These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Electric Utility Demand Side Management in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government, utility, and private subsidies for energy efficiency play a prominent role in current efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the effectiveness of this policy approach is in dispute. One opportunity for empirical analysis is provided by the past energy efficiency subsidies, called demand-side management programs, offered by electric utilities in North America over several decades. Between 1990 and

Nic Rivers; Mark Jaccard

2011-01-01

2

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

NONE

1995-07-01

3

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-01-01

4

Load management strategies for electric utilities: a production cost simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development and application of a simulation model for analyzing strategies for managing the residential loads of electric utilities. The basic components of the model are (1) a production-cost model, which simulates daily operation of an electric power system; (2) a load model, which disaggregates system loads into appliance loads and other loads; and (3) a

P. D. Blair

1979-01-01

5

US electric utility demand-side management, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

NONE

1995-12-26

6

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

7

Risk Management Strategies for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

The Pacific Northwest has gone through an enormously expensive lesson in both the uncertainty and risk associated with power planning. The difficult lessons we have learned may benefit other parts of the country. In the 1970s, utility planners...

Sheets, E.

8

Innovative and Progressive Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Strategies  

E-print Network

concerns about providing a reliable supply of electricity. These utilities have initiated programs which encourage their customers to conserve electric energy, and shift or lower use during the utility's peak periods. In other areas of the country...

Epstein, G. J.; Fuller, W. H.

9

Managing emergency response operations for electric utility maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important criteria used to measure the quality of service in the electric utility industry is the uninterrupted service supplied to the customers. So, preventive maintenance is very relevant to avoid failures in the electric utility network. However, when failure is inevitable, it is very important that emergency repair operations are accomplished as soon as possible so

M. C. Romero; F. Sivianes; C. A. Carrasco; M. D. Hernandez; J. I. Escudero

2009-01-01

10

Energy Conservation and Management for Electric Utility Industrial Customers  

E-print Network

ENERGY CONSERVATION AAD MAAAGEMENT FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRIAL CUSTOMERS increase present generating capacity to meet the load growth projected within their service area or to replace old and inefficient plants. In other areas, particularly... those with excess capacity, there is a need to maintain and/or improve the existing utility industrial customer base while exploring the electrification of industrial proces ses. In addressing these and related issues, a util o UTRC support...

McChesney, H. R.; Obee, T. N.; Mangum, G. F.

11

The Impacts of Utility-Sponsored Demand-Side Management Programs on Industrial Electricity Consumers  

E-print Network

One of the most pressing issues in electric utility regulation today is the extent to which demand-side management (DSM) programs should be promoted by utilities. DSM refers to energy-efficiency or conservation measures, such as insulation, more...

Rosenblum, J. I.

12

Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

Glazner, Steve, Ed.

13

Electric-utility load-management policies and groundwater irrigation pumping for agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical utilities are shifting to load management techniques rather than building additional power production facilities. This article examines the impact of time-of-use energy pricing and controlled outages on groundwater pumping for irrigation. The greatest impact appears to fall on farmers pumping groundwater and using gravity surface irrigation of field crops. Several farmer options for off-setting the impact of the utilities'

D. E. Agthe; D. L. Larson

1986-01-01

14

Managing for biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the electric utility industry-summary statement  

SciTech Connect

The conference entitled {open_quotes}Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the Electric Utility Industry{close_quotes} was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, during 19-20 March 1996. This paper provides an overview of the key points, conclusions, and recommendations from both the presentations/papers and the discussions throughout the conference. Topics covered in this article are the following: sustainable development: challenge for utilities; Stewardship issues; where do we go from here-EPRI perspective. 34 refs.

Mattice, J.; Fraser, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Ragone, S. [S.E. Ragone & Associates, Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

15

Analysis of interrelationships between photovoltaic power and battery storage for electric utility load management  

SciTech Connect

The impact of photovoltaic power generation on the electric utility's load shape under supply-side peak load management conditions is explored. Results show that some utilities employing battery storage for peak load shaving might benefit from use of photovoltaic (PV) power, the extent of its usefulness being dependent on the specific load shapes as well as the photovoltaic array orientations. Typical utility load shapes both in the eastern and in the western parts of the U.S. are examined for this purpose. While photovoltaic power generation seems to present a bigger impact on the load of the western utility, both utilities will experience considerable savings on the size of the battery system required to shave the peak loads and also in the night-time base capacity required to charge the battery. Results show that when the cost of 2-axis tracking PV systems drop to $2/Wp, the southwestern utility will experience net cost savings when the PV-battery hybrid system is employed for load management. On the other hand, because of lesser availability of solar energy, the southeastern utility shows adverse economics for such a system.

Chowdhury, B.H.; Rahman, S.

1988-08-01

16

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

17

An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to exist in a deregulated environment, it will be at a greatly reduced level. This conclusion holds unless utilities see advantages to DSM as a marketing tool to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Bock, Mark Joseph

18

Electric utility conservation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented financial pressures facing today's electric utilities have encouraged the evolution of conservation as a planning strategy. Electric Utility Conservation Programs is a book to isolate the problems electric utilities encounter and document the solutions they are finding throughout the design, operation, marketing, and evaluation stages of their conservation programs. Including coverage of customer acceptance of their programs and

C. W. Gellings; D. R. Limaye

1986-01-01

19

Electric portfolio modeling with stochastic water - climate interactions: Implications for co-management of water and electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water supply constraints can significantly restrict electric power generation, and such constraints are expected to worsen with future climate change. The overarching goal of this thesis is to incorporate stochastic water-climate interactions into electricity portfolio models and evaluate various pathways for water savings in co-managed water-electric utilities. Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is used as a case study to explore the above issues. The thesis consists of three objectives: Characterize seasonality of water withdrawal intensity factors (WWIF) for electric power generation and develop a risk assessment framework due to water shortages; Incorporate water constraints into electricity portfolio models and evaluate the impact of varying capital investments (both power generation and cooling technologies) on water use and greenhouse gas emissions; Compare the unit cost and overall water savings from both water and electric sectors in co-managed utilities to facilitate overall water management. This thesis provided the first discovery and characterization of seasonality of WWIF with distinct summertime and wintertime variations of +/-17% compared to the power plant average (0.64gal/kwh) which itself is found to be significantly higher than the literature average (0.53gal/kwh). Both the streamflow and WWIF are found to be highly correlated with monthly average temperature (r-sq = 89%) and monthly precipitation (r-sq of 38%) enabling stochastic simulation of future WWIF under moderate climate change scenario. Future risk to electric power generation also showed the risk to be underestimated significantly when using either the literature average or the power plant average WWIF. Seasonal variation in WWIF along with seasonality in streamflow, electricity demand and other municipal water demands along with storage are shown to be important factors for more realistic risk estimation. The unlimited investment in power generation and/or cooling technologies is also found to save water and GHG emissions by 68% and 75% respectively at a marginal levelized cost increase of 12%. In contrast, the zero investment scenarios (which optimizes exiting technologies to address water scarcity constraints on power generation) shows 50% water savings and 23% GHG emissions reduction at a relatively high marginal levelized cost increase of 37%. Water saving strategies in electric sector show very high cost of water savings (48,000 and 200,000)/Mgal-year under unlimited investment and zero investment scenarios respectively, but they have greater water saving impacts of 6% to CSU municipal water demand; while the individual water saving strategies from water sector have low cost of water savings ranging from (37-1,500)/Mgal-year but with less than 0.5% water reduction impact to CSU due to their low penetration. On the other hand, use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling systems have shown great water savings of up to 92% against the BAU and cost of water saving from (0-73,000)/Mgal-year when integrated with unlimited investment and zero investment water minimizing scenarios respectively in the electric sector. Overall, cities need to focus primarily on use of reclaimed water and in new generation technologies' investment including cooling system retrofits while focusing on expanding the penetration rate of individual water saving strategies in the water sector.

Woldeyesus, Tibebe Argaw

20

Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

McDonald, Betsy

21

Generating energy alternatives: demand-side management, renewable energy at America's electric utilities. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of warnings about looming power shortages in the 1990s, electric utilities are exploring a myriad of new business strategies to avoid building more central-station power plants. The success of these strategies will depend largely on utilities' ability to control customer energy usage patterns and on development of new power sources by industrial cogenerators and other independent energy

D. Cogan; S. Williams

1987-01-01

22

Electric-utility energy-efficiency and load-management programs: Resources for the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this report is to suggest much larger and more active roles for utilities in acquiring energy-efficiency and load-management resources. Valuable utility actions include increased efforts to: Assess existing and new demand-side technologies; Test alternative ways to implement demand-side programs; Aggressively acquire energy and capacity resources through efficiency and load- management programs; Work with governments to support

1989-01-01

23

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

24

Transportation DSM: building on electric utility experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility planning responded to difficulty in expanding generating capacity, and concerns about environmental effects of electricity generation, by considering demand-side management within a framework of integrated resource planning. Transportation planning may benefit from a similar approach. Strong parallels exist between transportation and electric utilities, but important differences exist in the nature of the services consumed, the roles of technology

Edward L. Hillsman

1995-01-01

25

Electric utility Executives' Forum. [On load management new regulations, and intervenors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The executives were asked to respond to several questions in three specific areas: load management, new forms of regulation, and openness to the public. As might be expected, a great diversity of opinion is presented. Then the executives were asked to talk about subjects of their own choosing. Among the latter, Mr. Floyd W. Lewis, Middle South Utilities, believes policies

Smartt

1979-01-01

26

Novel energy management system for hybrid electric vehicles utilizing car navigation over a commuting route  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel energy management system for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed system predicts a future driving pattern based on past driving data and determines the appropriate distribution of energy. In order to realize this strategy, previous driving data must be stored effectively because the large amount of driving data makes on-line realization of this strategy difficult. In this

Shinji Ichikawa; Yasuhiro Yokoi; Shinji Doki; Shigeru Okuma; Takashi Naitou; Toshihiro Shiimado; Nobuaki Miki

2004-01-01

27

Electric utility restructuring  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses some of the changes that are happening in the electric utility industry. Lots of words like utility restructuring, competition, deregulation, open access and regulatory reform are being bandied about all over the country in discussions concerning the future of the electric utility industry. What does all this mean, and what does it mean for the coal industry? The author outlines the major changes which have impacted the electric utility industry in the past ten years, which include the impact of the clean air act and movement toward deregulation. Both of these efforts have had economic impacts on the coal industry. For coal fired power plants 70% of the cost of operation can be tied up in the cost of coal, therefore there are tremendous pressures on the economic aspects of purchasing this resource. The future is sure to bring major changes in the way electric power is marketed, and moved from source to customer, and these forces are sure to apply pressure to the way the coal industry does its daily business.

Krueger, L. [Illinois Power Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

1997-12-01

28

Activity-based costing for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This EPRI report is a primer'' on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). ABC is a cost management aproach which can make an important contribution to understanding and controlling the changing costs in the electric utility industry. It is a method for attributing costs to activities, products and services by better understanding the underlying factors which drive those costs. ABC can help utility

D. R. Croyle; I. A. Schapiro; P. M. Keglevic

1992-01-01

29

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

SciTech Connect

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

Weller, G.H.

2001-07-15

30

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Load Management - A Utility Viewpoint  

E-print Network

A few years ago our response to an inquiry regarding availability of electric service for a large industrial load was something like: 'Let us put this into our production model to determine whether we will have adequate generating capacity to commit...

Richardson, J. A.

1984-01-01

31

Utilization management in toxicology.  

PubMed

Recent upward trends in the prevalence of abuse of prescription drugs and illicit substances have resulted in increased demands for toxicology testing to support the emergency department and drug treatment in pain management programs. This review will discuss the challenges faced by clinical laboratories to manage the utilization of toxicology tests, particularly those ordered in managing poisoned patients in the emergency department and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Optimal utilization of toxicology tests to support the emergency department relies on selecting the appropriate tests for the patient, and the availability of the results in a timely fashion. Two tiers of toxicology testing systems with different requirements for turnaround time will be discussed. In patients with chronic pain urine drug testing, including screening and confirmation testing are used extensively in pain management to monitor patient compliance. A thorough understanding of the performance characteristics of the test methodologies and drug metabolism is a key to making a proper analytical and clinical interpretation of the test results and will contribute to effective utilization of these tests. In addition, the reimbursement system is an important factor in the decision making process for test selection utilization as significant costs can be incurred by both payers and patients. Collaboration, trust, and effective communication among clinicians, patients, and clinical laboratory professionals are essential for effective utilization of toxicology testing. PMID:24091099

Zhang, Yan; Kwong, Tai C

2014-01-01

32

Electric utility of the year for 1984: Potomac Electric Power  

SciTech Connect

High performance, efficiency improvements, a modest construction program, a clear balance sheet, and an effort to expend power plant life were among the qualities that earned Potomac Electric Power (PEPCO) the title of 1984 Utility of the Year. Other key elements in the utility's selection were its strategy for purchasing power, a load management plan, diversified investments into subsidiary businesses, community concern that considers the aesthetics of transmission facilities, and its interest in personnel development, especially among minorities. 3 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-01

33

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

34

Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand  

E-print Network

'owing number of utilities, however, such peak pe,Juction programs don't go far enough in the face of new problems and challenges, and hence'are prov i.ng ineffective or counterproductive. For example, many of a utility's largest customers--especially i....ndustr ial customers who may be "locked into" seem ingly inflexible process activities--have limited abili.ty to respond to load-management programs that employ price signals as a central peak-reduction tool. Moreover, utilities in general are finding...

Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

35

Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

1980-01-01

36

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

37

Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

38

Reliability Impact of Solar Electric Generation upon Electric Utility Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of solar electric systems into an electric utility grid brings new considerations in the assessment of the utility's power supply reliability. This paper summarizes a methodology for estimating the reliability impact of solar electric technologies upon electric utilities for value assessment and planning purposes. Utility expansion and operating impacts are considered. Sample results from photovoltaic analysis show that

John T. Day; Walter J. Hobbs

1982-01-01

39

Reliability impact of solar electric generation upon electric utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of solar electric systems into an electric utility grid brings new considerations in the assessment of the utility's power supply reliability. This paper summarizes a methodology for estimating the reliability impact of solar electric technologies upon electric utilities for value assessment and planning purposes. Utility expansion and operating impacts are considered. Sample results from photovoltaic analysis show that

J. T. Day; W. J. Hobbs

1982-01-01

40

The internationalization of the American electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the need for the electric utility to prepare to take advantage of international business opportunities. Also discussed are areas which utilities need to consider. These are strategic planning; foreign financing of utility-related projects; acquisitions, joint ventures, original equipment manufacturers' arrangements, and direct investment; nonutility generation; nuclear safety and management practices; power plant construction; and investment in foreign utilities.

Gale, R.W.

1990-08-02

41

Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

None

1989-02-01

42

Briding the gap. [Marketing by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Like the telephone and natural gas industries before them, electric utilities are restaffing, rebuilding, and revitalizing their marketing departments to deal with emerging and often unknown competition. Until the 1970s, the electric utility industry was a marketer's dream, consisting principally of closing and counting sales. Strategy, if it existed, was little more than a sales plan. Understanding and selling to customers was a simple task, with customers secondary to sales. In the late 70s, the sales orientation changed. Faced with rising costs and rigid regulators, many utilities disbanded their marketing departments. For those that remained, saving-not selling-energy became the order. Many utilities became adept at marketing load management and conservation. But instead of focusing on customer needs, their actions were largely driven by the goals of rate, regulatory, and forecasting departments. Rather than researching and influencing customers, marketers studied load shapes and supplies. As the process became more of a regulatory chore than a competitive choice, many marketers admitted they knew less about marketing (and their customers) than ever before. That admission-the recognition that marketing starts with customers and drives corporate strategy-was an important turning point for electric utility marketers. Now they must use their own evolving mindset to change the image of marketing in the minds of colleagues, executives, and regulators. They must position marketing as an opportunity to help their companies as well as their customers.

McChesney, S.

1994-02-01

43

Electric utilities as markets for advanced generating technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author, surveying the history and nature of the electric utility industry (investor-owned), has found that its management is pervaded by conservatism and risk aversion. Historical elements and the fact of its being a regulated monopoly left the industry ill prepared for technological innovation and for anticipating crucial socio-economic developments. All this must change, he implies, as electric utilities must

1978-01-01

44

Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Olmsted, L.L. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States); Bolin, J.W. [Virginia Power, Ashland, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

45

Thermal storage for electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

1977-01-01

46

Acid rain and electric utilities 2  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO{sub 2}, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO{sub x} control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances.

NONE

1997-12-31

47

Value of non-utility-generated electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 and the associated rulings of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) obligates the electric utilities to purchase electricity generated by qualifying facilities at the utility's avoided cost of alternative energy. No further indication of how this cost should be calculated is given and the actual implementation of the regulations is left

Jabbour

1985-01-01

48

A paradigm shift in electric utility mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, the importance of mapping systems has become obvious to most electric utilities. During this period, there has been overwhelming support for mapping systems designs which place the mapping system, usually implemented as a geographic information system (GIS), as the center of the utility data and operations model. Many electric utilities have been unsuccessful in the implementation

C. L. Smallwood

2003-01-01

49

Energy storage system for electric utility plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for storing excess energy produced by an electric utility during low energy demand periods, utilizing a closed system with a gaseous fluid as the energy storage medium and turbine working fluid. The fluid medium is stored at low pressure in an underground cavern which is located near a commercial electric utility system. During low energy demand

1982-01-01

50

Relationships between industrial cogenerators and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The installation and operation of a cogeneration project at an industrial site usually requires the development of contractual relationships with one or more electric utilities. Some contractual arrangements are usually necessary even if the industrial cogenerator is planning to consume all of the electrical output of the cogeneration facility instead of selling the output to one or more electric utilities.

1988-01-01

51

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01

52

Telecomm disaster recovery planning for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the rural electric utility operator with guidelines for telecomm disaster recovery planning. These considerations are for utilization during long-term telecommunications service outages and provide recommended alternative measures to be taken.

D. R. Banks

2005-01-01

53

Analysis of electric utility load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The Chairman requested GAO review electric utility load forecasting. He was specificially interested in forecasting methodologies, key variables, state of the art, and how conservation and small decentralized power resources are addressed. This report presents a summary of electric utility load forecasting as currently accomplished by utilities of various sizes. It highlights the many controversies surrounding forecasting and discusses how utilities are attempting to deal with the uncertainty inherent in forecasts of future power demand.

Not Available

1983-06-22

54

Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

1995-08-01

55

1996 International directory of electric utilities, eighth edition  

SciTech Connect

This is a directory of electric utilities arranged by major geographic region and by country within region. The directory provides statistics and commentary for almost 600 major utilities in 208 countries and territories and includes their history, infrastructure, installed capacity, electric transmission and distribution systems, future plans, and privatization strategies. In addition the directory contains names, titles, addresses, etc. for hundreds of managers and executives, plus a list of major power plants per country.

Bergesen, C. [ed.

1995-12-31

56

Top 100 electric utilities 1978 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Electric Light and Power analysis of the top 100 electric utilities in the United States, power plant efficiency continued its long-term decline in 1978. Four large tables give 1978 data on heat rate, peak demand and capability, type of generation in the system, and transmission and distribution lines in operation for each of the 100 utilities. Six

Smock

1979-01-01

57

Customer service enhancement in electrical utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utility industry in India is undergoing fundamental changes. Cogeneration, independent power production and competition from utility marketers is emerging. Larger industrial customers are opting to produce power themselves. Some of them may even opt for quality power by wheeling from distant sources. In this environment, the electricity industry's perception of its customer should change. The role of an

M. Hanumantha Sastry; G. Krishna Prasad

1998-01-01

58

Autonomously managed electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

Callis, Charles P.

1986-01-01

59

Relationships between industrial cogenerators and electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The installation and operation of a cogeneration project at an industrial site usually requires the development of contractual relationships with one or more electric utilities. Some contractual arrangements are usually necessary even if the industrial cogenerator is planning to consume all of the electrical output of the cogeneration facility instead of selling the output to one or more electric utilities. This paper describes the principal issues involved in the development of electric power purchase and sales rates, including supplemental power services, and contract terms and conditions. Attention is given to issues such as utility rate design principles, wheeling, losses and regulatory proceedings. A general approach is described for maximum effectiveness in dealing with electric utilities for the successful implementation of a cogeneration project.

Collier, S.E. (C.H. Guernsey and Co., Oklahoma City, OK (US))

1988-01-01

60

Electric utility companies and geothermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1976-01-01

61

Impact of solar heating and cooling of buildings on electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of widespread utilization of solar heating and cooling of buildings on the planning cost and production of electric power systems is discussed with special reference to the techniques for reducing peaks of electrical demand by adequately designed solar systems. After considering utility production costs, their relation to electric load profiles, electric generation planning, and load management, several basic

A. S. Debs

1980-01-01

62

Efficient electric-utility operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eelctric utilities should be organized to provide reliable service at the lowest possible cost. Changes should be made to eliminate outdated procedures and institute new methods of operation in those areas that will respond to efficiency improvements. The author describes his efficiency-rating system, which should apply to a 12-month monitoring schedule. His major concerns are land rights, tree clearing, lightning,

Seevers

1982-01-01

63

Top 100 electric utilities 1976 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of 1976 performance data on the top 100 investor-owned electric utilities indicates several trends that are considered discouraging. Details are summarized in charts listing the utilities in order of their rank in four categories: heat rates and fuel consumption; peak demand and capability; type of generation; and transmission and distribution lines in operation. Heat rates have not improved in

Smock

1977-01-01

64

Top 100 electric utilities' 1982 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the electric utility industry's 100 top-performing investor-owned companies finds only 42 with increases in peak demand during 1982, compared with 53 in 1981 and 82 in 1980. Other significant changes are a 31% decline in oil consumption as utilities convert back to coal, an increase in reserve margins from 23% to 29% since 1980, and a deteriorating

Smock

1983-01-01

65

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity  

E-print Network

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii Contents Introduction

66

Statistics of publicly owned electric utilities, 1981 annual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1981 edition of Statistics of Publicly Owned Electric Utilities in the United States includes an index listing of the names of each reporting municipal utility by state, or states, in which it operates. Summaries containing data from all 162 municipal electric utilities include: balance sheet and statements for income accounts, electric operating revenues, electric utility plant, electric operation and

S. E. Jr

1983-01-01

67

Essays in the regulation of electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The impact of alternative methods of selecting public utility commissioners and other politically determined variables on three major aspects of privately owned and regulated electric utilities was examined. First, it focuses on the bond ratings of these firms. Second, it examines the profitability of regulated electric utilities by estimating the accounting and conditional internal rates of return. Third, it investigates the overall and inter-group price inequalities that results from differential customer-class pricing schemes. The analysis indicates that elected PUCs significantly increase the probability of lower bond ratings. This implies that the electric utilities under the jurisdiction of elected PUCs incur higher costs in raising capital in the debt market. Other politically determined variables such as automatic fuel adjustment clause, staff size, PUC budget, and the number of commissioners are also significant in influencing bond ratings. The empirical evidence suggests that the method of selecting PUC commissioners is an important determinant of the (conditional) internal rate of return. Electric utilities under elected PUCs earn higher internal rates of return than the firms under appointed PUCs. In contrast, the selection method has no significant influence on the accounting rates of return.

