of the financial condition of America's investor-owned electric utilities has often been overstated, or signs of the utilities' revival have not been sufficiently noted; and (2) regulation as an institution is not the primary contributing cause to such deterioration as has occurred. The article essays to document these affirmations. 37 references, 9 figures.

Foley, M.

1983-01-06

105

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR MALFUNCTIONS IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses precipitation malfunctions in the electric utility industry. When a utility electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fails to achieve its design efficiency, there must be a reason. Although the reasons are numerous, they can be placed in two distinct categories: ESP ...

106

(Electric Utility Consumer Protection on Island of Guam). Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the establishment and operation of the Guam Office of Consumer Services, created in 1977 for representing consumers in electric utility matters. Much of the initial effort of the staff was to assist the newly created Guam Public Util...

1980-01-01

107

Electric utility models for acid rain policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To curb acid rain in the US, proposals have been put forward, many of which require that the electric utilities reduce their SO2 emissions. Existing models for long term utility planning ignore emissions and thus, are unsuitable for acid-rain policy analysis. In this thesis, models are developed to analyze and evaluate the impact of acid rain policies on the operations

Tyle

1984-01-01

108

Estimation of Electric Load Composition on a Utility Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study to estimate the composition of an electric load in real-time, i.e. to determine the amount of each load class by direct measurements of the total electric current waveform. The solution procedure to drive a system equation for the real-time estimation of electric load composition on a utility side is described. The conjugate gradient method and

Soon Lee; Jung-Wook Park

2006-01-01

109

Terrestrial carbon management and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the near future regulations could be imposed affecting emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Carbon offsets should be a component of any such regime. This paper addresses: 1) international and domestic policy actions related to C offset forestry, including the United Nations’ Framework Convention on Climate Change and the U.S. Energy Policy Act of 1992; 2) forestry-related efforts

John D. Kinsman; Mark C. Trexler

1993-01-01

110

Integrated support systems for electric utility operations  

SciTech Connect

Power system dispatch, the real-time monitoring and coordination of transmission and generation facilities, is the focal point of power system operations. However, dispatch is just one of the many duties of the typical power system operations department. Many computer-based tools and systems are used in support of these duties. Energy management systems (EMS), the centralized, mainframe-, or mini-computer-based systems that support dispatch, have been widely publicized, but few of the other support systems have been given much notice. This article provides an overview of these support tools and systems, frames the major issues faced in systems integration, and describes the path taken to integrate EMS, workstations, desktop computers, networks and applications. Network architecture enables the distribution of real-time operations data throughout the company, from EMS to power plants to district offices, on an unprecedented scale.

Hong, H.W.; Imparato, C.F.; Becker, D.L.; Malinowski, J.H. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (US))

1992-01-01

111

Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

112

Electric load management and energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

Kheir, N. A.

1976-01-01

113

Electric-utility DSM-program costs and effects, 1991 to 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past three years (1989, 1990, and 1991), all US electric utilities that sell more than 120 GWh/year have been required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a ric...

E. Hirst

1993-01-01

114

Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

115

Pacific gas electric: 1993 EL P Utility of the Year. Incentive nuclear regulation spurs financial comeback  

SciTech Connect

Incentive agreements for Diablo Canyon nuclear plant helped spur Pacific Gas Electric Co.'s financial comeback. Consistent nuclear plant capacity factors above 80 percent contributed 38 percent of 1992 PG E earnings per share. This, plus aggressive cost cutting and reorganization, industry leading demand-side management, environmental measures and a rate refund and freeze are among the reasons Electric Light Power magazine names Pacific Gas Electric Co. the 1993 EL P Utility of the Year. San Francisco-based PG E is the 25th utility to receive the annual award for investor-owned electric utilities. PG E employees strive to create the kind of environment that can address increasing industry competitiveness. Rather than just doing their jobs, people consistently challenge each other to do their jobs better, trying to anticipate the changes of tomorrow and the next millennium.

Hoske, M.T.; Beaty, W.

1993-12-01

116

On the privatization of electric utilities abroad  

SciTech Connect

The potentially great benefit that the privatization of power supply can offer developing and newly industrialized countries in terms of economic growth and debt reduction does not have to amount to an all-or-nothing game in which the enormity of the vested political and economic interests in the existing system leads to frustration and defeat. In many cases, a concept of incremental privatization of new power supply by permitting new private sector entry, under a tailored regulatory model that protects both developers and state utility and other vested interests, could provide the basis for a buoyant independent developer market. That would permit project finance and development techniques that the US market has grown very familiar with over the last decade. Building upon the wealth of experience gained form the 50-state regulatory laboratory (as the implementation of PURPA has been described) and, in some cases, perhaps also upon the rapidly evolving experience in implementing the U.K. privatizations, governments planning privatization initiatives can at least develop a menu of regulatory options to deal with political, institutional, and market problems as they arise.

Lock, R.H.J.H. (LeBoeuf, Lamb, Lieby and MacRae, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-02-01

117

Regulation, Pricing, and Comparative Performance in the US Electric Utility Industry by Ownership Type.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purpose of this report is to assess issues that differentiate investor-owned electric utilities and publicly owned electric utilities in the context of providing recommendations for modeling the US electric utility industry on the basis of ownership type....

L. J. Hill R. C. Tepel

1985-01-01

118

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy-efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and sales. It then recouples revenues to something else. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

119

1984 not-for-profit electric utilities data for the National Utility Financial Statement (NUFS) Model  

SciTech Connect

To assemble the 1984 Historic Data File of publicly owned electric utilities for the NUFS model, Brookhaven National Laboratory used three data sources that had not previously been included in this database: annual reports from individual state/municipal utilities, data from the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) and direct responses on specific data items from the federal power systems.

Spancake, L.R.

1986-09-01

120

Statistical recoupling: A new way to break the link between electric-utility sales and revenues  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, US electric utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on demand-side management (DSM) programs. These programs cut peak demands 5% and reduced electricity sales 1% that year. Utility projections suggest that these reductions will increase to 9% and 3%, respectively, by the year 2001. However, utility DSM efforts vary enormously across the country, concentrated in a few states along the east and west coasts and the upper midwest. To some extent, this concentration is a function of regulatory reforms that remove disincentives to utility shareholders for investments in DSM programs. A key component of these reforms is recovery of the net lost revenues caused by utility DSM programs. These lost revenues occur between rate cases when a utility encourages its customers to improve energy efficiency and cut demand. The reduction in sales means that the utility has less revenue to cover its fixed costs. This report describes a new method, statistical recoupling (SR), that addresses this net-lost-revenue problem. Like other decoupling approaches, SR breaks the link between electric-utility revenues and sales. Unlike other approaches, SR minimizes changes from traditional regulation. In particular, the risks of revenue swings associated with year-to-year changes in weather and the economy remain with the utility under SR. Statistical recoupling uses statistical models, based on historical data, that explain retail electricity sales as functions of the number of utility customers, winter and summer weather, the condition of the local economy, electricity price, and perhaps a few other key variables. These models, along with the actual values of the explanatory variables, are then used to estimate ``allowed`` electricity sales and revenues in future years.

Hirst, E.

1993-09-01

121

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and kWh sales. It then recouples revenues to something else, such as growth in the number of customers, the determinants of changes in fixed costs, or the determinants of changes in electricity use. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling:revenue-per- customer (RPC) decoupling, RPC decoupling with a factor that allows for changes in electricity use per customer, and statistical recoupling. We used data from five utilities to see how the three methods perform in terms of electicity-price volatility and ease of implementation. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

122

Customer/utility relationships: a new approach to credit and load management systems  

SciTech Connect

Excess plant provisioning to meet variable customer demand is economically inefficient. The traditional view is that electricity generation must follow an open-ended customer demand regardless of cost. The paper challenges that thinking and makes the proposal that electricity demand be tailored to generation and outlines the managerial techniques and customer/utility changes to make this a reality. Complementary aspects covering credit management, tariffs, communications, together with their interactions, are studied and requirements identified for a comprehensive electronic management system.

Peddie, R.A.

1983-08-01

123

Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

Miller, R. A.

1986-01-01

124

Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA report Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities 1997 presents four years of summary financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities from 1993 to 1996. More detailed data is available for 1997, and highlights include an average sales for resale revenue per kilowatthour at 3.2 cent in 1997 and an average ultimate consumers revenue per kilowatthour at 6.8 cents. Strong economic growth and "close to normal" average heating and cooling degree days were cited as important factors.

1998-01-01

125

Solar photovoltaic power systems: an electric utility R & d perspective.  

PubMed

Solar photovoltaic technology is receiving increasing attention as a prospective source of bulk, electric utility power within the next 10 to 20 years. Successful development will require solar energy conversion efficiencies of about 15 percent for photovoltaic flat-plate modules, or about 25 percent for photovoltaic cells using highly concentrated sunlight. Three different cell technologies have a better than even chance of achieving these target efficiencies with costs and operating lifetimes that would allow significant use by electric utilities. The challenge for the next decade is to push photovoltaic technology to its physical limits while expanding markets and user confidence with currently available systems. PMID:17734901

Demeo, E A; Taylor, R W

1984-04-20

126

Cost analysis of wheeling in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Wheeling occurs in an electric power transmission system when electric utilities transfer power for others to use. Power transfers facilitate joint operations and bulk-power transactions in the electric utility industry. The increasing use of transmission systems for power transfers arises from the structural and economic changes that create incentives for mutually beneficial transactions involving utilities, wholesale power customers, and nontraditional suppliers of electricity such as cogenerators, small-power producers, and independent generating companies. This thesis develops methodologies for determining marginal and total short-run costs of wheeling. These methodologies are based on an optimal power flow model of an interconnected electric power system. This model provides an exact representation of power flows and losses. The basic approach to finding marginal wheeling costs uses sensitivity analysis on the optimal power flow model. The marginal wheeling costs are computed from area cost sensitivity factors estimated by solving a selected system of equations. Using this methodology, marginal wheeling costs can be directly computed for a power transfer between any two areas or points in an electric power system. Total wheeling costs are determined using a new approach to allocating costs between bulk power services.

Ray, D.J.

1987-01-01

127

Risk management of electrical hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most occupational health and safety professionals understand the difference between “hazard” and “risk.” However, the distinction between these terms is not well understood in the electrical industry where the terms are often used interchangeably. This gap between these two groups of professionals needs to be bridged to ensure electrical hazards and the risks arising from those hazards are effectively addressed.

Daniel Roberts

2012-01-01

128

Power electronics in electric utilities: Static var compensators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with dynamic var compensation of electric power systems, applying power electronics for reactive power generation and control. After an overview of the emergence and status of modern, solid-state var compensators in utility and industrial applications, the first part of the paper explains how dynamic var compensation increases transmittable power by providing voltage support, transient stability improvement, and

L. Gyugyi

1988-01-01

129

Optimal preventive maintenance budget setting for electric power distribution utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a practical method of preventive maintenance budget setting for electric power distribution utilities. Power system reliability mainly depends on preventive maintenance programs including types and frequency of selected maintenance activities controlled by maintenance budgets. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to find the optimal budget settings in order to minimize the outage costs of

N. Phoothong; P. Vanittanakom; N. Teera-achariyakul; D. Rerkpreedapong

2008-01-01

130

Dividends and the regulation of mature electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article makes an argument that a more-explicit dividend growth path for mature electric utilities that is backed up and supported by an automatic capital-cost adjustment clause could benefit both consumers and existing shareholders by lowering the cost of capital and saving real resources. 10 references, 2 tables.

Renshaw, E.F.

1984-09-13

131

Electric Utility Deregulation and the Myths of the Energy Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity deregulation was meant to improve the quality of people’s lives by lowering the cost of a critical commodity. In every state that has chosen deregulation, however, power companies, free from the oversight of state regulators, have increased prices and, in California’s case, have driven a utility to bankruptcy. It is clear that deregulation was intended to benefit the energy

Tyson Slocum

2001-01-01

132

Direct load management of electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical Vehicles are gaining increasing attention, due to the opportunities and challenges they present for the energy market. On the one hand, they will allow to drastically reduce the need for oil; on the other hand they may require a significant shift in the day to day management of the electricity generation. This paper is concerned with finding appropriate models

Mahnoosh Alizadeh; Anna Scaglione; Robert J. Thomas

2011-01-01

133

Utilizing the Mixer Method for Content Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content management is a confusing term used in several contexts. We define content management as the organizing of information (for a specific purpose) available in a system. We present the mixer method that uses servlet technology and the model-view-controller design pattern as a way to accomplish content management in a system. The heart of the mixer method is mixer which

Suru Dissanaike; Pierre Wijkman; Mitra Wijkman

2004-01-01

134

Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry  

SciTech Connect

A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

135

Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

Ward, Barry H.

1999-01-01

136

A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets  

SciTech Connect

This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

Warwick, William M.

2002-06-03

137

Working memory management and predicted utility  

PubMed Central

Given the limited capacity of working memory (WM), its resources should be allocated strategically. One strategy is filtering, whereby access to WM is granted preferentially to items with the greatest utility. However, reallocation of WM resources might be required if the utility of maintained information subsequently declines. Here, we present behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging evidence that human participants track changes in the predicted utility of information in WM. First, participants demonstrated behavioral costs when the utility of items already maintained in WM declined and resources should be reallocated. An adapted Q-learning model indicated that these costs scaled with the historical utility of individual items. Finally, model-based neuroimaging demonstrated that frontal cortex tracked the utility of items to be maintained in WM, whereas ventral striatum tracked changes in the utility of items maintained in WM to the degree that these items are no longer useful. Our findings suggest that frontostriatal mechanisms track the utility of information in WM, and that these dynamics may predict delays in the removal of information from WM.

Chatham, Christopher H.; Badre, David

2013-01-01

138

Proposals for monitoring the performance of electric utilities. Technical paper  

SciTech Connect

Recent World Bank studies have shown a declining trend in power-sector performance in the developing countries and recommend giving greater emphasis to rehabilitation and maintenance, and to improving operational performance. This report presents a system for improving electric utility efficiency through the identification and analysis of three sets of performance indicators covering generation, transmission and distribution, and commercial operations. The indicators measure physical inputs and outputs. The system is intended to supplement the more usual financial tests used to measure utility performance, which are not covered in the report.

Not Available

1988-01-01

139

Electric-utility policy: how big is the box  

SciTech Connect

The utility industry is boxed in by rising construction costs, project delays and cancellations, and poor public relations with regulators who are unable or unwilling to permit long-term cost-minimizing investments. Delays in the Electricity Policy Project's recommendations to the President and wide-ranging disagreements among analysts reflect differences in how analysts relate utility supply and demand to gross national product and suggest a need for alternative criteria. Among the suggestions that may emerge are generic ratemaking, looser criteria for including construction work in progress in the rate base, more interstate power sales, and deregulation. 1 figure. (DCK)

Lawn, J.

1983-02-01

140

A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

Hill, L.J.

1995-10-01

141

Electric-utility DSM-program costs and effects, 1991 to 2001  

SciTech Connect

For the past three years (1989, 1990, and 1991), all US electric utilities that sell more than 120 GWh/year have been required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a rich and uniquely comprehensive picture of electric-utility DSM programs in the United States. Altogether, 890 utilities (of about 3250 in the United States) ran DSM programs in 1991; of these, 439 sold more than 120 GWh and reported details on their DSM programs. These 439 utilities represent more than 80% of total US electricity sales and revenues. Altogether, these utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on DSM programs in 1991, equal to 1.0% of total utility revenues that year. In return for these (and prior-year) expenditures, utility DSM programs cut potential peak demand by 26,700 MW (4.8% of the national total) and cut annual electricity use by 23,300 GWh (0.9% of the national total). These 1991 numbers represent substantial increases over the 1989 and 1990 numbers on utility DSM programs. Specifically, utility DSM expenditures doubled, energy savings increased by almost 50%, and demand reductions increased by one-third between 1989 and 1991. Utilities differed enormously in their DSM-program expenditures and effects. Almost 12% of the reporting utilities spent more than 2% of total revenues on DSM programs in 1991, while almost 60% spent less than 0.5% of revenues on DSM. Utility estimates of future DSM-program expenditures and benefits show continuing growth. By the year 2001, US utilities expect to spend 1.2% of revenues on DSM and to cut demand by 8.8% and annual sales by 2.7%. Here, too, expectations vary by region. Utilities in the West and Northwest plan to spend more than 2% of revenues on DSM that year, while utilities in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southwest, Central, and North Central regions plan to spend less than 1% of revenues on DSM.

Hirst, E.

1993-05-01

142

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft² stack verification test: Phase I provides the information and services needed to manage

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; R. L. Gelting; G. J. Goller; W. L. Luoma; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien

1984-01-01

143

New-capital dividend-reinvestment plans of electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

New-capital dividend-reinvestment plans as a means of providing new capital for corporations have emerged from older dividend-reinvestment plans which did not raise new capital, but only invested shareholder money in existing shares of capital acquired on the open market. The authors have conducted a study of the extent to which electric-utility companies have made use of this relatively new kind

A. J. Fredman; J. R. Nichols

1980-01-01

144

Dynamics of Wind Generators on Electric Utility Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic interaction of wind-turbine-driven generators on electric utility networks was studied by computer simulation. Nonlinear representations of wind-turbine and various drive train elements and Park equation representations of synchronous and induction generators were implemented. An infinite capacity network was assumed. Time history responses for various system configurations were computed using as the input function severe wind gust data added to

CRAIGC. JOHNSON; RICHARDT. SMITH

1976-01-01

145

The design of optimal electric power demand management contracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. Electric utilities try to provide reliable supply of electric power to their customers. Maximum customer benefit derives from minimum cost and sufficient supply availability. Customers willing to share in "availability risk" can derive further benefit by participating in controlled outage programs. Specifically, whenever utilities foresee dangerous loading patterns, there is a need for a rapid reduction in demand either system-wide or at specific locations. The utility needs to get relief in order to solve its problems quickly and efficiently. This relief can come from customers who agree to curtail their loads upon request in exchange for an incentive fee. This thesis shows how utilities can get efficient load relief while maximizing their economic benefit. This work also shows how estimated customer cost functions can be calibrated, using existing utility data, to help in designing efficient demand management contracts. In order to design such contracts, optimal mechanism design is adopted from "Game Theory" and applied to the interaction between a utility and its customers. The idea behind mechanism design is to design an incentive structure that encourages customers to sign up for the right contract and reveal their true value of power. If a utility has demand management contracts with customers at critical locations, most operational problems can be solved efficiently. This thesis illustrates how locational attributes of customers incorporated into demand management contract design can have a significant impact in solving system problems. This kind of demand management contracts can also be used by an Independent System Operator (ISO). During times of congestion a loss of economic surplus occurs. When the market is too slow or cannot help relieve congestion, demand management can help solve the problem. Another tool the ISO requires for security purposes is reserves. Even though demand management contracts may not be a good substitute for spinning reserves, they are adequate to augment or replace supplemental and backup reserves.