Mishra, B.

1987-01-01

68

Production cost adjustment mechanism for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of developing a general production cost-adjustment mechanism for electric utilities within a given regulated territory is discussed. Cost-adjustment mechanisms have been an integral part of the utility rate regulation process since the mid-nineteenth century. However, economic conditions have not warranted significant usage of such mechanisms except in periods of economic instability and high inflation. Recent inflation, particularly in

Lamb

1976-01-01

69

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities. I - Electric utility requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water battery was evaluated in an analytical and conceptual design study as a load-leveling system for an electric utility. The water battery produced hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water during periods when off-peak electrical power was available. During peak demand periods, the water battery, operating in the reverse mode, functioned as a fuel cell by producing electrical power

V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry; J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman

1977-01-01

70

PRODCOST: an electric utility generation simulation code  

SciTech Connect

The PRODCOST computer code simulates the operation of an electric utility generation system. Through a probabilistic simulation the expected energy production, fuel consumption, and cost of operation for each plant are determined. Total system fuel consumption, energy generation by type, total generation costs, as well as system loss of load probability and expected unserved energy are also calculated.

Hudson, II, C. R.; Reynolds, T. M.; Smolen, G. R.

1981-02-01

71

Top 100 electric utilities' 1979 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the 1979 operating statistics of the 100 top electric utilities shows trends in fuel consumption, improved efficiency, and new strength in reserve margins. Fuel oil consumption dropped nearly 18%, the first decline since the survey began eight years ago. Ten tables summarize national trends, and the performance of individual companies in fossil-fuel consumption, reserve margins, generating capability,

Smock

1980-01-01

72

Top 100 electric utilities 1977 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top 100 electric utilities report 1977 operating data that continues to show shrinking reserve margins, a declining generating-unit efficiency, and rising oil consumption. Data on each company breaks down heat rates and fuel consumption by fuel, peak demand and capability, type of generation in the system, and transmission\\/distribution lines in operation. Seasonal peak demand rose for the second year

Smock

1978-01-01

73

Reliability analysis of electric utility SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility SCADA systems must be highly reliable given the potential for the SCADA system to directly contribute to load curtailment. This paper presents an analysis of SCADA system reliability in terms of its expected, aggregate contribution to load curtailment on the power system. Expressing this aggregate in system minutes and applying an appropriate damage cost function then provides an

A. G. Bruce

1998-01-01

74

Utilization management: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego

2014-01-01

75

Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

Coughlin, Katie

2014-12-01

76

Top 100 electric utilities' 1980 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1980 operating data for the top 100 investor-owned electric utilities are presented in 10 tables comparing fossil-fuel consumption, reserve margins, generating capability, generating units by heat rate, heat rates, system heat rate, capacity addition, peak demand and capability, type of generation in the system, and transmission and distribution lines in operation. The summer heat wave raised peak demand 5.4% over

Smock

1981-01-01

77

Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important—rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in

Elizabeth J. Wilson; Joseph Plummer; Miriam Fischlein; Timothy M. Smith

2008-01-01

78

Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

Not Available

1994-11-01

79

Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

80

Utilization Management in the Blood Transfusion Service  

PubMed Central

The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center. PMID:24080431

Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter “Sunny”

2015-01-01

81

Design of legal audits for utilization management.  

PubMed

Liability for managed care risks, the enactment of detailed state regulation of utilization management and the process requirements of accreditation agencies and managed care customers all create the need for new approaches to legal auditing. Concepts from industrial quality management theory can be used to define process elements that serve the legal adequacy of the utilization management process. The information systems that record information gathered and judgments made by reviewers and generate basic notices of certification can be designed so as to produce data relevant to compliance and liability management. These key process elements then can be analyzed statistically to develop plans for preventive counseling. PMID:10116957

Neiditz, J A; Schaffer, W A

1991-01-01

82

Bring real capitalism to electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

Powers, B.F.

1991-01-15

83

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

84

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

85

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities: Part I--Electric utility requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water battery, a reversible water electrolyser device being developed in a long-term research effort at Battelle's Columbus Laboratories, was evaluated in an analytical and conceptual design study as a load-levelling system for an electric utility. During periods when off-peak electrical power was available, the water battery would produce hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water; during peak demand periods

V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry; J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman

1977-01-01

86

The power of light in electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

There are ample reasons the investment in a nationwide information network should include electric utilities. If the country fails to develop such a network quickly and effectively through changed national policy, the economy and productivity will suffer. The merging of electric utilities and communications is barely imaginable now. Twenty years ago it would have been a science fiction story. But such a union, which not long ago would have seemed strange and purely speculative, now has the potential to recreate both the power and telecommunications businesses. That vision is beginning to stir the public. There are forces driving the industry toward such a new self-definition - (1) The end of scale economies and lack of technological improvement in large scale generation; (2) The inability of the nation's communications networks to implement real-time pricing; (3) The U.S.'s low savings rate and its negative affect on domestic capital accumulation; (4) The industry's stagnant sales market, which is already targeted for capture by nonutility generators (NUGs).

Brown, S.N.

1994-02-01

87

Manager's guide to electrical power quality  

SciTech Connect

Electronic equipment has become exceedingly sensitive to the electrical environment. Industry standards to cope with this sensitivity have not been available when needed. Therefore, the term power quality has emerged as a catch-all to explain almost any malfunction of electronic equipment. When a malfunction occurs, for whatever reason, power quality can be invoked to make the power system the scapegoat and the equipment, or its installation, blameless. The power quality syndrome includes such issues as grounding, radio interference, transients, outages, harmonics, etc. Power compatibility or electrical environment compatibility (EEC) would be a more objective term to substitute for power quality. The sensitivity of today's electronic equipment arises from the equipment designers' lack of understanding and concern for the realities of the electrical environment and, to some extent, the utilities' lack of concern of the users' application problems. Consequently, to avoid process interruptions, the user's manager must mediate between the equipment and the power system. The manager must insure that specifications exist for both the equipment and all facets of the plant electrical environment, along with test procedures to insure that these specifications are met. The objective of this article is to show how a manager can handle EEC and, thus, avoid costly redesigns and down time of electrical equipment. Common fallacies, tools for defining the electrical equipment. Common fallacies, tools for defining the electrical environment and some applicable standards (existing and emerging) will also be discussed.

Ludbrook, A. (Ludbrook and Associates, Dundas, Ontario (Canada))

1993-05-01

88

Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement, 1986 (EIA826). Data file  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of Form EIA-826 formerly FERC-5, Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement, is to collect data necessary to fulfill regulatory responsibility; identify near-term trends in energy use; and contingency analysis. This form is filed monthly by approximately 150 electric utilities. All privately owned electric utilities with annual electric operating revenues of $100,000,000 or more must respond. In addition, the sample includes

C. Harris-Russell; R. Marcotte

1986-01-01

89

Eocnomic Operation of Distributed Power Systems Within an Electric Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluate the economic operation of distributed power systems within regional synthetic utilities, analyzing the interactions with the utility of customers who can both buy and sell power. These analyses utilize a linked set of economic, financial and engineering models. SYSGEN, an electric utility system operating model, optimizes annual capacity utilization. SYSGEN provides the operation and maintenance data required

Richard Tabors; Susan Finger; Alan Cox

1981-01-01

90

Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

NONE

1995-12-15

91

Homeostatic control: the utility/customer marketplace for electric power  

SciTech Connect

A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the customer and the utility and on customer independence. The utility has no control beyond the customer's meter. Computers located at the customer's site are continuously fed data on weather conditions, utility generating costs, and demand requirements for space conditioning, lighting, and appliances. The customer then directs the computer to schedule and control the power allotted for these functions. On-site generation by the customer can be incorporated in the system. It is argued that homeostatic control is technically feasible, that the level of control equipment sophistication can be adapted to the benefits received by the customer, that such a system would encourage the use of customer-site energy storage and energy conservation equipment, and that it represents a realistic method for allowing the customer to decide how he will use electric power during an era of increasing costs for power generation. (LCL)

Schweppe, F.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Kirtley, J.L.

1981-09-01

92

Utilizing optimization in municipal stormwater management  

E-print Network

is also provided on a current linear programming optimization model-Parameters, such as relationships between costs to implement stormwater management practices and their associated pollutant removal efficiencies, needed in the utilization of the model...

Dorman, Stephen Paul

1995-01-01

93

Utility Systems Management and Operational Optimization  

E-print Network

Utility System Management and Operational Optimization Vikas Dhole Darryl Seillier and Kathleen Garza Aspen Technology Inc Aspen Technology Inc Ten Canal Park 1293 Eldridge Parkway Cambridge MA Houston TX Abstract The provision of an adequate...

Dhole, V.; Seillier, D.; Garza, K.

94

Electric utility migration to regional transmission operations: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many engineers and planners can benefit from an account of the experiences and technical challenges encountered at one large Mid-Atlantic electric utility during the migration from a traditional, integrated utility into several functionally separate entities in order to allow open electric transmission access. The new utility organization is based on requirements given in the 1996 FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)

James W. Chuck Greene

2007-01-01

95

A new Shared Architecture for integrating electric utility control centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared Architecture provides the infrastructure for an electric utility to integrate control center systems with other utility operations systems using the principles of a Service Oriented Architecture. In the electric utility environment, software systems may have been purchased from different vendors or built in-house, resulting in a diverse computing environment with point to point interfaces between these systems. The Shared

James Waight; Tom O'Brien

2010-01-01

96

Advanced generating technologies - Motivation and selection process in electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric utilities are constantly seeking advanced methods for generating electricity to meet the future demand. The primary motivation for the development of advanced technologies is to generate electricity with minimum damage to the environment and with resources that are abundant. The utility planner evaluates the role of these technologies in the future system considering both quantifiable and nonquantifiable benefits and risks involved.

Bhavaraju, Murty P.

1993-03-01

97

Utility planning implications of efficient electric cooking in a developing country: Case of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine implications of electric cooking as a demand-side management (DSM) option for power development plans, as well as emission of pollutants, for the predominantly hydroelectric utility of Nepal. Options considered include seasonal and year-round electric cooking with high- and low-efficiency appliances. For both types of appliances, seasonal electric cooking is economically and environmentally attractive. However, substantial reductions in electricity

Ram M. Shrestha; Gopal B. Bhattarai

1995-01-01

98

Utilizing Interns in Facilities Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facilities management is rapidly changing and developing from a position an individual stumbles into--or work one's way up through--to a discipline and vocation all of its own. There is a need for a collaborative strategy among leaders in practice, education, and research to share knowledge and experience and to establish professional and ethical…

Judkins, Clarissa; Morris, John P.; Molocznik, Chuck

2011-01-01

99

Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1991-01-01

100

Future Competitive Positioning of Electric Utilities and their Customers  

E-print Network

This paper addresses the future competitive positioning of electric and gas utilities and their industrial customers. Each must respond to a dramatic reshaping of the utility industry while confronting aggressive environmental pressures and taking...

Schrock, D.; Parker, G.; Baechler, M.

101

Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

Not Available

1995-02-01

102

DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

Klein, S. A.

1994-01-01

103

A generalized information management system applied to electrical distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system solution approach to information management for electrical distribution that meets the requirements being imposed by industry trends and the electric utility customer is presented. The approach is based on three significant phenomena in the computer industry: the replacement of traditional mainframe computer solutions with networked microcomputer and workstation solutions; the emergence of a standards-based software products industry; and

K. I. Geisler; S. A. Neumann; T. D. Nielsen; P. K. Bower; B. A. Hughes

1990-01-01

104

Statistical year book of the electric utility industry, 1980. [Monograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal US source of electricity is the total electric-utility industry segment which includes all plants commonly referred to as contributing to the public supply. Industrial, railroad, and railway plants are operated mainly for their own use, but through interconnections with utility systems make some contribution to the public supply. Complete information in this publication is given for the total

Bailey

1981-01-01

105

Internal supply chain coordination in the electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities have a well-established vertical internal and external supply chain. Theoretically, information sharing, involving production, inventory, and other policy variables, between chain entities can improve supply chain performance. Such sharing relies on a systematic determination of the optimal policy variables for the chain. This paper presents an analysis of the electric utility's decision problem based on an optimal control

Guisseppi A. Forgionne; Zhiling Guo

2009-01-01

106

SHACOB: requirements definition and impact analysis. Final report, June 1978. [Impact on electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of various SHACOB design concepts on the electric utilities and their customers and to define system requirements for optimizing this impact. The systems analyzed in detail were direct solar systems with and without a load management capability, solar assisted heat pumps, and customer load management systems. These systems were

C. K. Cretcher; W. C. Melton

1978-01-01

107

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02

108

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

NONE

1995-07-14

109

A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management  

PubMed Central

Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP]) in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV) meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services. PMID:25774321

Hauser, Ronald G.; Jackson, Brian R.; Shirts, Brian H.

2015-01-01

110

Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning  

SciTech Connect

Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

1994-09-01

111

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

112

1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

Not Available

1982-01-01

113

Electric Utility Rate Design Study: estimating the benefits of peak-load pricing for electric utilities, Topic 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research on the benefits electric utilities may expect from the implementation of peak-load pricing. Benefits examined are possible reductions in operating and capital expenditures for generation. The report covers three major topics: (1) a preliminary analysis of utility peaking characteristics, from which a given utility's potential for the beneficial implementation of peak-load pricing can be determined; (2)

1977-01-01

114

Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

2006-09-01

115

Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

Not Available

1994-01-01

116

An overview of large wind turbine tests by electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of recent plants and experiences on current large wind turbine (WT) tests being conducted by electric utilities is provided. The test programs discussed do not include federal research and development (R&D) programs, many of which are also being conducted in conjunction with electric utilities. The information presented is being assembled in a project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the objective of which is to provide electric utilities with timely summaries of test performance on key large wind turbines. A summary of key tests, test instrumentation, and recent results and plans is given. During the past year, many of the utility test programs initiated have encountered test difficulties that required specific WT design changes. However, test results to date continue to indicate that long-term machine performance and cost-effectiveness are achievable.

Vachon, W. A.; Schiff, D.

1982-01-01

117

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2010-01-01

118

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2014-01-01

119

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2013-01-01

120

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2011-01-01

121

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2012-01-01

122

What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility  

E-print Network

The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...

Jensen, C. V.

123

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

SciTech Connect

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

Hirst, E.

1991-11-01

124

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

SciTech Connect

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

Hirst, E.

1991-11-01

125

The German Electrical Utility Industry During World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Although the German electrical utility undertakings had facilities for nation-wide interconnections, and although they had a well co-ordinated operating organization, the German electrical utilities did not succeed in nation-wide interconnected operation, mainly because of technical limitations. 2. Germany, like the United States, entered the period of World War II with identical percentages of spare capacity. Germany, unlike the United

John G. Noest

1947-01-01

126

Electric utility responses to grid security issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the different initiatives that utility decision makers have set in place to address the vulnerability of the US power grid to physical and cyber attacks. One of the efforts to enhance grid security is EPRI's Infrastructure Security Initiative (ISI), which was designed to develop both prevention countermeasures and enhanced recovery capabilities. To protect against cyber attacks, several

R. Schainker; J. Douglas; T. Kropp

2006-01-01

127

Top 100 electric utilities' 1984 operating performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highlights of the 1984 annual review of operating data from the 100 largest investor-owned utilities note that oil consumption plummeted, peak demand rose only modestly, and new nuclear plants provided a slight boost in generating capacity. Data from individual companies are shown in four large tables, with summaries in smaller tables which show changes in fossil fuel consumption, peak

Smock

1985-01-01

128

Top 100 electric utilities' 1983 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A midwestern heat wave and economic recovery during the second half of 1983 allowed 82 utilities in the top 100 to show gains in peak demand, compared to only 42 companies in 1982. Analysis of this year's annual growth of 4.2% indicates a resumption of strong demand growth. Data for the analysis come from the 1983 Uniform Statistical reports of

Smock

1984-01-01

129

Marketing Reordering of the Electric Utility Industry  

E-print Network

for existing, oper ating units. Combined, these ominous developments led to rapidly rising electricity costs. The golden goose laid a lead egg. We had entered a new era, a political era, in which the prevailing attitude would be one of at tempting...

Anderson, J. A.

130

Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program  

SciTech Connect

Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working professionals wishing to update their skills or increase their knowledge of utility engineering design practices and procedures. By providing graduate educational opportunities for the above groups, the T&D Program will help serve a strong industry need for training the next generation of engineers in the cost-effective design, construction, operation, and maintenance of modern electrical transmission and distribution systems. In addition to developing the on-line engineering courses described above, the T&D Program also focused significant efforts towards enhancing the training opportunities available to power system operators in the northwest. These efforts have included working with outside vendors to provide NERC-approved training courses in Gonzaga University's (GU) system operator training facility, support for an accurate system model which can be used in regional blackstart exercises, and the identification of a retired system operator who could provide actual regional training courses. The GU system operator training facility is also being used to recruit young workers, veterans, and various under-represented groups to the utility industry. Over the past three years students from Columbia Gorge Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, Walla Walla Community College, Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Gonzaga University, and various local high schools have attended short (one-day) system operator training courses free of charge. These collaboration efforts has been extremely well received by both students and industry, and meet T&D Program objectives of strengthening the power industry workforce while bridging the knowledge base across power worker categories, and recruiting new workers to replace a predominantly retirement age workforce. In the past three years the T&D Program has provided over 170 utility engineers with access to advanced engineering courses, been involved in training more than 300 power system operators, and provided well over 500 college and high school students with an experienc

Peter McKenny

2010-08-31

131

Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-04-01

132

Electric-utility financing: let's ease off the panic button  

SciTech Connect

The author makes two points: (1) the deterioration of the financial condition of America's investor-owned electric utilities has often been overstated, or signs of the utilities' revival have not been sufficiently noted; and (2) regulation as an institution is not the primary contributing cause to such deterioration as has occurred. The article essays to document these affirmations. 37 references, 9 figures.

Foley, M.

1983-01-06

133

Modest proposal for the partial deregulation of electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes that electric utilities be allowed to create subsidiaries to build and operate certain controversial power-generation projects as if they, the subsidiaries, were in whole or in part small power producers, with the utilities purchasing the projects' power at their own avoided-cost rates. The author argues that the proposal could accomplish, at least in part, three worthwhile goals:

1983-01-01

134

Outlook for California`s electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state`s electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC`s employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California.

Frank, S.E.

1996-03-01

135

Electric-utility oil and gas use in the eighties  

SciTech Connect

This report forecasts possible levels of oil and gas use by electric utilities in the US through 1990. The analysis is done at a regional level. High and low levels of electricity demand as well as nominal and diminished availability of new generating capacity are assumed. Projected oil and gas use for 1990 ranges from 1000 to 3200 barrels per day.

Kolstad, C D; Abbey, D S; Martinez, A J; Williams, D S; Wolak, Jr, F A; Yeamans, M K

1982-04-01

136

Top 100 electric utilities' 1981 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top 100 investor-owned utilities experienced a slowing in peak-load growth and an increase in generating-reserve margins during 1981. Data from the Uniform Statistical Reports compares 1981 fuel consumption, heat rate, generating-capacity additions, and transmission\\/distribution systems. Milder weather in 1981 brought the 1980 peak of 5.4% down to 1.2%, suggesting a peak-load growth rate of 3% that is independent of

Smock

1982-01-01

137

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric utility obligations under this subpart...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...Policies Act of 1978 § 292.303 Electric utility obligations under this...

2011-04-01

138

Integrated support systems for electric utility operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of tools and systems used to support power dispatch and other duties of the typical power system operations department. The major issues faced in systems integration are identified. The path taken by one company to integrate energy management systems (EMS), workstations, desktop computers, networks, and applications is described. The architecture presented allows the distribution of real-time

H. W. Hong; C. F. Imparato; D. L. Becker; J. H. Malinowski

1992-01-01

139

Building a winning electric utility organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key factor that will differentiate the winners and losers is the speed with which they build their skills and enhance their performance focus. Setting the ‘right’ aspirations, then effectively managing the change process, will be critical for winning power companies.

Gary Farha; Kevin Keough; Les Silverman

1996-01-01

140

Utility system integration and optimization models for nuclear power management  

E-print Network

A nuclear power management model suitable for nuclear utility systems optimization has been developed for use in multi-reactor fuel management planning over periods of up to ten years. The overall utility planning model ...

Deaton, Paul Ferris

1973-01-01

141

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01

142

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Volume 3, Guidelines for Fabrics and Bags, provides a comprehensive guide for the procurement of fiberglass filter bags for utility baghouses. Utility baghouse operators must have a knowledge of fabric and bag construction to specify and obtain fiberglass filter bags that will provide food service in their baghouses. This volume describes the type of glass used in fabric filter bags, the properties of glass that enable a bag made from fiberglass fabric to withstand baghouse operating conditions, and the manufacturing of fiberglass filaments, strands and yarns. The types of weaves most commonly used are included in a discussion of the production of fiberglass filter fabric, and the types of finishes used on bag fabrics to lubricate and protect the glass at high temperatures are described. In addition, this volume contains an explanation of proper filter bag construction procedures including lay-up and cutting, stitching, seaming, cuffing, ringing, fabricating caps, inspecting, and packaging. A list of bag manufacturers and a cross-reference of model and style numbers of these manufacturers is provided. Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications and quality control procedures for the acquisition of filter bags, along with a discussion of the test methods used to assure that the procurement specifications have been met. The steps involved in the installation of filter bags are explained. These steps include the inspection of bags when received; storage of bags; preparation, precautions, and procedures for hanging bags; attachment to thimbles at the tubesheet; attachment to bag suspension systems; tensioning; inspection; and retensioning. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fabric alternatives to glass are reviewed. At the end of this publication, an Appendix provides an example of a utility bag specification to aid in bag procurement.

Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (USA)); Grubb, W.T. (Grubb Filtration Testing Services, Inc., Delran, NJ (USA)); Giovanni, D.V. (Electric Power Technologies, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

143

Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

144

Real and imagined restrictions on electric utility fuel use of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freedom to consider different fuel options - among them, use of natural gas - is valuable to managers and planners. However federal policy - or at least a perception of policy - inhibits choice. A widespread belief persists that federal laws prohibit or discourage most uses of natural gas by electric utilities. Doubt or error about these laws distorts effective

Bardin

1985-01-01

145

An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

2012-01-06

146

Competitive procurement of electric utility resources  

SciTech Connect

This reference describes the complete competitive procurement process life cycle, providing an overview of the building and resource planning process, basic tasks and issues associated with the solicitation design, price evaluation, determination and evaluation of nonprice factors, issuance of requests for proposal (RFPs) and evaluation logistics, awards and contract negotiation, and post- contract follow-up. Though this report does not attempt to design particular programs, it does explain the procurement process in detail and illustrates major design considerations and decisions. Because of the use of bidding in the purchase of new electric resources is a unique development in the industry, this document offers a concise and effective overview of the various methods used today, combining the most current and viable information on the topic. Moreover, it highlights the differences between demand-side and supply-side procurement and describes the analytical steps in the integrated resource planning process, with emphasis on supply-side bidding.

Fox-Penner, S.; O'Rourke, P.; Spinney, P.J. (Charles River Associates, Inc., Boston, MA (USA))

1990-07-01

147

Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

148

National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Utility Reference File, 1980: Electric Utility Data Base. Data file  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of emission-inventory activities within the National Acid Precipitation Program (NAPAP) is to estimate emissions of pollutants of concern to the acid-deposition phenomenon. Electric utilities emit a large share of total acid-deposition precursor emissions. The purpose of the study was to produce a 1980 utility data base that met the needs of NAPAP task groups for utility data. Special

Mobley

1980-01-01

149

Industrial co-generation: Its utilization by the electric utility business  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Co-Generation has not only an adverse impact on electric utility earnings, but also a positive impact, in that it permits a reduction in capital expenditures related to construction of new generation plants as a means of meeting future load growth. A utility can benefit economically by persuading companies considering industrial co-generation to use their generators for peak load shaving only. This would reduce their maximum demand cost, and also allows the utility to normalize its maximum system demand.

Basu, S. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States); Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-11-01

150

An overview of Madison Gas and Electric's energy management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes salient features of the Madison Gas and Electric Company (MGE) energy management system (EMS) which became fully operational in late 1989. The use and utility of the various EMS capabilities are also discussed. The following EMS features are discussed: historical SCADA data recording and reconstruction; alarm subsystem; report generator with relational database; critical task monitor; integrated source

D. Shimko; A. K. Jampala

1993-01-01

151

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and kWh sales. It then recouples revenues to something else, such as growth in the number of customers, the determinants of changes in fixed costs, or the determinants of changes in electricity use. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling:revenue-per- customer (RPC) decoupling, RPC decoupling with a factor that allows for changes in electricity use per customer, and statistical recoupling. We used data from five utilities to see how the three methods perform in terms of electicity-price volatility and ease of implementation. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

152

Management structure: establishing a laboratory utilization program and tools for utilization management.  

PubMed

As laboratories are challenged to do more with fewer resources, the pathologist and laboratory director will play a greater role in improving the effectiveness of the laboratory, as well as addressing the overuse, misuse and underuse of laboratory testing. We describe the necessary characteristics for pathologists and laboratory directors to successfully lead utilization efforts, as well as key leadership tools and essential steps in creating a utilization management program. When we established a laboratory test utilization program de novo, it became clear how important the laboratory director was in guiding those initiatives by working with stakeholders outside of the laboratory, particularly clinicians, nurses and administrators. PMID:24076254

Snozek, Christine; Kaleta, Erin; Hernandez, James S

2014-01-01

153

Regulation, pricing, and comparative performance in the US electric utility industry by ownership type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this report is to assess issues that differentiate investor-owned electric utilities and publicly owned electric utilities in the context of providing recommendations for modeling the US electric utility industry on the basis of ownership type. Four ownership types were included for evaluation: (1) investor-owned electric utilities; (2) state\\/municipal electric systems (which include municipally owned electric utilities, state and

L. J. Hill; R. C. Tepel

1985-01-01

154

The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan's regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

1991-06-17

155

Effects of resource acquisitions on electric-utility shareholders  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to see how shareholders fare when the utility acquires different kinds of resources. The resources considered are utility-built, -operated, and -owned power plants with different combinations of construction and operation costs; purchases of power; and DSM programs. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility`s operating environment. Our treatment of regulation considers the frequency and type (future vs historic test year) of rate cases, inclusion of construction work in progress in ratebase vs allowance for funds used during construction, ratebase vs expensing of DSM programs, book and tax depreciation schedules, possible disallowances of ``excess`` power-plant or DSM capital costs, and possible lack of adjustment for ``excess`` fuel or purchased power costs. The tax policies we studied include the existence and rates for property, sales, and income taxes and the existence and regulatory treatment of deferred taxes. The utility`s operating environment includes the overall inflation rate, load-growth rate, escalation in nonproduction expenses, and nongeneration construction (capital) requirements. Finally, given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we briefly considered alternatives to traditional cost-of-service regulation. We examined shareholder returns for the resources described above in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1994-05-01

156

Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dayal, P. [ed.] [Tucson Electric Power Co., AZ (United States)

1995-12-31

157

Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

Miller, R. A.

1986-01-01

158

Decision of electric utilities to complete or cancel nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

The dissertation examined the decision of electric utilities in the United States to cancel or complete nuclear reactors. The model attempted to identify the significant factors that influenced the utility's decision. The time period for the study was from 1970 to 1983. The study used to logit qualitative response model. This model was used because the dependent variable was a binary choice between completing and cancelling nuclear reactors. The primary data sources were the Atomic Industrial Forum and the Energy Information Administration. The model was estimated using maximum likelihood methods. The study also uses ridge regression technique to evaluate the empirical findings. The empirical results provided some interesting policy implications for the electric utility industry. A significant result of the study was the evidence suggesting that the electric utilities were cancelling nuclear reactors because of changes in the demand for electricity. The firms were apparently cancelling the nuclear reactor without making any commitment on future methods of generation. Unfortunately the results provide us with little insight into the choice of electrical generation the industry will mostly likely pursue.

Wynne, K.J.

1985-01-01

159

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

160

Potential impacts of climate change on electric utilities: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an analysis of the potential impacts of greenhouse-gas-induced climate on electric utility planning and operations. A case study approach was used; utility systems in the Southeastern US and New York State were analyzed over the period 1986 to 2015. Principal tasks were: (1) the development of alternate climate change (i.e. temperature change) scenarios reflecting the diversity in

K. P. Linder; M. J. Gibbs; M. R. Inglis

1989-01-01

161

The top 100 electric utilities 1993 operating performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Top 100 investor-owned utilities again lowered the median heat rate, to 10,492 Btu\\/kWh in 1992, while Commonwealth Energy system held the lowest total system heat rate for the third year in a row, according to Electric Light Power. Duke Power claimed the lowest baseload unit heat rate in 1992 among investor-owned utilities in EL P's yearly Top 100 Operating

M. T. Hoske; H. Stein

1993-01-01

162

Electric load management and energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

Kheir, N. A.

1976-01-01

163

Electric Power Controller for Steering Wheel Management in Electric Cars  

E-print Network

of driverless car traveling around the cities is a utopia. However, some advances in this way have been achievedElectric Power Controller for Steering Wheel Management in Electric Cars Vicente Milanés, Joshué}@iai.csic.es Abstract- driverless driving is one of the most interesting topics in the field of the intelligent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF ELECTRICAL UTILITY LINEMEN TO PENTACHLOROPHENOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) for a crew of electrical utility linemen was monitored over a 6-month period by using total PCP in urine per gram of creatinine as a biological monitoring parameter. Urine samples were collected from three groups: A, B, and control, at a 4-week frequency during 1989. Group A was required to use new gloves after each

K. S. Thind; S. Karmali; R. A. House

1991-01-01

165

Diesel sport utility vehicles with hybrid electric drive trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) applied to sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with diesel engines. Two SUVs currently available in the U.S. market have been selected as the representative vehicles used in this study, which consists of the modeling and simulation of the vehicles as close as possible to the manufacturer's specifications and then running the

I. J. Albert; E. Kahrimanovic; A. Emadi

2004-01-01

166

Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

occur in the evening and early morning hours. This shifting of electrical demand has the effect of "flattening" the load cwe which is beneficial to the utility and ultimately to the customer, a true win-win situation (refer to Fie 1). Figure 1... providing a %-win" situation overall. ...

Niehus, T. L.

1994-01-01

167

Economic impact of integrating photovoltaics with conventional electric utility operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters which impact the value of photovoltaics (PV) to the electric utility is examined. High, medium, and low-load days in winter (January) and summer (July) are studied. The daily peak load is varied from 5838 MW to 9712 MW. These six days are studied for reference (no PV), high, medium, low, and intermittent-PV output cases. Results from these 30

Saifur Rahman

1990-01-01

168

DYNAMIC RISK MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRICITY PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

DYNAMIC RISK MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRICITY PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION VIA POLYHEDRAL RISK FUNCTIONALS the dynamic decision structure appropriately. In energy risk management, which is typically carried out ex, for integrating risk management into a stochastic optimization framework, risk has to be quantified in a definite

Eichhorn, Andreas

169

Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

170

The Electric Utility Industry--Change and Challenge  

E-print Network

that shifts in technologies, economics, regulations, and relations with customers requires a renewed focus on the effective management of change strategic management. Anybody Who Thinks The Industry Hasn't Changed Isn't Paying Attention For most..., quality circles, and strategic planning are but a few of the latest buzzwords making their way around utilities these days. The terms are frequently misunderstood, are sometimes intimidating, and consequently may get in the way of implementing improved...

Williams, M. H.

171

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

1997-10-15

172

Wind turbines for electric utilities - Development status and economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a 'fuel saver' is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

1979-01-01

173

Penetration of wind electric conversion systems into the utility grid  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the development of appropriate models for the interconnected operation of wind generator clusters with an autonomous power system and simulation techniques for the study of the degree of penetration of such wind electric conversion devices when operating in parallel with the utility grid. The quality of the interconnected system performance is specified in terms of operational constraints and the resultant penetration strategy is implemented via a microprocessor-based control scheme. The strategy assures a satisfactory level of system performance while optimizing the available energy transfer from the wind generators to the utility grid.

Vachtsevanos, G.J.; Kalaitzakis, K.C.

1985-07-01

174

Wind turbines for electric utilities: Development status and economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a fuel saver is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

1979-01-01

175

A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets  

SciTech Connect

This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

Warwick, William M.

2002-06-03

176

A nonlinear bilevel model for analysis of electric utility demand-side planning issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of bilevel programming in the electric utility industry is presented. The model is nonlinear and is used to analyze various economic issues that affect electric utility planning. The electric utility at the upper level of the model seeks to minimize costs or maximize benefits while controlling electric rates and subsidizing energy conservation programs. Customers at the lower level

Benjamin F. Hobbs; Sushil K. Nelson

1992-01-01

177

Near-Zero-Energy Homes Help Electric Utilities Meet Record System Peaks  

SciTech Connect

Five near zero energy houses (ZEH) are under test at an energy research park near Oak Ridge, TN. Data from 2006-2007 show that these homes have {approx}7 kW lower summer peak electric demand than typical conventional homes in the same region. Combining 17,000 such homes in a 'zero energy neighbourhood' could provide a utility with peak demand management capability equivalent to a 120 MW power plant.

Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL

2007-01-01

178

Structure of the electric utility industry, 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A vector of normalized inputs to a hypothetical 1990 electric-utility industry is created. Inputs and outputs from the industry are all considered as homogeneous components of Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) economic sectors at approximately the 2-digit (83-sector) level of aggregation. While the sector definitions are BEA-compatible, the vector is created at a 90-sector level of detail for use within the Energy Research Group (ERG) energy input-output model. The vector is listed as ERGELIN. The normalized vector of depreciation capital inputs is stored as ELINDEP. The sum of the two is the final depreciation-corrected vector of 1990 electric-utility industry inputs and is stored as EGELIND. All vectors have units Btu/Btue (1st five sectors) and $1967 per million Btue.

Penner, P.S.

1980-04-01

179

A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

NONE

1993-08-11

180

Dynamics of Wind Generators on Electric Utility Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic interaction of wind-turbine-driven generators on electric utility networks was studied by computer simulation. Nonlinear representations of wind-turbine and various drive train elements and Park equation representations of synchronous and induction generators were implemented. An infinite capacity network was assumed. Time history responses for various system configurations were computed using as the input function severe wind gust data added to

CRAIGC. JOHNSON; RICHARDT. SMITH

1976-01-01

181

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug utilization management, quality assurance...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.153 Drug utilization management, quality...

2011-10-01

182

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug utilization management, quality assurance...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.153 Drug utilization management, quality...

2012-10-01

183

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug utilization management, quality assurance...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.153 Drug utilization management, quality...

2013-10-01

184

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug utilization management, quality assurance...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.153 Drug utilization management, quality...

2014-10-01

185

Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

This review article presents: the current status and expected progress status of the fuel cell research and development programs in the USA, electrochemical problem areas, techno-economic assessments of fuel cells for electric and/or gas utilities and for transportation, and other candidate fuel cells and their applications. For electric and/or gas utility applications, the most likely candidates are phosphoric, molten carbonate, and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum-derived, or biomass fuels to hydrogen), while the second and third will be linked with a coal gasifier. A fuel cell/battery hybrid power source is an attractive option for electric vehicles with projected performance characteristics approaching those for internal combustion or diesel engine powered vehicles. For this application, with coal-derived methanol as the fuel, a fuel cell with an acid electrolyte (phosphoric, solid polymer electrolyte or super acid) is essential; with pure hydrogen (obtained by splitting of water using nuclear, solar or hydroelectric energy), alkaline fuel cells show promise. A fuel cell researcher's dream is the development of a high performance direct methanol-air fuel cell as a power plant for electric vehicles. For long or intermittent duty cycle load leveling, regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cells exhibit desirable characteristics.

Srinivasan, S.

1980-01-01

186

Management and utilization of poultry wastes.  

PubMed

Waste by-products such as excreta or bedding material that are generated by the worldwide annual production of more than 40 million metric tons (t) of poultry meat and 600 billion eggs are generally land applied as the final step of a producer's waste management strategy. Under proper land application conditions, the nutrients and organisms in poultry wastes pose little environmental threat. Environmental contamination occurs when land application of poultry wastes is in excess of crop utilization potential, or is done under poor management conditions causing nutrient loss from environmental factors such as soil erosion or surface runoff during rainfall. Environmental parameters of concern are N, P, and certain metals (Cu and Zn in particular), as well as pathogenic microorganisms that may be contained in poultry waste. The biochemical cycle of N is very dynamic, and N contained in poultry waste may either be removed by crop harvest, leave the animal production facility, waste treatment lagoon, or application field as a gas (NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, or N2), or, due to its mobility in soil, be transported in organic or inorganic N forms in the liquid state via surface runoff or leaching into groundwater. Elevated concentrations of NO3-N in groundwater used for human consumption is a health risk to infants that are susceptible to methemoglobinemia. An environmental impact resulting from elevated NO3-N is eutrophication of surface waters. Ammonia loss from poultry waste is an environmental concern because of volatilized wet and dry deposits of NH3 into nitrogen-sensitive ecosystems. Phosphorus in poultry wastes may contribute to environmental degradation by accelerating the process of eutrophication. Unlike N, P is very immobile in soil and must first be transported to a surface water environment to have an environmental impact. It is generally accepted, however, that this nutrient affects receiving waters via transport in eroding soil as sediment-bound P or in surface runoff as soluble inorganic or organic P. Numerous studies have reported that excess P contained in land-applied manures may contribute to eutrophication. Soils containing P concentrations that greatly exceed the agronomic potential of crops may require years or even decades to return to levels that are crop limiting for this nutrient. Environmental concerns include the capacity of such soils to adsorb new P and the amount of P loss from these soils from erosion, runoff, drainage, or leaching to groundwater. Although much information is available regarding the loss of P from agricultural fields from erosion and runoff, less information is available regarding P losses from fields receiving poultry wastes. However, studies have shown that there are many challenges to controlling P losses from fields receiving manures. In addition, subsurface transport of P resulting from repeated application of poultry manure onto soils that are artificially drained is an environmental concern where drainage waters enter or interact with water bodies sensitive to eutrophication. Trace elements such as As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn are often added in excess to poultry feed to increase the animal's rate of weight gain, feed efficiency, and egg production and to prevent diseases. Because most of the excess trace elements are not absorbed by the bird, the concentration of elements excreted in the manure will reflect dietary overformulation. Because trace elements are generally required in very small quantities for crop growth and, like P, are immobile in most soil types, their concentrations will increase with repeated land application of poultry wastes. Of particular concern are accumulations of Cu and Zn in certain soil types utilized for certain crops. Copper and Zn toxicity for some crops have been documented in some areas receiving repeated land-applied poultry wastes. A potential environmental concern relative to poultry litter and trace elements in receiving soils involves the transpor PMID:10392043

Williams, C M; Barker, J C; Sims, J T

1999-01-01

187

The big squeeze: 1992 Electric utility financial results  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility earnings per share before write-offs and accounting adjustments slipped 1.5 percent in 1992, according to the financial statements according to the financial statements of 80 utilities. It was the fourth decline in the last five years. Earnings per share were up 1 percent in 1991, but down 5.7 percent in 1990, 0.6 percent in 1989, and 8.7 percent in 1988-putting 1992 earnings 14.9 percent below the 1987 level. Write-offs after taxes related to regulatory disallowances and failed diversification efforts totalled $1.28 billion in 1992 for the 80 utilities. This brings total write-offs since 1985, when regulators began using disallowances as an integral part of the ratemaking process, to $22.4 billion. Last year's write-off is equal to a 16.9-percent write-down, about 2 percent a year, between 1985-1992. The write-offs have negated much of the potential growth in utilities' earnings base. Between 1985 and 1992, write-offs offset 60 percent of utility retained earnings. Between 1988 and 1992 write-offs offset about 85 percent of utility retained earnings. This has been an important factor in the dismal behavior of utility earnings per share before write-offs in recent years. The immediate cause of the 1.5-percent decline in 1992 earnings per share rests largely with utilities' inability to obtain meaningful rate increases. Actually, the decline was no larger only because operating cost pressures remained low and massive debt refinancing reduced interest expenses.

Studness, C.M.

1993-06-01

188

Energy Management Guide for Building Management. Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use by commercial building management and operating staffs to encourage energy conservation. The measures suggested are meant to allow building operation at optimum efficiency while minimizing energy waste. Though mainly applicable to multistory buildings, the suggested energy conservation measures are also adaptable to…

Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

189

Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978: electric utility rate reform  

SciTech Connect

Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) are examined with a focus on the economic bases and implications of retail sales by electric and natural gas utilities. Title I outlines the requirements and procedures for setting retail electricity rates. Six ratemaking standards and the various arguments in favor of rate reform are examined. Rate issues are traditionally argued at the state level, but PURPA directs the states to examine federal standards and ratemaking issues in terms of cost-effectiveness. The legislative history of the Act and the major compromises made are described. The states that have been reluctant to consider rate reforms may be encouraged to adopt cost-effectiveness criteria sooner, while the more-progressive states may find the legislation has slowed the process. If state commissions fail to serve national goals in their rate reform, the Federal government can assume a retail ratemaking role for the interstate market. (DCK)

Joskow, P.L.

1979-10-01

190

The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.

1980-12-01

191

Hawaiian electric utilities' progress in renewable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of Hawaiian Electric Company activities related to renewable energy development in its service areas-the islands of Oahu, Maul and the Big Island of Hawaii is reported. A status update of the installed renewable generating resources in place (i.e., geothermal, biomass, wind, photovoltaic, hydroelectric), demand-side management programs (i.e., solar water heating, heat pumps, etc.), research, development and demonstration projects,

A. S. Seki

1997-01-01

192

The design of optimal electric power demand management contracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. Electric utilities try to provide reliable supply of electric power to their customers. Maximum customer benefit derives from minimum cost and sufficient supply availability. Customers willing to share in "availability risk" can derive further benefit by participating in controlled outage programs. Specifically, whenever utilities foresee dangerous loading patterns, there is a need for a rapid reduction in demand either system-wide or at specific locations. The utility needs to get relief in order to solve its problems quickly and efficiently. This relief can come from customers who agree to curtail their loads upon request in exchange for an incentive fee. This thesis shows how utilities can get efficient load relief while maximizing their economic benefit. This work also shows how estimated customer cost functions can be calibrated, using existing utility data, to help in designing efficient demand management contracts. In order to design such contracts, optimal mechanism design is adopted from "Game Theory" and applied to the interaction between a utility and its customers. The idea behind mechanism design is to design an incentive structure that encourages customers to sign up for the right contract and reveal their true value of power. If a utility has demand management contracts with customers at critical locations, most operational problems can be solved efficiently. This thesis illustrates how locational attributes of customers incorporated into demand management contract design can have a significant impact in solving system problems. This kind of demand management contracts can also be used by an Independent System Operator (ISO). During times of congestion a loss of economic surplus occurs. When the market is too slow or cannot help relieve congestion, demand management can help solve the problem. Another tool the ISO requires for security purposes is reserves. Even though demand management contracts may not be a good substitute for spinning reserves, they are adequate to augment or replace supplemental and backup reserves.

Fahrioglu, Murat

1999-11-01

193

Neptune Orbiters Utilizing Solar and Radioisotope Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In certain cases, Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP), used in conjunction with other propulsion systems, could be used to reduce the trip times for outer planetary orbiter spacecraft. It also has the potential to improve the maneuverability and power capabilities of the spacecraft when the target body is reached as compared with non-electric propulsion spacecraft. Current missions under study baseline aerocapture systems to capture into a science orbit after a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage is jettisoned. Other options under study would use all REP transfers with small payloads. Compared to the SEP stage/Aerocapture scenario, adding REP to the science spacecraft as well as a chemical capture system can replace the aerocapture system but with a trip time penalty. Eliminating both the SEP stage and the aerocapture system and utilizing a slightly larger launch vehicle, Star 48 upper stage, and a combined REP/Chemical capture system, the trip time can nearly be matched while providing over a kilowatt of science power reused from the REP maneuver. A Neptune Orbiter mission is examined utilizing single propulsion systems and combinations of SEP, REP, and chemical systems to compare concepts.

Fiehler, Douglas I.; Oleson, Steven R.

2004-01-01

194

Managing hospital electrical systems shutdowns.  

PubMed

Hospital electrical systems shutdowns are an important component to both internal and external disaster planning. An organized, thorough and well-communicated plan can make this important process run smoothly. This document examines the necessary steps in developing and implementing such a shutdown. PMID:10156029

Stymiest, D L

1996-04-01

195

Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

Payne, S M

1987-01-01

196

76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department...Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the...

2011-09-16

197

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance of its drug utilization management program, according to guidelines... (d) Medication therapy management program (MTMP) —(1...reduce the risk of adverse events, including adverse drug...level of medication therapy management services for each...

2010-10-01

198

Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-06

199

17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. 250.7...250.7 Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. (a...businesses other than the business of an electric or gas utility company, shall not...

2011-04-01

200

The State of Performance-Based Regulation in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-based regulation (PBR) has made substantial inroads in the electric utility industry, with at least 28 electric utility companies in 16 states presently operating under some form of comprehensive PBR. Many states have replaced (or combined) targeted incentive plans in their electric utility industries with broad-based PBR plans similar to those that are the predominant form of regulation in the

David E. M. Sappington; Johannes P. Pfeifenberger; Philip Hanser; Gregory N. Basheda

2001-01-01

201

Testing the effectiveness of deregulation in the electric utility industry: A market-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I investigate one stated purpose of deregulation in the electric utility industry---to make utility operations more responsive to news releases, a proxy for market forces. My premise is that utilities providing electricity to highly deregulated states will be more responsive to market forces than those providing electricity to non-deregulated states. I employ intraday data from April to

Manfen Wang

2003-01-01

202

Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

203

The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs  

SciTech Connect

Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests.

Eto, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

1996-12-01

204

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities Under Section 210 of the Public Utility...

2010-04-01

205

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities Under Section 210 of the Public Utility...

2014-04-01

206

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities Under Section 210 of the Public Utility...

2012-04-01

207

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities Under Section 210 of the Public Utility...

2013-04-01

208

Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

Hill, L.J.

1990-12-01

209

A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals  

SciTech Connect

In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.

Porter, K.

1995-11-01

210

Utility Management in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the factors that must be examined and the issues to be addressed when assessing an institution's utility systems. Describes the management, planning, financing, and political dynamics surrounding the ownership of an institution's energy facilities. (GR)

Schubbe, Thomas L.

1999-01-01

211

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's  

E-print Network

Electricity? 7 What Is Renewable Electricity's Current Contribution to Electricity Generation? 9 Why Contribution of Renewable Energy to Total Electricity Generation? 15 ManaGInG VaRIablE EnERGy REsouRCEs 16 WhatManaging Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P o

212

A mortality study of electrical utility workers in Québec.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality of electrical utility workers exposed to electric and magnetic fields. METHODS--A historical cohort mortality study was carried out on 21,744 workers who were employed in an electrical company in the province of Québec between 1970 and 1988. The last job held by each study subject was coded. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was used to estimate the exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields, and pulsed electromagnetic fields (as recorded by the PEMF (POSITRON) meter) in this job. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated relative to Québec men. Because the exposure was exclusively among blue collar workers, the remainder of the analyses by exposure were restricted to them. Rate ratios (RRs) in the exposed groups relative to the background groups were estimated with Poisson regression. There were 1582 deaths by the end of follow up. RESULTS--SMRs were almost all below one and never substantially increased, although there were a few increased rate ratios (RRs). There was a significant RR of 2.00 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.37-2.93) for deaths caused by accidents and violence in workers exposed to magnetic fields, RR of 1.82 (95% CI 1.25-2.65) for electric fields, and RR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.13-2.32) for pulsed electromagnetic fields. Occupational accidents related to power lines explain some of the excess of deaths from accidents and violence. Some association was found between magnetic fields and leukaemia, brain cancer, and suicide, between electric fields and brain cancer and suicide, and between pulsed electromagnetic fields and lung cancer, but these were not significant. CONCLUSION--These results are broadly reassuring that major causes of death are not strongly associated with exposure to electric and magnetic fields, but small numbers and approximate exposure assessments preclude the denial of any risk, in particular if it were to affect a rare cause of death. PMID:8563854

Baris, D; Armstrong, B G; Deadman, J; Thériault, G

1996-01-01

213

Electric utilities sales and revenue monthly report (EIA826), 1987. Data file  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of Form EI-826 formerly FERC-5, Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement, is to collect data necessary to fulfill regulatory responsibility; identify near-term trends in energy use; and contingency analysis. The form is filed monthly by approximately 150 electric utilities. All privately owned electric utilities with annual electric operating revenues of $100,000,000 or more must respond. In addition, the sample

J. Curry; S. Wilkins

1987-01-01

214

The next decade and emission controls for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The historical efforts to achieve attainment with the ozone and particulate related standards span over 25 years and involve billions of dollars with only minimal success related to ozone and unknown success related to certain fine particulates. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated significant new efforts, including Title IV - Acid Rain, to achieve reductions in ozone and fine particulate precursors and attainment with the standards. Initial reduction efforts have only recently been implemented and yet another hot summer continues to portray our futile efforts to gain much ground towards attainment with existing and revised or new standards. In order to review the issues more fully and to investigate the issue of regional transport. EPA has given the states a reprieve on ozone attainment plans until mid-1997 and set up the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) structure to review implementation issues with new or revised standards. The states and other stockholders are involved in these EPA processes through the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the CAAAC along with numerous working groups to get new answers arid help towards innovative solutions. A major target in these efforts is emissions from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. The OTAG process has developed regional control strategy targets for utility NO{sub x} sources at three levels. These levels include consideration of costs, timing and availability of controls, and the anticipated reductions in NO{sub x}. The CAAAC is also considering regional controls and the associated implementation issues for both ozone and fine particulates. EPA is also considering a Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) to wrap all the utility control issues in a single consensus package. The next 10 years will be a crucial time for electric utilities in juggling environmental and competitive issues.

Herrin, W.D. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1997-12-31

215

Opportunities for increasing utility of models for rangeland management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A tremendous need exists for ecosystem models to assist in rangeland management, but the utility of models developed to date has been minimal for enterprise-level decision making. Three areas in which models have had limited effectiveness for land managers are 1) addressing contemporary needs associ...

216

Personnel safety for electric utilities with dispersed storage and generation (DSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day safety practices and hardware employed by electric utilities in electric distribution systems have evolved consistent with the unidirectional flow of electric power from central production facilities at the generation level to dispersed loads at the electric distribution level. The interconnection of dispersed production devices, such as wind powered ac generators and photovoltaic powered dc-to-ac inverters, to the electric

Rizy

1982-01-01

217

Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

2014-09-01

218

Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not have any apparent structure, and that using overly simple policies can be considerably suboptimal. I thus develop and analyze a triple-threshold policy that I show to be near-optimal. Using a financial engineering price model and calibrating it to data from the New York Independent System Operator, I show that storage can substantially increase the monetary value of a wind farm: If transmission capacity is tight, the majority of this value arises from reducing curtailment and time-shifting generation; if transmission capacity is abundant this value stems primarily from time-shifting generation and arbitrage. In addition, I find that while more storage capacity always increases the average energy sold to the market, it may actually decrease the average wind energy sold when transmission capacity is abundant. In Chapter 3, I examine how electricity storage can be used to help match electricity supply and demand. Conventional wisdom suggests that when supply exceeds demand, any electricity surpluses should be stored for future resale. However, because electricity prices can be negative, another potential strategy of dealing with surpluses is to destroy them. Using real data, I find that for a merchant who trades electricity in a market, the strategy of destroying surpluses is potentially more valuable than the conventional strategy of storing surpluses. In Chapter 4, I study how the operation and valuation of electricity storage facilities can be affected by their physical characteristics and operating dynamics. Examples are the degradation of energy capacity over time and the variation of round-trip efficiency at different charging/discharging rates. These dynamics are often ignored in the literature, thus it has not been established whether it is important to model these characteristics. Specifically, it remains an open question whether modeling these dynamics might materially change the prescribed operating policy and the resulting valuation of a storage facility. I answer this question using a representative setting, in which a battery is utilized to trade el

Zhou, Yangfang

219

Managing projects utilizing self-managed teams and managerial toolkits  

E-print Network

Project Management is an essential function in most software companies today. With increasing complexity and inter connectivity between software projects, it is not surprising that managing such large scale development ...

Mathur, Praveen, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

220

Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of fuel cell development is reviewed. For terrestrial electric utility applications, the most promising are phosphoric acid, molten carbonate and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum derived and biomass fuels to hydrogen) while the second and third with a coal gasifier. As ground transportation power sources, the promising systems are phosphoric (or alternate acid) and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells. In the first case, methanol is most attractive while in the second, it will be hydrogen stored as a compressed gas or as a hydride. A technoeconomic assessment of a 'Regenerative Hydrogen-Halogen Energy Storage System' demonstrates the prospects of its use for load leveling when coupled with nuclear, solar or wind power plants.

Srinivasan, S.

1980-04-01

221

Utilization of databases to manage resources  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how databases are used by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Project at Argonne National Laboratory to help manage the project and its resources. It documents our experiences in implementing database technology in a large scientific project. Some of the topics that will be discussed include: The APS database environment; decentralizing databases; extending the database environment (graphical, spreadsheet and barcode interfaces);choosing a database; and software development issues.

Sheridan, T.

1992-09-01

222

Utilization of databases to manage resources  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how databases are used by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Project at Argonne National Laboratory to help manage the project and its resources. It documents our experiences in implementing database technology in a large scientific project. Some of the topics that will be discussed include: The APS database environment; decentralizing databases; extending the database environment (graphical, spreadsheet and barcode interfaces);choosing a database; and software development issues.

Sheridan, T.

1992-01-01

223

Prudent management of utility assets -- Problem or promise?  

SciTech Connect

As utilities move into a deregulated market, the extent and nature of their asset base, as well as, the manner in which they have managed it, may play a key factor in the form of regulatory recovery. Utilities must face the issue of stranded assets. One form of addressing this issue is using ``EVA'', Economic Value Added as a mechanism to form financial models for prudent asset management. The authors present an approach to this challenging aspect of deregulation. They focus on the following utility assets: buildings/facilities, and excess real physical assets. Primarily focusing on Niagara Mohawk, two or three case studies are used to demonstrate how proactive management and EVA analysis transforms underperforming utility assets. These will be presented in a way that can show benefits for all utility stakeholders such as cost avoidance, load growth, real estate tax savings, stranded asset reductions, environmental gains, corporate image enhancement, and regulatory/governmental gains; over and above possible economic gains. Examples will be given that include the transformation of utility assets into award winning commercial, residential, and industrial developments as well as recreational/park lands and greenways. Similarly, other examples will show the many tangible and intangible benefits of an effective investment recovery and waste stream management program. Various strategies will also be presented that detail how utilities can begin to develop a total comprehensive plan for their asset portfolio. The first step in realizing and maximizing EVA towards a portfolio of assets is a change in corporate policy--one from passive ownership to active prudent management. Service and cost will drive competition resulting from full deregulation. To drive down costs, utilities will need to become more efficient in dealing with their asset base. By embracing an EVA model on an entire asset portfolio, utilities can prepare and excel in the newly shaped marketplace.

Hatch, D.; Serwinowski, M.

1998-07-01

224

MATCHING WIND RESOURCE IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS WITH UTILITY ELECTRICAL LOADING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to see how well wind generated electricity in the Southern Great Plains matched the utility electrical loading and whether there were ways to improve this match so that renewable energy could make up a more significant portion (10-30%) of the utility’s total generation. Wind g...

225

Statistics of privately owned electric utilities in the United States: 1979. Classes A and B companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication presents the 43rd consecutive year of comprehensive financial and operating information on all the large privately owned electric utility companies operating in the United States. The information has been taken from the annual reports of Classes A and B electric utilities presented to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 1979. Class A utilities are those having

K. A. Roth; R. C. Lyles

1980-01-01

226

Electric Utility Executives' forum. [Rate design, operating costs, nuclear plant options, and efficiency standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fifteenth annual Electric Utility Executives' Forum to appear in Public Utilities Fortnightly posed the following four questions to 21 contributors: (1) do you think that a fundamental or lasting change is now taking place in electric utility rate design, under pressure of continued need for overall rate increases, which will be oriented towards customer usage; (2) do you think

Smartt

1976-01-01

227

Federal tax subsidies for electric utilities: an energy-policy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of analysts have recently concluded that for the US economy generally, and for electric utilities in particular, the most rational energy strategy would emphasize control of energy demand. In many cases, conservation and solar heating could displace the need for electricity and nonrenewable fuels, with potentially significant economic and environmental benefits. Yet, most US electric utilities are proceeding

1980-01-01

228

Get into the loop. [Development of international standards for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the American electric utility industry standards define the equipment used to generate, transmit, distribute, and meter electricity; the construction and operation of electrical systems; and the practices that assure the safety of personnel and the public. In short, standards affect almost every aspect of utility operations, as they have since the turn of the century when the infant industry

R. B. Toth; D. E. Soffrin

2009-01-01

229

Optimal management of batteries in electric systems  

DOEpatents

An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

2002-01-01

230

Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

Temple, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-11-01

231

Large wind turbines: A utility option for the generation of electricity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wind resource is such that wind energy generation has the potential to save 6-7 quads of energy nationally. Thus, the Federal Government is sponsoring and encouraging the development of cost effective and reliable wind turbines. One element of the Federal Wind Energy Programs, Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Development, is managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for the Department of Energy. There are several ongoing wind system development projects oriented primarily toward utility application within this program element. In addition, a comprehensive technology program supporting the wind turbine development projects is being conducted. An overview is presented of the NASA activities with emphasis on application of large wind turbines for generation of electricity by utility systems.

Robbins, W. H.; Thomas, R. L.; Baldwin, D. H.

1980-01-01

232

Electrical characterization of a Space Station Freedom alpha utility transfer assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, command signals and data are transferred across the Space Station Freedom solar alpha rotary joint by roll rings, which are incorporated within the Utility Transfer Assembly (UTA) designed and manufactured by Honeywell Space Systems Operations. A developmental Model of the UTA was tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center using the Power Management and Distribution DC test bed. The objectives of these tests were to obtain data for calibrating system models and to support final design of qualification and flight units. This testing marked the first time the UTA was operated at high power levels and exposed to electrical conditions similar to that which it will encounter on the actual Space Station. Satisfactory UTA system performance was demonstrated within the scope of this testing.

Yenni, Edward J.

1994-01-01

233

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

NONE

1995-12-01

234

Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1995-01-01

235

The ICF, Inc. coal and electric utilities model : an analysis and evaluation  

E-print Network

v.1. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is sponsoring a series of evaluations of important energy policy and electric utility industry models by the MIT Energy Model Analysis Program (EMAP). The subject of this ...

Wood, David O.

1981-01-01

236

Photovoltaics for demand-side management utility markets: A utility/customer partnership approach  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) systems located at customer sites can be used to meet utility needs for demand-side management (DSM) applications. PV-DSM can also represent a high-value intermediate market for PV in the utility sector. Maximum value for PV in DSM applications can be achieved by incorporating a dispatching capability to PV systems (through the addition of storage). This enables utilities to evaluate PV systems as a peak-shaving technology. To date, peak-shaving has been the higher value DSM application for US utilities. This analysis of the value of dispatchable PV-DSM systems indicates that small-scale, customer-sited systems are approaching competitive cost levels in several regions of the US that have favorable load matching and peak demand pricing characteristics. This paper presents the results for PV-DSM systems located within the service territories of five case study utilities.

Byrne, J.; Letendre, S.; Govindarajalu, C.; Wang, Y.D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy; Nigro, R. [Delmarva Power and Light Co., Wilmington, DE (United States); Wallace, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

237

Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

None

1980-08-01

238

Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software.

Philipp, B.L.

1998-09-14

239

Zebra mussel control using thermal treatment for electric utility stations  

SciTech Connect

When electric utilities and other water users on the Great Lakes were confronted with operating problems due to zebra mussels, Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) established a task force to develop a plan to counteract the threat at the ComEd electric generating stations. A monitoring program was initiated at the stations, and an evaluation of control options was started. At State Line Station, located on the southern tip of Lake Michigan, ComEd experimented with thermal treatment of the circulating water and service water systems. The station design allows recirculation of the cooling water with minimal modifications. The trial at State Line Station proved successful in controlling the zebra mussels with minimal impact on operations. Based on the successful trial and the task force`s assessment of other control options, ComEd determined that, for their fossil-fueled generating stations, thermal treatment was the most cost-effective approach, with the least impact on station operation and the environment. Of the 10 fossil-fueled generating stations operated by ComEd, 8 have been selected for modifications. The other 2 stations have not yet been affected by zebra mussels. Before performing detailed design, a study was performed for each station to evaluate the operation of the equipment at elevated temperature and to determine the operating limits needed at the target treatment temperature of 95 F. Conceptual designs for the modifications were developed, and the most cost-effective arrangement was selected for detailed design. Case studies of the modifications being constructed at several stations are presented. The modifications to the circulating water systems are described. Initial results of the treatment are reviewed.

Marcus, R.I. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Wahlert, S.L. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

240

The case for indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexed price caps are a promising alternative to traditional, cost-of-service utility rate regulation. In just a decade, they have sprung from the drawing boards of economists to use by major utilities in a number of industries. Several authors have discussed the merits of indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities. Despite their efforts, many parties to electric utility policy making

Mark Newton Lowry

1991-01-01

241

Contagion Effects of Dividend Reduction or Omission Announcements in the Electric Utility Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the contagion effects of dividend reduction or omission announcements in the electric utility industry. Using a series of ten electric utility dividend announcements covering the period 1979-91, I analyze differences in contagion reactions across utilities. I find the strength of the contagion reaction is significantly related to utility size, average dividend yield, debt ratio, market-to-book ratio, cash

Michael Impson

2000-01-01

242

Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

1984-01-01

243

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOEpatents

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-12

244

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOEpatents

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2011-12-06

245

A utility perspective on management of reactor pressure vessel embrittlement  

SciTech Connect

A utility perspective on evaluating and managing radiation embrittlement of pressure vessels is presented in this paper. Included are observations and experiences gained from pressure vessel surveillance capsule programs, and activities on flux reduction through the use of low-leakage core-loading patterns. Also included are pressure vessel embrittlement considerations relating to plant regenerating and plant life extension.

Perrin, J.S. [Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Hancocks Bridge, NJ (United States)

1993-12-01

246

Effectiveness of pain management following electrical injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pain management after electrical injury. A retrospective hospital chart review was conducted among electrically injured patients discharged from the outpatient burn clinic of a rehabilitation hospital (July 1, 1999, to July 31, 2008). Demographic data, numeric pain ratings (NPRs) at initial assessment and discharge, medications, nonpharmacologic modalities, and their effects before admission and after rehabilitation were collected. Pain management effects were compared between high (> or =1000 v) and low (<1000 v) voltage, and between electrical contact and electrical flash patients, using Student's t-test and chi, with a P < .05 considered significant. Of 82 electrical patients discharged during the study period, 27 were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 55 patients who had a mean age +/-SD of 40.7 +/- 11.3 years, TBSA of 19.2 +/- 22.7%, and treatment duration of 16.5 +/- 15.7 months. The majority were men (90.9%), most injuries occurred at work (98.2%), mainly caused by low voltage (n = 32, 58.2%), and the rest caused by high voltage (n = 18, 32.7%). Electrical contact was more common (54.5%) than electrical flash (45.5%). Pain was a chief complaint (92.7%), and hands were the most affected (61.8%), followed by head and neck (38.2%), shoulders (38.2%), and back torso (38.2%). Before rehabilitation, the most common medication were opioids (61.8%), relieving pain in 82.4%, followed by acetaminophen (47.3%) alleviating pain in 84.6%. Heat treatment was the most common nonpharmacologic modality (20.0%) relieving pain in 81.8%, followed by massage therapy (14.5%) alleviating pain in 75.0%. During the rehabilitation program, antidepressants were the most common medication (74.5%), relieving pain in 22.0%, followed by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (61.8%), alleviating pain in 70.6%. Massage therapy was the most common nonpharmacologic modality (60.0%), alleviating pain in 75.8%, and then cognitive behavioral therapy (54.5%), alleviating pain in 40.0%. There were pain improvements in all anatomic locations after rehabilitation except for the back torso, where pain increased 0.7 +/- 2.9 points. Opioids were more commonly used in high voltage (P < .05), and cognitive behavioral therapy in low-voltage injuries (P < .05). Opioids were used in both electrical flash and electrical contact injuries. Pain in electrically injured patients remains an important issue and should continue to be addressed in a multimodal way. It is hoped that this study will guide us to design future interventions for pain control after electrical injury. PMID:20061840

Li, Adrienne L K; Gomez, Manuel; Fish, Joel S

2010-01-01

247

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm for heterogenous network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm is proposed for broadband nongeostationary satellite network which works in the heterogeneous network environment and provides access services for various customers on the ground. Based on the game theory, the problem for optimizing the network's performance is turned into the problem for maximizing the network's long term utility in the proposed algorithm. With evaluation to the traffic condition and dimensions of Qos for the network at the moment while the access service requirements changing, the influence of this service requirement to the long term utility of the satellite network is audited and then the resource assignment decision can be made according to the rule for maximizing the satellite network's long term utility. The process directed by game theory guaranteed both that the benefit of the network and the requirements of the customers could be considered synthetically. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yan; Huang, Zailu

2007-11-01

248

18 CFR Appendix A to Part 290 - Nonexempt Electric Utilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...date of publication of the Commission's Order No. 545 are as follows: Department of Water and Power of the City of Los Angeles, California. Pacific Gas & Electric Co. San Diego Gas and Electric Co. Southern California Edison Co....

2010-04-01

249

AUTO-2440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If you’re an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells

250

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

Not Available

1993-12-28

251

79 FR 34959 - Carbon Pollution Standards for Modified and Reconstructed Stationary Sources: Electric Utility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and reconstructed fossil fuel-fired electric utility...generation from a fossil fuel-fired electric utility...generating unit is limited not by the size of the boiler, but by other factors, such as the size of the steam turbine or...