Fahrioglu, Murat

1999-11-01

146

Research and Development Laboratory Management Knowledge Utilization Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge regarding social psychological factors distinguishing more from less effective working environments for scientists and engineers is accumulating faster than R and D managers appear to be able to accept and utilize such new findings. To explore t...

R. G. Havelock F. C. Mann

1968-01-01

147

Neptune Orbiters Utilizing Solar and Radioisotope Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In certain cases, Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP), used in conjunction with other propulsion systems, could be used to reduce the trip times for outer planetary orbiter spacecraft. It also has the potential to improve the maneuverability and power capabilities of the spacecraft when the target body is reached as compared with non-electric propulsion spacecraft. Current missions under study baseline aerocapture systems to capture into a science orbit after a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage is jettisoned. Other options under study would use all REP transfers with small payloads. Compared to the SEP stage/Aerocapture scenario, adding REP to the science spacecraft as well as a chemical capture system can replace the aerocapture system but with a trip time penalty. Eliminating both the SEP stage and the aerocapture system and utilizing a slightly larger launch vehicle, Star 48 upper stage, and a combined REP/Chemical capture system, the trip time can nearly be matched while providing over a kilowatt of science power reused from the REP maneuver. A Neptune Orbiter mission is examined utilizing single propulsion systems and combinations of SEP, REP, and chemical systems to compare concepts.

Fiehler, Douglas I.; Oleson, Steven R.

2004-01-01

148

Utilization of databases to manage resources  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how databases are used by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Project at Argonne National Laboratory to help manage the project and its resources. It documents our experiences in implementing database technology in a large scientific project. Some of the topics that will be discussed include: The APS database environment; decentralizing databases; extending the database environment (graphical, spreadsheet and barcode interfaces);choosing a database; and software development issues.

Sheridan, T.

1992-01-01

149

Utilization of databases to manage resources  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how databases are used by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Project at Argonne National Laboratory to help manage the project and its resources. It documents our experiences in implementing database technology in a large scientific project. Some of the topics that will be discussed include: The APS database environment; decentralizing databases; extending the database environment (graphical, spreadsheet and barcode interfaces);choosing a database; and software development issues.

Sheridan, T.

1992-09-01

150

Electric utility environmental issues. I. Projected Environmental Standards (1980-2000). II. Current Energy Use and Environmental Impact Models  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into two sections: Projected Environmental Standards (1980-2000), and Current Energy Use and Environmental Impact Models. The first section discusses possible future trends in federal environmental policies. The objective is to help electric utility environmental managers develop a forecasting framework on three major themes: 1) hazardous and toxic substances, 2) pollution control and assessment, and 3) siting. Five general concepts are reviewed - comprehensive model development, risk assessment, preconstruction review teams, threshold perspectives, and holistic approaches to toxic/hazardous control. The second section presents the findings of a study of three energy/environmental models: ICF's Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM); Teknekron's Utility Simulation Model (USM); and the National Economic Research Associate's (NERA) Cost Comparison and Electricity Supply Optimization Model (NESOM). These three models dominate much of the marketplace for federal policy analysis of electric utility pollution abatement options. The section presents documentation of the model's processes, assumption, and example analyses.

Baruch, S.B.

1982-01-01

151

A Business Driven Management Framework for Utility Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a Business Driven Framework for the Management of Utility Computing Environments (BDMF). The framework couples two main subsystems on top of a n IETF-like policy-based resource control layer. They are MBO (Management by Business Objectives) where the decision ability supported by analysis of business objectives resides, and GSLA (Generalized SLA), an advanced framework for SLA

Issam Aib; Mathias Sallé; Claudio Bartolini; Abdel Boulmakoul

152

Nonpropulsive applications of ion beams. [electric propulsion technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of an investigation of the nonpropulsive applications of electric propulsion technology. Eight centimeter ion beam sources utilizing xenon and argon have been developed that operate over a wide range of beam energies and currents. Three types of processes have been studied - sputter deposition, ion beam machining, and ion beam surface texturing. The broad range of source operating conditions allows optimum sputter deposition of various materials. An ion beam source has also been used to ion mill laser reflection holograms using photoresist patterns on silicon. Ion beam texturing has been tried with many materials and has a multitude of potential applications.

Hudson, W. R.

1976-01-01

153

New-capital dividend-reinvestment plans of electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

New-capital dividend-reinvestment plans as a means of providing new capital for corporations have emerged from older dividend-reinvestment plans which did not raise new capital, but only invested shareholder money in existing shares of capital acquired on the open market. The authors have conducted a study of the extent to which electric-utility companies have made use of this relatively new kind of reinvestment plan. They report problems encountered with it, advantages and disadvantages experienced, and expectations as to their use of it in the future. 13 references, 3 tables.

Fredman, A.J.; Nichols, J.R.

1980-02-28

154

Productivity analysis of the United States electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using stochastic distance and directional distance functions I assess the efficiency of firms in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry. Further, I compare utilities' marginal control costs for SO2 emissions to prices observed in the SO2 allowance marketplace to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting permit prices. I estimate stochastic distance functions and use them to calculate Malmquist productivity change (PC) indices which I decompose into efficiency change and technical change. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which uses linear programming techniques, has been widely used to compute Malmquist indices as ratios of fitted distances from a convex hull frontier. As an alternative, I develop and estimate a flexible, stochastic distance frontier, using a generalized method of moments strategy. This allows for statistical inference and imposes no restrictions on returns to scale, Finally, comparisons are drawn between the stochastic approach and the less flexible non-parametric and non-stochastic DEA method using a panel of 43 electric utilities over a time period from 1961 to 1992. Applying the same methodology I analyze a panel of 78 firms over the time period from 1988 to 1997. Based on my results I identify the most and least efficient firms in the industry. Further, I develop a methodology to explicitly take into account undesirable outputs. These outputs are produced in conjunction with desirable outputs and are not costlessly disposable. I specify and estimate input and output based stochastic distance and directional distance functions and compare the alternative approaches using panel data on 41 U.S. electric utilities observed in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. I apply the preferred approach, the output directional distance function, to a sample of 56 primarily coal-burning utilities observed in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Of particular interest is the shadow price for the undesirable output. I compare the shadow values to prices from the SO2 allowance market and find that the estimated marginal industry control cost is reasonably close to prices observed in the marketplace.

Honerkamp, Olaf

1999-11-01

155

Fabric filters for the Electric Utility Industry: Volume 1, General concepts  

SciTech Connect

This publication is the first in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Multiple volumes are planned, each to be produced sequentially over the period 1987-1989. Topics to be addressed include operating principles and terminology, baghouse design considerations, bags and fabrics, flue gas dynamics, reverse-gas cleaning, reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance, shake/deflate cleaning, pulse-jet cleaning, combined SO/sub 2/ collection, and operation and maintenance. Volume 1, General Concepts contains a discussion of fly ash formation, technologies for particulate control, baghouse operating principles and terminology, filtration mechanisms, the filtration process, and baghouse application in the US utility industry. 24 refs., 20 figs.

Bustard, C.J.; Cushing, K.M.; Pontius, D.H.; Smith, W.B.; Carr, R.C.

1988-01-01

156

A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals  

SciTech Connect

In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.

Porter, K.

1995-11-01

157

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utilization management, quality assurance, and medication...PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements...management program, quality assurance measures...incentives to reduce costs when medically...

2010-10-01

158

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utilization management, quality assurance, and medication...PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements...management program, quality assurance measures...incentives to reduce costs when medically...

2009-10-01

159

Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-06

160

Optimal management of batteries in electric systems  

DOEpatents

An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

2002-01-01

161

A serendipitous synergy: Why electric utilities should install the information superhighway  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities can seize the initiative and secure their future - while giving the nation's economy a significant competitive boost - by taking a leading role in developing a state-of-the-art national communications and information network. The authors argue that the electric power industry brings two of the most important elements required for the construction of the information superhighway: (1) the economic driver for initial installation and (2) the prospect of improved customer satisfaction. The economic driver that justifies a major role for the power companies in the information superhighway is demand-side management (DSM) - energy efficiency, conservation, and load control techniques for homes, businesses, and industry. The electric power industry is constantly looking for ways of reducing the cost of meeting new load growth. The ability to defer or avoid the need to build a central station power plant can be a powerful economic incentive to install cost-effective DSM systems. Customer satisfaction is likely to occur from providing customers with choices they have never had before. These choices relate to customers' ability to actively manage the size of their electric bill to comport with the [open quotes]energy lifestyle[close quotes] of their choosing. Use of a system with immediate feedback capabilities expands the array of customer service enhancements that each utility can offer to its customers. In the realm of energy management alone, the benefits include load management features such as verifiable load control options (eg, positive control discounts and time-of-use rates), real-time pricing, automated billing, informational billing, energy-efficiency education, and energy [open quotes]sales[close quotes].

Niggli, M.R.; Nixon, W.W.

1994-02-01

162

Policies, Management, Technologies and Facilities for the Treatment of Electrical and Electronic Wastes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the development of information technologies, the amount of electrical and electronic wastes continues to increase rapidly. Social request for comprehensive electronic scrap utilization is stronger than ever in China. In order to achieve sustainable development of the society, relevant policies, management, technologies and facilities for the treatment of electrical and electronic wastes in China were analyzed in details.

Jinhui Li; Xuefeng Wen; Tongzhou Liu

163

Exploring utility function in utility management: an evaluating method of library preservation.  

PubMed

In order to seek a new method of book evaluation and realize book resources sharing among the regional university libraries, we think that library should collect books of the high utility value in the case of limited funds. We proposed a changing Bellman equation as a utility function and used the explicit functions of the book usage factor and the book usage half-life derived from the utility function as an evaluating method of the collecting books. The results from empirical data given some conclusions such as the varieties diversity, the collected risk, the tendencies of reading varieties, species continuity and so on and a librarian can use the utility management to supplement the collections management. PMID:23607083

Yan, Bin; Shi, Feng; Yu, Rui-Qiang

2013-12-01

164

Analysis of multi-power sources energy management system for electric hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new energy management system (EMS) for small hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which utilizes energy from the combination of battery, fuel cell (FC) and super capacitors (SC). These alternative energy sources are excellent potential solution to the ever-rising price of petrol. The major focus of this paper is the energy management system, which consists of a strategy

M A Hannan; F A Azidin; A Mohamed

2011-01-01

165

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

166

Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of fuel cell development is reviewed. For terrestrial electric utility applications, the most promising are phosphoric acid, molten carbonate and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum derived and biomass fuels to hydrogen) while the second and third with a coal gasifier. As ground transportation power sources, the promising systems are phosphoric (or alternate acid) and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells. In the first case, methanol is most attractive while in the second, it will be hydrogen stored as a compressed gas or as a hydride. A technoeconomic assessment of a 'Regenerative Hydrogen-Halogen Energy Storage System' demonstrates the prospects of its use for load leveling when coupled with nuclear, solar or wind power plants.

Srinivasan, S.

1980-04-01

167

Ancillary-service costs for 12 US electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC divided these services into three categories: ``actions taken to effect the transaction (such as scheduling and dispatching services) , services that are necessary to maintain the integrity of the transmission system [and] services needed to correct for the effects associated with undertaking a transaction.`` In March 1995, FERC published a proposed rule to ensure open and comparable access to transmission networks throughout the country. The rule defined six ancillary services and developed pro forma tariffs for these services: scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, energy imbalance, loss compensation, and reactive power/voltage control.

Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

1996-03-01

168

Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

Temple, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-11-01

169

Risk Analysis and Management in the Water Utility Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

he provision of wholesome, affordable and safe drinking water that has the trust of customers is the goal of the international water utility sector. Risk management, in terms of protecting the public health from pathogenic and chemical hazards has driven and continues to drive developments within the sector. In common with much of industry, the water sector is formalizing and

S. J. T. Pollard; J. E. Strutt; B. H. Macgillivray; P. D. Hamilton; S. E. Hrudey

2004-01-01

170

Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

Walls, B.

1995-01-01

171

AUTO-2440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If youâre an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells

172

Electrical characterization of a Space Station Freedom alpha utility transfer assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, command signals and data are transferred across the Space Station Freedom solar alpha rotary joint by roll rings, which are incorporated within the Utility Transfer Assembly (UTA) designed and manufactured by Honeywell Space Systems Operations. A developmental Model of the UTA was tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center using the Power Management and Distribution DC test bed. The objectives of these tests were to obtain data for calibrating system models and to support final design of qualification and flight units. This testing marked the first time the UTA was operated at high power levels and exposed to electrical conditions similar to that which it will encounter on the actual Space Station. Satisfactory UTA system performance was demonstrated within the scope of this testing.

Yenni, Edward J.

1994-01-01

173

Programmable timed electrical power management device  

SciTech Connect

A programmable timed electrical power management device protects and controls electrical equipment and peripherals which are plugged into it. The front of the housing containing the electrical circuitry is provided with a LCD display, a series of pressure sensitive switches for inputting function and control commands to control the operation of the device. A series of LED's mounted on the front of the housing indicate the operational status of the device. The back of the housing is provided with an AC power input receptacle, an on/off reset switch, a series of AC outlets which are divided into pairs of filtered banks, and two or more modular jacks for receiving the modular plug of a telephone, fax, and/or modem. The device circuitry includes a CPU, timer/calendar, a sound generator, voltage sensors, and a back-up battery power supply. The outlets and modular plugs are protected from electrical surges. Each bank of outlets can be selectively programmed to turn on and off at a different time of the day and different days of the week. When more than one bank is set to start at the same time, power is sequentially supplied to each electrical outlet bank allowing the voltage to stabilize before turning on the next bank. A warning tone will sound fifteen, ten, and five minutes prior to shutting off any of the banks, to alert the user that the system is approaching the preset time for the power to the outlets to be turned off, to prevent accidental loss of information. 9 figs.

Nyenya, S.S.

1994-01-11

174

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOEpatents

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-12

175

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOEpatents

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2011-12-06

176

Quality management information system in manufacturing electrical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical machines quality management includes three constituents, i.e. quality assurance, quality management and quality increase. There is a need to develop a matched information system for practical implementation of these problems during design and manufacturing. The quality of electrical machines is available by manufacturing accuracy to a large extent. The authors have developed accuracy theory of electrical machines which is

O. Muravlyova; O. Muravlyov

2001-01-01

177

Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

1984-01-01

178

Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Missions Utilizing a Common Spacecraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted that shows how a single Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) spacecraft design could be used for various missions throughout the solar system. This spacecraft design is based on a REP feasibility design from a study performed by NASA Glenn Research Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The study also identifies technologies that need development to enable these missions. The mission baseline for the REP feasibility design study is a Trojan asteroid orbiter. This mission sends an REP spacecraft to Jupiter s leading Lagrange point where it would orbit and examine several Trojan asteroids. The spacecraft design from the REP feasibility study would also be applicable to missions to the Centaurs, and through some change of payload configuration, could accommodate a comet sample-return mission. Missions to small bodies throughout the outer solar system are also within reach of this spacecraft design. This set of missions, utilizing the common REP spacecraft design, is examined and required design modifications for specific missions are outlined.

Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steven

2004-01-01

179

National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

Save, Phil

1994-05-01

180

National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

Save, Phil

1994-01-01

181

Survey of Engineering and Construction Programs in the Electric Utility Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July and August 1984, E and C surveyed five major electric utilities to determine how they are accomplishing their engineering and construction activities. The investigation gave particular attention to how each utility is responding to reduced system ...

C. L. Nellis L. E. Bradshaw H. E. Oetken E. A. Peterson

1984-01-01

182

Sensitivity of Electric Utilities Dispatch Model in the Midterm Energy Market Model. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the sensitivity of the electric utilities process model in the Midterm Energy Market Model. Sensitivity has been measured by varying critical parameters in the utilities submodel to determine impacts on fuel mix, capital expenditures,...

R. T. Eynon

1979-01-01

183

Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Con...

L. Baxter E. Hirst

1995-01-01

184

Effect of electrical-utility-system voltage harmonics on induction motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distortion of the electrical utility system voltage waveform can result in damage to or malfunction of user electrical equipment. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of utility voltage harmonics on the temperature rise of single phase induction motors. The results suggest that utility voltage harmonics do not significantly affect the operating temperature of a single phase induction motor until the amplitudes of the harmonics are much larger than the amplitudes currently present in the U.S. utility system.

Rasmussen, N. E.

1981-03-01

185

Pharmacy benefit managers: evaluating clinical utility in the real world.  

PubMed

Over the years, pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) have conducted and published peer-reviewed research covering a broad spectrum of activities ranging from studying the impact of alternative-benefit designs on outcomes to identifying the epidemiology of treated disease to understanding the impact of medication use on overall health-care costs. It is the unique “wired” interactive role in the health-care system that enables PBMs to play an emerging role in evaluating the clinical utility of biomarkers. PMID:20962775

Epstein, R S

2010-12-01

186

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Electric Utilities and Fusion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utili...

J. D. Rogers, H. J. Boenig, W. V. Hassenzahl

1978-01-01

187

Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs cause cancer, with malignant melanoma being of particular concern in this industry.

Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

1997-01-01

188

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

2014-01-01

189

Unit commitment and system reliability in electric utility systems with independent wind and solar generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels and changes in government regulations concerning electric utilities are likely to lead to increased use of wind and solar energy in the generation mix. In many cases, the wind and solar energy conversion systems will be owned by small, independent power producers that sell power to electric utilities. The output of wind

David Christopher Schooley

1998-01-01

190

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

Not Available

1993-12-28

191

Electromagnetic Fields, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Prostate Cancer Mortality in Electric Utility Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mortality from prostate cancer among US electric utility workers. Data on participants, who were current and former employees of five large US electric utility companies, had been collected during 1987-1994, and the mortality of the

Luenda E. Charles; Dana Loomis; Carl M. Shy; Beth Newman; Robert Millikan; Leena A. Nylander-French; David Couper

2003-01-01

192

Effect of Electrical-Utility-System Voltage Harmonics on Induction Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distortion of the electrical utility system voltage waveform can result in damage to or malfunction of user electrical equipment. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of utility voltage harmonics on the temperature rise of single-phase in...

N. E. Rasmussen

1981-01-01

193

Lung cancer in relation to employment in the electrical utility industry and exposure to magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: A recent study found that lung cancer may be associated with exposures encountered in the electrical utility industry. To further evaluate this possibility, data were collected and analysed from five large electrical utility companies in the United States. METHODS: A cohort of 138905 male workers employed between 1950 and 1986 was followed up for mortality to the end of

D A Savitz; V Dufort; B Armstrong; G Thériault

1997-01-01

194

Utilization of lean management principles in the ambulatory clinic setting.  

PubMed

The principles of 'lean management' have permeated many sectors of today's business world, secondary to the success of the Toyota Production System. This management method enables workers to eliminate mistakes, reduce delays, lower costs, and improve the overall quality of the product or service they deliver. These lean management principles can be applied to health care. Their implementation within the ambulatory care setting is predicated on the continuous identification and elimination of waste within the process. The key concepts of flow time, inventory and throughput are utilized to improve the flow of patients through the clinic, and to identify points that slow this process -- so-called bottlenecks. Nonessential activities are shifted away from bottlenecks (i.e. the physician), and extra work capacity is generated from existing resources, rather than being added. The additional work capacity facilitates a more efficient response to variability, which in turn results in cost savings, more time for the physician to interact with patients, and faster completion of patient visits. Finally, application of the lean management principle of 'just-in-time' management can eliminate excess clinic inventory, better synchronize office supply with patient demand, and reduce costs. PMID:19265856

Casey, Jessica T; Brinton, Thomas S; Gonzalez, Chris M

2009-03-01

195

Detection of outlier loci and their utility for fisheries management  

PubMed Central

Genetics-based approaches have informed fisheries management for decades, yet remain challenging to implement within systems involving recently diverged stocks or where gene flow persists. In such cases, genetic markers exhibiting locus-specific (‘outlier’) effects associated with divergent selection may provide promising alternatives to loci that reflect genome-wide (‘neutral’) effects for guiding fisheries management. Okanagan Lake kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), a fishery of conservation concern, exhibits two sympatric ecotypes adapted to different reproductive environments; however, previous research demonstrated the limited utility of neutral microsatellites for assigning individuals. Here, we investigated the efficacy of an outlier-based approach to fisheries management by screening >11 000 expressed sequence tags for linked microsatellites and conducting genomic scans for kokanee sampled across seven spawning sites. We identified eight outliers among 52 polymorphic loci that detected ecotype-level divergence, whereas there was no evidence of divergence at neutral loci. Outlier loci exhibited the highest self-assignment accuracy to ecotype (92.1%), substantially outperforming 44 neutral loci (71.8%). Results were robust among-sampling years, with assignment and mixed composition estimates for individuals sampled in 2010 mirroring baseline results. Overall, outlier loci constitute promising alternatives for informing fisheries management involving recently diverged stocks, with potential applications for designating management units across a broad range of taxa.

Russello, Michael A; Kirk, Stephanie L; Frazer, Karen K; Askey, Paul J

2012-01-01

196

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 11, for quarter ending March 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft² stack verification test: Phase I provides the information and services needed to manage

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; R. L. Gelting; G. J. Goller; W. L. Luoma; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien

1984-01-01

197

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997  

SciTech Connect

The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

198

Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing nonutility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal nonutility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point

Shams N. Siddiqi; Martin L. Baughman

1994-01-01

199

Integrated Resource Planning at Electric Utilities: The Planning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities during the initial 18-month cycle of the Demand and Resource Evaluation (DARE) Program of the Puget Sound Power and Light Company (Washington State) are described. The role of evaluation in public utility planning is discussed. Cooperation, communication, and consensus among utility planning staff are concluded to be vital. (SLD)

Hirst, Eric

1989-01-01

200

Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-sup...

E. Hirst S. Hadley L. Baxter

1996-01-01

201

Used-fuel management in Canadian nuclear utilities  

SciTech Connect

Three Canadian utilities operate 19 Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) nuclear units, of which Ontario Hydro is the largest with 17 units in operation and a further 3 in final stages of construction; New Brunswick Power (NBP) and Hydro Quebec have one single-unit station each. CANDU fuel is in the form of 100-mm-diam, 500-mm-long cylindrical bundles of [approximately] 20 kg uranium mass. CANDU reactors use natural uranium fuel with a burnup of [approximately] 8,000 MWd/ton, which coupled with high lifetime capacity factors, has resulted in used-fuel arising totaling [approximately] 13,000 tons to date. Each utility strives to ensure that used-fuel management is safe, environmentally sound, and economically and socially acceptable. The paper discusses current practices, long-term fuel behavior, and dry storage. Canadian utilities intend to eventually dispose of used fuel in deep geologic rock formations. The process of building a final disposal facility will depend on the acquisition of a suitable site, public acceptance, and the agreement to forego the further use of the used fuel as an energy source. Most important will be the decision of the federal government, who will be advised in the future of the acceptability of the disposal concept by a specifically constituted panel under the aegis of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office. In the interim, utilities will continue to store used fuel at their power stations using both wet- and dry-storage technologies.

Stevens-Guille, P.D.; Plume, G.A.; Macici, N.

1990-01-01

202

Utilities and industrial customers: Partners in energy management  

SciTech Connect

In today`s competitive environment, many utilities are not only pursuing new industrial customers, but actively working to help existing industrial customers become more competitive and profitable. Virginia Power is working with their industrial customers to help them become as efficient as possible while holding down energy costs. One of the most valuable tools that utilities have to offer for energy management is the industrial energy survey (audit). Virginia Power offers a wide range of energy surveys depending on the customer`s needs. A survey may be as simple as a walk through of the customer`s site with Virginia Power engineers. However, a more extensive energy survey may span several days and entail third party expertise. The remainder of this article focuses on Virginia Power`s success of partnering with their industrial customers and a third party audit team from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University known as the Industrial Energy Center (IEC).

Smith, B.F. [Virginia Power Co., VA (United States)

1998-04-01

203

Study of Technical and Economic Peasibility of Fuel Cell Cogeneration Applications by Electric Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous EPRI study showed signiticant potential penetrations of fuel cells into the future generation mixes of U. S. electric utilities. A new EPRI-sponsored study was conducted to investigate the possible additional benefits of operating these utility-owned fuel cells as cogeneration facilities. Three classes of applications were evaluated: residential and commercial buildings, industrial processes and utility power plants. Incremental breakeven

W. S. Ku; R. A. Wakefield

1981-01-01

204

Knowledge transfer and utilization: implications for home healthcare pain management.  

PubMed

Implementation of research evidence into clinical practice is a complex and dynamic process that has become the subject of investigation in the field of "translation science" or "knowledge utilization." Research shows how individuals, units, and organizations all influence the rate and extent of adoption of research evidence. Environmental factors also play an important role in this process. This article summarizes key lessons from translation science and examines the implications for the organization and delivery of home healthcare. The implementation of pain management guidelines is used as an example. PMID:16681296

Bucknall, Tracey

2006-01-01

205

Electricity Demand Side Management and its Different Promotion Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of introducing the principle of economizing electricity measures, aiming at the resistance presently met in the promotion of electricity demand side management (DSM), this paper raised an objection about making the electricity company as the implement body of DSM, and offered a guidance that who is willing to benefit, who should take on the promotion of DSM.

Xiao-Hong Zhu

2009-01-01

206

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

207

Neptune Orbiters Utilizing Solar and Radioisotope Electric Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In certain cases, Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP), used in conjunction with other propulsion systems, could be used to reduce the trip times for outer planetary orbiter spacecraft. It also has the potential to improve the maneuverability and power ...

D. I. Fiehler S. R. Oleson

2004-01-01

208

Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues  

SciTech Connect

A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-09-01

209

Dividend-reinvestment plans: a comparative analysis of the electric-utility and chemical industries  

SciTech Connect

The general objective of the study was to examine and analyze the dividend-reinvestment plans of the two industries and the shareholder/share participation. Specific objectives were to conduct a comparative analysis between the two industries with reference to principal differences in plan features; measure the degree to which the equity base of each company increased as a result of the plan; and to develop a dividend-reinvestment plan model based upon the results of the research. The study covers the dividend reinvestment plans of 90 electric utilities and 24 chemical companies and an analysis of questionnaire data from 83 electric utilities and 17 chemical companies. During the formative years of these plans, a multiplicity of features have evolved to stimulate stockholder/share participation. The most recent innovation feature embodies a nontaxable dividend option to the dividend reinvestment plans of some of the electric utilities. The results of the research reveals that the major difference in the plans of these two industries is primarily the overwhelming use of market plans by the electric utilities. The electric utilities generally have similar plan features and variations of these features. Stockholder/share participation is higher in the electric utility plans than in the chemical plans. But, when comparing only original issue chemical plans to electric utility plans, the participation rates are somewhat similar.

Dunn, R.L.

1983-01-01

210

Public policy incentives for electric utility fuel conservation investments: a case study for wind power  

SciTech Connect

A systematic method is presented for evaluating the future of solar electric technology in the electric utility industry. The sensitivity of economic performance to a range of policy variables is determined for a selected solar electric technology (wind) at typical utilities. Finally, the prospects for the solar electric technology in utilities as a function of federal power is appraised for a test case based on wind. Included are a review of wind energy technology and applications, methodology; perspectives on the electric utility industry; construction of the utility case study; and financial and policy analyses. In regard to utility investment in wind power systems, it was demonstrated that (1) large wind energy projects in the multi-megawatt range will be economic for many utilities in the 1980s if wind industry production cost targets are met; (2) the climate for investment in general and for 'risky' projects, such as wind energy, is poor; (3) utilities are risk averse with respect to renewable energy investments; and (4) wind projects must justify themselves on the basis of fuel savings only. Major findings in regard to investment evaluation criteria used by utilities also are presented.

March, F.; Dlott, E.H.; Korn, D.H.; Madio, F.R.; McArthur, R.C.

1981-09-01

211

A Miniature Electrical Pressure Gage Utilizing a Stretched Flat Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable-air-gap, inductance-type, electrical pressure gage is described that is basically 7/16 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch in thickness. The gage was designed to measure accurately pressures fluctuating at high frequencies and has proved to be a value as a general-purpose electrical gage for aeronautical work where small size and minimum response to acceleration forces are important factors. Design equations and curves are presented which can be used to predict the deflections and fundamental natural frequencies of stretched flat diaphragms.

Patterson, John L

1952-01-01

212

Availability and Utilization of Opioids for Pain Management: Global Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Pain can significantly influence an individual's health status and can have serious negative consequences: poor nutrition, decreased appetite, abnormal sleep patterns, fatigue, and impairment of daily living activities. Pain can cause psychological impairment and decrease healing and recovery from injuries and illness. A hallmark of many chronic conditions, pain affects more patients' lives than diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cancer combined. However, many chronic sufferers do not have access to effective pain management for a variety of reasons, including limited access, restrictions, and personal and cultural biases. Methods This review summarizes issues of access, distribution, and cultural bias with regard to opioid agents and seeks to clarify the challenges related to opioid delivery. The considerable negative physical and mental consequences of chronic pain are discussed for the general and palliative care population. Results Opioids are an effective treatment for various intractable painful conditions, but problems in global opioid access for safe and rational use in pain management contribute to unnecessary suffering. These problems persist despite increased understanding in recent years of the pathophysiology of pain. Conclusions Comprehensive guidelines for goal-directed and patient-friendly chronic opiate therapy will potentially enhance the outlook for future chronic pain management. The improvement of pain education in undergraduate and postgraduate training will benefit patients and clinicians. The promise of new medications, along with the utilization of multimodal approaches, has the potential to provide effective pain relief to future generations of sufferers.

Manjiani, Deepak; Paul, D. Baby; Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini

2014-01-01

213

Advanced Medium-Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Conversion Systems for Future Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed

Haifeng Fan

2011-01-01

214

Electric utility coal quality analysis using artificial neural network techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power generators are facing more stringent standards for smog-forming nitrogen oxides, tiny fly ash particles, and air toxic emissions. US Department of Energy recently funded several projects to investigate advanced methods for reducing air pollutants from conventional coal-fired power plants. This paper takes advantage of artificial intelligence technology and develops a neural network (NN) that quickly and efficiently determines

H. Salehfar; S. A. Benson

1998-01-01

215

Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in

D. Loomis; S. R. Browning; A. P. Schenck; E. Gregory; D. A. Savitz

1997-01-01

216

Short Term Load Forecasting in Communal Electric Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report studies the problem of forecasting hourly electric load for periods of one day to one week. The problem of short-term load forecasting is discussed in general, and a survey of the existing literature is presented. Various factors affecting elec...

I. Karanta J. Ruusunen

1991-01-01

217

Future Developments of Diversification of Electric Utilities. Comparative Study of Public Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To find out future developments on the diversification in electric power industry, comparative studies on public enterprises in Japan such as gas, railway, and telecommunication business were carried out. The results, concluded as follows: (1) Motives and...

N. Iguchi

1988-01-01

218

Capital Requirements Estimating Model (CREMOD) For Electric Utilities. Volume I. Methodology Description, Model, Description, and Guide to Model Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Capital Requirements Estimating Model for the Electric Utilities (CREMOD) is a system of programs and data files used to estimate the capital requirements of the electric utility industry for each year between the current one and 1990. CREMOD disaggre...

D. E. Collins J. Gammon M. L. Shaw

1980-01-01

219

Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to understand better the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyz...

E. Doris P. Denholm S. Ong

2010-01-01

220

Electric Utility Regulation Reform in New York: Economic Competitiveness at the Expense of the Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment examines the New York Public Service Commission's effort to improve the existing electric utility regulatory structure in New York State. The New York Public Service Commission instituted Phase II of the \\

James D. Elliott

1995-01-01

221

Preliminary Performance and Cost Estimates of Mercury Emission Control Options for Electric Utility Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should...

R. K. Srivastava C. B. Sedman J. D. Kilgroe

1999-01-01

222

Impact of Cogeneration on Gas Use in the Industrial and Electric Utility Sectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the report is to examine the impact of industrial sector cogeneration on fuel use in the combined industrial and electric utility sectors. To illustrate the range of uncertainty in cogeneration estimates, the impact is assessed un...

B. Venkateshwara S. Y. Salama

1986-01-01

223

Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magne...

R. C. Niemann Y. S. Cha J. R. Hull

1995-01-01

224

Evaluation of the coal and electric utilities model documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is sponsoring a study of methods and procedures for the effective internal management and control of information model development, evaluation, and application in order to improve the quality and credibility of energy information developed and published by the EIA. This first report of the EMAP project is concerned with the development of procedures for planning

N. L. Goldman; M. J. Mason; D. O. Wood

1981-01-01

225

Electric demand-side management under federal law  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act). The Act implements many of the provisions of the National Energy Strategy proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in February 1991, including an amendment to the Public Utility Regulatory Policies At of 1978 (PURPA) to promote increased investment by electric utilities

1993-01-01

226

Experimental investigation of a variable speed constant frequency electric generating system from a utility perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As efforts are accelerated to improve the overall capability and performance of wind electric systems, increased attention to variable speed configurations has developed. A number of potentially viable configurations have emerged. Various attributes of variable speed systems need to be carefully tested to evaluate their performance from the utility points of view. With this purpose, the NASA experimental variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system has been tested. In order to determine the usefulness of these systems in utility applications, tests are required to resolve issues fundamental to electric utility systems. Legitimate questions exist regarding how variable speed generators will influence the performance of electric utility systems; therefore, tests from a utility perspective, have been performed on the VSCF system and an induction generator at an operating power level of 30 kW on a system rated at 200 kVA and 0.8 power factor.

Herrera, J. I.; Reddoch, T. W.; Lawler, J. S.

1985-01-01

227

Adapting state and national electricity consumption forecasting methods to utility service areas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experiences of six utilities (Florida Power and Light Co., Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia, Philadelphia Electric Co., Public Service Co. of Colorado, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and TVA) in adapting to their service territories models that were developed for forecasting loads on a national or regional basis. The models examined were of both end-use and econometric design and included the three major customer classes: residential, commercial, and industrial.

Swift, M.A.

1984-07-01

228

Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

EIA Publications

The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

Information Center

1994-03-01

229

A review of utility issues for the integration of wind electric generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of issues and concerns of the electric utility industry for the integration of wind electric generation is offered. The issues have been categorized in three major areas: planning, operations, and dynamic interaction. Representative studies have been chosen for each area to illustrate problems and to alleviate some concerns. The emphasis of this paper is on individual large wind turbines (WTs) and WT arrays for deployment at the bulk level in a utility system.

Reddoch, T. W.; Barnes, P. R.

1982-01-01

230

Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an unanticipated result of the regulatory process is to encourage organizational stasis and technological path dependency. Fourth, the mechanism of change to the political economy follows Kuhnian mechanics. Fifth, creative destruction, a central dynamic of capitalism, may be deferred but not eliminated by a regulatory political economy; modifications to technology, economics, or political power eventually force change upon protected institutions.

Myers, William Allan

231

The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states with Republican governors, Democratic and professionalized legislatures, dominant interest groups, higher levels of GSP, greater growth in per capita personal income, traditionalistic political cultures, and lower levels of environmental commitment. Moreover, economics is not always the most influential factor in determining regulatory policy. Rather, political institutions and government bureaucracies make a considerable difference.

Altman, John Arthur

232

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging ...

2012-01-01

233

Control of new energy sources in an electric utility system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of generators based on renewable resources to the electric power system brings new problems of control and communication if the generators are to be controlled as an integrated part of the power system. Since many of these generators are small, it will require a large number of them, connected to the distribution system, to represent an appreciable fraction of the total generation. This situation contrasts with present day generation control which typically involves only the control of a small number of large generators. This paper examines the system requirements for integrated control, and proposes a control arrangement in which the incremental cost of power is an important parameter.

Kirkham, H.

234

Investigating the impact of embedded generation on relay settings of utilities electrical feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1970s, intensive efforts have been made to utilize renewable energy sources to generate electric power. On the other hand, economical pressure experienced in recent years has led to the development of high efficiency combined heat and power schemes to use the normally wasted heat to generate electric power. Generators used under both schemes can be either synchronous

Salman K. Salman; Ibrahim M. Rida

2001-01-01

235

Influence of Residential Solar Water Heaters on Electric-Utility Peak Demand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effect on the peak and seasonal loads of an electric utility when conventional electric water heaters are replaced with solar hot water (SHW) systems. Thirty homes were monitored in this study. Fifteen h...

J. Askey G. C. Vliet

1983-01-01

236

Survey of Engineering and Construction Programs in the Electric Utility Industry.  

SciTech Connect

In July and August 1984, E and C surveyed five major electric utilities to determine how they are accomplishing their engineering and construction activities. The investigation gave particular attention to how each utility is responding to reduced system load growth and to other conditions that are affecting workloads, to what organizational or staffing changes they have made, and to their experience with contracting.

Nellis, Charles L.

1984-09-01

237

An approach to assess the performance of utility-interactive wind electric conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic approach based on the convolution technique is presented to assess the performance of utility-interactive wind electric conversion systems supplying tools. The wind regime is modeled using a Weibull distribution. Expressions are developed to obtain the duration curve for the power injected into the utility grid. The energy injected into the grid and drawn from it to supply the

I. Abouzahr; R. Ramakumar

1991-01-01

238

Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and affordable technology for providing detailed feedback on household electricity usage presents a host of opportunities for utilities and policy-makers to manage demand. This dissertation examines ways to use these devices to reduce - and shift the timing of - energy use in the residential sector by influencing consumers' behavior. The first portion of the study analyzes the impact of programmable thermostats (PTs) on energy use, focusing on residents' knowledge of climate control settings in the dwelling. I found that of households with natural gas heating systems, young households with PTs used 17 percent less heating energy on average. In addition, residents who did not know their thermostat settings tended to use 10 percent more energy for heating. The main portion of the dissertation focuses specifically on the potential for better feedback on electricity usage to reduce household energy consumption. The existing literature suggests that feedback can reduce electricity consumption in homes by 5 to 20 percent, but that significant uncertainties remain in our knowledge of the effectiveness of feedback. These uncertainties include the variation in feedback effectiveness between demographic groups and consumers in different climate regions. This analysis uses these uncertainties to perform an exploratory analysis to determine the conditions under which the benefits of feedback outweigh the costs and to compare the cost-effectiveness of providing feedback against that of other DSM programs. I found that benefits would likely outweigh costs for enhanced monthly billing and real-time feedback and that cost-effectiveness was superior to that of other DSM programs for these types of feedback. For feedback that is disaggregated by appliance type, cost effectiveness was competitive with other DSM programs under a limited set of cases. This study also examines how energy consumption devices should display feedback on GHG emissions from electricity use under a real-time pricing program. I found that load-shifting can cause GHG emissions to increase or decrease depending on region and season and in no discernable pattern. Therefore, feedback may be more useful and comprehensible to households in the form of total GHG emissions attributable to electricity usage instead of the emission rate of the marginal power plant. Finally, this dissertation explores ways to maximize the effect of feedback by evaluating which appliances may be best suited for appliance-specific feedback. Due to the energy use and behavioral factors associated with each appliance, the most promising appliances were those that heat water for taps, showers, hot tubs, and waterbeds.

Collins, Myles

239

Value of Wind and Solar Thermal Energy: Computer programs allow utilities to determine overall electric-energy production costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Two reports describe computer models for determining the value of solar-energy power systems to electric utilities. The models allow utility planners to integrate in...

1984-01-01

240

Study of technical and economic feasibility of fuel cell cogeneration applications by electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous EPRI study showed significant potential penetrations of fuel cells into the future generation mixes of U.S. electric utilities. A new EPRI-sponsored study was conducted to investigate the possible additional benefits of operating these utility-owned fuel cells as cogeneration facilities. Three classes of applications were evaluated: residential and commercial buildings, industrial processes and utility power plants. Incremental breakeven capital

W. S. Ku; R. A. Wakefield

1981-01-01

241

Aligned carbon nanotubes for electrical interconnect and thermal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

As IC performance increases, many technical challenges appear in the areas of power delivery, thermal management, I\\/O density, and thermal-mechanical reliability. To address these problems, the use of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed in IC packaging as electrical interconnect and thermal interface materials. The superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of CNTs promise to bring revolutionary improvement in reducing

Lingbo Zhu; Yangyang Sun; Jianwen Xu; Zhuqing Zhang; Dennis W. Hess; C. P. Wong

2005-01-01

242

Effect of economic regulation on risk and financial performance in the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Regulation has often been cited as the major impediment to quick, efficient utility response to changing economic conditions. The quality of regulation, as assessed from an investor's viewpoint, has had an impact on the financial health of electric utilities. Firms with good regulation experienced a smaller increase in investment risk and a smaller decline in financial condition than utilities with poor regulation. While the purpose of regulation is not to ensure that utilities make profits, regulation is supposed to maintain the capital integrity of the firm. The eroding financial position of the electric utilities indicates that, in general, regulators have not maintained the capital integrity of the firms. Regulators of above-average quality were only marginally more able to mitigate the damaging effects of a changing environment on electric utility financial condition than below-average regulators. The effect of regulatory quality on risk and financial performance was relatively small when compared to other operating and environmental factors that affect utilities. The fuel mix, dividend policy, accounting practices and economy have all affected utility stocks to a far greater degree than the regulatory environment. While regulatory quality did have some impact on the performance of utility securities from 1972 to 1982, it was not the major factor affecting the securities.

Smith, D.M.

1984-01-01

243

Novel film patterned retarder utilizing in-plane electric field.  

PubMed

Conventional film patterned retarder (FPR) production requires a photo-alignment layer and a UV exposure process through a patterned wire-grid photo-mask, increasing the cost as well as limiting the resolution of FPR. We proposed a novel method for the fabrication of FPR without using the alignment layer and the photo-mask. Reactive mesogen (RM) was coated on a base film, and then the substrate with 2-domain interdigitated electrodes was contacted over the RM layer. The in-plane electric field reoriented the randomly orientated RM molecules to the field direction, generating the slow axes in each domain. Then, the UV light was exposed to the film, fixing the slow axes of the polymerized RM with orthogonal orientation between neighboring domains. Finally, an incident linearly polarized light gave rise to giving oppositely handed circular polarizations of light after passing the film. PMID:24977622

Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jeong, Il Hwa; Yu, Ji Hoon; Song, Ki Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Kang, Shin-Woong; Lee, Myoung-Hoon; Lee, Seung Hee

2014-06-16

244

Agent-Based Optimisation Systems for Electrical Load Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical load management can potentially offer significant benefits in reducing both greenhouse gas emission and en- ergy costs. It is a comparatively new application domain for agent-based technologies, with few existing approaches. Three novel optimal management technologies that we have been developing are briefly reported in this paper. Their relative performance merits under various circumstances are then preliminarily examined, both

Rongxin Li; Jiaming Li; Geoff Poulton; Geoff James

245

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

246

Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

1995-01-01

247

Managing for biodiversity from the electric utilities` perspective  

SciTech Connect

The quality and sustainability of the natural environment is a matter of inestimable value and is critical to public health and welfare. All species have a purpose, and they exist for the betterment of other species. It is, therefore, incumbent on all humans to do their part in the preservation of this vast, diverse ecosystem called Earth. All humans are the beneficiaries, the ultimate customers, of a sound environment-water that is safe to drink, air that can breathed, and soil that will sustain crops. There must be a commitment to leaving a clean and healthy planet for generations to follow, an earth which is enhanced, not diminished, by humans` presence. 1 ref.

Heydlauff, D.E. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-11-01

248

A UK utility perspective on irradiated nuclear fuel management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before privatisation in 1990, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), had a statutory responsibility for the supply of electricity in England and Wales. Nuclear Electric took over the operation of the CEGB`s nuclear assets whilst remaining in the public sector. It now has to compete with private sector companies within the privatised market for electricity in the UK. The UK

Wilmer

1994-01-01

249

Managing electricity reliability risk through the futures markets  

SciTech Connect

In competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, often cease to exist. Typically, the burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to insure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, we model a spot market for electricity and futures markets for both electricity and AS. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its expected utility of wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optional quantities of electricity and AS traded in each market by all participants, as well as the corresponding market-clearing prices. We show that future prices for both electricity and AS depend on expectations of the spot price, statistical aspects of system demand, and production cost parameters. More important, our model captures the fact that electricity and AS are substitute products for the generators, implying that anticipated changes in the spot market will affect the equilibrium futures positions of both electricity and AS. We apply our model to the California electricity and AS markets to test its viability.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.

2000-10-01

250

Wind power for the electric-utility industry: policy incentives for fuel conservation  

SciTech Connect

To illustrate an earlier finding that the financial regulatory environment of investor-owned electric utilities provided little or no incentive to invest in fuel-conserving technologies, the authors selected wind power as a near-term fuel-conservation technology that could reduce utility fuel consumption during the 1980s. They document the capabilities of wind-energy electric systems (WECS) for utility-grid applications, identify six major American manufacturers of wind turbines, and describe the major existing and planned WECS installations. Computer models of the financial impact on utilities show that the utility's financial condition and an uncertain regulatory environment are the major barriers to investment. Policymakers can use this kind of computer analysis to develop new policies that will stimulate higher productivity at lower fuel consumption. 91 references, 16 figures, 31 tables.

March, F.; Dlott, E.H.; Korn, D.H.; Madio, F.R.; McArthur, R.C.; Vachon, W.A.

1982-01-01

251

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among electric utility workers in Ontario: the evaluation of alternate indices of exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo examine associations between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and exposures to 60 Hz magnetic and electric fields in electric utility workers with a series of indices that capture a variety of aspects of field strength.METHODSThe study population consisted of 51 cases of NHL and 203 individually matched controls identified from within a cohort of male electric utility workers in Ontario. Odds

Paul J Villeneuve; David A Agnew; Anthony B Miller; Paul N Corey

2000-01-01

252

AHP for Risk Management Based on Expected Utility Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model of decision-making considering the risk assessment. The conventional evaluation in AHP is considered to be a kind of utility. When dealing with the risk, however, it is necessary to consider the probability of damage. In order to take risk into decision-making problem, we construct AHP based on expected utility. The risk is considered as a related element of criterion rather than criterion itself. The expected utility is integrated, considering that satisfaction is positive utility and damage by risk is negative utility. Then, evaluation in AHP is executed using the expected utility.

Azuma, Rumiko; Miyagi, Hayao

253

Electrical-power-system data base for consumables analysis. Volume 2: Electrical equipment utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalogue is presented of space shuttle electrical equipment as used within a standardized data base for EPS consumables analyses. The general function and expected usage of each type of electrical equipment are described, and the usage of specific equipment of each type in the performance of EPS consumables analyses is defined.

Pipher, M. D.; Green, P. A.; Wolfgram, D. F.

1975-01-01

254

Power management of passive multi-source hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-source hybrid electric vehicle which contains a gasoline-generator set (genset), a lead acid battery pack and an ultracapacitor is designed and implemented based on a commercial all terrain utility type of electric vehicle. In order to study the natural power flow on the 48V DC Bus, DC-DC converters are omitted between lead acid battery and the DC Bus as

Zhiguang Zhou; Chris Mi; Zheng Chen; Abul Masrur; Yi Lu Murphey

2011-01-01

255

Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

1997-08-01

256

Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of waste heat utilization in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander). The advantages associated with the SRG110 as they relate to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings for a spacecraft will be highlighted.

Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

2005-01-01

257

Designing PURPA (Public Utilities Regulatory Act) power purchase auctions: Theory and practice. [Cogenerated electricity purchasing model  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Act (PURPA) requires there to be procedures for electric utilities to buy electric power from qualifying cogenerators and small power producers (QFs) at rates up to ''avoided cost.'' This has led to price-posting procedures at prices calculated as the utility's marginal cost. Unexpectedly large sales at these prices and slow adjustment to falling energy cost are partially responsible for payments to QFs in excess of the utility's true avoided cost. Using competitive bidding instead of posted prices has been proposed as a way to avoid this outcome. This report reviews bidding theory and explores four issues that arise in deisigning auction systems for the purchase of power from QFs under PURPA. 77 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

Rothkopf, M.H.; Kahn, E.P.; Teisberg, T.J.; Eto, J.; Nataf, J.M.

1987-08-01

258

Applicability of Brookhaven National Laboratory's energy models to electric utility R and D planning. Final report. [BESOM and DESOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the BNL energy optimization models BESOM and DESOM with respect to their suitability for use by the electric utility industry as R and D planning aids. The model descriptions emphasize their electric-utility aspects. The models provide some insight into the interactions of the energy system but they do not provide a detailed representation of the electric energy

J. W. Patmore; R. W. J. Lau; K. M. Sidenblad

1978-01-01

259

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-25

260

Decision factors affecting transmission and distribution efficiency improvements by Northwest electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this report was to assess and document the attitude of Northwest electric utilities toward possible BPA conservation acquisition programs that may provide incentive(s) to reduce losses on T and D lines. Secondary objectives were to examine existing incentives for making such improvements, to categorize prior T and D efficiency improvements, and to examine factors affecting the decision-making process for system improvements. Much of the information presented in the report is derived from a survey administered during personal interviews at 29 Northwest electric utilities between November 1984 and January 1985.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Darwin, R.F.

1986-01-01

261

What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?  

SciTech Connect

This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2008-11-15

262

Assessment of potential and existing problems concerning interface between electric utilities and cogenerators  

SciTech Connect

The potential and existing problems concerning the interface between US electric utilities and cogenerators are considered by region. Also considered are regulatory barriers, rates and contracts, economic feasibility, and impact on system planning. Finally, the impact of the National Energy Act on the marketability potential of cogeneration is reviewed. The three appendixes summarize the utility meetings on cogeneration held in Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.

Not Available

1980-03-01

263

Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost function obtained from Independent Service Operators. A consumer experiment is established to replicate the peak load behavior. As a result, consumers' utility function is estimated and optimal retail electricity prices are computed.

Kazan, Osman

264

Achieving Effective Staff Utilization: A Legislator's Guide to Personnel Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to put forward a rationale for legislative personnel management. The need for human resource management is discussed, an overview of past and current practices is presented, and some basic objectives and principles are outlined. The spe...

L. S. Simon

1979-01-01

265

Utilization of lean management principles in the ambulatory clinic setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of 'lean management' have permeated many sectors of today's business world, secondary to the success of the Toyota Production System. This management method enables workers to eliminate mistakes, reduce delays, lower costs, and improve the overall quality of the product or service they deliver. These lean management principles can be applied to health care. Their implementation within the

Jessica T Casey; Thomas S Brinton; Chris M Gonzalez

2009-01-01

266

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

1992-01-01

267

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

268

PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

269

Knowledge-based systems for electric utility operation using the PROLOG language: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research project was to investigate the desirability of developing knowledge based systems in the PROLOG, PROgramming in LOGic, language for electric utility system operation applications. Two major steps were completed to achieve this objective. The first step was to develop a protection system simulator and diagnostican in the PROLOG language. Finally, a demonstration volt\\/VAR dispatch knowledge

Tweed

1988-01-01

270

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

271

EPA DETERMINATION STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to determine whether the regulation of hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions from electric utility generating plants is necessary. This determination is to be made on or before December 15, 2000. It focuses primarily on the nee...

272

WARP: a modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kW each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service. A patented

A. L. Weisbrich; S. L. Ostrow; J. Padalino

1995-01-01

273

WARP: a modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kilowatts each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service, A patented

Alfred L. Weisbrich; Stephen L. Ostrow; Joseph P. Padalino

1996-01-01

274

Four Assessment Tools of Ergonomics Interventions: Case Study at an Electric Utility's Warehouse System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ergonomics program was developed in a Midwestern electric utility warehouse system. Tasks problematic with respect to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) affecting both the back and upper extremities were identified and engineering controls were implemented. Quantitative analysis was performed on each task before and after ergonomics intervention to evaluate exposure to the risk of WMSDs. Four methods were used to

Richard W. Marklin; Jeremy R. Wilzbacher

1999-01-01

275

Effects of Information Kits on Teacher Utilization of The Electric Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 900 teachers who had previously requested a free information kit on The Electric Company (TEC) received questionnaires to assess the impact of the kit on class utilization of the TEC series. Results (completion rate 30%) indicated that the kit'...

J. W. Swinehart

1979-01-01

276

Effects of Information Kits on Teacher Utilization of The Electric Company.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 900 teachers who had previously requested a free information kit on The Electric Company (TEC) received questionnaires to assess the impact of the kit on class utilization of the TEC series. Results (completion rate 30%) indicated that the kit's TEC Handbook was mentioned most often as being helpful in receiving TEC broadcasts. Among…

Swinehart, James W.

277

Indoor air quality seminar - implications for electric utility conservation programs: proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings contain papers presented, selected questions and answers, and results of an attendee survey from the Indoor Air Quality Seminar: Implications for Electric Utility Conservation Programs. The meeting was conducted in two sections: in Atlanta, Georgia, on March 6 and 7, 1984, and in Denver, Colorado, on May 1 and 2, 1984. The meeting was cosponsored by EPRI and

W. Whiddon; K. Hart

1985-01-01

278

Solar-thermal conversion to electricity utilizing a central receiver, open-cycle gas turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to develop a solar\\/electric power plant which utilizes an open cycle gas turbine as the prime mover is discussed. A conceptual design for a commercial-scale plant, with a nominal rating of 60 MWe, was prepared. The characteristics of the design, which employs an elevated central receiver surrounded by a field of heliostats, are presented. Energy storage, both buffer

J. C. Grosskreutz

1978-01-01

279

Analysis of an Alternate Method for Assessing Fuel Charges to Electric Utility Customers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an analysis of one of the ramifications of a proposed bill that reads in part as follows: In computing monthly charges to be passed on to customers resulting from charges in fuel costs, a gas or electric utility, shall compute the charges f...