2014-06-18

252

Utility-Aware Deferred Load Balancing in the Cloud Driven by Dynamic Pricing of Electricity  

E-print Network

in energy prices along with the rise of cloud computing brings up the issue of making clouds energy. In this paper, we use deferral with dynamic pricing of electricity for energy efficiency while using utilityUtility-Aware Deferred Load Balancing in the Cloud Driven by Dynamic Pricing of Electricity

Gupta, Rajesh

253

Diversification, Productivity, and Financial Constraints Empirical Evidence from the US Electric Utility Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the real effects of parent firm diversification on their electric utility operating companies over the period, 1990-2003. Since electric utility operating companies produce a single homogenous product, we can better measure their Total Factor Productivity and make valid comparisons of productivity across firms. We find that, consistent with a diversification discount, greater parent diversification is associated with lower

Mika Goto; Angie Low; Anil K. Makhija

2008-01-01

254

Display design for dispatch control centers in electric utilities: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Final Report describes the basic procedures followed during the course of this project on display design for electric utility dispatch control centers. The project described in this report was sponsored because the advent of crt based displays in an electric utility system dispatch control center has brought significant amounts of new data to the system operators, but they have

J. A. Wise; N. C. Abi-Samra

1987-01-01

255

Impact of solar energy on electric utility generation system reliability and operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation system reliability and operations with photovoltaic electric power systems on the electric utility system were discussed. Over the years, the utility industry has developed a methodology to evaluate conventional thermal generation consisting of system reliability and production cost calculations. Although these methods might have to be modified slightly, it is important that new forms of generation be evaluated in

G. A. Jordan; R. W. Moisan; G. P. OBrien

1977-01-01

256

Guidelines for cofiring refuse-derived fuel in electric utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s, nine electric utilities in the United States have cofired refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal or oil in electric utility boilers. Of these, only four continue to cofire RDF in 1988, the others having discontinued operations for a variety of reasons, mostly economic. In order to document this experience and provide a basis for planning future RDF cofiring

D. E. Fiscus; K. E. Wolfs; H. D. Ege; A. Kimber; A. W. Joensen; G. M. Savage

1988-01-01

257

Occupational exposure of electrical utility linemen to pentachlorophenol.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) for a crew of electrical utility linemen was monitored over a 6-month period by using total PCP in urine per gram of creatinine as a biological monitoring parameter. Urine samples were collected from three groups: A, B, and control, at a 4-week frequency during 1989. Group A was required to use new gloves after each 4-week work period; Group B changed gloves on a need basis as per normal operating procedure. The control group consisted of members of the administrative office staff who were not occupationally exposed. The used gloves returned by Group A were monitored for contamination. On the basis of analysis of the collected data the following conclusions were noted. (1) The linemen experienced a seasonal exposure pattern with exposures peaking in July and August. This seasonal effect was also observed with glove contamination data. (2) The glove contamination levels were significantly associated with urine PCP concentrations when both these variables were expressed as geometric means for the individuals in Group A. Inclusion of work experience as an additional variable enhances this association. Less experienced linemen tended to perform more activities with higher current exposure and had higher urine and glove PCP measurements and higher correlations between these variables than more experienced linemen. (3) Over the study period, the difference in long-term exposures of Group A and Group B linemen was not statistically significant. (4) The long-term individual exposures, calculated as the geometric mean of each individual's sequential sample readings, were all below the biological monitoring guideline value of 1000 micrograms PCP/g creatinine. PMID:1781434

Thind, K S; Karmali, S; House, R A

1991-12-01

258

Fuel rule: tons of fun for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased consumer and government pressures for utility cost accounting and detailed fuel records have provided the utilities with useful tools for determining least-cost alternatives and for performance monitoring. Ohio, for example, developed a parallel system of electronic data processing and written reports after consumer protests about rates and supplies prompted the state public utilities commission to impose a monthly and

S. R. Harris; W. R. Forrester

1977-01-01

259

Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs cause cancer, with malignant melanoma being of particular concern in this industry. PMID:9404319

Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

1997-01-01

260

Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

Walls, B.

1995-01-01

261

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

2014-01-01

262

Electricity derivatives and risk management S.J. Denga,  

E-print Network

Electricity derivatives and risk management S.J. Denga, *, S.S. Orenb a School of Industrial serving entities, and power marketers in various risk management applications. Finally, we conclude to the importance and necessity of risk management practices in competitive electricity market. Hedging of risk

Oren, Shmuel S.

263

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997  

SciTech Connect

The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

264

Recent Developments in the Regulation of Electric Utility Resource Planning in Texas  

E-print Network

its fifth statewide electrical energy plan. The primary objectives of the report are to satisfy the legislative mandate and to provide a comprehensive planning document for the electric industry. The Long-Term Electric Peak Demand and Capacity... legislation requires State commissions to consider how long-term power sales affect the cost of capital of the purchasing utility and whether the use of highly-leveraged financing by EWGs threatens the reliability of the utility or gives the EWG an unfair...

Totten, J.; Adib, P.; Matlock, R.; Treadway, N.

265

Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

1993-12-31

266

Utility planning for customer generation of electricity: principles of economics and uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the long-standing economic monopoly of electric utilities is eroding as customers increasingly respond to high utility costs by developing their own generating capability. A dominant technology allowing customer generation is cogeneration, the sequential production of two useful energy streams using one fuel source. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 marked a major turning point for the industry

Roy

1987-01-01

267

Effect of economic regulation on risk and financial performance in the electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation has often been cited as the major impediment to quick, efficient utility response to changing economic conditions. The quality of regulation, as assessed from an investor's viewpoint, has had an impact on the financial health of electric utilities. Firms with good regulation experienced a smaller increase in investment risk and a smaller decline in financial condition than utilities with

1984-01-01

268

Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint  

E-print Network

Conservation of electrical energy and load management can reduce industry's electric bills, conserves natural resources and reduces the need for new generating plants. In recent years, industry has implemented extensive conservation programs. Some...

Jackson, C. E.

1984-01-01

269

Optimization of the Implementation of Renewable Resources in a Municipal Electric Utility in Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A municipal electric utility in Mesa, Arizona with a peak load of approximately 85 megawatts (MW) was analyzed to determine how the implementation of renewable resources (both wind and solar) would affect the overall cost of energy purchased by the utility. The utility currently purchases all of its energy through long term energy supply contracts and does not own any generation assets and so optimization was achieved by minimizing the overall cost of energy while adhering to specific constraints on how much energy the utility could purchase from the short term energy market. Scenarios were analyzed for a five percent and a ten percent penetration of renewable energy in the years 2015 and 2025. Demand Side Management measures (through thermal storage in the City's district cooling system, electric vehicles, and customers' air conditioning improvements) were evaluated to determine if they would mitigate some of the cost increases that resulted from the addition of renewable resources. In the 2015 simulation, wind energy was less expensive than solar to integrate to the supply mix. When five percent of the utility's energy requirements in 2015 are met by wind, this caused a 3.59% increase in the overall cost of energy. When that five percent is met by solar in 2015, it is estimated to cause a 3.62% increase in the overall cost of energy. A mix of wind and solar in 2015 caused a lower increase in the overall cost of energy of 3.57%. At the ten percent implementation level in 2015, solar, wind, and a mix of solar and wind caused increases of 7.28%, 7.51% and 7.27% respectively in the overall cost of energy. In 2025, at the five percent implementation level, wind and solar caused increases in the overall cost of energy of 3.07% and 2.22% respectively. In 2025, at the ten percent implementation level, wind and solar caused increases in the overall cost of energy of 6.23% and 4.67% respectively. Demand Side Management reduced the overall cost of energy by approximately 0.6%, mitigating some of the cost increase from adding renewable resources.

Cadorin, Anthony

270

Electric utilities increase capital market share as cost rise continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulators who perceive a conflict which doesn't exist between utility consumers and investors can jeopardize the financial integrity of a utility to the extent that it loses its ability to sell securities. Rising utility construction budgets during the 1970s were the result of inflation, a lack of experience with nuclear plant construction, pollution-control requirements, and errors in the five-year forecasting

Tenicki

1979-01-01

271

Carbon Management in the Electric Power Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 53States in 2000 came from the combustion of coal in Rankine cycle plant; 16principally in Brayton cycle or combined cycle units. Electricity generation is responsible for 36amthropogenic CO2. This compares with 32transportation sector, but since the electric utility generators are large fixed sources it is likely that any legislation designed to reduce CO2 production will adress the utility generators first. Over the last 100 years there has been a continuous decrease in the carbon fraction of the fuels used for energy production world wide, and it is expected that this will continue, principally as a result of the increasing fraction of natural gas. It appears probable that the retirement of the existing nuclear fleet will be delayed by relicensing, and it seems more possible that new nuclear plant will be built than seemed likely even a couple of years ago. The impact of renewables should be increasing, but currently only about 2way currently, and without some considerable incentives, the rate of increase in this component over the next twenty years will probably be small. Currently, hydroelectric plants account for 7indication that this will increase appreciably. At the moment, a significant change would appear to require the capture of CO2 from the exhaust of the combustion plants, and particularly the large existing fleet of coal-fired Rankine units. Following the capture, the CO2 must then be sequestered in secure long-term locations. In addition, increases in the efficiency of power generation, and increases in the efficiency of end use leading to reductions in the energy intensity of the Gross Domestic Product, will be necessary. This paper will review the current state of art in these various approaches to the problem.

Stringer, John

2002-03-01

272

Energy management of a university campus utilizing short-term load forecasting with an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical load forecasting is a tool that has been utilized by distribution designers and operators as a means for resource planning and generation dispatch. The techniques employed in these predictions are proving useful in the growing market of consumer, or end-user, participation in electrical energy consumption. These predictions are based on exogenous variables, such as weather, and time variables, such as day of week and time of day as well as prior energy consumption patterns. The participation of the end-user is a cornerstone of the Smart Grid initiative presented in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and is being made possible by the emergence of enabling technologies such as advanced metering infrastructure. The optimal application of the data provided by an advanced metering infrastructure is the primary motivation for the work done in this thesis. The methodology for using this data in an energy management scheme that utilizes a short-term load forecast is presented. The objective of this research is to quantify opportunities for a range of energy management and operation cost savings of a university campus through the use of a forecasted daily electrical load profile. The proposed algorithm for short-term load forecasting is optimized for Colorado State University's main campus, and utilizes an artificial neural network that accepts weather and time variables as inputs. The performance of the predicted daily electrical load is evaluated using a number of error measurements that seek to quantify the best application of the forecast. The energy management presented utilizes historical electrical load data from the local service provider to optimize the time of day that electrical loads are being managed. Finally, the utilization of forecasts in the presented energy management scenario is evaluated based on cost and energy savings.

Palchak, David

273

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

2013-10-01

274

Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing nonutility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal nonutility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point

Shams N. Siddiqi; Martin L. Baughman

1994-01-01

275

Reforming the Energy Market and Utilization of Electrical Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to provide an overview of reforming the Turkish energy market, including the electricity production and consumption values of Turkey and restructuring in the eight European Union countries. Turkey's electricity demand has been growing very rapidly. It has increased from about 47 TWh in 1990 to some 142 TWh in 2003, and it

Arif Hepbasli

2006-01-01

276

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also,

Gerke; Frank G

2001-01-01

277

Capacity-expansion planning under uncertainty in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This document basically represents a comparison between theory and practice of capacity-expansion planning in the electric-utility industry. The purpose of the comparison is to provide avenues for further exploration in utility decision making. The focus of the Phase II study is upon the role of uncertainty in the decision-making process. The Phase I effort was directed at modeling the Averch-Johnson theory of the regulated utility. Part I of this report reviews the Anderson study (D. Anderson, Models for Determining Least-Cost Investments in Electricity Supply). The Anderson paper has become a standard reference for capacity-planning studies in the electric-utility industry. Part II examines uncertainty and the behavior of the firm. Part III reviews 5 models of electric-utility capacity planning under uncertainty, and Part IV is concerned with capacity-planning models in practice.

Soyster, A.L.

1980-07-25

278

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

SciTech Connect

Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

2005-07-05

279

Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

Narumanchi, S.

2014-09-01

280

A utility's perspective of cogeneration as an electrical generation source  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that in response to various energy-related problems that surfaced during the late 1970s, Congress passed legislation to encourage the development of cogeneration and small power production. The legislation was entitled the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, or PURPA. Responsibility for implementing PURPA was assigned to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The FERC in turn delegated much authority for administering PURPA to the state public utility commissions. Purchase prices for power generated by qualifying facilities (QFs) were to represent the utilities avoided cost.

Renson, M.L. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (US))

1992-01-01

281

Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

Bennion, K.

2014-11-01

282

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

Gerke, Frank G.

2001-08-05

283

Electric Utility Strategic Planning at the PUCT: An Overview  

E-print Network

detailed accounts of findings and methods. Through the "Least-Cost Planning Task Force," the "Energy Efficiency Plan Committee," and other organizations, utilities and consumer groups are kept informed about the PUCT's strategic planning efforts... programs. Through careful review of studies conducted in other states, evaluation of utility-developed energy efficiency plans, and reference to Commission-sponsored s~udies of conservstion feasibility and poten t1al, the Energy Efficiency Division...

Zarnikau, J.

284

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor\\/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is

Ulrich Hopman; Richard W. Kruiswyk

2005-01-01

285

Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

None

1980-05-01

286

77 FR 28872 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities Stakeholder...attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...

2012-05-16

287

Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building\\/electric utility interface. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load

S. L. Feldman; R. M. Wirtshafter; M. Abrash; B. Anderson; P. Sullivan; J. Kohler

1978-01-01

288

Impact of 1980 scheduled capacity additions on electric-utility oil consumption  

SciTech Connect

The electric-utility sector currently consumes approximately 8% of the total oil used in the Nation. This oil represented about 15% of total fuel consumed by electric utilities in 1979. Two important factors that affect the level of utility oil consumption in 1980 are the substantial increase in coal-fired generating capacity and the uncertainty surrounding nuclear-plant licensing. With particular emphasis on these considerations, this report analyzes the potential for changes in electric-utility oil consumption in 1980 relative to the 1979 level. Plant conversions, oil to coal, for example, that may occur in 1980 are not considered in this analysis. Only the potential reduction in oil consumption resulting from new generating-capacity additions is analyzed. Changes in electric-utility oil consumption depend on, among other factors, regional-electricity-demand growth and generating-plant mix. Five cases are presented using various electricity-demand-growth rate assumptions, fuel-displacement strategies, and nuclear-plant-licensing assumptions. In general, it is likely that there will be a reduction in electric-utility oil consumption in 1980. Using the two reference cases of the report, this reduction is projected to amount to a 2 to 5% decrease from the 1979 oil-consumption level; 7% reduction is the largest reduction projected.

Gielecki, M.; Clark, G.; Roberts, B.

1980-08-01

289

Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles -Prediction horizon and  

E-print Network

Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles - Prediction horizon and battery capacity of a combined hybrid electric vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid vehicles, Energy Management, Predictive control, Optimal)) and car manufacturers because it enhances fuel economy without increasing the final cost of the vehicle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Electrical Load and Energy Management. Course Outline and Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 13 lecture outlines with accompanying handouts and reference lists for teaching school administrators and maintenance personnel the use of electrical load management as an energy conservation tool. To aid course participants in making cost effective use of electrical power, methods of load management in a variety of situations are…

Wang, Paul

291

An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs  

SciTech Connect

The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

Rose, K.

1996-07-01

292

Stochastic Programming Models for Strategic Planning: An Application to Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

This paper reports on the application of stochastic programming with recourse models to strategic planning problems typical of those faced by an electric utility. A prototype model was constructed using realistic data, and ...

Bienstock, Daniel

293

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Energy Conservation - A Utility Viewpiont  

E-print Network

As the price of energy rises, changes in industrial electric rates will have an impact on energy usage and conservation. Utilities interested in reducing system peak demands may reflect this need in the rate structure as an incentive...

Williams, M. M.

1981-01-01

294

Climate change adaptation in the U.S. electric utility sector  

E-print Network

The electric utility sector has been a focus of policy efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but even if these efforts are successful, the sector will need to adapt to the impacts of climate change. These are likely ...

Higbee, Melissa (Melissa Aura)

2013-01-01

295

Virginia Tech Fleet Services Electric/Gas Utility Vehicle (EGUV) Purchase Request Form  

E-print Network

Virginia Tech Fleet Services Electric/Gas Utility Vehicle (EGUV) Purchase Request Form Instructions: Organization Number: Banner Fund Number (For Decal Processing): Type of EGUV Requested: Area of Operation

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

296

76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial- Institutional...steam generating units and industrial-commercial- institutional...and made available on the Internet. If you submit an...

2011-01-20

297

Detection of outlier loci and their utility for fisheries management.  

PubMed

Genetics-based approaches have informed fisheries management for decades, yet remain challenging to implement within systems involving recently diverged stocks or where gene flow persists. In such cases, genetic markers exhibiting locus-specific ('outlier') effects associated with divergent selection may provide promising alternatives to loci that reflect genome-wide ('neutral') effects for guiding fisheries management. Okanagan Lake kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), a fishery of conservation concern, exhibits two sympatric ecotypes adapted to different reproductive environments; however, previous research demonstrated the limited utility of neutral microsatellites for assigning individuals. Here, we investigated the efficacy of an outlier-based approach to fisheries management by screening >11 000 expressed sequence tags for linked microsatellites and conducting genomic scans for kokanee sampled across seven spawning sites. We identified eight outliers among 52 polymorphic loci that detected ecotype-level divergence, whereas there was no evidence of divergence at neutral loci. Outlier loci exhibited the highest self-assignment accuracy to ecotype (92.1%), substantially outperforming 44 neutral loci (71.8%). Results were robust among-sampling years, with assignment and mixed composition estimates for individuals sampled in 2010 mirroring baseline results. Overall, outlier loci constitute promising alternatives for informing fisheries management involving recently diverged stocks, with potential applications for designating management units across a broad range of taxa. PMID:25568028

Russello, Michael A; Kirk, Stephanie L; Frazer, Karen K; Askey, Paul J

2012-01-01

298

Utilization of lean management principles in the ambulatory clinic setting.  

PubMed

The principles of 'lean management' have permeated many sectors of today's business world, secondary to the success of the Toyota Production System. This management method enables workers to eliminate mistakes, reduce delays, lower costs, and improve the overall quality of the product or service they deliver. These lean management principles can be applied to health care. Their implementation within the ambulatory care setting is predicated on the continuous identification and elimination of waste within the process. The key concepts of flow time, inventory and throughput are utilized to improve the flow of patients through the clinic, and to identify points that slow this process -- so-called bottlenecks. Nonessential activities are shifted away from bottlenecks (i.e. the physician), and extra work capacity is generated from existing resources, rather than being added. The additional work capacity facilitates a more efficient response to variability, which in turn results in cost savings, more time for the physician to interact with patients, and faster completion of patient visits. Finally, application of the lean management principle of 'just-in-time' management can eliminate excess clinic inventory, better synchronize office supply with patient demand, and reduce costs. PMID:19265856

Casey, Jessica T; Brinton, Thomas S; Gonzalez, Chris M

2009-03-01

299

Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks  

SciTech Connect

The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk.

Henney, A.; Keers, G.

1998-10-01

300

Energy Management for an Electric Vehicle Based on Combinatorial Modeling  

E-print Network

in a multi-source system such as a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), running on a known mission profile words: Energy Management; Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Non-Linear Modeling; Coin-Or Methods; Linearization, available, and noiseless. The energy chain of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is composed of at least two

Boyer, Edmond

301

Electricity derivatives and risk management S.J. Denga,*  

E-print Network

Electricity derivatives and risk management S.J. Denga,* , S.S. Orenb a School of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Electricity of electricity production and distribution. Uncontrolled exposure to market price risks can lead to devastating

302

Experimental investigation of a variable speed constant frequency electric generating system from a utility perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As efforts are accelerated to improve the overall capability and performance of wind electric systems, increased attention to variable speed configurations has developed. A number of potentially viable configurations have emerged. Various attributes of variable speed systems need to be carefully tested to evaluate their performance from the utility points of view. With this purpose, the NASA experimental variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system has been tested. In order to determine the usefulness of these systems in utility applications, tests are required to resolve issues fundamental to electric utility systems. Legitimate questions exist regarding how variable speed generators will influence the performance of electric utility systems; therefore, tests from a utility perspective, have been performed on the VSCF system and an induction generator at an operating power level of 30 kW on a system rated at 200 kVA and 0.8 power factor.

Herrera, J. I.; Reddoch, T. W.; Lawler, J. S.

1985-01-01

303

Experimental investigation of a variable speed constant frequency electric generating system from a utility perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As efforts are accelerated to improve the overall capability and performance of wind electric systems, increased attention to variable speed configurations has developed. A number of potentially viable configurations have emerged. Various attributes of variable speed systems need to be carefully tested to evaluate their performance from the utility points of view. With this purpose, the NASA experimental variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system has been tested. In order to determine the usefulness of these systems in utility applications, tests are required to resolve issues fundamental to electric utility systems. Legitimate questions exist regarding how variable speed generators will influence the performance of electric utility systems; therefore, tests from a utility perspective, have been performed on the VSCF system and an induction generator at an operating power level of 30 kW on a system rated at 200 kVA and 0.8 power factor.

Herrera, J. I.; Reddoch, T. W.; Lawler, J. S.

1985-05-01

304

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

SciTech Connect

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

305

Advanced Medium-Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Conversion Systems for Future Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed

Haifeng Fan

2011-01-01

306

Electric utilities, fiscal illusion and the provision of local public services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restructuring activity in the electric utility industry is threatening a once stable and significant source of revenue for local governments. Potentially declining revenues from electric utilities leaves local policymakers with the unpopular decision of raising taxes or reducing the level of public services provided. This has led to pressure on state governments to introduce legislation aimed at mitigating potential revenue loss for local government due to restructuring activity. However, before imposing such legislation, a better understanding of the potential distortionary effects of internal subsidization by electric utilities is needed. Two models of the demand for local public services--a structural model using the Stone-Geary utility framework and a reduced form model--are developed in an attempt to model the behavioral responses of local public expenditures to revenue contributions from electric utilities. Empirical analysis of both models is conducted using a panel data set for 242 municipalities in Tennessee from 1988 to 1998. Aggregate spending and expenditures on four specific service functions are examined. The results provide evidence of a positive flypaper effect. Furthermore, the source of the flypaper effect is attributed to fiscal illusion caused by price distortions. The stimulative effect of electric utility revenue contributions on the level of local public services indicate that a 1.00 change in electric utility subsidies results in a change in local expenditures ranging from 0.22 to 1.32 for the structural model and 1.97 to 2.51 for the reduced form model. The amount of the marginal effect directly attributed to price illusion is estimated to range from 0.04 to $0.85. In addition, the elasticities of electric utility revenue contributions are estimated to range from 0.05 to 0.90. The results raise a number of interesting issues regarding municipal ownership of utilities and legislation regarding tax treatment of utilities after restructuring. The fact that the current study suggests that electric utility subsidies give rise to fiscal illusion raises new questions regarding the justification of safeguarding the exclusive franchise of municipally-owned utilities and revenues from electric utilities in the era of restructuring.

Dowell, Paula Elizabeth Kay

2000-10-01

307

A Miniature Electrical Pressure Gage Utilizing a Stretched Flat Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable-air-gap, inductance-type, electrical pressure gage is described that is basically 7/16 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch in thickness. The gage was designed to measure accurately pressures fluctuating at high frequencies and has proved to be a value as a general-purpose electrical gage for aeronautical work where small size and minimum response to acceleration forces are important factors. Design equations and curves are presented which can be used to predict the deflections and fundamental natural frequencies of stretched flat diaphragms.

Patterson, John L

1952-01-01

308

Differential Environmental Regulation: Effects on Electric Utility Capital Turnover and Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the hypothesis that differential regulations reduced the rate of capital turnover in the electric utility industry, resulting in increased emissions of sulfur dioxide. Based on a sample of forty-four privately owned electric utilities operating over the period 1969-83, the authors' results indicate that (1) regulation increased the age of capital by an average of 3.29 years (24.6

Randy A Nelson; Tom Tietenberg; Michael R Donihue

1993-01-01

309

Electric Utility Rate Design Study: attitudes and opinions of electric utility customers toward peak-load conditions and time-of-day pricing. Customer acceptance, Topic 10. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of an attitude and opinion survey. Lengthy, personal interviews were conducted in all four U.S. regions during May--June 1976 among representative samples of 415 residential, 205 commercial, and 195 industrial customers of electric utilities. The purpose of the study was to secure information that would be of value to both regulatory and operating segments of

Kuenstler

1977-01-01

310

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

311

A utility's perspective of cogeneration as an electrical generation source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that in response to various energy-related problems that surfaced during the late 1970s, Congress passed legislation to encourage the development of cogeneration and small power production. The legislation was entitled the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, or PURPA. Responsibility for implementing PURPA was assigned to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The FERC in turn

Renson

1992-01-01

312

Utilizing tidal currents to generate electricity in Orkney and Shetland  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the potential for electricity production from the rapid tidal currents experienced in the waters around Orkney and Shetland, which lie off the north coast of the mainland of Scotland. The potential resource availability is examined, taking into account the limitations of technology and the acceptability of using the most promising waters for generation purposes.

Bryden, I.G.; Bullen, C. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Orkney (United Kingdom); Paish, O. [IT Power Ltd., Hampshire (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

313

Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

2011-12-01

314

The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states with Republican governors, Democratic and professionalized legislatures, dominant interest groups, higher levels of GSP, greater growth in per capita personal income, traditionalistic political cultures, and lower levels of environmental commitment. Moreover, economics is not always the most influential factor in determining regulatory policy. Rather, political institutions and government bureaucracies make a considerable difference.

Altman, John Arthur

315

MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

316

NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

317

Control of Utility System Unbalance Caused by Single-Phase Electric Traction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an electrified railroad the traction power is delivered to the catenary system by substations spaced along the route which, in turn, receive their supply from electric utility transmission systems. As the traction load is single-phase, the substations must be designed so that a minimum unbalance is caused on the utility three-phase system. First a brief overview is given of

Tristan A. Kneschke

1985-01-01

318

Learning from the telcos: Applying lessons to electric utility customer service processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, electric utility customer-service operations are highly distributed, both geographically and functionally. Utilities must dispatch numerous employees to visit customer's premises (meter readers, collectors) or other remote locations (technicians who perform manual-switching operations, troubleshooters who patrol lines to locate breaks). Other employees are in offices dispersed throughout the service territory, taking bill payments and answering customers' inquiries in person or

A. Y. Feibelman; R. C. Jr. Fox

1993-01-01

319

WECS; wind energy value to electric utilities. [CDC7600,CYBER175; FORTRAN IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

WECS is a package of five computer models developed by the Solar Energy Research Institute to implement a method for determining the value of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) to electric utilities. These models, WTP, WEIBUL, ROSEW, ULMOD, and FINAM, may be used with most utility planning models. The value determination procedure begins with the processing of weather data by

Hock

2008-01-01

320

Statistics of publicly owned electric utilities in the United States: 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial and operating information about publicly owned electric utilities is presented. The statistics are compiled from data taken from the annual report filed by the utilities to the Energy Information Administration. The publication also includes the annual reports for 80 Federal projects. Included for the first time in 1978 is the Laurel River Lake Project. This edition includes an index

I. Brown; P. McEwan

1979-01-01

321

Privatization of state-owned electric utility in Thailand: Expected effects on economic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation analyzes the prospects of improving the economic efficiency of electricity generation in Thailand by privatization. It examines the monopoly state-owned electric utility, its cost minimizing behavior, and the induced distortion in input prices. This study employs the generalized cost function to investigate the economic efficiency. The basic model follows the relative price efficiency analysis developed by Atkinson and

Ruangrong

1992-01-01

322

ESTIMATES OF SULFUR OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY. VOLUME I: SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Electric Utility Analysis Project, a research project supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of the report is to provide detailed information on emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) in the atmosphere from electric gener...

323

ESTIMATES OF SULFUR OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY. VOLUME II: DATABOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Electric Utility Analysis Project, a research project supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of the report is to provide detailed information on emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) in the atmosphere from electric gener...

324

Investigating the impact of embedded generation on relay settings of utilities electrical feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1970s, intensive efforts have been made to utilize renewable energy sources to generate electric power. On the other hand, economical pressure experienced in recent years has led to the development of high efficiency combined heat and power schemes to use the normally wasted heat to generate electric power. Generators used under both schemes can be either synchronous

Salman K. Salman; Ibrahim M. Rida

2001-01-01

325

Load Management Made Simple  

E-print Network

Up until the 1970's electric utilities were basically in a supply side management mode, in which plants were built to serve whatever demand customers required. However in the last 10- 15 years, many utilities, including Texas Utilities Electric...

Schneider, K.

1985-01-01

326

Performance of solar electric generating systems on the utility grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first year of performance of the Solar Electric Generating System I (SEGS I), which has been operating on the Southern California Edison (SCE) grid since December 1984 is discussed. The solar field, comprised of 71,680 m² of Luz parabolic trough line-focus solar collectors, supplies thermal energy at approx. 585°F to the thermal storage tank. This energy is then used

1986-01-01

327

Electric Utility Industrial DSM and M&V Program  

E-print Network

for residential, commercial and industrial customers. The Power Smart Partners Program (PSP) is the premier demand-side management program for BC Hydro’s large commercial and industrial non-transmission class customers. It is a direct energy acquisition program...

Lau, K. P. K.

2008-01-01

328

The effect of downsizing on the financial performance of consumer-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to answer the question of whether downsizing influences the financial performance of consumer-owned electric utilities in terms of profitability, as measured by profit margins and return on assets in the year of downsizing and during the subsequent two years relative to stable employers. The retail electric industry is being restructured to make it more competitive. In anticipation of increased competitive pressure, some electric utilities have already downsized while others are in the planning stage. Conventional wisdom holds that downsizing lowers cost and improves efficiency. In turn, this more enhances a firm's financial performance. The research design was modeled after the work of Cascio, Young, and Morris (1997). The data consisted of fifty-four consumer-owned electric utilities that were studied over a 15-year period. Since these utilities were all active federal borrowers under the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Utilities Service Loan Program, the data were obtained from governmental statistical reports. T-tests were used to compare the mean financial performance of downsized employers with stable employers in the event year and during the subsequent two years. This study supports the findings of Cascio, Young, and Morris (1997) that downsizing does not improve firm profitability. More specifically, the study found that consumer-owned electric utilities that downsized employment do not influence profit margins nor return on assets in the year of downsizing and during the subsequent two years when compared to stable employers.

Dupont, Randall Luke

1999-06-01

329

Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

1995-01-01

330

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

331

Energy conservation in electric utilities: an opportunity for restorative economics at SaskPower 1 1 All monetary values are in Canadian dollars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilities can profit through direct financial and environmental benefits, and increased shareholder and customer value. Where demand side management (DSM) programs cost less per kilowatt-hour than it would cost to generate the same amount of electricity, energy conservation offers a viable supply option, reducing the need for large capital expenditures in generating capacity. It may also improve the efficiency of

Monica Curtis; Anshuman Khare

2004-01-01

332

Electric power controller for steering wheel management in electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driverless driving is one of the most interesting topics in the field of the intelligent transportation systems. Among these topics, the automation of the actuators involved in the management of a car, and out of them the control of the steering wheel constitute one of the most complex. In this paper, automatic power steering architecture to manage the steering wheel

Vicente Milanés; Joshué Pérez; Enrique Onieva; Carlos González; Teresa de Pedro

2009-01-01

333

The case for indexed price caps for U. S. electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Indexed price caps are a promising alternative to traditional, cost-of-service utility rate regulation. In just a decade, they have sprung from the drawing boards of economists to use by major utilities in a number of industries. Several authors have discussed the merits of indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities. Despite their efforts, many parties to electric utility policy making are unfamiliar with the subject. This is unsurprising given the policy controversies that already embroil the industry. It is also unfortunate, since indexed price caps may help solve some of the problems that prompt these controversies. Indexed price caps can improve electric utility rate regulation in two ways. Utilities would have strong incentives to improve performance without the micromanagement that increasingly characterizes state-level regulation. Utilities could also be granted more extensive marketing freedoms, since indexes can protect customers from cross-subsidization. Two areas of concern about indexed price cap plans have emerged in recent discussions that the author has held with officials of electric utilities, intervenor groups, and regulatory agencies. Officials are often unclear on plan details, and therefore may not appreciate the degree of flexibility that is possible in plan design. Confusion over the available options in price cap adjustment indexes and the logic behind them is especially widespread. Officials also desire a clearer expression of how indexed price caps can coexist with current regulatory initiatives. This article details the major attributes of index plans, provides a brief history of indexing, discusses index design options in depth, and concludes with a vision of how indexed price caps can be made operational in today's electric utility industry.

Lowry, M.N.

1991-10-01

334

Availability and Utilization of Opioids for Pain Management: Global Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Pain can significantly influence an individual's health status and can have serious negative consequences: poor nutrition, decreased appetite, abnormal sleep patterns, fatigue, and impairment of daily living activities. Pain can cause psychological impairment and decrease healing and recovery from injuries and illness. A hallmark of many chronic conditions, pain affects more patients' lives than diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cancer combined. However, many chronic sufferers do not have access to effective pain management for a variety of reasons, including limited access, restrictions, and personal and cultural biases. Methods This review summarizes issues of access, distribution, and cultural bias with regard to opioid agents and seeks to clarify the challenges related to opioid delivery. The considerable negative physical and mental consequences of chronic pain are discussed for the general and palliative care population. Results Opioids are an effective treatment for various intractable painful conditions, but problems in global opioid access for safe and rational use in pain management contribute to unnecessary suffering. These problems persist despite increased understanding in recent years of the pathophysiology of pain. Conclusions Comprehensive guidelines for goal-directed and patient-friendly chronic opiate therapy will potentially enhance the outlook for future chronic pain management. The improvement of pain education in undergraduate and postgraduate training will benefit patients and clinicians. The promise of new medications, along with the utilization of multimodal approaches, has the potential to provide effective pain relief to future generations of sufferers. PMID:24940131

Manjiani, Deepak; Paul, D. Baby; Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini

2014-01-01

335

Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

Tsou, J.L. (ed.) (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Mussalli, Y.G. (Stone and Webster Environmental Services, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-03-01

336

Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of the electric utility. The negative impact of the regulatory environment declined with the increase in the size of the utility, indicating favorable treatment for larger utilities by financial markets. Similarly, for the electric utility industry as a whole, financial markets reacted negatively to nuclear power generation.

Vishwanathan, Raman

337

Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives  

SciTech Connect

The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature.

Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

1982-01-01

338

Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.  

PubMed

The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements. PMID:20551507

Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

2010-07-01

339

Proper Use of Electric/Gas UtilityType Vehicles (FS4) Form FS-4 8/24/2011  

E-print Network

of Electric/Gas Utility­Type Vehicles (EGUV): Individual operators will use their judgment on whetherProper Use of Electric/Gas UtilityType Vehicles (FS4) Form FS-4 8/24/2011 Regulation Governing Use for more details. · Gas powered utility vehicles shall not be stored, operated, or repaired within

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

340

The electricity consumption impacts of commercial energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of energy management systems (EMSs) in large commercial and institutional buildings in North Carolina was undertaken to determine how EMSs currently affect electricity consumption and what their potential is for reducing on-peak electricity demand. A survey was mailed to 5000 commercial customers. The 430 responses were tabulated and analyzed, EMS vendors were interviewed, and 30 sites were investigated

S. Buchanan; R. Taylor; S. Paulos; W. Warren; J. Hay

1989-01-01

341

Financial risk management in a competitive electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes solutions for electricity producers in the field of financial risk management for electric energy contract evaluation. The efficient frontier is used as a tool to identify the preferred portfolio of contracts. Each portfolio has a probability density function for the profit. For important scheduling policies, closed form solutions are found for the amount of futures contracts that

Roger Bjorgan; Chen-Ching Liu; Jacques Lawarree

1999-01-01

342

Firm Transmission Rights and Congestion Management in Electricity Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electricity markets, congestion issues and the right of the access to the grid are very important, because these factors can condition agent participation in the market. Electricity markets involve a Spot Market resulting in transactions that must be technically managed by a central system operator, namely in what concerns real-time dispatch of generation and transmission resources. The use of

Judite Ferreira; Zita Vale; José Cardoso

2006-01-01

343

An integrated job exposure matrix for electrical exposures of utility workers.  

PubMed

Electric utility workers may be exposed to any combination of magnetic fields, electric fields, nuisance shocks (from spark discharges and continuous currents), imperceptible contact currents, and electrical injuries. Collectively these exposures are referred to as EMF Factors. Previous occupational exposure assessments have mainly characterized the magnetic field, with less attention to the electric field. Nuisance shocks and electrical injuries, though palpable, have received little to no attention. This article presents a prototype job exposure matrix that addresses exposure to all EMF Factors taking into account job category, work environment, and occupied environment. Exposures for all factors were classified into three ordinal levels for 22 job categories. Electric and magnetic field exposures were classified by the geometric mean of daily average of personal exposure measurements. Although relatively sparse, survey data on nuisance shocks were adequate for exposure assignment by job category and indicate that the frequency of these exposures has diminished over time. The least information was available for imperceptible contact currents that are associated with electric field exposures and small contact voltages. Data for electrical injuries by job category were derived from the Electric Power Research Institute Occupational Health Surveillance Database, with exposure assignments based on combined injury rates for flash burn and electric shock/electrocution. The highest exposures for all EMF Factors are essentially limited to four job categories that work on or close to electrical equipment: (1) cable splicers, (2) electricians, (3) line workers, and (4) substation operators. PMID:19452311

Bracken, T Dan; Kavet, Robert; Patterson, Robert M; Fordyce, Tiffani A

2009-08-01

344

Utilities and industrial customers: Partners in energy management  

SciTech Connect

In today`s competitive environment, many utilities are not only pursuing new industrial customers, but actively working to help existing industrial customers become more competitive and profitable. There is fierce competition among corporations, but there is also competition between plants within the same company. As several plants within one company become consolidated, each strives individually to survive. At Virginia Power we are working with our industrial customers to help them become as efficient as possible while holding down energy costs. A successful and lasting energy management program will have the endorsement of the company`s top management. A concise corporate energy policy, employee involvement, a reliable progress reporting system, and employee training and responsibility are all vital elements for success. A winning program is an ongoing process, not a one shot effort. At Virginia Power, we offer a wide range of energy surveys depending on the customer`s needs. A survey may be as simple as a walk through of the customer`s site with Virginia Power engineers. However, a more extensive energy survey may span several days and entail third party expertise. The remainder of this paper will focus on our (Virginia Power) success of partnering with our industrial customers and a third party audit team from Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University (Virginia Tech) known as the Industrial Energy Center (IEC).

Smith, B.F.

1995-06-01

345

The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-06-17

346

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-25

347

What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?  

SciTech Connect

This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2008-11-15

348

Trip-Based Optimal Power Management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have demonstrated the capability to improve fuel economy and emissions. The plug-in HEV (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a more attractive upgrade of the HEV. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEVs, i.e., the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

2008-01-01

349

Managing Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty in Electric Brandon Keith Mauch  

E-print Network

i Managing Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty in Electric Grids Brandon Keith Mauch Co Paulina Jaramillo Doctor Paul Fischbeck 2012 #12;ii #12;iii Managing Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty generated from wind power is both variable and uncertain. Wind forecasts provide valuable information

350

Managing for biodiversity from the electric utilities` perspective  

SciTech Connect

The quality and sustainability of the natural environment is a matter of inestimable value and is critical to public health and welfare. All species have a purpose, and they exist for the betterment of other species. It is, therefore, incumbent on all humans to do their part in the preservation of this vast, diverse ecosystem called Earth. All humans are the beneficiaries, the ultimate customers, of a sound environment-water that is safe to drink, air that can breathed, and soil that will sustain crops. There must be a commitment to leaving a clean and healthy planet for generations to follow, an earth which is enhanced, not diminished, by humans` presence. 1 ref.

Heydlauff, D.E. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-11-01

351

Controlling electrical hazards through effective risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concluded that effective management of worker safety and protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and the severity of work-related injuries. Effective risk management addresses all work-related hazards including those potential hazards that could result from a change in worksite conditions or practices, whether or not they are regulated by government

Dennis K. Neitzel

2011-01-01

352

Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

Fisher, S.C.

1995-12-31

353

TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by URS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

2010-02-26

354

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

355

State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models.

Nagelhout, M.

1990-03-01

356

Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance

Michael T. Korns

2009-01-01

357

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate

Goodin

1984-01-01

358

COMPARISON OF THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF EQUIPMENT IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to compare the reliability/availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems with equipment commonly used in the electric utility industry. Because many parameters used in reporting performance data for these systems have different definit...

359

Utilization of the cryogenic exergy of liquid natural gas (LNG) for the production of electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) delivered by means of sea-ships is compressed and then evaporated before its introduction to the system of pipelines. The possibilities of the utilization of cryogenic exergy of LNG for electricity production without any additional combustion of any its portion, have been analyzed. Three variants of the plant have been investigated. A cascade system with two working

Jan Szargut; Ireneusz Szczygiel

2009-01-01

360

APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

361

Design and Optimization of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2001 competition. The base vehicle is a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. Our FutureTruck is nicknamed the \\

Ryan F. Rowe; Jennifer A. Topinka; Ethan K. Brodsky; Julie G. Marshaus; Glenn R. Bower

362

Vertical and Horizontal Economies in the Electric Utility Industry: An Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical literature on the cost structure of the electric utility industry traditionally focused on the measurement of specific technological properties: i) scale economies in generation or distribution; ii) multi- product (or horizontal) economies of scope at the downstream stage; iii) multi-stage (or vertical) economies of scope between generation, transmission and distribution. This paper extends the results of previous studies

MASSIMILIANO PIACENZA; DAVIDE VANNONI

2005-01-01

363

State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models.

Nagelhout

1990-01-01

364

Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s,

Klong Luang

365

Knowledge-based systems for electric utility operation using the PROLOG language: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research project was to investigate the desirability of developing knowledge based systems in the PROLOG, PROgramming in LOGic, language for electric utility system operation applications. Two major steps were completed to achieve this objective. The first step was to develop a protection system simulator and diagnostican in the PROLOG language. Finally, a demonstration volt\\/VAR dispatch knowledge

Tweed

1988-01-01

366

Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990s, the

Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn

2006-01-01

367

CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

368

How politics, economics, and institutions shaped electric utility regulation in the United States: 1879–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of electric utility regulation at both the state and national level from the beginning of the industry through the aftermath of the California energy crisis of 2000–01 is presented. That history was partly determined by the economics of the industry – on the supply side by its cost structure, network characteristics, and lack of storability – on the

William J. Hausman; John L. Neufeld

2011-01-01

369

Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

1981-01-01

370

PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

371

EPA DETERMINATION STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to determine whether the regulation of hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions from electric utility generating plants is necessary. This determination is to be made on or before December 15, 2000. It focuses primarily on the nee...

372

The Diffusion of New Technologies: Evidence from the Electric Utility Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effect of firm size and ownership structure on technology adoption decisions using data on the electric utility industry. We argue that traditional models of technology diffusion may be subject to sample selectivity biases that overstate the effect of firm size on adoption probabilities. By extending conventional hazard rate models to use information on both adoption and

Nancy L. Rose; Paul L. Joskow

1990-01-01

373

Guidelines for cofiring refuse-derived fuel in electric utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970s, nine electric utilities in the United States have cofired refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal or oil in electric utility boilers. Of these, only four continue to cofire RDF in 1988, the others having discontinued operations for a variety of reasons, mostly economic. In order to document this experience and provide a basis for planning future RDF cofiring projects, EPRI and the US Department of Energy cosponsored the development of the guidelines for RDF cofiring in electric utility boilers. The guidelines address the procedures for evaluating proposed RDF cofiring projects, RDF specifications and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The economic analysis examples suggest that the value of RDF to the utility is only a fraction of the value of the fuel being replaced. This is because the incremental fuel savings derived from RDF cofiring are at least partially offset by the incremental capital and O M costs. In order to maximize RDF value, it is important to select units for RDF cofiring that have at least 15 years of remaining life, operate at high capacity factor, are of sufficient size to consume the available RDF stream, and do not exhibit boiler slagging and fouling, electricstatic precipitator, or unit derating problems while burning coal or oil. 71 figs., 70 tabs.

Fiscus, D.E. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Wolfs, K.E.; Ege, H.D.; Kimber, A. (Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Joensen, A.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (USA)); Savage, G.M. (Cal Recovery Systems, Inc., Richmond, CA (USA))

1988-06-01

374

Utility/Industry Partnerships Involving Distributed Generation Technologies in Evolving Electricity Markets  

E-print Network

Wires Manage Wires defer capital Optimize Energy Services Not Utility Business Not Utility Business New Business Opportunities DISTRIBUTED GENERATION Distributed generation includes small gas turbines, micro-turbines, fuel cells, storage... Manufacturing Education 15 kW to 2,000 kW cogeneration Peak shaving standby power Premium Power Service Power Quality Combustion Turbines Micro-turbines IC engines Diesels Fuel Cells PAFC SOFC; micro SOFC-CT PEMFC RoofTop PV Battery/ UPS...

Rastler, D. M.

375

Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electric vehicle is propelled with stored energy from a battery or flywheel, plus energy produced by burning fuel in an engine. The cost of the energy consumed, as well as the quantity of air pollutants released, can be reduced by optimizing (1) the ratings of the battery and engine, and (2) the power output that will be delivered

W. C. Morchin

1998-01-01

376

Review article Influence of electric conductivity management  

E-print Network

their sugar: acid ratio, and influences the transpiration rate and the water uptake by the plant, which 2001; accepted 26 February 2001) Abstract ­ The osmotic and ionic effects of the electrical growers to modify water availability to the crop and hence improve fruit quality. At some point, however

Boyer, Edmond

377

Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential concepts for near term electric utility applications were identified. The most promising ones for conceptual design were evaluated for their economic feasibility and cost benefits. The screening process resulted in selecting two coal-fired and two nuclear plants for detailed conceptual design. The coal plants utilized peaking turbines and the nuclear plants varied the feedwater extraction to change power output. It was shown that the performance and costs of even the best of these systems could not compete in near term utility applications with cycling coal plants and typical gas turbines available for peaking power. Lower electricity costs, greater flexibility of operation, and other benefits can be provided by cycling coal plants for greater than 1500 hours of peaking or by gas turbines for less than 1500 hours if oil is available and its cost does not increase significantly.

Hall, E. W.; Hausz, W.; Anand, R.; Lamarche, N.; Oplinger, J.; Katzer, M.

1979-01-01

378

Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

Thompson, H.G. [Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (United States); Islam, M.; Rose, K.

1996-01-01

379

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

1992-01-01

380

Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost function obtained from Independent Service Operators. A consumer experiment is established to replicate the peak load behavior. As a result, consumers' utility function is estimated and optimal retail electricity prices are computed.

Kazan, Osman

381

Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries  

SciTech Connect

This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

NONE

1991-12-31

382

From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4) prevented industry profits from declining. This research adds to the existing literature on industry regulation in general, and specifically to the literature on the effects of regulation of the electric utility industry.

Reutter, Keith Alan

1997-09-01

383

Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of waste heat utilization in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander). The advantages associated with the SRG110 as they relate to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings for a spacecraft will be highlighted.

Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

2005-01-01

384

An actions-based estimate of the free rider fraction in electric utility DSM programs  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility DSM program `free riders` are participants who would have made program-supported changes even in the absence of an efficiency program. From the utility perspective, free riders impose costs without yielding any changes in behavior and tend to decrease program performance. From a societal perspective free riders impose administrative costs on the system without providing benefits; the incentive payment itself is treated as an income transfer. In the current regulatory climate, free ridership gains importance as utilities attempt to meet customers needs as efficiently as possible. By targeting spending at specific customer groups utilities can potentially reduce the cost of increasing efficiency. The author provides an estimate of the free rider fraction based on consumer actions.

Malm, E. [Insights Unlimited, Devon, PA (United States)

1996-12-01

385

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

1990-12-01

386

Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

Baxter, L.W.

1995-10-01

387

System reliability in electric utility systems with independent wind and solar generation  

SciTech Connect

The use of alternative energy sources for the generation of electricity in the United States is increasing due to a growing concern about the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels. While alternative energy sources have their benefits, the inherent randomness of wind and solar energy can cause reliability problems for the power grid. Because of changes in the public policy of the US Congress and state governments, utilities are evolving toward a more distributed system with increasing amounts of non-utility generation. This evolution may improve the prospects for PV and other alternative energy sources as they gradually become cost competitive with other types of distributed generation such as gas turbines or cogeneration. This paper provides an overview of a methodology developed to integrate wind and solar energy sources into the electric utility generation mix. The wind and solar energy sources are assumed to be owned and operated by small power producing facilities (SPPF`s). The SPPF`s buy and sell electricity at prices determined by the local utility according to the time-of-day (spot pricing). During each time period, each SPPF makes its own decision whether to buy or sell power. The buy-or-sell decision depends on the price, the energy needs of the SPPF, and the amount of energy available to the SPPF from other sources.

Schooley, D.C. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Lombard, IL (United States). Bulk Power Operations; Puettgen, H.B. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computing Engineering

1999-11-01

388

Advanced electrolysis development for hydrogen-cycle peak shaving for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Meeting peak power demands can impose limiting conditions on generation, transmission, and distribution equipment in the electric utility network--especially around urban areas. Utilization of a cost-effective energy storage system capable of being located near the load centers could improve load factors and maximize utilization of installed capital equipment. A hydrogen-cycle peak-shaving system (HCPS) can be sited in populated areas, imposing no environmental concerns, and providing considerable flexibility not only in meeting peak load demands, but also in helping to meet varying system load-growth patterns. Several possible configurations for an HCPS are described, together with a summary of the features and benefits. An alternate ''dispersed'' HCPS system is also described for use by a combined electric and gas utility. One of the key elements in an HCPS system is an efficient, cost-effective water electrolysis unit. The General Electric Company has been working with the Niagara Mohawk Power Company, and others, since 1976 on the development of a unique solid-polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis system which offers considerably higher efficiencies and potentially lower capital cost as compared with conventional commercial alkaline electrolyzers. The current status of this development program is discussed.

Fernandes, R.A.; Nuttall, L.J.

1982-09-01

389

Some effects of rate regulation of the electric-utility industry in the United States, 1960-1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores some of the effects of rate regulation by state commissions on the electric-utility industry. It includes an empirical investigation of rate regulation's effect on electric utilities' rate structures and operating and cost characteristics in the United States between 1960 and 1979. Also included in an estimate of the total direct costs of rate regulation for California in

1987-01-01

390

Statistics of privately owned electric utilities in the United States: 1978. Classes A and B companies. Energy data report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication presents the 42nd consecutive year of comprehensive financial and operating information on all the large privately owned electric utility companies operating in the United States. The information has been taken from the annual reports of Classes A and B electric utilities for 1978. The tabulated schedules contained in this report include balance sheets; income and retained earnings statements;

K. Roth; R. O. Lyles

1979-01-01

391

Assessment of the potential for full coordination of the California electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the potential economies for a public utility addresses technical issues such as the feasibility of interconnection, the cost of relieving bottlenecks in the transmission network, and the necessary control technology to effect full coordination. In addition, the institutional framework of a fully coordinated system must also be developed. This involves establishing a management structure that will serve

Kahn

1977-01-01

392

New trends in electricity pricing in Sweden from a utility perspective  

SciTech Connect

Sweden is facing a re-structured electricity market beginning January 1, 1996, implying full competition in the purchasing and selling of electricity. The transmission and distribution of electricity will remain as a franchised monopoly and this business has to be strictly separated from the electricity trading. In the monopolistic environment, pricing of electricity has been based on more or less relevant costs and a resonable rate of return. The energy charges have reflected the system short range marginal costs while the demand and fixed charges have been adapted to give a total cost level corresponding to the system average cost. Tariffs of this type, known as time-of-use tariffs, have stimulated peak shaving during peak load (high cost hours) and valley filling during low load (low cost hours), increasing the load factor. Restructuring will influence the pricing in several ways. Pricing of transmission and distribution services will be based on costs and will be supervised by a new state authority. The network tariffs within local areas will be distance independent and the customers will be able to distinguish the transportation costs from the costs for electricity supply and taxes on the bill. Pricing of electricity supply will be influenced by the market and the strength of competition. However, as customers don`t value electricity itself, but the benefits of electricity use, there will be a strong trend for utilities to market energy services like light, power, space heating, indoor climate control, district cooling, etc., instead of kilowatt-hours. The price for these services will include a number of items and will be individually negotiated and adapted to the customer needs. A business concept of this type also offers possibilities for energy efficiency measures to be taken within the energy service agreement. Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the idea of green pricing of electricity.

Andersson, A.; Berghe, J.O. [Goeteborg Energi Naet (Sweden)

1996-03-01

393

Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2002, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) released this comprehensive report of electric generating plant capacity for the year 2000. Over 300 pages in length, the document contains detailed discussions, tables, and charts of the country's electric utilities. There is a large amount of capacity and usage data that is broken down into primary energy source categories, including coal, gas, hydroelectric, nuclear, petroleum, and renewables. Much of the information is divided into statistics for individual states. The report also has "a 5-year summary (2001-2005) of proposed changes to existing generating units."

2002-01-01

394

The Utilization of Project Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 99 pharmaceutical companies concerning their organization and use of project management techniques for research and development found that the industry is using project management increasingly in a variety of ways for better business planning and operations. (MSE)

Krusko, Diane; Cangemi, Robert R.

1987-01-01

395

UTILIZATION OF NUMERICAL GROUNDWATER MODELS FOR WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The study assessed the present status of international numerical models as a tool for ground-water related water resource management. Among the problem areas considered are: The accessibility of models to users; communications between managers and technical personnel; inadequacie...

396

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational standard of 10 gauss. The use of an organophosphate containing fire resistant hydraulic fluid, Fyrquel-EH (1330785), was reported by employees. A significant correlation was identified between memory of past symptoms indicative of acute organophosphate exposure after working with Fyrquel-EH and current symptoms; however, blood cholinesterase levels were all within the normal range and no relevant neurologic abnormalities were noted on neurological examinations. The authors conclude that a hazard existed from the use of Fyrquel-EH. The authors recommend measures for the safe handling of organophosphate compounds.

Malkin, R.; Moss, C.E.; Reh, C.M.; Ragab, M.

1996-01-01

397

A case cohort study of suicide in relation to exposure to electric and magnetic fields among electrical utility workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--This case cohort study examines whether there is an association between exposure to electric and magnetic fields and suicide in a population of 21,744 male electrical utility workers from the Canadian Province of Québec. METHODS--49 deaths from suicide were identified between 1970 and 1988 and a subcohort was selected comprising a 1% random sample from this cohort as a basis for risk estimation. Cumulative and current exposures to electric fields, magnetic fields, and pulsed electromagnetic fields (as recorded by the POSITRON meter) were estimated for the subcohort and cases through a job exposure matrix. Two versions of each of these six indices were calculated, one based on the arithmetic mean (AM), and one on the geometric mean (GM) of field strengths. RESULTS--For cumulative exposure, rate ratios (RR) for all three fields showed mostly small non-significant increases in the medium and high exposure groups. The most increased risk was found in the medium exposure group for the GM of the electric field (RR = 2.76, 95% CI 1.15-6.62). The results did not differ after adjustment for socioeconomic state, alcohol use, marital state, and mental disorders. There was a little evidence for an association of risk with exposure immediately before the suicide. CONCLUSION--Some evidence for an association between suicide and cumulative exposure to the GM of the electric fields was found. This specific index was not initially identified as the most relevant index, but rather emerged afterwards as showing the most positive association with suicide among the 10 indices studied. Thus the evidence from this study for a causal association between exposure to electric fields and suicide is weak. Small sample size (deaths from suicide) and inability to control for all potential confounding factors were the main limitations of this study. PMID:8563853

Baris, D; Armstrong, B G; Deadman, J; Thériault, G

1996-01-01

398

Text and slides of presentation originally presented to the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board regarding the province's Demand Side Management program,19 April 2010.  

E-print Network

Text and slides of presentation originally presented to the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board regarding the province's Demand Side Management program,19 April 2010. ERG/201003 Nova Scotia's Demand Side of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dalhousie University http://lh.ece.dal.ca/enen 19 April 2010 #12;Nova

Hughes, Larry

399

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

1995-03-01

400

Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers  

PubMed Central

An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

2014-01-01

401

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

NONE

1996-03-04

402

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS  

E-print Network

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS with the emerging plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to meet the majority of the daily energy needs scenario that is based on the concept of plug-in a hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A PHEV is a hybrid

403

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

will enable you to achieve your dreams. ii #12;Contents 1 A Stochastic Optimal Control Approach for PowerPLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT: OPTIMAL CONTROL AND BATTERY SIZING by Scott J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.2 Engine Control

Krstic, Miroslav

404

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's  

E-print Network

the coming decades the world must make fundamental transformations in how energy is used and produced of energy sources in ways that are clean, reliable, affordable and sustainable · How to create innovationsManaging Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P o

405

SGO: management information system for strategic bidding in electrical markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes SGO, a management information system for bidding in deregulated electricity markets, developed for the Spanish case. SGO has a client-server architecture and consists of a set of integrated cooperative and flexible software tools for assisting the users during the whole bidding process: resources identification, bids generation, market performance characterisation, bidding strategy analysis and optimisation, generation of markets

J. Villar; A. Munoz; E. F. Sanchez-Ubeda; A. Mateo; M. Casado; A. Campos; J. Mate; E. Centeno; S. Rubio; J. J. Marcos; R. Gonzalez

2001-01-01

406

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-01-01

407

Energy management strategies for a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a fuzzy logic, rule based control strategy is proposed for a parallel, hybrid electric vehicle. The energy management optimizes engine operational efficiency while maintaining battery state of charge. Fuzzy logic shifting strategy improves the drivability and performance and avoids undesirable frequent shifting. Simulation has been conducted in a forward-looking model to implement the design. The improvements are

X. He; M. Parten; T. Maxwell

2005-01-01

408

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2012-04-01

409

Energy management strategy for Diesel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The paper presents an adaptation of the equivalent consumption minimization strat- egy (ECMS) dedicated to the Diesel HEV control issues. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an additional degree of freedom into the ECMS that allows to modify the optimization tradeoffs from the pure

Olivier Grondin; Laurent Thibault; Philippe Moulin; Alexandre Chasse; Antonio Sciarretta

2011-01-01

410

System Design for a Nuclear Electric Spacecraft Utilizing Out-of-core Thermionic Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic guidelines are presented for a nuclear space power system which utilizes heat pipes to transport thermal power from a fast nuclear reactor to an out of core thermionic converter array. Design parameters are discussed for the nuclear reactor, heat pipes, thermionic converters, shields (neutron and gamma), waste heat rejection systems, and the electrical bus bar-cable system required to transport the high current/low voltage power to the processing equipment. Dimensions are compatible with shuttle payload bay constraints.

Estabrook, W. C.; Phillips, W. M.; Hsieh, T.

1976-01-01

411

Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

1974-01-01

412

Oil company brings photovoltaic solar power to the electric-utility industry in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generous tax credits encouraged Arco Solar Inc. to bring photovoltaic power generation to California's electric utilities. While not yet cost-cpmpetitive, rapid technological development is improving the prospects for photovoltaic solar power. One breakthrough in the late 1970s dropped photovoltaic module prices from $20 a watt to $2.80 this year and a projected 40 cents by 1990. Arco sells power from

Smock

1983-01-01

413

Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What Are the Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) established a market for transferable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances among electric utilities. This market offers firms facing high marginal abatement costs the opportunity to purchase the right to emit SO2 from firms with lower costs, and this is expected to yield cost savings compared to a command-and-control approach to

Curtis Carlson; Dallas Burtraw; Maureen Cropper; Karen L. Palmer

2000-01-01

414

Capital cost assessment of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants for electric utility applications: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of EPRI Research Project RP1777-1, Amendment 12, Task 1 through 7. The major objective of this work was to assess the capital cost potential of multi-mega-watt phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants for electric utility applications. The assessment examined the capital cost for a first-of-a-kind 11-MW demonstration unit, the estimated cost to manufacturer and install

E. W. Hall; L. M. Handley; G. W. May

1988-01-01

415

Weather sensitive method for short term load forecasting in Electric Power Utility of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a regression-based adaptive weather sensitive short-term load-forecasting algorithm, which has been developed and implemented in Electric Power Utility of Serbia. The proposed methodology consists of two main steps. The total daily energy is independently forecasted in the first step while hourly loads are predicted in the second step. All model parameters are automatically calculated and updated using

S. Ruzic; A. Vuckovic; N. Nikolic

2003-01-01

416

Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1994-06-01

417

Guidelines for cofiting refuse-derived fuel in electrical utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970s, nine electric utilities in the United States have cofired refuse-derived fuel (RDF) prepared from municipal refuse with coal or oil in electric utility boilers. Of these, four are continuing to cofire RDF as of 1988, the others having discontinued operations for a variety of reasons, mostly economic. In order to document this experience and provide a basis for planning future RDF cofiring projects, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy cosponsored the development of guidelines for RDF cofiring. The guidelines, discussed in this paper, address the procedures for evaluating proposed RDF projects, RDF specifications and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O and M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The economic analysis suggests that the value of RDF to the utility is only a fraction of the value of the fuel replaced, because the incremental fuel savings derived from RDF cofiring are at least partially offset by the incremental capital and O and M costs.

McGowin, C.R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Joensen, A.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (USA)); Fiscus, D.E. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Wolfs, K.E.; Ege, H.D. (Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Savage, G.M. (Cal Recovery Systems, Inc., Richmond, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

418

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-05-16

419

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-07-11

420

Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission  

SciTech Connect

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2009-07-01

421

Battery energy storage systems for electric utility, industrial and commercial applications  

SciTech Connect

Voltage depressions and power interruptions are rapidly becoming two of the hottest topics in the field of power quality. Of particular interest is the need to supply a dependable, efficient and controllable source of real and reactive power, which is available instantly to support a large (> .5 MVA) load, even if the utility connection is lost. This paper describes a versatile solution to this problem for utility, industrial and commercial applications using battery energy storage systems (BESS). BESS has the potential to provide other substantial benefits in terms of improved voltage and energy management in conjunction with this protection from interruptions.

Miller, N.W.; Zrebiec, R.S.; Delmerico, R.W. [GE Power Systems Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hunt, G. [GNB Industrial Battery, Lombard, IL (United States)

1996-11-01

422

Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

Not Available

1982-05-01

423

GUIDO BARTELS General Manager Global Energy & Utilities Industry, IBM  

E-print Network

is married, has two teenage children and currently lives with his family in Connecticut, U.S. #12; of 27 of the nation's top experts in electricity policy, planning and operations. Bartels also serves

424

Management Skills and Attitudes of Principals Toward Energy Utilization  

E-print Network

parts: (1) a questionnaire re- garding factors which influenced energy utilization during fall 1985, (2) an opinionnaire relating to attitudes and managerial skills which affected energy utilization, and (3) a subjective questionnaire for historical.... AULYSIS OF DATA For the purpose of this study, Questionnaire Item 14 addressed the principal 's training: "Have you received energy conservation training as support for your current responsibilities?" Table 2 indi- cates that 30 (58...

Huntington, P.; Mayfield, E.

1987-01-01

425

The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment.

Ryan, N.E.

1991-01-01

426

Electric utility pole yard training facility: Designing an effective learning environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary responsibility of electric utilities is to supply consistent, dependable, and affordable energy to private customers, businesses, and industries. As with many businesses, electric utilities are experiencing the effects of an aging workforce and expending considerable resources to train their current and replacement workers. Community colleges can partner with electric utilities to provide effective learning environments for these workers, and gain access to new sources of revenue and community support for the colleges. The purpose of this study was to describe the functions, features, and major design issues of an effective learning environment for training electric utility industry workers, the electric utility line-worker pole yard. Case studies of three "state of the art" line-worker pole yard training environments provide the basis for the study's findings and implications. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What is the function of a line-worker pole yard in supporting effective training? (2) What are the features of present day ("state of the art") line-worker pole yard learning environments? and (3) What are the major issues that need to be addressed in designing a line-worker pole yard learning environment for the future? The study participants included industry representatives, training coordinators, instructors, and students from the three selected "state of the art" line-worker pole yard sites. The overall findings from the study resulted in composites of the desired features of learning outcomes, learning process, and learning environment for a line-worker pole yard training program and major issues that are affecting the future design of these training programs. Composite findings of a pole-yard training environment included unique features associated with: (a) outdoor, (b) indoor, (c) underground, (d) classroom, (e) gathering places, and (f) work-based learning components. Composite findings with regard to major issues that need to be considered in future designs of pole-yard training environments included: (a) available unrestricted land for expansion, (b) resource commitment level, (c) workforce demographics, (d) aging industrial infrastructure, (e) electronic information and communication capability, (f) quality and quantity of available instructors, and (g) environmental and economic impact.

Topping, Robert P.

427

CSREES 406 National Integrated Water Quality Program-Nutrient Science Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in  

E-print Network

;2 Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in a Louisiana Coastal Watershed (NUMAN1 \\ CSREES 406 National Integrated Water Quality Program-Nutrient Science Utilizing Mississippi River Diversions for Nutrient Management in a Louisiana Coastal Watershed (NUMAN) PPROGRESS REPORT

428

Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

Yang, T.

2013-12-01

429

Electric power annual 1995. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

NONE

1996-12-01

430

Driving Water and Wastewater Utilities to More Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

of the future. While it is not practical for all wastewater treatment plants to become energy positive or neutral, all can take steps towards increasing energy sustainability. Financial viability for energy management sustainability is crucial for success...

Ferrel, L.; Liner, B.

2013-01-01

431

Analysis of Energy Management System Control Philosophies Utilizing Collected Field Data  

E-print Network

Small commercial and light industrial operations are turning to low-cost energy management controllers in efforts to reduce their electrical usage and demand. These controllers offer a variety of techniques to obtain this goal. To study the effects...

Russell, B. D.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller; R. P.; Perry, L. W.

1983-01-01

432

The Validity and Utility of the Positive Presentation Management and Negative Presentation Management Scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer developed "validity" scales for the "Revised NEO Personality Inventory" (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae) to detect underreporting--the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) Scale and overreporting--the Negative Presentation Management (NPM) Scale. In this investigation, the clinical utility of these scales was examined using…

Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

2008-01-01

433

Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on  

E-print Network

}@lea.uni-paderborn.de Abstract--For electric and hybrid electric cars, commonly nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteriesOptimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based. Index Terms--Energy management, dynamic programming, hybrid energy storage system, electric vehicle I

Paderborn, Universität

434

Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

1990-01-01

435

Complex wound management utilizing an artificial dermal matrix.  

PubMed

The benefits of the Integra Dermal Regeneration Template in the management of extensive burn injuries have been well documented. Integra can reduce donor- and graft-site scarring and has been reported to be capable of vascularizing over small areas of exposed bone and tendon. Given these potential advantages, we have used Integra for a variety of other reconstruction applications. We performed a retrospective review of patients with complex wounds treated with Integra at our burn center. Integra was used in the management of a variety of wounds, including necrotizing fasciitis, extremity degloving injury, meningococcemia, Marjolin ulcer, postburn lip reconstruction, and fourth-degree burns with exposed bone or tendon. Engraftment rates of Integra and autograft were 98% +/- 4% and 97% +/- 4%, respectively. All areas of graft loss healed without need for regrafting. The benefits of Integra in the management of acute burn wounds can be extended to other traumatic and complex wounds. PMID:16862003

Muangman, Pornprom; Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M; Harunari, Nobuyuki; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S; Klein, Matthew B

2006-08-01

436

Advantages of an electrical control and energy management system  

PubMed

This paper discusses an electrical control and energy management system (ECEMS) that was installed at Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) Nagathone Gas Cracker complex located in Maharashtra, India. This distributed control system (DCS) provided computer assisted control in the areas of: Demand control; Automatic generation control, including MW and MVAR management; Power factor control; Automatic tap changer control; Load shedding; Automatic synchronization of generator and ties; Remote control of breakers. Previously, IPCL, like most other petrochemical companies in India, relied on operator control for power house functions. The process is always automated, but the power house equipment is usually manually controlled. Electrical control and energy management systems are not thought to be necessary. However, in this case the consultants for IPCL and the DCS supplier convinced IPCL that an ECEMS would save them enough money in operating costs to pay for the new control system. The control system discussed in this paper reduced operating costs by satisfying the process steam and power demands in the most cost-effective manner. In addition, the system took action to respond to electrical disturbances, such as loss of tie line and generator tripping, so that stable conditions were restored. PMID:10826290

Pal; Huff

2000-01-01

437

Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.  

PubMed

Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice. PMID:21097207

Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

2010-01-01

438

Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement. The scores were given for Rate Achievement from 1 to 5 and Rank Importance from 1 to 10 to the survey outcomes for each topic. Then, rating and ranking matrix was constructed according to score ranges. Results show that Product Quality, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Infrastructure Stability and Customer Satisfaction are the major topics that needs to be improved according to the utility managers in Turkey. According to the outcomes of the study, water losses and unbilled unmetered consumption of water appeared to be the most important issues with the utility management. The utility managers also think there is still room for improvement to satisfy the needs of the users. Even though the rehabilitation of the infrastructure is a costly investment, it can be compensated with the help of the increased revenues as a result of improvement in water loss and unbilled water use. Suggestions given as a result of this study aim to aid decision makers and local authorities to overcome the significant problems faced during management and to achieve a sustainable utility management.

Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

2013-12-01

439

The potential for application of energy storage capacity on electric utility systems in the united states - part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the results of the second phase of the systems analysis portion of a research project to assess energy storage systems suitable for use by electric utilities. Estimates of the maximum on-peak energy and power requirements capable of being supported by so-called base-load supplied off-peak energy are provided for the U.S. electric utility industry. A generalized relationship

V. T. Sulzberger; J. Zemkoski

1977-01-01

440

A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

2003-01-01

441

Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

2009-06-01

442

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

Eltimsahy, A.H.

1980-06-01

443

Exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields in the electric utility work environment.  

PubMed

Research that has attempted to examine the relationship between work exposures to magnetic fields and health effects has suffered from limited exposure information. Power-frequency electric and magnetic (EM) field exposures vary substantially between industries, occupations, and individuals. In this study magnetic field data were collected for a variety of occupational categories within an electric utility. The sampling procedures emphasized craft occupations that were presumed to have higher exposures to magnetic fields. The objectives were to provide better exposure information for an ongoing cancer mortality study, examine the relationship between different summary measures of magnetic field exposure, and make available descriptive information useful for exposure reduction and worker education. Principal components analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation were used to explore the relationships between the different summary measures among all utility workers and among the subset of electrical craft occupations. Discriminant analysis was used to assess summary measures of exposure that differentiated occupational groups. Measurements for 770 days generated a total of 42378 hours of magnetic field data. Eleven summary indices of exposure were calculated for specific occupational groups. These include arithmetic mean, geometric mean, median, 95th and 99th percentiles, and fraction of measurements exceeding .5, 1, 5, 10, and 100 microT. Electrical craft occupations had higher work exposures than non-craft occupations. Electricians and substation operators had the highest exposures among craft occupations. We identified subsets of summary measures that were intercorrelated. The first PCA axis included the geometric mean, median, and the fractions exceeding 0.5 and 1.0 microT. This set of measures also were best at discriminating occupational groups. The relevance of these findings may become more important if consistent associations are found between particular occupations and disease and particular occupations and magnetic field summary measures. Further research is needed to evaluate these exposure assessment findings. PMID:8155067

Sahl, J D; Kelsh, M A; Smith, R W; Aseltine, D A

1994-01-01

444

Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

445

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF LANDFILL GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3) for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the ...

446

Utilization of Computer Technology To Facilitate Money Management by Individuals with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes results of an initial investigation of the utility of a specially designed money management software program for improving management of personal checking accounts for individuals with mental retardation. Use with 19 adults with mental retardation indicated the software resulted in significant reduction in check writing and…

Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

2003-01-01

447

Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

NONE

1997-12-01

448

Simulation of demand management and grid balancing with electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential role of electric vehicles in an electricity network with a high contribution from variable generation such as wind power. Electric vehicles are modelled to provide demand management through flexible charging requirements and energy balancing for the network. Balancing applications include both demand balancing and vehicle-to-grid discharging. This study is configured to represent the UK grid with balancing requirements derived from wind generation calculated from weather station wind speeds on the supply side and National Grid data from on the demand side. The simulation models 1000 individual vehicle entities to represent the behaviour of larger numbers of vehicles. A stochastic trip generation profile is used to generate realistic journey characteristics, whilst a market pricing model allows charging and balancing decisions to be based on realistic market price conditions. The simulation has been tested with wind generation capacities representing up to 30% of UK consumption. Results show significant improvements to load following conditions with the introduction of electric vehicles, suggesting that they could substantially facilitate the uptake of intermittent renewable generation. Electric vehicle owners would benefit from flexible charging and selling tariffs, with the majority of revenue derived from vehicle-to-grid participation in balancing markets.

Druitt, James; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit

2012-10-01

449

Effects of federal income taxes on the cash flow, operating revenue, and net income of electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea to do this research was suggested by the efforts of some consumer groups and others to seek passage of a law in the United States to exempt investor-owned electric utilities from federal income taxes. The goal of the consumer groups is to reduce the charges to utility customers (which is measured in this study by the amount of

1982-01-01

450

Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

Huang, Dange

451

Solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB): requirements definition and impact analysis. [Economic impact on electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The installation of Solar Heating and Cooling of Building (SHACOB) systems usually requires a backup system--often electric--to take some portion of the load on days of low insolation, and to carry the entire load during extended periods of low insolation. The implications of such systems on the economic operation of electric utilities may be significant if a displacement of required

W. C. Melton; C. K. Cretcher

1977-01-01

452

Response–relapse patterns of building occupant electricity consumption following exposure to personal, contextualized and occupant peer network utilization data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior can account for significant differences in building energy use. Monitoring and reporting of building energy use may induce occupants to conserve energy. The goal of this study was to assess the behavioral impact of providing building occupants with personal electricity utilization data contextualized with different social frames of reference. We installed monitoring equipment on the electrical meters for 83

Gabriel Peschiera; John E. Taylor; Jeffrey A. Siegel

2010-01-01

453

Demand Control Utilizing Energy Management Systems - Report of Field Tests  

E-print Network

with dope sensitive 4 g 200 W NO SHEDS - 0 50 100 1 io 2 00 AVERAGE DEMAND (KW) Figure 5: DEMAND PROFILES Figure 6: SLOPE SENSITIVE DEMAND ALGORITHM CONTROL CURVE al~orithms began to occur. Even though the demand profile and study data indicat... Increased time to restore loads when the demand is high to prevent controlled loads from compounding the demand problem. Utilization of rated power and run indica- tions to more accurately predict when the controller must shed loads to prevent a demand...

Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W.

1984-01-01

454

Enhancing the utility of prostascint SPECT scans for patient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project investigated reducing the artifact content of In-ill ProstaScint SPECT scans for use in treatment planning and management. Forty-one patients who had undergone CT or MRI scans and simultaneous Tc-99m RBC\\/In-111 ProstaScint SPECT scans were included. SPECT volume sets, reconstructed using Ordered Set-Expectation Maximum (OS-EM) were compared against those reconstructed with standard Filtered Back projection (FBP). Bladder activity in

E. Noz Marilyn; Chung Grace; Y. Lee Benjamin; J. Keith DeWyngaert; V. Doshi Jay; L. Kramer Elissa; D. Murphy-Walcott Antoinette; P. Zeleznik Michael; G. Kwak Noeun

2006-01-01

455

Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric@elpl.snu.ac.kr Abstract--To improve the cycle efficiency and peak output power density of energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EVs), supercapacitors have been proposed as auxiliary energy storage elements

Pedram, Massoud

456

Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

Not Available

1980-03-01

457

The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

Not Available

1994-06-01

458

Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management  

PubMed Central

Natural resource management is littered with cases of overexploitation and ineffectual management, leading to loss of both biodiversity and human welfare. Disciplinary boundaries stifle the search for solutions to these issues. Here, I combine the approach of management strategy evaluation, widely applied in fisheries, with household utility models from the conservation and development literature, to produce an integrated framework for evaluating the effectiveness of competing management strategies for harvested resources against a range of performance metrics. I demonstrate the strengths of this approach with a simple model, and use it to examine the effect of manager ignorance of household decisions on resource management effectiveness, and an allocation tradeoff between monitoring resource stocks to reduce observation uncertainty and monitoring users to improve compliance. I show that this integrated framework enables management assessments to consider household utility as a direct metric for system performance, and that although utility and resource stock conservation metrics are well aligned, harvest yield is a poor proxy for both, because it is a product of household allocation decisions between alternate livelihood options, rather than an end in itself. This approach has potential far beyond single-species harvesting in situations where managers are in full control; I show that the integrated approach enables a range of management intervention options to be evaluated within the same framework. PMID:21205895

Milner-Gulland, E. J.

2011-01-01

459

David and the Goliaths: How a small environmental group helps reform electric-utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 the Land and Water Fund of the Rockies (LAW Fund), a regional environmental organization, started an Energy Project with two lawyers and a scientist to challenge the energy-efficiency, renewable-resource and environmental-protection practices of utilities in the vast six-state Rocky Mountain region. Within three years, Colorado and Utah had adopted comprehensive integrated resource planning (IRP) rules, and several utilities had developed plans to expand their demand-side management (DSM) activities. The authors discuss the role that this small band of lawyers and policy analysts played in stimulating these changes, based on their first-hand experience with the LAW Fund. They also comment on the substantial influence and valuable services that such a small group can provide.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Swanson, S. [New York State Dept. of Public Services, Albany, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

460

The Potential of Energy Management and Control Systems for Real-Time Electricity Pricing Programs  

E-print Network

In implementing an integrated electric utility network, direct communication between the utility and customers is an important component. The rapid penetration of computer building control technology in larger commercial and industrial customers...

Akbari, H.; Heinemeier, K. E.

1990-01-01

461

Tool Helps Utilities Assess Readiness for Electric Vehicle Charging (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL research helps answer a fundamental question regarding electric vehicles: Is the grid ready to handle them? Environmental, economic and security concerns regarding oil consumption make electrifying the transportation sector a high national priority. NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies & Systems (CTTS) has developed a framework for utilities to evaluate the plug-in vehicle (PEV) readiness of distribution transformers. Combining a wealth of vehicle performance statistics with load data from partner utilities including the Hawaiian Electric Company and Xcel Energy, NREL analyzed the thermal loading characteristics of distribution transformers due to vehicle charging. After running millions of simulations replicating varying climates and conditions, NREL is now able to predict aging rates for transformers when PEVs are added to existing building loads. With the NREL tool, users define simulation parameters by inputting vehicle trip and weather data; transformer load profiles and ratings; PEV penetration, charging rates and battery sizes; utility rates; the number of houses on each transformer; and public charging availability. Transformer load profiles, drive cycles, and ambient temperature data are then run through the thermal model to produce a one-year timeseries of the hotspot temperature. Annual temperature durations are calculated to help determine the annual aging rate. Annual aging rate results are grouped by independent variables. The most useful measure is transformer mileage, a measure of how many electrically-driven miles must be supplied by the transformer. Once the spectrum analysis has been conducted for an area or utility, the outputs can be used to help determine if more detailed evaluation is necessary, or if transformer replacement is required. In the majority of scenarios, transformers have enough excess capacity to charge PEVs. Only in extreme cases does vehicle charging have negative long-term impact on transformers. In those cases, upgrades to larger transformers would be recommended. NREL analysis also showed opportunity for newly-installed smart grids to offset distribution demands by time-shifting the charging loads. Most importantly, the model demonstrated synergies between PEVs and distributed renewables, not only providing clean renewable energy for vehicles, but also reducing demand on the entire distribution infrastructure by supplying loads at the point of consumption.

Not Available

2011-10-01

462

The cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue methodology for ERDA/EPRI evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation amd maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

1976-01-01

463

Performance improvements resulting from implementation of an ISO 14001 environmental management system at a utility plant  

SciTech Connect

Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WE) has realized both internal performance improvements and received external recognition for its efforts in implementing an environmental management system (EMS) at its Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Located on the shores of Lake Superior and surrounded by water on three sides, the plant was acquired by WE in 1988. Operation of the plant was under contract with the previous owner, utilizing the existing plant staff. Beginning in 1995, WE embarked on a series of environmental audits followed by numerous environmental policy and practice improvements, coupled with an extensive training program. The activities eventually resulted in the core components of a formal environmental management system (EMS) modeled on ISO 14001. Implementation of the EMS components has resulted in the continued improvement of specific environmental performance parameters, several of which are part of an overall balanced business scorecard. The balanced business scorecard, a corporate performance metric, is directly linked to individual employee compensation. Specific improvements at the Presque Isle Power Plant include, (1) reduced number of exceedances, (2) reduced generation of hazardous wastes, (3) improved collection and reduction on non-hazardous solid wastes, (4) improved employee training rates and overall awareness, (5) improved pollution prevention and waste minimization program goals, and (6) reduced assistance from external staff. The plant has received a Clean Corporate Citizen (C3) designation from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, has become a member of the Michigan Business Pollution Prevention Program (MBP3), and has been recognized for its efforts by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. The plant's activities are now used as an internal model by other facilities.

Borofka, B.P.

1999-07-01

464

Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

SciTech Connect

The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

2009-06-01

465

A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific to each set of parameters, lead to the identification of stranded generation facilities. Stranded costs of non-dispatched and uneconomically dispatched generation facilities can then be estimated to indicate, arguably, the largest portion of restructuring transition costs as the industry is transformed from its present monopolistic structure to a competitive one.

Cope, Robert Frank, III

1998-12-01

466

Can land management and biomass utilization help mitigate global warming?  

SciTech Connect

With rising concern about the increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the earth`s atmosphere there is considerable interest in various land-use based mitigation options, like afforestation of surplus agricultural land with or without subsequent harvest; improved forest management; strategies that rely on wood plantations managed in short rotation or agricultural crops with high yields to produce bioenergy, timber and other biomass products. In the first step of this study, the net carbon benefits of such strategies will be calculated per unit of land, i.e., per hectare, because it is assumed that land is the limiting resource for such strategies in the future, and thus, the benefits per unit land need to be optimized. For these calculations a computer model has been developed. The results take into account the time dependence of carbon storage in the biosphere and are shown graphically both for land and for plantation systems with constant output of biomass over time. In the second step, these results will be combined with data on available land for Austria. The potential contribution of each of the above strategies towards mitigating the Austrian CO{sub 2} emissions will be demonstrated. A comparison to other renewable mitigation options, like solar thermal or photovoltaics, will be drawn in terms of available land resources and overall CO{sub 2} reductions.

Schlamadinger, B.; Lauer, M. [Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)

1996-12-31

467

Utility of Preoperative Anesthesia Clinic Videoendoscopy for Airway Management Planning  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The authors performed videolaryngoscopy during the preoperative anesthesia clinic evaluation of a patient with chronic dyspnea, stridor, and a previous hemilaryngectomy scheduled to undergo a series of orthopedic surgery procedures for an infected knee arthroplasty. The findings proved crucial for determining airway management. Case Presentation: A 68-year-old man presented to the preoperative anesthesia clinic for work-up before anticipated removal of infected total knee arthroplasty hardware, placement of antibiotic spacers, incision and drainage procedures, and revision arthroplasty. The patient had previously undergone a hemilaryngectomy and tracheostomy (now closed) for squamous cell carcinoma of the right true vocal cord. The patient described chronic dyspnea with minimal exertion. Inspiratory and expiratory wheezes and intermittent inspiratory stridor were present. A transnasal videolaryngoscopy examination was performed using topical anesthesia and demonstrated significant supraglottic scarring, a narrowed glottis, and subglottic stenosis. A computed tomography study confirmed the presence of tracheomalacia with subglottic stenosis. A permanent tracheostomy was performed to establish a definitive airway before the knee arthroplasty was removed. Conclusions: The case illustrates that transnasal videolaryngoscopy conducted in the preoperative anesthesia clinic is capable of providing key information to guide airway management in patients with significant upper airway pathology. PMID:25337475

Kallio, Peter J; Cox, Ana E; Pagel, Paul S

2014-01-01

468

A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility`s report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

Hirst, E.

1992-12-01

469

Financial risk management in a competitive electricity market  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes solutions for electricity producers in the field of financial risk management for electric energy contract evaluation. The efficient frontier is used as a tool to identify the preferred portfolio of contracts. Each portfolio has a probability density function for the profit. For important scheduling policies, closed form solutions are found for the amount of futures contracts that correspond to the efficient frontier. Production scheduling must consider resource constraints. It is found that, without resource constrains, the portfolio with the highest expected profit can be preferred--even for a risk-averse decision-maker. When resource constraints are present, portfolios not corresponding to the maximum expected profit criteria will more frequently be preferred.

Bjorgan, R.; Liu, C.C.; Lawarree, J.

1999-11-01

470

Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the values for the same amount of energy during different time and at different location can vary dramatically. Moreover, for the same hour, the values for the same amount of power at base load level or at peak load level are different due to the different generation technologies and other non-convex constraints like unit commitment. The multiple market products at zonal/nodal levels with different time horizon and time of use categories are designed to reflect more realistic demand and supply conditions at various temporal and spatial granularities. Detailed market rules, rights and regulations (3Rs) concerning the sub-markets interactions, product hierarchy and financial settlements are also examined.

Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

471

The impact of deregulation and restructuring: An empirical case study of the electric utility industry from 1998 through 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study analyzed the residential electricity prices in the competitive U.S. electric market from 1998 to 2007. This analysis revealed that electricity restructuring has not yet resulted in lower prices for the majority of residential consumers in areas open to competition. This study reviewed actual experiences of eight states in the deregulated and restructured electricity markets: Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The study began with a historical look at the deregulated and restructured electricity market from 1990 to 2007. The electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition and price caps. The results indicated that both had an effect on residential prices. This study used data from the Energy Information Administration and the 8 public utility commissions. Contrary to common expectations, residential electricity costs for consumers have increased rather than decreased.

Robinson, Deborah E.

472

Pilot measurements of ELF contact currents in some electric utility occupations.  

PubMed

Contact currents from touching objects with different voltages can produce electric fields within the body that produce neurological and other biological effects. To begin measuring these exposures among electric utility workers, a new contact current meter (CCM) was tested in a pilot study at Southern California Edison. The CCM was worn for 82 full-shift measurements by 76 volunteers from eight occupations who did not work directly with energized electrical equipment. The volunteers were exposed to an average of 285.8 contact current events above the meter's 1-microA threshold, but most of these were electrostatic spark discharges. Fourteen employees experienced an average of 135.1 contact currents events whose primary frequency was 60 Hz. Using a circuit model of the human body, the average contact currents going from arm to arm was 9.8 microA (maximum = 178.0 microA), and the average going down the torso was 25.5 microA (maximum = 662.0). The maximum exposures were experienced by a technical support employee working in a substation. All measurements in this pilot study were below the 3000 microA maximum permissible exposure for contact currents set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Combining these current measurements with the results of high-resolution dosimetry, the internal electric fields averaged an estimated 1.7 mV/m in the heart (maximum = 21.0 mV/m), and 1.9 mV/m in the hematopoietic bone marrow in the torso (maximum = 56.5 mV/m). These internal electric fields from contact currents are below the basic restriction of 943 mV/m in the IEEE exposure standards but are above 1 mV/m, a level where biological effects have been often reported in laboratory studies. Safety concerns limited the measurements to de-energized equipment, so we did not obtain data on work in energized high-voltage environments, the most likely sources of high contact currents. This pilot study identified other improvements to the contact current meter that would make it better able to measure exposures in future health studies. PMID:16718950

Bowman, Joseph; Niple, John; Kavet, Rob

2006-06-01

473

Physician organization care management capabilities associated with effective inpatient utilization management: a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundWe studied the relationship between physician organization (PO) care management capabilities and inpatient utilization in order to identify PO characteristics or capabilities associated with low inpatient bed-days per thousand.MethodsWe used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to conduct an exploratory comparative case series study. Data about PO capabilities were collected using structured interviews with medical directors at fourteen California POs that are delegated to provide inpatient utilization management (UM) for HMO members of a California health plan. Health plan acute hospital claims from 2011 were extracted from a reporting data warehouse and used to calculate inpatient utilization statistics. Supplementary analyses were conducted using Fisher¿s Exact Test and Student¿s T-test.ResultsPOs with low inpatient bed-days per thousand minimized length of stay and surgical admissions by actively engaging in concurrent review, discharge planning, and surgical prior authorization, and by contracting directly with hospitalists to provide UM-related services. Disease and case management were associated with lower medical admissions and readmissions, respectively, but not lower bed-days per thousand.ConclusionsCare management methods focused on managing length of stay and elective surgical admissions are associated with low bed-days per thousand in high-risk California POs delegated for inpatient UM. Reducing medical admissions alone is insufficient to achieve low bed-days per thousand. California POs with high bed-days per thousand are not applying care management best practices. PMID:25467603

Sheehy, Thomas J; Thygeson, N

2014-12-01