1976-01-01

280

A cost allocation model for assessing the impact of energy storage technologies upon electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assist the Division of Energy Storage Systems in the U.S. Department of Energy in prioritizing, developing, and commercializing storage technologies a computer simulation code has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to assess the impact of alternative residential heating and cooling technologies upon the electric utility generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Given input information such as plant

R. Giese; L. Holt; R. Scheithauer

1978-01-01

281

Rate impacts and key design elements of gas and electric utility decoupling: a comprehensive review  

SciTech Connect

Opponents of decoupling worry that customers will experience frequent and significant rate increases as a result of its adoption, but a review of 28 natural gas and 17 electric utilities suggests that decoupling adjustments are both refunds to customers as well as charges and tend to be small. (author)

Lesh, Pamela G.

2009-10-15

282

COMPARISON OF THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF EQUIPMENT IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to compare the reliability/availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems with equipment commonly used in the electric utility industry. Because many parameters used in reporting performance data for these systems have different definit...

283

Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

1981-01-01

284

A handbook of sources of electric utility data (with specific reference to Illinois)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handbook is a compendium of electric utilities data sources. It is divided into four major sections: the first defines the operational and environmental variables upon which most policy related research depends; the second provides a list of the most important sources of information defined by the variables set forth in the first section. The third section provides a detailed

A. K. Sanghi; R. E. Baldwin; C. Sim

1979-01-01

285

Annual Report 1985 of the Electric Utility Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual report explains the structure and the activities of this electric utility and was also presented to the ordinary annual meeting held on the 11th of July, 1986. The board of directors' report is followed by the report of the supervisory board, t...

1986-01-01

286

APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

287

Electric utility use of coal-derived fuels: health, personnel protection, and regulatory considerations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health, personnel protection, and regulatory considerations in electric utility use of coal-derived fuel oils were studied. Earlier studies indicated that coal-derived fuels are more toxic and psosibly more carcinogenic than conventional fuel oils. This study summarizes present knowledge of potential health and environmental hazards posed by these new fuels, and describes measures designed to minimize or eliminate these hazards. An

W. Hubis; D. K. Schmalzer; W. J. Keane

1982-01-01

288

Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues  

SciTech Connect

A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

Not Available

1980-09-01

289

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-01-01

290

Using Soil Electrical Conductivity to Improve Nutrient Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

ECa could be used to measure the available nutrient content of the soil, eliminating the need for time-consum- While site-specific nutrient management has the potential for im- ing and expensive soil sample acquisition and analysis. proving crop yields, the cost of intensive soil sampling is usually greater Apparent soil electrical conductivity consists of two than the benefits gained. Apparent soil

Ronnie W. Heiniger; Robert G. McBride; David E. Clay

2003-01-01

291

Large-scale electricity storage technologies for energy management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general guideline for identifying an appropriate electricity storage technology for large-scale energy management applications such as load leveling, peak shaving and arbitrage. Several emerging energy storage technologies are presented and their merits are compared against some recommended criteria. Some conventional storage technologies are also included in the analysis as reference points.

A. Nourai

2002-01-01

292

Optimized energy management for fuelcell-supercap hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining a fuel cell (FC) as primary power source with a supercap (SC) as a buffer for high power demands is a promising approach for future hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The objective of an energy management is to minimize the hydrogen consumption and to assure power availability at any time. A simulation environment incorporating models of the FC and SC

Julia Schiffer; Oliver Bohlen; Rik W. De Doncker; Dirk Uwe Sauer; Kyun Young Ahn

2005-01-01

293

Power Management Decoupling Control for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of power flow in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is challenging because of the hybrid structure of the driveline and conflicting performance objectives: fuel consumption minimization, state of charge (SOC) regulation, and drivability. The flexibility and dynamic reconfigurability of modern HEV driveline architectures enable the design of power management control strategies that are able to better address these

Osvaldo Barbarisi; Eric R. Westervelt; Francesco Vasca; Giorgio Rizzoni

2005-01-01

294

Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

Thompson, H.G. [Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (United States); Islam, M.; Rose, K.

1996-01-01

295

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model

Cristian Carraretto; Andrea Zigante

2006-01-01

296

System Integration and Power Flow Management for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Super-capacitors and Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the power flow management algorithms for a 4-wheel driven series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is presented, that has multiple power sources composed of diesel engine based generator, lead-acid battery bank, and super-capacitor bank. Super-capacitor is utilized as short term energy storage means to meet dynamic performance of the vehicle, while the battery is utilized as a mid

Hyunjae Yoo; Seung-Ki Sul; Yongho Park; Jongchan Jeong

2007-01-01

297

Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries  

SciTech Connect

This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

NONE

1991-12-31

298

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

Zaininger, H.W.

1994-01-01

299

An approach for information technology to utilize knowledge management tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical oriented work which focuses on how Knowledge Management (KM) has embraced Information Technology Management (ITM), specifically, key aspects such as knowledge activities, strategies, leadership, tools, systems, training, culture,..., etc. The article talks about the future plans towards IT enabled KM System\\/ Tools Development in information technology. As well as the paper comprises state-of-the-art KM tools,

Ibrahim Mohammad Al-Harkan; Syed Raiyan Ghani

2010-01-01

300

From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4) prevented industry profits from declining. This research adds to the existing literature on industry regulation in general, and specifically to the literature on the effects of regulation of the electric utility industry.

Reutter, Keith Alan

1997-09-01

301

Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.  

SciTech Connect

This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1990-06-01

302

Coastal Resources of Brunei Darussalam: Status, Utilization and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In light of the environmental dangers accompanying its recent program of economic diversification, the Government of Brunei Darussalam has signalled the need for improved management of its coastal areas, where 85 percent of the population lives and the co...

G. Silvestre H. M. H. Jaafar P. S. P. H. Yusof M. W. R. N. De Silva T. E. Chua

1992-01-01

303

Supplemental financing techniques: implications for electric utilities and the investing public  

SciTech Connect

In a 1981 study for the Department of Energy, the authors of this article conducted an extensive survey and analysis of financing techniques that represent a divergence from the electric utility industry's historical approach to the raising of capital. On the basis of a lengthy series of interviews with utility-industry executives and members of the financial community, they sought to determine the reasons for the changes in the traditional pattern of the industry's capital-raising efforts, the significance of the changes, and the potential benefits and risks of the new and supplemental methods of financing. Their findings are summarized in this article. 6 figures.

Sillin, J.O. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Washington, DC); Connellan, D.M.

1982-05-27

304

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-05-16

305

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-07-11

306

Non-electric utilization of geothermal water and steam from production wells of geothermal power stations in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-electric utilization of a portion of the geothermal fluid from production wells is described at four of the six geothermal power stations in Japan: Ohnuma, Matsukawa, Ohtake and Hatchobaru. There is no non-electric utilization at the remaining two, Kakkonda and Onikobe areas. In general, the geothermal fluid flows through a heat exchanger in which it heats fresh water from a

Y. Minohara; M. Sekioka

1979-01-01

307

A case cohort study of suicide in relation to exposure to electric and magnetic fields among electrical utility workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--This case cohort study examines whether there is an association between exposure to electric and magnetic fields and suicide in a population of 21,744 male electrical utility workers from the Canadian Province of Québec. METHODS--49 deaths from suicide were identified between 1970 and 1988 and a subcohort was selected comprising a 1% random sample from this cohort as a basis for risk estimation. Cumulative and current exposures to electric fields, magnetic fields, and pulsed electromagnetic fields (as recorded by the POSITRON meter) were estimated for the subcohort and cases through a job exposure matrix. Two versions of each of these six indices were calculated, one based on the arithmetic mean (AM), and one on the geometric mean (GM) of field strengths. RESULTS--For cumulative exposure, rate ratios (RR) for all three fields showed mostly small non-significant increases in the medium and high exposure groups. The most increased risk was found in the medium exposure group for the GM of the electric field (RR = 2.76, 95% CI 1.15-6.62). The results did not differ after adjustment for socioeconomic state, alcohol use, marital state, and mental disorders. There was a little evidence for an association of risk with exposure immediately before the suicide. CONCLUSION--Some evidence for an association between suicide and cumulative exposure to the GM of the electric fields was found. This specific index was not initially identified as the most relevant index, but rather emerged afterwards as showing the most positive association with suicide among the 10 indices studied. Thus the evidence from this study for a causal association between exposure to electric fields and suicide is weak. Small sample size (deaths from suicide) and inability to control for all potential confounding factors were the main limitations of this study.

Baris, D; Armstrong, B G; Deadman, J; Theriault, G

1996-01-01

308

Data Platform for Managing Utilities Along Highway Corridors: User Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this manual is to assist users in the process of developing a geographic information system (GIS)-based inventory of utilities within the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) right-of-way (ROW) as well as an Internet-based system for ...

C. Quiroga C. Ellis S. Y. Shin R. Pina

2002-01-01

309

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

1995-03-01

310

Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers  

PubMed Central

An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

2014-01-01

311

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

NONE

1996-03-04

312

Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.  

PubMed

Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice. PMID:21097207

Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

2010-01-01

313

Workshop on the Development, Management, and Utilization of Indonesian Marine Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop summarized in the report was held in Jakarta, June 23-26, 1987. It was designed to facilitate the exchange of information and experience pertinent to developing, managing, and utilizing Indonesian marine resources; to identify short- and long...

1987-01-01

314

Hydrologic Feasibility of Utilizing Palms for Water Management in Southern Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of utilizing date and ornamental palms as a management tool for beneficial use of groundwater and waste water in water-short areas such as the southwestern United states was investigated. Three potential planting sites in southern Nevada, ...

R. O. Patt D. E. Zimmerman

1978-01-01

315

Self-Management Plan, Perceived Quality of Life and Medical Resource Utilization of Asthmatic Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of asthma self-management programs on medical resource utilization has been studied repeatedly. The impact of these programs on a child's perceived quality of life, however, has not been addressed. This descriptive, correlational study compared...

M. M. Carey

1997-01-01

316

Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization  

SciTech Connect

Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

317

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Electric-discharge chemical laser utilizing a mixture of chlorine monofluoride with hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A determination was made of the energy, spectrum, and duration of emission of radiation generated as a result of vibrational-rotational transitions in HF and HCl molecules in a chemical laser utilizing ClF-H2-He mixtures and subjected to short-pulse initiation of the pump reactions by a transverse electric discharge preceded by photopreionization. When the total energy of the output radiation pulses due

V. B. Kolovskii; S. A. Drobakha; G. P. Zhitneva; G. A. Abakumov; Alexander P. Simonov

1984-01-01

318

Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis nested case-control study examines mortality from suicide in relation to estimated exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a cohort of 138 905 male electric utility workers.METHODSCase-control sampling included 536 deaths from suicide and 5348 eligible controls. Exposure was classified based on work in the most common jobs with increased exposure to magnetic fields and indices of

Edwin van Wijngaarden; David A Savitz; Robert C Kleckner; Jianwen Cai; Dana Loomis

2000-01-01

319

EPRI's eighth industry survey: present and future perspectives for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

How important are environmental concerns relative to other problems of a complex society. Which environmental concerns seem most important. How do these perceptions change over time. An appreciation of the different answers given to such questions by different segments of society is a requirement for informed debate and analysis of environmental policies. This article reports the answers of America's electric utilities - by all accounts major actors in the continuing interaction between society and the environment. 1 table.

Fehrer, J.S.; Young, F.S.; Zeren, R.W.

1984-12-01

320

Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines. final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service

R. J. Bratton; S. K. Lau; S. Y. Lee

1982-01-01

321

Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

1974-01-01

322

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 18, October 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft² stack verification test. Progress is reported. Over 1300 hours and nine thermal cycles

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; R. L. Gelting; G. J. Goller; W. L. Luoma; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien; S. A. Randall

1984-01-01

323

Phosphoric acid electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 4 for August 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F with an initial average cell performance goal of 0.745 volts at 232 ASF. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft²

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; G. J. Goller; E. W. Hall; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien; S. A. Randall

1983-01-01

324

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 7 for November 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F with an initial average 500 hour cell performance goal of 0.760 volts at 200 ASF. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; G. J. Goller; E. W. Hall; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien; S. A. Randall

1983-01-01

325

Phosphoric acid electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F with an initial average cell performance goal of 0.745 volts at 232 ASF. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft²

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; G. J. Goller; E. W. Hall; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien; S. A. Randall

1983-01-01

326

Phosphoric acid electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 3 for July 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F with an initial average cell performance goal of 0.745 volts at 232 ASF. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft²

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; G. J. Goller; E. W. Hall; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien; S. A. Randall

1983-01-01

327

Phosphoric acid electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 16, August 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft² stack verification test. Progress is reported. Program highlights include: (1) over 550 hours

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; R. L. Gelting; G. J. Goller; W. L. Luoma; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien; S. A. Randall

1984-01-01

328

Phosphoric acid electric utility fuel cell technology development. Technical progress report No. 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has initiated this program to advance electric utility cell stack technology and to reduce cell stack cost. The cell stack has a nominal 10-ft² active area and operates at 120 psia\\/405°F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full-height, 10-ft² stack verification test. Progress is detailed. Assembly of the second 10-ft² short stack

R. D. Breault; T. A. Briggs; J. V. Congdon; T. E. DeMarche; R. L. Gelting; G. J. Goller; W. L. Luoma; M. W. McCloskey; A. P. Mientek; J. J. OBrien

1984-01-01

329

Management of postoperative chylothorax utilizing percutaneous CT-guided drainage.  

PubMed

This case presentation describes a patient who developed postoperative chylothorax after transhiatal esophagectomy for achalasia that was successfully managed by percutaneous drainage. A review of chylothorax causes and treatment options are presented. The effectiveness of percutaneous drainage for treatment of chylothorax is discussed. This minimally invasive method is a valuable alternative to open surgical or thoracoscopic drainage. PMID:18828464

Barnidge, Michael; Vea, Romulo; Rau, Brian; Chu, Quyen; Behm, William; D'Agostino, Horacio

2008-01-01

330

PURPLE: Predictive Active Queue Management Utilizing Congestion Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active Queue Management (AQM) tries to find a delicate balance between two antagonistic Internet queuing re- quirements: First, buffer space should be maximized to accommo- date the possibly huge transient bursts; second, buffer occupation should be minimum so as not to introduce unnecessary end- to-end delays. Traditional AQM mechanisms have been built on heuristics to achieve this balance, and have

Roman Pletka; Marcel Waldvogel; Soenke Mannal

2003-01-01

331

Bias versus Fairness: The Social Utility of Issues Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the lack of a common conceptual grounding in education, theory, and ideology as three critical factors missing in issues management. Suggests this lack leads to the failure of organizations to communicate readily how they and their leadership stand on crucial concerns. (KEH)

Nelson, Richard Alan

1990-01-01

332

Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

1990-01-01

333

Active management of a heterogeneous energy store for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful introduction of electric vehicles continues to be stifled by the high cost and limited perfor- mance life of battery technology. We assert that a disruptive improvement in systems-level cost-of-performance is possible by employing a rate-heterogeneous energy storage system, combining low-rate batteries and high-rate supercapacitors, that is mated to a predictive control system that optimizes power management by exploiting

Alexander Styler; Gregg Podnar; Paul Dille; Matthew Duescher; Christopher Bartley; Illah Nourbakhsh

2011-01-01

334

Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

335

Knowledge-based systems for electric utility operation using the PROLOG language: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to investigate the desirability of developing knowledge based systems in the PROLOG, PROgramming in LOGic, language for electric utility system operation applications. Two major steps were completed to achieve this objective. The first step was to develop a protection system simulator and diagnostican in the PROLOG language. Finally, a demonstration volt/VAR dispatch knowledge based system was developed in the PROLOG language. It was shown that a realistic model of an electrical system and its interconnections could be developed by interacting between the PROLOG knowledge based system and a FORTRAN power flow program. Results of the simulation indicated that the decisions reached in the volt/VAR dispatch program were consistent with the operation of a control center. For control applications in which the rules utilized are prioritized, the structure of the PROLOG language provides an inference mechanism that has an advantage over the basic inference process of OPS-5. The conclusion of this study is that PROLOG is a highly desirable language for the development of knowledge based systems for electric utility applications. 2 figs., 11 tabs.

Tweed, E.D.

1988-02-01

336

Collision management utilizing CCD and remote sensing technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the threat of damage to aerospace systems (space station, shuttle, hypersonic a/c, solar power satellites, loss of life, etc.) from collision with debris (manmade/artificial), there exists an opportunity for the design of a novel system (collision avoidance) to be incorporated into the overall design. While incorporating techniques from ccd and remote sensing technologies, an integrated system utilized in the infrared/visible spectrum for detection, tracking, localization, and maneuvering from doppler shift measurements is achievable. Other analysis such as impact assessment, station keeping, chemical, and optical tracking/fire control solutions are possible through this system. Utilizing modified field programmable gated arrays (software reconfiguring the hardware) the mission and mission effectiveness can be varied. This paper outlines the theoretical operation of a prototype system as it applies to collision avoidance (to be followed up by research).

Mcdaniel, Harvey E., Jr.

1995-01-01

337

Best Management Practices for Managing Utility Conflicts on FDOT Construction Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the design and construction issues involved in the construction/utility interaction during highway projects. Practical solutions like pre-construction conferences, weekly utility relocation coordination meetings, subsurface utility eng...

R. D. Ellis Z. Herbsman R. Mckenzie P. Trivedi

1996-01-01

338

Advantages of an electrical control and energy management system  

PubMed

This paper discusses an electrical control and energy management system (ECEMS) that was installed at Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) Nagathone Gas Cracker complex located in Maharashtra, India. This distributed control system (DCS) provided computer assisted control in the areas of: Demand control; Automatic generation control, including MW and MVAR management; Power factor control; Automatic tap changer control; Load shedding; Automatic synchronization of generator and ties; Remote control of breakers. Previously, IPCL, like most other petrochemical companies in India, relied on operator control for power house functions. The process is always automated, but the power house equipment is usually manually controlled. Electrical control and energy management systems are not thought to be necessary. However, in this case the consultants for IPCL and the DCS supplier convinced IPCL that an ECEMS would save them enough money in operating costs to pay for the new control system. The control system discussed in this paper reduced operating costs by satisfying the process steam and power demands in the most cost-effective manner. In addition, the system took action to respond to electrical disturbances, such as loss of tie line and generator tripping, so that stable conditions were restored. PMID:10826290

Pal; Huff

2000-01-01

339

Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1990 and Preceding Years.  

SciTech Connect

This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1990 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. The report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1990 time period, and gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1990. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell annually to four sectors. Data is provided on each retail customer sector and also on the customers Bonneville serves directly: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. 21 figs., 40 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-06-01

340

Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission  

SciTech Connect

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2009-07-01

341

CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and electric utilities: Making the transition to a safer world  

SciTech Connect

This report, which derives from a series of slide presentations, describes the evolution and application of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as refrigerants, foam blowing agents, and solvents; and of halons as fire extinguishants. It also discusses the discovery of the adverse impact of volatile chlorine- and bromine-containing fluids on the stratospheric ozone layer, which led to the recent decision by 56 nations to phase out CFC productions and consumption by the year 2000. The relationship of the composition of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs to chemical stability, flammability, and toxicity is illustrated. Data on the ozone-depletion potential (ODP), global-warming potential (GWP), and atmospheric lifetime of these compounds are also presented. Data on the use of CFCs, HCFCs, and ammonia as refrigerants are presented by application and electric energy use, and as a substantial source of electric utility revenues. It is shown that the annual electric utility revenues from these sources are more than twice those of all other industry participants. The likely alternative refrigerants are discussed, and the impacts of using these alternatives on equipment cost, efficiency, and electric energy consumption and load are projected.

Not Available

1990-10-01

342

Using waste-to-energy to repower utility electrical generating stations  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy in its May 1992 analysis of energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) concluded that as an energy resource, MSW is unique. It can be used to produce energy, displace fossil fuel and improve the environment by reducing the amount of wastes that must be landfilled and by conserving energy and natural resources. In addition, because MSW is considered a renewable biomass fuel, it meets most state public utility commission requirements for alternative fuel usage. Moreover, as a domestic resource, energy dollars and their positive effect on the economy are kept at home. Ogden Projects (Ogden) operates 25 of the more than 140 modern waste-to-energy facilities in the United States today. In fact, because of Ogden's unique ability to closely match utility boiler steam requirements with its proprietary massburn technology, Ogden has emerged as the industry leader in utility repowering using municipal solid waste. Pertinent equipment upgrades designed to provide long-term, reliable electrical generation in full compliance with electrical generation in full compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments allow the repowered facility to provide the least cost of generation to the utility. Current installations and the benefits of waste-to-energy repowering are described.

Ubaldi, R.A.

1994-01-01

343

Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1994-06-01

344

Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

Not Available

1982-05-01

345

Resource Management Scheme Reflecting Relative Utilities in Multichannel Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a combined resource management and scheduling scheme for multi-channel wireless systems based on the knowledge of the channel quality information. In multi-channel wireless systems, such as MIMO, SDMA, or OFDMA systems, the quality of individual channel changes with time in a fairly independent manner, and is very much user-dependent. Consequently, the overall system performance or capacity heavily

Dongkun Kim; Seonwoo Lee; Jinwoo Choe; Daehyoung Hong; Inseok Hwang

2006-01-01

346

Utilizing Contingent Claims to Improve the Management of CAFOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a market-based approach to reducing the environmental risk posed by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The dual problems of hidden information and hidden action faced by policymakers are considered alongside the competing incentives faced by the CAFO manager in a multiple principal-agent setting. A new approach that uses insurance-like contracts is introduced by use of the specific example

Benjamin M. Gramig; Jerry R. Skees; J. Roy Black

2004-01-01

347

Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement. The scores were given for Rate Achievement from 1 to 5 and Rank Importance from 1 to 10 to the survey outcomes for each topic. Then, rating and ranking matrix was constructed according to score ranges. Results show that Product Quality, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Infrastructure Stability and Customer Satisfaction are the major topics that needs to be improved according to the utility managers in Turkey. According to the outcomes of the study, water losses and unbilled unmetered consumption of water appeared to be the most important issues with the utility management. The utility managers also think there is still room for improvement to satisfy the needs of the users. Even though the rehabilitation of the infrastructure is a costly investment, it can be compensated with the help of the increased revenues as a result of improvement in water loss and unbilled water use. Suggestions given as a result of this study aim to aid decision makers and local authorities to overcome the significant problems faced during management and to achieve a sustainable utility management.

Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

2013-12-01

348

The peregrine falcon in Arizona: Habitat utilization and management recommendations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The peregrine falcon once bred in significant numbers in Arizona. Good documentation is available for specific breeding sites and an additional 20 general locations. This report, based on the published literature, an extensive personal contact survey, an aerial habitat inventory (over 124 hours air time), and ground visits to over 300 locations, provides information on habitat preferences and management practices which can contribute to the bird's survival. In seeking to identify the habitat preferences of the falcon, many site description factors were examined. Those traits which appeared common to most recent Arizona sites (and therefore most useful in evaluating habitat) were: elevation less than 9,000 feet, cliffs tall or very tall, cliffs extensive, topographic relief high, and surface water readily available. All recent sites are in extensive canyon systems or in extensive mountain ranges. Using a habitat evaluation key derived from the traits common to known breeding sites, all cliff regions in Arizona and the Navajo Indian Reservation were flown and evaluated for suitability. Nineteen falcon eyries located in subsequent ground visits were all in areas previously ranked acceptable or better. Many management alternatives are discussed: management of information on breeding sites, habitat preservation, controlling disruptive human activities, and enhancing productivity through the creation of suitable breeding ledges, providing pesticide free prey, or direct reintroductions. Given their privacy (and an increasingly pesticide free environment) the peregrine falcon will likely exist indefinitely in suitable areas across Arizona.

Ellis, D. H.

1982-01-01

349

Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

Huang, Dange

350

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique.

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

351

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2012-10-01

352

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2011-10-01

353

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2013-10-01

354

Method to Utilize Surplus Electric Power of Photovoltaic Systems by Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large capacity photovoltaic (PV) systems will be installed in future power systems. According to Japan's energy outlook, the target capacity of PV systems for 2030 is about 50GW. When the large volume PV systems are installed in a power system, the reverse power flow from PV systems may cause the surplus electric power. To utilize the surplus electric power without the reduction of PV power generation, operation of customer equipment such as heat pump water heater (HPWH) according to PV power generation is expected to be one of the solutions. In this paper, cooperative control method of customer equipment with the PV power generation is proposed, and the effectiveness of the proposed control is evaluated by simulation analyses.

Hatta, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hiromu

355

Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A 16,000-A HTS lead has been designed and is being constructed. An evaluation program for component performance was conducted to confirm performance predictions and/or to qualify the design features for construction. Performance of the current lead assemblies will be evaluated in a test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of the evaluations to date are presented.

Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R. [and others

1995-08-01

356

A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

2003-01-01

357

Estimating electric field enhancement factors on an aircraft utilizing a small scale model: A method evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for obtaining field enhancement factors at specific points on an aircraft utilizing a small scale model was evaluated by measuring several canonical shapes. Comparison of the form factors obtained by analytical means with measurements indicate that the experimental method has serious flaws. Errors of 200 to 300 percent were found between analytical values and measured values. As a result of the study, the analytical method is not recommended for calibration of field meters located on aircraft, and should not be relied upon in any application where the local spatial derivatives of the electric field on the model are large over the dimensions of the sensing probe.

Easterbrook, Calvin C.; Rudolph, Terence; Easterbrook, Kevin

1988-01-01

358

Three essays on productivity and research and development in United States investor-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the effects regulation, participation in EPRI, diversification, and features of the utility's technology have on the utility's own R&D. R&D rises with the size of the utility; as the investor-friendliness of regulation worsens, R&D falls.

Connolly, Haru

359

Saehkoen ja kaukolaemmoen kulutuksen lyhyen aikavaelin ennustamisjaerjestelmae energialaitokselle. (Time series model to short-term electric and district heating load forecasting for a communal electric utility).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A time series model to short-term electrical and district heating forecasting for a communal electric utility has been developed. The system developed makes hourly load forecasts for a period of 48 hours. The forecasting process is repeated every six hour...

J. Ruusunen K. Karanta

1988-01-01

360

Survey of utility industrial demand-side management programs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilities are increasingly focusing their attention on load shaping opportunities in the industrial sector. Unfortunately, there is little documented information on the industrial demand-side management (DSM) experience of utilities. In this project, EPRI conducted a survey of utilities to identify the load shape objectives, technologies, end uses, and market implementation methods specified by utilities in their industrial DSM activities. More detailed case studies and phone surveys were also conducted to identify and document specific programs, as well as the program development and implementation process, specific market implementation methods used, and DMS program planning and design. The project also documented the major problems and issues faced by utilities in effectively planning, analyzing and implementing industrial DSM programs, and identified areas in which future EPRI research could assist utilities in developing improved industrial DSM programs.

Limaye, D.R.

1986-09-01

361

Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Emission Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers: An Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed a reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. There are two broad approaches under development to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers: (1) powder...

R. K. Srivastava J. E. Staudt W. Jozewicz

2004-01-01

362

Assessment of the State-of-the Art of Feeding Wind-Generated Electricity into Utility Power Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current state-of-the-art of supplying wind-generated electric power directly into utility power grids is assessed. The requirement for inclusion of an energy storage capability is addressed, and energy storage concepts and availability are summarized....

J. J. Reed

1976-01-01

363

Electric power annual 1995. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

NONE

1996-12-01

364

Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the values for the same amount of energy during different time and at different location can vary dramatically. Moreover, for the same hour, the values for the same amount of power at base load level or at peak load level are different due to the different generation technologies and other non-convex constraints like unit commitment. The multiple market products at zonal/nodal levels with different time horizon and time of use categories are designed to reflect more realistic demand and supply conditions at various temporal and spatial granularities. Detailed market rules, rights and regulations (3Rs) concerning the sub-markets interactions, product hierarchy and financial settlements are also examined.

Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

365

Report of the Office of Chief Counsel on the role of the managing utility and its suppliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is presented concerning the role of General Public Utilities Service Corp.; site change; role of Met Ed in design of TMI-2; control room design; containment isolation criteria selection; GPUSC startup and test group; commercial operation; management relationships within the utility; site management; review committees; procedures; attention to experience; NRC inspections; management approach to the emergency; and the TMI-2 recovery

S. M. Gorinson; K. P. Kane

1979-01-01

366

Report of the Office of Chief Counsel on the role of the managing utility and its suppliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is presented concerning the role of General Public Utilities Service Corp.; site change; role of Met Ed in design of TMI-2; control room design; containment isolation criteria selection; GPUSC startup and test group; commercial operation; managment relationships within the utility; site management; review committees; procedures; attention to experience; NRC inspections; management approach to the emergency; and the TMI-2 recovery

S. M. Gorinson; K. P. Kane

1979-01-01

367

Energy management and conservation opportunities: a guide to California utility and government programs  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of major energy conservation and management programs offered by California utilities, both public and investor owned, and selected government agencies include information about programs for residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural customers and for cities and counties. The guide covers load management, financing, and incentive programs, as well as solar, cogeneration, and biomass projects that are supported by the utilities and state agencies. Instructions for using the guide include follow-up steps in selecting appropriate programs and information about application deadlines and procedures.

Not Available

1984-01-01

368

Tool Helps Utilities Assess Readiness for Electric Vehicle Charging (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL research helps answer a fundamental question regarding electric vehicles: Is the grid ready to handle them? Environmental, economic and security concerns regarding oil consumption make electrifying the transportation sector a high national priority. NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies & Systems (CTTS) has developed a framework for utilities to evaluate the plug-in vehicle (PEV) readiness of distribution transformers. Combining a wealth of vehicle performance statistics with load data from partner utilities including the Hawaiian Electric Company and Xcel Energy, NREL analyzed the thermal loading characteristics of distribution transformers due to vehicle charging. After running millions of simulations replicating varying climates and conditions, NREL is now able to predict aging rates for transformers when PEVs are added to existing building loads. With the NREL tool, users define simulation parameters by inputting vehicle trip and weather data; transformer load profiles and ratings; PEV penetration, charging rates and battery sizes; utility rates; the number of houses on each transformer; and public charging availability. Transformer load profiles, drive cycles, and ambient temperature data are then run through the thermal model to produce a one-year timeseries of the hotspot temperature. Annual temperature durations are calculated to help determine the annual aging rate. Annual aging rate results are grouped by independent variables. The most useful measure is transformer mileage, a measure of how many electrically-driven miles must be supplied by the transformer. Once the spectrum analysis has been conducted for an area or utility, the outputs can be used to help determine if more detailed evaluation is necessary, or if transformer replacement is required. In the majority of scenarios, transformers have enough excess capacity to charge PEVs. Only in extreme cases does vehicle charging have negative long-term impact on transformers. In those cases, upgrades to larger transformers would be recommended. NREL analysis also showed opportunity for newly-installed smart grids to offset distribution demands by time-shifting the charging loads. Most importantly, the model demonstrated synergies between PEVs and distributed renewables, not only providing clean renewable energy for vehicles, but also reducing demand on the entire distribution infrastructure by supplying loads at the point of consumption.

Not Available

2011-10-01

369

Electricity pricing for North Carolina and the Nation. Testimony of Douglas C. Bauer before the North Carolina Utilities Commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National policy on a more rational electric power pricing policy to conserve energy is discussed as it relates to North Carolina utilities and electric consumers. Structural rate issues are presented in terms of the rationale for peak load pricing, practical problems associated with implementation of such pricing, and proposed solutions for the problems. The practical problems include revenue instability,

1975-01-01

370

A new probabilistic simulation technique for multiple energy storage devices for electric utility generation system expansion planning models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally feasible probabilistic production cost model is described which is capable of evaluating the impact on the operating cost of an electric utility of multiple energy storage technologies such as pumped storage hydroelectric, storage batteries, cryogenic storage, flywheels, and gas turbines utilizing compressed air storage. The model is capable of simulating the complex interactions of individual units of each

B. Manhire

1980-01-01

371

Effect of case management on rehospitalization and utilization of ambulatory care services.  

PubMed

To explore whether intensive case management would reduce discharged psychiatric inpatients' rates of rehospitalization and increase their use of outpatient ambulatory care services, the authors assigned 435 patients discharged from a public general hospital in New York City to three types of postdischarge services: multidisciplinary intensive outreach case management, less intensive Community Support System (CSS) case management services, or routine aftercare but no case management. Patients eligible for CSS were generally more impaired and had more extensive histories of psychiatric hospitalization. At follow-up 18 to 52 months after entering the study, patients who received intensive outreach case management had twice as many psychiatric hospitalizations as the routine aftercare group and had a pattern of utilization of hospital-based ambulatory care services similar to the more impaired CSS group. Intensive outreach case management did not appear to stimulate sufficient use of ambulatory care services to reduce patients' frequency of psychiatric hospitalization. PMID:1330871

Curtis, J L; Millman, E J; Struening, E; D'Ercole, A

1992-09-01

372

Supercapacitors for the energy management of electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of the on-board energy source of an electrically propelled vehicle with a supercapacitor bank (SB) as a peak power unit, can lead to substantial benefits in terms of electric vehicle performances, battery life and energy economy. Different architectures may be envisaged, to be chosen according to technical-economical trade-off. A research activity, supported by the European Community in the frame of the Joule III program and titled `Development of Supercapacitors for Electric Vehicles' (contract JOE3-CT95-0001), has been in progress since the beginning of 1996. The partners involved are SAFT (project leader), Alcatel Alsthom Research (France), Centro Ricerche Fiat (Italy), University of Kaiserslautern (Germany), Danionics (DK) and ECN (Netherlands). Its objective is to develop a SB and its electronic control and to integrate them in two different full-scale traction systems, supplied, respectively, by sealed lead traction batteries and by a fuel cell system. Through the bench tests, it will be possible to evaluate the impact of the SB on both traction systems. In this paper, a project overview will be given; the power management strategy principles, the supercapacitor's control electronic devices, the system's architecture and the supercapacitor's requirements on the base of the simulation results, will be examined.

Faggioli, Eugenio; Rena, Piergeorgio; Danel, Veronique; Andrieu, X.; Mallant, Ronald; Kahlen, Hans

373

Private Utility Supply in a Hostile Environment: The Experience of Water, Sanitation and Electricity Distribution Utilities in Northern Colombia, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the problems of theft, nonpayment and political opportunism in the aftermath of privatization by considering the recent experiences of four private utilities in Latin America that operate in water and sanitation, and electricity supply. The basis for the analysis that follows is primarily the information supplied by participants in two workshops held at the Inter-American Development Bank

Luigi Manzetti; Carlos Rufín

2006-01-01

374

Utilizing a nurse practitioner to enhance diabetes management programs in home health.  

PubMed

There are challenges in caring for patients with diabetes. Home health should utilize nurse practitioners who have specialty diabetes programs for homebound individuals within their practice. Agencies benefit from designing specific disease management program models that provide standardized delivery of care with defined outcomes that can be evaluated for program effectiveness. Collaboration between programs like DOS and chronic disease management programs within home health agencies can achieve optimal patient outcomes and potential cost savings. PMID:19266749

Litchman, Michelle; Hartman, Amy; Reed, Pat

2009-01-01

375

Economic theory of marginal cost pricing and its application by electric utilities in France and Great Britain  

SciTech Connect

The theory of marginal cost pricing and examines interpretation and applications of the theory by electric utilities in France and Great Britain is reviewed. A general overview is provided of the economic rationale for marginal cost pricing. Ideal marginal cost pricing as applied to electricity is described and explained. Practical problems related to electricity rate making according to marginal cost are analyzed. Experience in France and the UK is discussed.

Westfield, F.M.

1980-01-01

376

Lessons Learned: A review of utility experience with conservation and load management programs for commercial and industrial customers  

SciTech Connect

This report examines utility experience with conservation and load management (C LM) programs of commercial and industrial (C I) customers in order to summarize the lessons learned from program experiences to date and what these teach us about how to operate successful programs in the future. This analysis was motivated by a desire to learn about programs which achieve high participation rates and high electricity savings while remaining cost effective. Also, we wanted to review the very latest experiences with innovative program approaches -- approaches that might prove useful to utilities as they scale up their C LM activities. Specific objectives of this phase of the study are threefold: (1) To disseminate information on utility C LM experience to a nationwide audience. (2) To review current New York State utility programs and make suggestions on how these programs can be improved. (3) To collect data for the final phase of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy/New York State Energy Research and Development Authority project, which will examine the savings that are achievable if C LM programs are pushed to the limit'' of current knowledge on how to structure and run cost-effective C LM programs. 19 tabs.

Nadel, S.

1990-10-01

377

A mortality study of electrical utility workers in Qu?bec.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality of electrical utility workers exposed to electric and magnetic fields. METHODS--A historical cohort mortality study was carried out on 21,744 workers who were employed in an electrical company in the province of Québec between 1970 and 1988. The last job held by each study subject was coded. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was used to estimate the exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields, and pulsed electromagnetic fields (as recorded by the PEMF (POSITRON) meter) in this job. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated relative to Québec men. Because the exposure was exclusively among blue collar workers, the remainder of the analyses by exposure were restricted to them. Rate ratios (RRs) in the exposed groups relative to the background groups were estimated with Poisson regression. There were 1582 deaths by the end of follow up. RESULTS--SMRs were almost all below one and never substantially increased, although there were a few increased rate ratios (RRs). There was a significant RR of 2.00 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.37-2.93) for deaths caused by accidents and violence in workers exposed to magnetic fields, RR of 1.82 (95% CI 1.25-2.65) for electric fields, and RR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.13-2.32) for pulsed electromagnetic fields. Occupational accidents related to power lines explain some of the excess of deaths from accidents and violence. Some association was found between magnetic fields and leukaemia, brain cancer, and suicide, between electric fields and brain cancer and suicide, and between pulsed electromagnetic fields and lung cancer, but these were not significant. CONCLUSION--These results are broadly reassuring that major causes of death are not strongly associated with exposure to electric and magnetic fields, but small numbers and approximate exposure assessments preclude the denial of any risk, in particular if it were to affect a rare cause of death.

Baris, D; Armstrong, B G; Deadman, J; Theriault, G

1996-01-01

378

A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility`s report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

Hirst, E.

1992-12-01

379

The cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue methodology for ERDA/EPRI evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation amd maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

1976-01-01

380

PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WASTE HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

381

PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WATER HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 1  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

382

Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

NONE

1997-12-01

383

Centralized care management support for "high utilizers" in primary care practices at an academic medical center.  

PubMed

Although evidence of effectiveness is limited, care management based outside primary care practices or hospitals is receiving increased attention. The University of Michigan (UM) Complex Care Management Program (CCMP) provides care management for uninsured and underinsured, high-utilizing patients in multiple primary care practices. To inform development of optimal care management models, we describe the CCMP model and characteristics and health care utilization patterns of its patients. Of a consecutive series of 49 patients enrolled at CCMP in 2011, the mean (SD) age was 48 (+/- 14); 23 (47%) were women; and 29 (59%) were White. Twenty-eight (57%) had two or more chronic medical conditions, 39 (80%) had one or more psychiatric condition, 28 (57%) had a substance abuse disorder, and 11 (22%) were homeless. Through phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contact with patients and primary care providers (PCPs), care managers coordinated health and social services and facilitated access to medical and mental health care. Patients had a mean (SD) number of hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in 6 months prior to enrollment of2.2 (2.5) and 4.2 (4.3), respectively, with a nonstatistically significant decrease in hospitalizations, hospital days, and emergency room visits in 6 months following enrollment in CCMP. Centralized care management support for primary care practices engages high-utilizing patients with complex medical and behavioral conditions in care management that would be difficult to provide through individual practices and may decrease health care utilization by these patients. PMID:24761538

Williams, Brent C; Paik, Jamie L; Haley, Laura L; Grammatico, Gina M

2014-01-01

384

Management support services to the Office of Utility Technologies. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Utility Technologies works cooperatively with industry and the utility sector to realize the market potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Under this contract, BNF has provided management support services for OUT R&D activities for the following Program offices: (1) Office of Energy Management; (2) Office of Solar Energy Conversion; (3) Office of Renewable Energy Conversion; and (4) Deputy Assistant Secretary. During the period between 4/17/91 and 9/17/93, BNF furnished the necessary personnel, equipment, materials, facilities and travel required to provide management support services for each of the above Program Offices. From 9/18/93 to 12/17/93, BNF has been involved in closeout activities, including final product deliverables. Research efforts that have been supported in these Program Offices are: (1) for Energy Management -- Advanced Utility Concepts Division; Utility Systems Division; Integrated Planning; (2) for Solar Energy Conversion -- Photovoltaics Division; Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division; (3) for Renewable Energy Conversion -- Geothermal Division; Wind, Hydroelectric and Ocean Systems Division; (4) for the Deputy Assistant Secretary -- support as required by the Supporting Staff. This final report contains summaries of the work accomplished for each of the Program Offices listed above.

Not Available

1993-12-16

385

Utilizing a new management system to solve a difficult economizer tube failure problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economizer tube leaks in the waste heat recovery boilers at the Dow Chemical Pittsburgh, California Power Plant began to increase significantly in 1985. The author reports on a new management system introduced to the site that utilized statistical analysis and other tools to solve problems and improve quality. The economizer leak problem was chosen as the first problem on which

Tannenbaum

1988-01-01

386

Maximum Utilization of Water Resources in a Planned Community. Application of the Storm Water Management Model. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Management strategy for utilization of water resources in the planned community of The Woodlands, near Houston, Texas, was developed by modification and application of the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The capacity of the SWMM to model urban ...

E. V. Diniz W. H. Espey

1979-01-01

387

Maximum Utilization of Water Resources in a Planned Community - Application of the Storm Water Management Model. Volume II: Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Management strategy for utilization of water resources in the planned community of the Woodlands, near Houston, Texas, was developed by modification and application of the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The capacity of the SWMM to model urban ...

E. V. Diniz W. H. Espey

1979-01-01

388

A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility's report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

Hirst, E.

1992-12-01

389

The impact of deregulation and restructuring: An empirical case study of the electric utility industry from 1998 through 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study analyzed the residential electricity prices in the competitive U.S. electric market from 1998 to 2007. This analysis revealed that electricity restructuring has not yet resulted in lower prices for the majority of residential consumers in areas open to competition. This study reviewed actual experiences of eight states in the deregulated and restructured electricity markets: Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The study began with a historical look at the deregulated and restructured electricity market from 1990 to 2007. The electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition and price caps. The results indicated that both had an effect on residential prices. This study used data from the Energy Information Administration and the 8 public utility commissions. Contrary to common expectations, residential electricity costs for consumers have increased rather than decreased.

Robinson, Deborah E.

390

Electrical stimulation for the management of aspiration during swallowing.  

PubMed

Protection of the airway during swallow is often compromised following stroke and other neurological diseases. If a patient fails to recover airway protection with standard therapy, they are often left with few if any options to avoid repeated pneumonia resulting from aspiration. For them, the only option is no food by mouth and a PEG-tube for nutrition. Functional electrical stimulation offers possible solutions for restoring airway protection. Here we report the capabilities of transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure and selective stimulation of the XII cranial nerve to produce elevation of the hyolaryngotracheal complex. These stimulation locations add to our toolbox for managing swallowing difficulties and allow patients to maintain oral feeding. PMID:23366435

Tyler, Dustin J; Kolb, Ilya; Thompson, Paul; Hadley, Aaron

2012-01-01

391

WESPAC; An integrated digital protection and control system for electric utility substations  

SciTech Connect

During the past few years, great interest has been generated throughout the electric utility industry in the application of new electronic technologies such as micrprocessors and fiber optics to achieve performance and feature improvements and to reduce lifetime costs of substation protection and control systems. Implementations using the new microprocessor technology have taken two forms. One form is discrete stand-alone boxes designed as one-for-one replacements of conventional relays. The second form, which is the subject of this paper, is integrated systems that combine the protection and local or supervisory control functions. The system known as WESPAC{sup {trademark}} (Westinghouse substation protection and control), employs clusters of multiple microprocessors, multiplexed digital communications, optical fiber data transmission media, and electronic display devices to integrate the relaying and control functions. The present paper emphasizes the implementation and test of the final system, the field experience gained, and plans for additonal installations beyond the prototype systems.

Deliyannides, J.S. (Westinghouse Elecxtric Corp., Relay and Telecommunications Div., Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1988-01-01

392

Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

1985-09-01

393

Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

Not Available

1993-06-01

394

Control of power: the political economy of electric-utility development in the US  

SciTech Connect

This work examines the processes by which the dominant relations of production are reproduced and the dominant social order maintained amidst the conflicts and contradictions of capitalism. The specific subject of analysis is the changing relationships and dynamics of the various electric utility firms and associated organizations. The development of the industry is traced from the initial development of commodifiable electric devices through regulation, consolidation, and the Great Crash. The work relies on secondary sources drawn from numerous disciplines, government agencies, industry sources, and the accounts of central social actors. This consideration of the early history of an industry which is such a crucial underpinning of 20th century economic development, provides a springboard for reevaluation of the prevailing instrumental and structural theories of social-economic control and change. There are 4 basic concerns in each time frame: (1) competition among privately-owned firms; (2) competition between privately - and publicly-owned firms; (3) interactions between industry and political agencies; and (4) interactions between industry and economic institutions.

McGuire, P.W.

1986-01-01

395

WARP: A modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application  

SciTech Connect

Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kilowatts each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service. A patented wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP) Windframe, forms the basis for a proposed network-distributed, wind power plant combining electric generation and transmission. While heavily building on proven wind turbine technology, this system is projected to surpass traditional configuration windmills through a unique distribution/transmission combination, superior performance, user-friendly operation and maintenance, and high availability and reliability. Furthermore, its environmental benefits include little new land requirements, relatively attractive appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and reduced avian (bird) mortality potential. Its cost of energy is projected to be very competitive, in the range of from approximately 2{cents}/kWh to 5{cents}/kWh, depending on the wind resource.

Weisbrich, A.L. [ENECO, West Simsbury, CT (United States)] [ENECO, West Simsbury, CT (United States); Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J.P. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, New York, NY (United States)] [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, New York, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

396

Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

2012-11-30

397

Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management  

PubMed Central

Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

2010-01-01

398

Health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants.  

PubMed

Despite the nation-wide efforts to improve the health status of minority immigrants, studies documenting the outcomes of these efforts are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants to the US In this descriptive study, 70 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited from a Korean senior center and church. Health care utilization was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and hypertension management was ascertained through the objective measurement of blood pressure and a self-report questionnaire. Result indicated that 87 % of elderly Korean immigrants received regular health check-ups. Although their hypertension was not managed effectively, all participants with a diagnosis of hypertension were aware of it and were taking blood pressure medications. This study provides an overview of health care utilization and hypertension management in elderly Korean immigrants as well as ideas on ways to reach out to minority older adults for further health promoting interventions. PMID:23054538

Sin, Mo-Kyung; Hirsch, Anne

2013-12-01

399

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1994-08-01

400

Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

1977-01-01

401

The choice of a solid waste management system using the Electre II decision-aid method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicriteria decision-aid method, Electre II, was applied to the real choice process of a solid waste management system in the Uusimaa region, Finland. The criteria used were chosen by a supervision group. The weights of the criteria were defined by the managers of environmental and technical affairs of each municipality in Uusimaa, Finland. The use of the Electre II

J. Hokkanen; P. Salminen; E. Rossi; M. Ettala

1995-01-01

402

Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation on risk management of electric power enterprise project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power enterprises as the main force in power industry, its management and development is directly related to the development with green concept. The uncertainties of the project, the limited human cognitive and the lag of the information are the potential sources of project risks, especially in the electricity business management sector. This may lead to unexpected economic loss. In

Wu Qunli; Zhang Feng

2011-01-01

403

Hybrid trigeneration system management with a double DC-bus configuration on the electrical side  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new control strategy is proposed to manage the electrical power of a hybrid trigeneration system composed of a concentrated photovoltaic and thermal captator, an electrical storage group (including lead acid batteries and supercapacitors), a genset and a lithium bromide absorption machine. The architecture is based on a double DC-bus configuration. An improved control management of the

L. Petrucci; Chiara Boccaletti; B. Francois; P. Di Felice

2009-01-01

404

A vision of electricity network congestion management with FACTS and HVDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper at first reviews the needs of the advanced FACTS and HVDC applications for future power systems in Europe, then discusses general principles of congestion management, which depend on market models, market policy and electricity network conditions. In connection with this, congestion management approaches that have been applied in different electricity markets are reviewed and compared. Based on these

Xiao-Ping Zhang; Liangzhong Yao

2008-01-01

405

Exhaust emissions from uncontrolled vehicles and related equipment using internal combustion engines. Part 6. Gas turbine electric utility power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions data derived from laboratory and field test findings reported in the literature are sumarized for gas turbine electric utility power plants. The data are utilized together with information on the location and population of the plants to estimate national emissions impact, based on usage as reported to the Federal Power Commission. Expressing emissions from electric utility turbines as percentages

C. T. Hare; K. J. Springer

1974-01-01

406

Research recommendations for ac interfacing between electric utility transmission and distribution systems and wind, photovoltaics, and OTEC energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work that deals semiquantitatively with many integration problems that may have to be solved as wind, photovoltaic, and ocean energy systems are tied into electrical transmission utility grids is documented. The problems that will arise as these distributed storage and generation (DSG) energy systems are integrated into the electric utility grids are not yet fully known, and their extent may depend on the level of penetration of the DSGs into the grid network. Aspects of DSG integration covered are fuse and relay coordination, harmonics, communications, control protocols, safety, and artificial intelligence (computer driven controls). An appendix on the effects of electromagnetic pulse is also included.

Longrigg, P.; Buell, E. H.

1985-03-01

407

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1992-08-01

408

Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Citizens Utility Board); (BuildingIQ Pty Ltd, Australia); (PJM Interconnection LLC)

2011-08-11

409

Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this dissertation, basic financial risk management concepts relevant for wholesale electric power markets are carefully explained and illustrated. In addition, the financial risk management problem in wholesale electric power markets is generalized as a four-stage process. Within the proposed financial risk management framework, the critical problem of financial bilateral contract negotiation is addressed. This dissertation analyzes a financial bilateral contract negotiation process between a generating company and a load-serving entity in a wholesale electric power market with congestion managed by locational marginal pricing. Nash bargaining theory is used to model a Pareto-efficient settlement point. The model predicts negotiation results under varied conditions and identifies circumstances in which the two parties might fail to reach an agreement. Both analysis and agent-based simulation are used to gain insight regarding how relative risk aversion and biased price estimates influence negotiated outcomes. These results should provide useful guidance to market participants in their bilateral contract negotiation processes.

Yu, Nanpeng

410

Enabling distributed hardware-in-loop simulation for aircraft utilities management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility systems of an aircraft are classed as what related to the control of the basic aircraft electro-mechanical systems. Traditional utility subsystems have developed their own set of mechanical and analog controls as part of their systems, which cause the insufficient use of hardware, congested cockpit and pilots' over-workload. The distributed utility simulation platform supplies common simulation environment for integration design and evaluation of the aircraft utility systems. The simulation platform for integrating hardware and software is based on multi-processors connected to dual redundant data bus. Design engineers can fulfill the study of integrating multiplex utility subsystems and carry out synthesis management and efficient organization of the utility systems. On the platform, the subsystems not only can implement their dedicated functions, but also have the ability of redundancy, fault-tolerance and reconfiguration. The platform supports for both digital and hardware-in-the-loop simulation and offers right-hand simulation and demonstrating tools for the integration design of the aircraft electro-mechanical systems.

Chen, Juan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Wang, Zhanlin; Qiu, Lihua

2003-09-01

411

Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

1990-01-01

412

Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

Khalil, Yehia Fahim

413

Real-time pricing and electric utility industry restructuring: Is the future ``out of control?``  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased price transparency in electric power markets will be the driving force for fundamental changes in the packaging of energy services for electricity customers. Rapid advances in communications and control capabilities may make it possible for electricity merchants to provide highly customized energy services that lower the cost of electricity service by allowing automated responses to real-time price signals. These

J. Newcomb; W. Byrne

1994-01-01

414

Four assessment tools of ergonomics interventions: case study at an electric utility's warehouse system.  

PubMed

An ergonomics program was developed in a Midwestern electric utility warehouse system. Tasks problematic with respect to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) affecting both the back and upper extremities were identified and engineering controls were implemented. Quantitative analysis was performed on each task before and after ergonomics intervention to evaluate exposure to the risk of WMSDs. Four methods were used to evaluate the risk of exposure to injury before and after ergonomics intervention: the 1991 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, the Static Strength Prediction Program, the Lumbar Motion Monitor, and the Borg psychophysical assessment of effort. Results from applying these four methods to the reengineered tasks showed that the probability of low-back disorder risk factors was reduced by as much as 29%, the percentage of people capable of performing tasks was increased by as much as 90%, the NIOSH Lifting Index was reduced from above 2.0 to less than 2.0, and the psychophysical assessment of effort was consistently reduced from the "heavy or strong" range to the "light or moderate" range. PMID:10635543

Marklin, R W; Wilzbacher, J R

1999-01-01

415

Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines. final report  

SciTech Connect

The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO/sub 2/.8Y/sub 2/O/sub 3//NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca/sub 2/SiO/sub 4//NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

Bratton, R.J.; Lau, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.

1982-07-01

416

Determinants of the cost of capital for electric utilities: a cross section analysis  

SciTech Connect

The cost of capital literature identifies various risk factors as determinants of investor's required return. Previous studies are found in the literature which examine some of these risk factors. The present study undertakes a comprehensive cross-sectional approach to investigating all of the identified factors in concert. Using a sample of 67 electric utilities, eight cost of capital (k) indicators are constructed including: discounted cash flow (DCF) k, weighted average cost of capital using DCF and using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), dividend yield, return on equity, beta, one year holding period return, and market-to-book ratio. This study does not evaluate individual cost of capital approaches for their reliability in measuring the true cost of capital. However, empirical results are compared across the various cost of capital measures which lends robustness to the conclusions. Fifteen risk factors are evaluated for their importance in explaining each sample company's cost of capital as measured by the various indicators. The experimental design thus allows empirical conclusions in important areas such as dividend policy, regulatory climate, individual firm operating characteristics and corporate capital structure. Empirical results are evaluated for their statistical strength. In addition, the observed results are discussed in light of classical finance-theory prescriptions.

Lehner, L.A.

1985-01-01

417

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Goodin, J.R.

1984-09-01

418

The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

Rau, N.S.

1994-08-01

419

Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

2011-01-01

420

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-237 Kilgroe*, J.D., Sedman*, C.B., Srivastava*, R.K., Ryan*, J.V., and Thorneloe*, S. Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers: Interim Report. EPA-600/R-01-109, Available: NTIS. 12/20/2001 The report provides additional information on mer...

421

Subregional Cooperative Electric Utility, Department of Defense, National Park Service, and EPA Study (SCENES) on visibility: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the design of the SCENES, the Subregional Cooperative Electric Utility, Department of Defense, National Park Service, and Environmental Protection Agency Study. Its overall goal is to understand the origins of recurring uniform and layered hazes, both local and regional in extent, that affect visual air quality under certain meteorological conditions in the desert southwest. Findings from studies

P. K. Mueller; D. A. Hansen; J. G. Jr. Watson

1986-01-01

422

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-P- 574 Srivastava*, R.K., Sedman*, C.B., Kilgroe*, J.D., Smith D., and Renninger, S. Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers. 01/24/2001 Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Envir...

423

Evaluation of production costs and capacity credits of a wind energy conversion system supplying an electric utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wind energy poses a variety of problems for electric utilities primarily caused by the variability of the wind. This paper models a wind energy conversion system, or WECS, operating on a non-demand basis, in two ways. Firstly, a WECS is modelled as a multistate unit whose derated capacities are caused by wind variability. Secondly, a WECS hourly

K. F. Schenk; S. Chan; N. S. Rau; P. Uko

1980-01-01

424

Solar-thermal conversion to electricity utilizing a central receiver, open-cycle, gas turbine design. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to develop a solar\\/electric power plant which utilizes an open cycle gas turbine as the prime mover is discussed. A conceptual design for a commercial-scale plant, with a nominal rating of 60 MWe, was prepared. The characteristics of that baseline design, which employs an elevated central receiver surrounded by a field of heliostats, are presented. The turbine is

Grosskreutz

1978-01-01

425

Assessment of the state-of-the-art of feeding wind-generated electricity into utility power grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state-of-the-art of supplying wind-generated electric power directly into utility power grids is assessed. The requirement for inclusion of an energy storage capability is addressed, and energy storage concepts and availability are summarized. Economic data excerpted from the literature is included.

J. J. Reed

1976-01-01

426

Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV

Paul Denholm; Robert M. Margolis

2007-01-01

427

Economic and environmental emissions analysis in Indonesian electricity expansion planning: Low-rank coal and geothermal energy utilization scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

capacity to fulfill future demand is estimated 133 GW. Under the coal scenarios, the domination of coal becomes bigger with 75.4 GW or 57% of total electricity generation mix. However, under the geothermal scenarios, the installed power plant form geothermal sources increase to be 7 GW and coal utilization decreases to be only 67.6 GW or 51 % of total

Yusak Tanoto; Muhammad Ery Wijaya

2011-01-01

428

Operational, Cost, and Technical Study of Large Windpower Systems Integrated with an Existing Electric Utility. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes ...

C. Ligon G. Kirby D. Jordan J. H. Lawrence W. Wiesner

1976-01-01

429

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/SR-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control, following release of Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units Final Report to Congress, in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPAs December 2000 deci...

430

A purely ultracapacitor energy storage system hybrid electric vehicles utilizing a based DC-DC boost converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of a purely ultracapacitor energy storage system for the improvement of hybrid electric vehicles is presented. The system utilizes two large ultracapacitor banks for energy storage and a dc-dc boost converter that is capable of supplying 8 kW for voltage regulation. The system provides greater roundtrip efficiency over batteries, improves a vehicle's ability to recapture energy

Erik J. Cegnar; Herb L. Hess; Brian K. Johnson

2004-01-01

431

Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

1978-01-01

432

Battery choice and management for new-generation electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of electric vehicles (EVs) have been recently designed with the aim of solving pollution problems caused by the emission of gasoline-powered engines. Environmental problems promote the adoption of new-generation electric vehicles for urban transportation. As it is well known, one of the weakest points of electric vehicles is the battery system. Vehicle autonomy and, therefore, accurate detection of

Antonio Affanni; Alberto Bellini; Giovanni Franceschini; Paolo Guglielmi; Carla Tassoni

2005-01-01

433

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability  

SciTech Connect

Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

1995-03-01

434

Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic In Depth explores some of what the Web has to offer on the subject of electricity.The first site from Thinkquest.org called Electricity Online (1) gives an excellent overview, with topics ranging from circuits and transformers to electricity's discovery and history. The site even contains games, activities, and quizzes. The second site, Edison's Miracle of Light (2) from PBS.org, is a companion site to a PBS special of the same name. The site explores the life and accomplishments of one of the 19th century's greatest inventors, offering a timeline, recordings, and more. From Clark Public Utilities of Clark County Washington, the next site is called Electricity (3). This Web site offers information from a public utilities perspective, with subjects like electrical safety, how electricity gets to your home, what it costs to run appliances, and so on. Next, from the US Department of Energy, is a site that offers an Overview of the Electric Power Industry (4). Here, visitors can find information, data, publications, statistics, and more relating to electric power in the US. The fifth site from ExploreScience.com is called Multimedia Activities (5) and contains just that. Geared towards students, the four interactive lessons include an introduction to electricity and magnetism, an introduction to plasma, coulomb force, and lissajous figures. The next site, provided by the BBC, is another interactive learning site, called Activity Electricity (6). Users click through a lesson about circuits and current, answering questions along the way. The site also contains a fact sheet and quiz. From NASA, the Dataset Information site (7) contains data archived and cataloged by the Global Hydrology Resource Center relating to lighting. Several datasets from varying sources are available for free and include such things as Long Range Cloud to Ground Data. The last site is offered by the Canada Science and Technology Museum and is called Background Information for Electricity (8). This Web site for kids offers simple descriptions and illustrations about electricity, who discovered it, conductors and insulators, fuses, and more. The electricity workshop link also contains lesson plans and additional student activities.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

435

Development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and vehicle simulator for energy management assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation offers a description of the development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle focusing on the propulsion architecture selection, propulsion system control, and high-level energy management. Two energy management techniques have been developed and implemented for real-time control of the vehicle. The first method is a heuristic method that relies on a short-term moving average of the vehicle power requirements. The second method utilizes an affine function of the short-term and long-term moving average vehicle power requirements. The development process of these methods has required the creation of a vehicle simulator capable of estimating the effect of changes to the energy management control techniques on the overall vehicle energy efficiency. Furthermore, the simulator has allowed for the refinement of the energy management methods and for the stability of the method to be analyzed prior to on-road testing. This simulator has been verified through on-road testing of a constructed prototype vehicle under both highway and city driving schedules for each energy management method. The results of the finalized vehicle control strategies are compared with the simulator predictions and an assessment of the effectiveness of both strategies is discussed. The methods have been evaluated for energy consumption in the form of both hydrogen fuel and stored electricity from grid charging.

Meintz, Andrew Lee

436

Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications, 'Reliability Program Requirements for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1A-l); 'Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems,' NHB 5300.4(1E); and 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1B).

1989-01-01

437

Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

438

77 FR 2973 - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electric is entitled to an integrated and tailored incentive rate package that includes: (1) A 100 basis point incentive adder to PPL Electric's base return on equity; and (2) authorization for 100 percent prudently incurred construction work...

2012-01-20

439

Application of DSM evaluation studies to utility forecasting and planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilities and their customers have made substantial investments in utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. These DSM programs also represent a substantial electricity resource. DSM program performance has been studied more systematically in recent ...

L. W. Baxter

1995-01-01

440

Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

441

Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional, procedural, and interactional fairness. This research illustrates the need for leaders to consider the culture in their organizations and its readiness for change prior to implementation of significant transformation.

Korns, Michael T.

442

Opportunities and Challenges for the Clinical Utilization of Functional Electrical Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical applications of electrical stimulation for effecting change in the damaged or disabled nervous system are in their infancy. This technique is extremely powerful, because any neural structure that is electrically excitable can potentially be affected. Although early attempts to apply electrical stimulation were limited by insufficient physiological knowledge and undeveloped technology, developments over the past two decades now provide

P. Hunter Peckham

1992-01-01

443

Statistical Indicators of Potential for Electric Utility Least-Cost Planning Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to examine the potential for LCUP (least-cost utility planning) by estimating when and where demand-side measures can make a difference in utility resource plans. We make this assessment by linking utility interest in LCUP to a...

J. H. Eto J. G. Koomey P. T. Chan W. Yen-Wood

1988-01-01

444

Sulfur oxide emissions management for electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Dynamic Emissions Management System for the management of sulfur oxide emissions from fossil fuel-fired generating stations. Based on a multiple-strategy approach to emissions control via generation shifting, this system can be used for contingency evaluation, during a shortage of low sulfur fuel, for supplemental control or during air pollution emergencies. Simulation results of emissions management of

J. B. Cadogan; L. Eisenberg

1977-01-01

445

Evaluation of production costs and capacity credits of a wind energy conversion system supplying an electric utility  

SciTech Connect

The use of wind energy poses a variety of problems for electric utilities primarily caused by the variability of the wind. This paper models a wind energy conversion system, or WECS, operating on a non-demand basis, in two ways. Firstly, a WECS is modelled as a multistate unit whose derated capacities are caused by wind variability. Secondly, a WECS hourly output is taken as a negative demand which is subtracted directly from the utility's chronological load curve. The first model simulates a WECS integrated into an electric utility system for one year of operation to obtain the impact on system reliability and energy displacements or fuel credits. The second model is used in WASP-II (an electric utility optimal generation expansion planning computer model) to obtain optimal mixes of generation for a 30 year period with and without a WECS. This allows the evaluation of the actual capacity displacement or credit resulting from different penetrations of a WECS as well as the impact on system reliability, production costs and energy displacement. The models are applied to the IEEE Reliability Test System.

Schenk, K.F.; Chan, S.; Rau, N.S.; Uko, P.

1980-12-01

446

Removal of uranium and priority pollutant metals from Fernald Environmental Management Project wastewater utilizing potassium ferrate  

SciTech Connect

A side-by-side treatment comparison between calcium hydroxide and TRU/Clear {reg_sign} ``4``, a potassium ferrate based wastewater treatment chemical, was performed in a process wastewater and stormwater treatment facility. Results from the full-scale plant testing demonstrated that potassium ferrate could achieve the same treatment levels as calcium hydroxide while generating 55% less sludge than the calcium hydroxide treatment. The testing also showed that utilization of potassium ferrate would minimize the volume of sludge generated and assist in the reduction of total waste management costs associated with storage, monitoring, transportation, and final disposition of generated sludge.

Hampshire, L.H. [Westinghouse Environmental Management Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Potts, M.E. [Analytical Development Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1992-01-30

447

Removal of uranium and priority pollutant metals from Fernald Environmental Management Project wastewater utilizing potassium ferrate  

SciTech Connect

A side-by-side treatment comparison between calcium hydroxide and TRU/Clear {reg sign} 4'', a potassium ferrate based wastewater treatment chemical, was performed in a process wastewater and stormwater treatment facility. Results from the full-scale plant testing demonstrated that potassium ferrate could achieve the same treatment levels as calcium hydroxide while generating 55% less sludge than the calcium hydroxide treatment. The testing also showed that utilization of potassium ferrate would minimize the volume of sludge generated and assist in the reduction of total waste management costs associated with storage, monitoring, transportation, and final disposition of generated sludge.

Hampshire, L.H. (Westinghouse Environmental Management Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project); Potts, M.E. (Analytical Development Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

1992-01-30

448

Environmental auditing: Capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recreation impact monitoring system was developed and applied in 1984?1986 and in 1991 to all backcountry river-accessed campsites within Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Results suggest that actions implemented by park managers in response to problems identified by the initial survey were highly effective in reducing resource degradation caused by camping. In particular, the elimination of some designated campsites and installation of anchored firegrates reduced the total area of disturbance by 50%. Firegrate installation provided a focal point that increased the concentration of camping activities, allowing peripheral areas to recover. As suggested by predictive models, additional resource degradation caused by increased camping intensities is more than offset by improvements in the condition of areas where use is eliminated. The capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs, illustrated by the Delaware Water Gap monitoring program, are also presented and discussed.

Marion, J. L.

1995-01-01

449

Utilizing information-based sensor management to reduce the power consumption of networked unattended ground sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information based sensor management principles have been applied to an ad hoc network of commercial off the shelf (COTS) unattended ground sensors (iScout®) utilized for container security in order to extend the sensor platform's operational life by minimizing power consumption. The methodology and results of a simple field demonstration will be presented. Each unattended ground sensor contains a multiplicity of heterogeneous sensors and is treated as a sensor platform. While the use of an unmodified COTS sensor platform precluded implementation of a complete information based sensor management (IBSM) system, advantage was taken of the redundant coverage of clustered sensor platforms and individual sensor platform control to extend their operational life without loss of situation awareness.

Hintz, Kenneth J.

2012-05-01

450

WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water  

SciTech Connect

Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

2004-11-01

451

Early utility experience with wind power generation. Volume 2. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Solano County project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of three presenting the results of EPRI Research Project 1590-1, Evaluation of Electric Utility Experience with Wind Power Generation. The objective of this project was to develop an improved understanding of wind power generation, in particular the process a utility must undergo to initiate and carry out a wind turbine project. The primary tasks of RP1590-1 were to document and evaluate the experience of two utilities with megawatt-scale wind turbine installations from project inception to the wind turbine's first rotation. This technical report presents the experiences of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) with its wind turbine installation at Solano County, California. All documents and reports pertaining to PG and E's experience with wind energy at Solano County were reviewed and excerpts made of the highlights. Gaps in the documentation were filled by talking with appropriate people. Site visits were conducted to monitor current activity. The information obtained was evaluated for its generic relevance and benefit to other utilities. The chronology of steps taken by PG and E in implementing the Solano wind turbine experience and some of the lessons learned are included in the report. In each section, important activities, critical assumptions, and interesting insights which might benefit other utility wind programs are identified.

McCabe, T.; Henry, G.; Tennis, M.; Goldenblatt, M.

1984-01-01

452

Utility of the advanced chronic kidney disease patient management tools: case studies.  

PubMed

Appropriate management of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) delays or limits its progression. The Advanced CKD Patient Management Toolkit was developed using a process-improvement technique to assist patient management and address CKD-specific management issues. We pilot tested the toolkit in 2 community nephrology practices, assessed the utility of individual tools, and evaluated the impact on conformance to an advanced CKD guideline through patient chart abstraction. Tool use was distinct in the 2 sites and depended on the site champion's involvement, the extent of process reconfiguration demanded by a tool, and its perceived value. Baseline conformance varied across guideline recommendations (averaged 54%). Posttrial conformance increased in all clinical areas (averaged 59%). Valuable features of the toolkit in real-world settings were its ability to: facilitate tool selection, direct implementation efforts in response to a baseline performance audit, and allow selection of tool versions and customizing them. Our results suggest that systematically created, multifaceted, and customizable tools can promote guideline conformance. PMID:18305098

Patwardhan, Meenal B; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Haley, William E

2008-01-01

453

Cogeneration for a utility-co-owned industrial park. Volume 3. Baltimore Gas and Electric site. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the report presents the methods and results of a study of one of four proposed industrial parks developed as a cogeneration customer of a utility owned electric generation station. The site is the Baltimore Gas and Electric, Marley Neck Site near Baltimore, Maryland. The concept studied consisted of extracting cold reheat steam from a 620-MW turbine generator cycle for the major share of the thermal energy and burning corporate solid waste and sewage sludge to produce a minor share of the thermal energy. The waste burner primary contribution to the project was in ''tipping fees'' for burning wastes. The concept studied was technically feasible and economically attractive.

McIlroy, J.L.; Sgamboti, C.T.; Weinberger, P.A.

1986-06-01

454

77 FR 21522 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit and Tahoe National Forest, CA; Calpeco 625 and 650 Electrical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit and Tahoe National...Electrical Line Upgrade Project EIS/EIS/EIR AGENCY...Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (LTBMU), together...trees removed during project construction) California...Harvest and Vegetation Management Activities,...

2012-04-10

455

Illegal, Unethical or Just Fattening? A Revisionist Look at the FTC Hearings on Electric Utility Public Relations and Franklin Roosevelt's 1932 Public Power Pledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Did President Franklin D. Roosevelt's condemnation of electric utility public relations represent a fair interpretation of the findings of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigation into the electric utility industry as authorized by Senate Resolution 83 in February, 1928, or were Roosevelt's statements simply campaign hyperbole that met the…

Jordan, Myron K.

456

Economies of Scale and Utilization: An Analysis of the Multi-plant Generation Costs of the Electricity Commission of New South Wales, 1970\\/71-1984\\/85  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the average costs of electricity generated in New South Wales at the site level, employing a new simultaneous-equations model approach. Further, they argue that costs depend principally on unit size and capacity utilization. They reinterpret capacity utilization as a compositional variable that is a continuous proxy for the (inverse of) the intensity of demand for electricity, thus

Jeff Bateson; PETER L. SWAN

1989-01-01

457

Management of Electrical Burns of the Upper Extremity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The true extent of an electrical burn is even less apparent than the extent of heat burn. Surface diagrams are often useless for calculating the extent of underlying injury. A benign-appearing small electrical burn of the arm may cover an extensive area o...

B. A. Pruitt G. D. Warden J. L. Hunt R. E. Salisbury

1973-01-01

458

Risk management in the retail electricity market: the retailer's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retail company on the liberalized electricity market faces an increasing price risk exposure, stemming from the uncertain demand and the wholesale market price volatility. In the paper the influence of the stochastic parameters on the retailer's overall risk exposure is analyzed. After constructing the appropriate models for consumer demand, electricity spot price and forward price curve, the influence of

L. Bartelj; A. F. Gubina; D. Paravan; R. Golob

2010-01-01

459

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOEpatents

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbo