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1

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

NONE

1995-07-01

2

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-01-01

3

US electric utility demand-side management, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

NONE

1995-12-26

4

U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

5

Risk Management Strategies for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

The Pacific Northwest has gone through an enormously expensive lesson in both the uncertainty and risk associated with power planning. The difficult lessons we have learned may benefit other parts of the country. In the 1970s, utility planners...

Sheets, E.

6

Forest carbon management, the greenhouse effect and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities in the US have initiated forestry projects to conserve energy and to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In 1995, 40 companies raised US$2.5 million to establish the non-profit UtiliTree Carbon Company which is now sponsoring eight projects representing a mix of rural tree planting, forest preservation, forest management and research efforts at both domestic (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and

John D. Kinsman; Gary Kaster; Eric C. Kuhn; James A. Smithson; Graham Brown

2000-01-01

7

Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

Glazner, Steve, Ed.

8

Managing for biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the electric utility industry-summary statement  

SciTech Connect

The conference entitled {open_quotes}Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the Electric Utility Industry{close_quotes} was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, during 19-20 March 1996. This paper provides an overview of the key points, conclusions, and recommendations from both the presentations/papers and the discussions throughout the conference. Topics covered in this article are the following: sustainable development: challenge for utilities; Stewardship issues; where do we go from here-EPRI perspective. 34 refs.

Mattice, J.; Fraser, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Ragone, S. [S.E. Ragone & Associates, Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

9

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

10

Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

McDonald, Betsy

11

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

12

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Per Senate Billlx 2 renewable energy resources, including renewable energy credits, as a specified percentage of Ukiah's total,2020, inclusive. D. Annual Compliance Periods: Annually after 2020. 3. Procurement Targets of Renewable Energy

13

Photovoltaics and electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

1981-12-01

14

Variables contributing to an excellent customer service management profile within the regulated electric utility industry: A comparison of self-concept with customer satisfaction for customer service management  

SciTech Connect

This research sought to address the relationship between self-concept and customer satisfaction: can customer satisfaction with a major electric utility be explained in terms of the self-reported, self-concept of the utility's managers The population to which the results of this study were generalized consisted of customer service managers in public electric utilities across the United States. In order to represent this population, a sample was selected consisting of customer service managers at a midwestern electric utility based in a large metropolitan area. Participants in this study were managers of four direct customer contact service organizations within six geographic division organizations. The methodology included comparisons of these four customer contact service organizations on twelve independent, self-concept variables and six customer satisfaction dependent variables using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Scheffe' tests, Chi-Square, and Stepwise multiple regression. The groups were found not to be significantly different and knowledge of the self-concept scores for managers will not increase the ability to predict customer satisfaction over no knowledge of self-concept scores.

Johnson, L.E.

1991-01-01

15

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is the fifth in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry,'' is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers and home office managers. Multiple volumes were planned, each

R. C. Carr; K. M. Cushing; C. A. Gallaer; W. B. Smith

1992-01-01

16

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

SciTech Connect

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

Weller, G.H.

2001-07-15

17

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Load Management - A Utility Viewpoint  

E-print Network

A few years ago our response to an inquiry regarding availability of electric service for a large industrial load was something like: 'Let us put this into our production model to determine whether we will have adequate generating capacity to commit...

Richardson, J. A.

1984-01-01

18

Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand  

E-print Network

to be product and thermal storage for the food processing and plastic industries, rescheduling for the plastic industry, and flexible manufacturing systems for the electronics industry. Discussions now are underway with several customers interested... INDUSTRIAL-LOAD-SHAPI1IG: TIlE PRACTICE OF AND PROSPECTS FOR UTILITY/INDUSTRY COOPERATION TO MAUGE PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Donald J. BuIes and David E. Rubin Consultants, Pacific Gas and Electric Company San Francisco, California Michael F...

Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

19

Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

Niehus, T. L.

1994-01-01

20

Electric utility of the year for 1984: Potomac Electric Power  

SciTech Connect

High performance, efficiency improvements, a modest construction program, a clear balance sheet, and an effort to expend power plant life were among the qualities that earned Potomac Electric Power (PEPCO) the title of 1984 Utility of the Year. Other key elements in the utility's selection were its strategy for purchasing power, a load management plan, diversified investments into subsidiary businesses, community concern that considers the aesthetics of transmission facilities, and its interest in personnel development, especially among minorities. 3 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-01

21

Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

1980-01-01

22

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

23

Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

24

Utilization management in anatomic pathology.  

PubMed

There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. PMID:24140174

Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

2014-01-01

25

Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

None

1989-02-01

26

Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Olmsted, L.L. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States); Bolin, J.W. [Virginia Power, Ashland, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

27

Thermal storage for electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

1977-01-01

28

Acid rain and electric utilities 2  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO{sub 2}, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO{sub x} control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances.

NONE

1997-12-31

29

Electrical Demand Management  

E-print Network

The Demand Management Plan set forth in this paper has proven to be a viable action to reduce a 3 million per year electric bill at the Columbus Works location of Western Electric. Measures are outlined which have reduced the peak demand 5% below...

Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.

1983-01-01

30

Utility management recruiting in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

Utilities of all types have historically been, by and large, excellent places to develop, execute, and enjoy one's career. The breadth of activities in each of the various industry sectors (electric, gas, telecommunications, water), combined with the mandate of an obligation to serve, has provided an arena for numerous challenging professional and personal opportunities. However, the 1990s have begun with a confluence of newly emphasized driving forces or issues - increasing competition (alternative services and suppliers, pricing strategies), energy supply security questions, environmental concerns, deregulation uncertainties, changing demographics, new technologies, increased consumer and regulatory awareness, and others - that are changing organizations (more teams, fewer layers) and stretching the abilities of managers at all levels. The result is that utility companies are looking to the outside marketplace for management talent. And they are looking for individuals who can both lead and manage today's organizations and who can help create and manage new business opportunities in the organizations of the future.

Dover, A.R. (Heidrick and Struggles, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-10-11

31

Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

Steven E. Letendre

1997-01-01

32

Electric Utility Industrial Conservation Programs  

E-print Network

The Alliance to Save Energy conducted a study, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, of industrial and commercial electricity conservation opportunities in the service territory of Arkansas Power and Light Company (AP&L). The study determined...

Norland, D. L.

1983-01-01

33

Electric utility companies and geothermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1976-01-01

34

Rate making for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

11 Introduction- 16 Chapter I Fair Bate of Eeturn •— 22 Chapter II Pair Value 40 Chapter III Appraisals of Electric Plants • 58 Chapter IV Depreciation-------- 67 Chapter V Overhead Charges—•— 105 Chapter VI Discount on Bonds... on Uniform Accounting May 25, 1910 Report of the Committee on a Uniform system of Account­ ing 33". E. L. A. 33rd Convention Vol. II pp 216 9 GASES CITED Advance in Hates, Western Case 20 I. C, C. R. 307, 333, February 22, 1911 Appleton v, Appleton...

Hanson, Carl Falster

1911-01-01

35

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity  

E-print Network

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii Contents Introduction

36

Extending Quality Management to Utility Costs  

E-print Network

EXTENDING QUALITY MANAGEMENT TO UTILITY COSTS William A. Holmes, P.E., President, UtilrTRACK Corporation, Columbus, Indiana ABSTRACT By installing permanent instrumentation and linking it to the appropriate software, a Utility Cost Management...

Holmes, W. A.

37

Case for marketing in today's electric utility movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issues surrounding the return to electric power marketing, and offers some examples of how marketing will mutually benefit the utility and its customers. The key challenge of the 1980s will be to integrate the emerging concept of demand-side management with traditional supply planning and to incorporate effective planning, evaluation of impacts, and customer orientation. The rationale

C. W. Gellings; D. E. Jones

1985-01-01

38

Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market  

SciTech Connect

During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

Hirst, E.

1994-04-01

39

78 FR 45922 - Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. EL13-79-000] Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company...Utilities (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...

2013-07-30

40

Utilization management: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego

2014-01-01

41

Utility -Owned Central Plant Load Management at the Domain  

E-print Network

Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP Customer Energy Solutions, Austin Energy Mission: Deliver clean, affordable, reliable energy and excellent customer service. Utility Owned Load Management – Thermal Energy Storage ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air... >400 square miles • Generation 3,000 mega-watts • ~400,000 electric customers 2 Austin Profile ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 • Full service electric utility (generation...

Lilley, D.

2013-01-01

42

Electric utilities turn up the gas  

SciTech Connect

A combination of slow growth in energy demand and greater efficiency in the generation and use of electricity will limit the need for electric utilities to increase their production capacities in the coming decades, reports Michael I. German of New York State Electric & Gas Corporation. {open_quotes}Although power generators may not boost their output of electric power, they likely will change the way they produce that power,{close_quotes} writes German. The trend is already under way for power producers to convert from other fuels to natural gas. According to the American Gas Association estimates, gas use by electric utilities will increase about 50 percent between 1993 and 2010. The most compelling reason for the natural gas boom is that North America possesses vast reserves of natural gas, including undiscovered pockets of gas and nonconventional sources. Many fossil-fueled power plants will switch to seasonal natural-gas use to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and reactive hydrocarbons. Because ozone-pollution problems occur primarily in the summer months, the Environmental Protection Agency encourages seasonal fuel switching in ozone non-attainment areas. In this way, utility companies can avoid the cost of installing emission controls to meet clean air standards.

German, M.I. [New York State Electric & Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States)

1995-08-01

43

Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint  

E-print Network

load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically...

Jackson, C. E.

1984-01-01

44

Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

Coughlin, Katie

2014-12-01

45

Data Management, a Utility for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data management is a utilitarian endeavor. The oft-stated explosion in scientific data volumes has almost become cliché, and it is widely assumed that we will need to adopt innovative new technologies to manage and provide access to this huge volume of data. Yet users want to concentrate on analyzing or interpreting the data and would rather not be bothered with the cutting edge particulars of how the data flows into their model, analysis tool, or instruction module. They would prefer to just push a button and have the data flow and not worry about finding, extracting, and assessing the relevant data. In short, users would prefer that data management worked like a basic utility--simple, reliable, predictable, and easy to add on to. When data managers adopt this perspective--that data archiving and and delivery is much like a utility or infrastructural technology--it informs many aspects of data systems design from general cost models to software durability and interoperability to the particulars of a user interface. This perspective does not prohibit innovative approaches to data management challenges, but it does guide the approach we take to address those challenges. The software industry is beginning to realize that some software should be viewed as basic infrastructure (e.g., traffic light timing). Similarly, the business world now recognizes that basic information technology is a routine cost of doing business much like electricity and plumbing. By reviewing the experience of these two industries and the broader evolution of utilitarian and infrastructural technologies, we develop a set of best practices that can guide the development of data systems that are durable, reliable, and simple to use.

Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R.; Beitler, J.

2005-12-01

46

78 FR 72672 - Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company, Kentucky Utilities Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL13-79-000] Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company, Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 22, 2013, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...

2013-12-03

47

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1984-12-01

48

Toward an electrical power utility for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future electrical power requirements for space exploration are discussed. Megawatts of power with enough reliability for multi-year missions and with enough flexibility to adapt to needs unanticipated at design time are some of the criteria which space power systems must be able to meet. The reasons for considering the power management and distribution in the various systems, from a total mission perspective rather than simply extrapolating current spacecraft design practice, are discussed. A utility approach to electric power integrating requirements from a broad selection of current development programs, with studies in which both space and terrestrial technologies are conceptually applied to exploration mission scenarios, is described.

Bercaw, Robert W.

1989-01-01

49

Utilization management in the blood transfusion service.  

PubMed

The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center. PMID:24080431

Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter Sunny

2014-01-01

50

The laboratory test utilization management toolbox  

PubMed Central

Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure. PMID:24969916

Baird, Geoffrey

2014-01-01

51

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

52

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

53

Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1993-03-31

54

Manager's guide to electrical power quality  

SciTech Connect

Electronic equipment has become exceedingly sensitive to the electrical environment. Industry standards to cope with this sensitivity have not been available when needed. Therefore, the term power quality has emerged as a catch-all to explain almost any malfunction of electronic equipment. When a malfunction occurs, for whatever reason, power quality can be invoked to make the power system the scapegoat and the equipment, or its installation, blameless. The power quality syndrome includes such issues as grounding, radio interference, transients, outages, harmonics, etc. Power compatibility or electrical environment compatibility (EEC) would be a more objective term to substitute for power quality. The sensitivity of today's electronic equipment arises from the equipment designers' lack of understanding and concern for the realities of the electrical environment and, to some extent, the utilities' lack of concern of the users' application problems. Consequently, to avoid process interruptions, the user's manager must mediate between the equipment and the power system. The manager must insure that specifications exist for both the equipment and all facets of the plant electrical environment, along with test procedures to insure that these specifications are met. The objective of this article is to show how a manager can handle EEC and, thus, avoid costly redesigns and down time of electrical equipment. Common fallacies, tools for defining the electrical equipment. Common fallacies, tools for defining the electrical environment and some applicable standards (existing and emerging) will also be discussed.

Ludbrook, A. (Ludbrook and Associates, Dundas, Ontario (Canada))

1993-05-01

55

Cyber Security Management for Utility Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong identity management enforced with digital authentication mechanisms has become the leading requirement to improve cyber security for utility operations. Utility operators don?t really care how it works as long as they are confident that it does work. They want a solution that is standards-based, is interoperable with the commonly installed applications, and is extendable for legacy systems to lower

Dennis K. Holstein; Jose Diaz

2006-01-01

56

Utilizing Interns in Facilities Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facilities management is rapidly changing and developing from a position an individual stumbles into--or work one's way up through--to a discipline and vocation all of its own. There is a need for a collaborative strategy among leaders in practice, education, and research to share knowledge and experience and to establish professional and ethical…

Judkins, Clarissa; Morris, John P.; Molocznik, Chuck

2011-01-01

57

Homeostatic control: the utility/customer marketplace for electric power  

SciTech Connect

A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the customer and the utility and on customer independence. The utility has no control beyond the customer's meter. Computers located at the customer's site are continuously fed data on weather conditions, utility generating costs, and demand requirements for space conditioning, lighting, and appliances. The customer then directs the computer to schedule and control the power allotted for these functions. On-site generation by the customer can be incorporated in the system. It is argued that homeostatic control is technically feasible, that the level of control equipment sophistication can be adapted to the benefits received by the customer, that such a system would encourage the use of customer-site energy storage and energy conservation equipment, and that it represents a realistic method for allowing the customer to decide how he will use electric power during an era of increasing costs for power generation. (LCL)

Schweppe, F.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Kirtley, J.L.

1981-09-01

58

18 CFR Appendix A to Part 290 - Nonexempt Electric Utilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... COLLECTION OF COST OF SERVICE INFORMATION UNDER SECTION 133 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 Pt. 290, App. A Appendix A to Part 290—Nonexempt Electric Utilities Electric utilities that are not exempt from part 290, as of...

2010-04-01

59

Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1991-01-01

60

DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

Klein, S. A.

1994-01-01

61

Fiber optic transmissions in electrical utility applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of optic and photonic technology in electric networks in many cases is subject to constraints that differ from telecommunication or commercial applications. Starting by an overview of the quality of service (QoS) needed, in the first part of this paper we summarise some issues that confronted Hydro-Quebec in applying fibre optic technologies to its network. We explore by presenting lab and field trials some issues related to optical ground wires (OPGW) design and network architecture. We present temperature, vibration, ageing and short circuit current effects. We submit the results and analysis of a first field trial of and OC-48 link over a 265 km OPGW line, PMD measurements and an overview of the final design that is being implemented presently using Raman amplification. In the last section of the paper, we will discuss shortly of non-conventional photonic based technologies, local and distributed sensors and optical phenomenon that are used or have been discovered in utilities optical networks.

Lamarche, Louis

2000-12-01

62

Information and Automation Technology, Serving Electric Utility Customers in the 1990s: Conference Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Advances in information processing and communication technologies provide electric utilities with new opportunities for meeting customer needs. This conference explored a broad range of utility programs and services that could take advantage of new metering, load research, energy management, automation, and control capabilities.

None

1989-06-01

63

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry: Volume 2, Sonic cleaning guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is the second in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Volume 2, Sonic Cleaning Guidelines,

C. J. Bustard; K. M. Cushing; D. H. Pontius; W. B. Smith; R. C. Carr

1988-01-01

64

Fabric filters for the Electric Utility Industry: Volume 1, General concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is the first in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Multiple volumes are planned, each

C. J. Bustard; K. M. Cushing; D. H. Pontius; W. B. Smith; R. C. Carr

1988-01-01

65

Cost effective strategies for industrial electric power management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current use of power management systems for industrial electrical power distribution and utilization systems is examined and their benefits, functionality and costs are presented with examples. The functionality in commercially available systems is mapped against the recommended location of devices within the industrial electrical power system. System architecture considerations and equipment and installation costs are discussed; venture guidance analysis

K. E. Nicholson; R. L. Doughty; L. Mane; G. Miranda; F. D. Pulaski

1998-01-01

66

Electric vehicle energy management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

Alaoui, Chakib

67

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

NONE

1995-07-14

68

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02

69

Fabric filters for the electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume 3, Guidelines for Fabrics and Bags, provides a comprehensive guide for the procurement of fiberglass filter bags for utility baghouses. Utility baghouse operators must have a knowledge of fabric and bag construction to specify and obtain fiberglass filter bags that will provide food service in their baghouses. This volume describes the type of glass used in fabric filter bags,

L. G. Felix; K. M. Cushing; W. T. Grubb; D. V. Giovanni

1988-01-01

70

Marketing Reordering of the Electric Utility Industry  

E-print Network

, demand and cost of electricity, we could sum up the first nine decades as the market's golden years. From 1882, when Thomas Edison first supplied electric service to a small section of lower New York from his Pearl Street generating station, until...

Anderson, J. A.

71

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

72

Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

2006-09-01

73

The effect of deregulation on internal control of agency conflict: Evidence from the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigate how deregulation leads firms to modify their internal governance structures to help control owner-manager agency conflict. Specifically, I explore how electric utilities respond to wholesale-level deregulation during the ten years surrounding the 1992 Energy Policy Act. I apply factor analysis to observable governance variables that exhibit change among utilities relative to industrial firms, and show that a single common factor captures firms' reliance on internal governance structure to control owner-manager agency problems. I find that deregulating utilities reduce their reliance on internal governance relative to industrial firms. I also show that the negative relation between deregulation and electric utilities' relative reliance on internal governance structure is largely explained by increases in competition and takeover activity among utilities relative to industrial firms. I conclude that competition and takeover activity substitute for firms' relative reliance on internal control of agency conflict.

Rennie, Craig G.

74

Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn  

SciTech Connect

The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future.

Klein, R.

1991-10-01

75

Franchise competition in the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Franchise competition is - and should be - an integral part of enhanced competition. It serves the traditional goal of encouraging lower costs through the threat of takeover or purchase. However, the issue of utility recovery for stranded costs stands as a major unresolved question affecting customers` ability to partake of this central aspect of competition.

Vince, C.A.; Fogel, J.C. [Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand, Washington, DC (United States)] [Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-05-01

76

What Does Industry Expect From An Electrical Utility  

E-print Network

The electric utility industry is an important supplier to Union Carbide and as such must become a proactive participant in our quality programs which are aimed at continuous improvement in everything we do. The essential ingredients in the supplier...

Jensen, C. V.

77

Electric utilities making major cuts in R and D spending  

SciTech Connect

Funding for electricity-related research and development by electric utilities decreased about 33% from 1993 through 1996, and further reductions were expected in 1997. The General Accounting Office (GAO) found that the Department of Energy`s R and D budget went from $1 billion in 1993 to $1.3 billion in 1995, and back again to $1 billion in 1996. However, electric utility R and D funding over the same period of time dropped from $708 million to $476 million. State energy programs were also reduced. The GAO report was limited to government and utility funding. Information on manufacturers R and D was not available. The primary reason found for the reduction in governmental funding was the overall effort to reduce budget deficits. Utilities, by contrast, cut R and D costs in anticipation of the shift from a regulated electric power industry to a competitive market.

Fleishman, B.J. [Dickstein Shapiro Morin and Oshinsky L.L.P., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-04-01

78

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2010-01-01

79

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2013-01-01

80

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

...2014-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2014-01-01

81

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2011-01-01

82

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

2012-01-01

83

Sell lumens, not kilowatts: The future for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The key to the future for electric utilities will not be found in legislation or regulation. Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 will prove to be just as ineffectual in improving the industry's position as was the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. These legislative palliatives, which produced so much commotion and so many reams of heated commentary, are largely irrelevant to a successful future for electric utilities. The key will be found in economics, not in law, and the future will lie in completing Thomas A. Edison's century-old vision for the industry, half of which the industry has heretofore ignored. The industry must embrace the complete vision and evolve from electric utilities into [open quotes]end-use energy utilities.[close quotes

Piepmeier, J.M. (James M. Piepmeier Co., Evanston, IL (United States)); Jermain, D. (David O. Jermain Associates, Portland, OR (United States)); Egnor, T.L. (MicroGrid, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-04-01

84

Electricity privatization : should South Korea privatize its state-owned electric utility?  

E-print Network

The state-owned electric utility, Korea Electricity Power Cooperation (KEPCO), privatization has been a key word in South Korea since 1997, when the government received $55 billion from the International Monetary Fund in ...

Lim, Sungmin

2011-01-01

85

Utilization of heterogeneous grasslands by domestic herbivores: Theory to management  

E-print Network

Review Utilization of heterogeneous grasslands by domestic herbivores: Theory to management Derek W 23 July 1998) Abstract - Domestic herbivores often utilize heterogeneous grasslands unevenly which grasslands, managers must be able to understand and manipulate livestock grazing patterns. Continued research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Utility system integration and optimization models for nuclear power management  

E-print Network

A nuclear power management model suitable for nuclear utility systems optimization has been developed for use in multi-reactor fuel management planning over periods of up to ten years. The overall utility planning model ...

Deaton, Paul Ferris

1973-01-01

87

Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies  

E-print Network

of many publ ic projects because it provides a framework for public agency appraisal of noncommercial activities. Its application allows a summary of the benefits and costs of an activity from the perspective of society and the taxpayer or... ities provide the data necessary for the evaluation of these programs. Several utilities file benefit cost analysis results and the Commission regularly performs analyses using the data in the energy efficiency plans. The California Public...

Treadway, N.

88

Electric utility fossil fuels beyond 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous research and development studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) identified candidate coal-liquefaction processes for commercialization beginning in the mid-1980's, i.e., the H-Coal and Exxon processes to produce liquid turbine fuels and distillate and heavy boiler fuels (DBF and HBF), the donor and solvent processes for DBF and HBF, and the Solvent-Refiner-Coal (SRC)-II process for DBF. The

R. H. Wolk; S. A. Vejtasa

1978-01-01

89

Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

2014-01-01

90

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR MALFUNCTIONS IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses precipitation malfunctions in the electric utility industry. When a utility electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fails to achieve its design efficiency, there must be a reason. Although the reasons are numerous, they can be placed in two distinct categories: ESP ...

91

Economies of scale and utilization in electricity generation in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost structure of electricity generation in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on the economies of scale and utilization. This has been done by estimating a translog variable-cost function using time-series data covering the period from 1965 to 1990. The results indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the generation of electricity, but no economies or diseconomies of

Nadeem A. Burney

1998-01-01

92

Electric-utility oil and gas use in the eighties  

SciTech Connect

This report forecasts possible levels of oil and gas use by electric utilities in the US through 1990. The analysis is done at a regional level. High and low levels of electricity demand as well as nominal and diminished availability of new generating capacity are assumed. Projected oil and gas use for 1990 ranges from 1000 to 3200 barrels per day.

Kolstad, C D; Abbey, D S; Martinez, A J; Williams, D S; Wolak, Jr, F A; Yeamans, M K

1982-04-01

93

76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility...

2011-01-20

94

Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

95

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy-efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and sales. It then recouples revenues to something else. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

96

Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

97

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the key technology of electric vehicle (EV), a battery management system (BMS) is proposed here to settle the critical issues. The system includes several common modules: data acquisition unit, communication unit and battery state estimation model. Two additional management units are developed here, one is thermal management and the other is high voltage management which improve

Jiaxi Qiang; Lin Yang; Guoqiang Ao; Hu Zhong

2006-01-01

98

An overview of Madison Gas and Electric's energy management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes salient features of the Madison Gas and Electric Company (MGE) energy management system (EMS) which became fully operational in late 1989. The use and utility of the various EMS capabilities are also discussed. The following EMS features are discussed: historical SCADA data recording and reconstruction; alarm subsystem; report generator with relational database; critical task monitor; integrated source

D. Shimko; A. K. Jampala

1993-01-01

99

An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

2012-01-06

100

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales  

SciTech Connect

Utility energy efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost revenues. The two most widely used methods include explicit calculations of the revenues lost because of the energy and demand reductions caused by the utility`s programs, and decoupling of electric revenues from sales. Decoupling first breaks the link between utility revenues and kWh sales. It then recouples revenues to something else, such as growth in the number of customers, the determinants of changes in fixed costs, or the determinants of changes in electricity use. This paper explains and compares three forms of decoupling:revenue-per- customer (RPC) decoupling, RPC decoupling with a factor that allows for changes in electricity use per customer, and statistical recoupling. We used data from five utilities to see how the three methods perform in terms of electicity-price volatility and ease of implementation. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach, emphasizing the tradeoff between simplicity and price stability.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blank, E. [Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Boulder, CO (United States); Moskovitz, D. [Regulatory Assistance Project, Gardiner, ME (United States)

1994-12-31

101

Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advancement of electric utility cell stack technology and reduction of cell stack cost was initiated. The cell stack has a nominal 10 ft (2) active area and operates at 120 psia/405(0)F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full height, 10-ft(2) stack verification test: (1) provides the information and services needed to manage the effort, including definition of the prototype commercial power plant; (2) develops the technical base for long term improvements to the cell stack; (3) develops materials and processing techniques for cell stack components incorporating the best available technology; (4) provides the design of hardware and conceptual processing layouts, and updates the power plant definition of Phase 1 to reflect the results of Phases 2 and 3; Phase 5 manufactures the hardware to verify the achievements of Phases 2 and 3, and analyzes the cost of this hardware; and Phase 6 tests the cell stacks assembled from the hardware of Phase 5 to assess the state of development.

Breault, R. D.; Briggs, T. A.; Congdon, J. V.; Demarche, T. E.; Gelting, R. L.; Goller, G. J.; Luoma, W. I.; McCloskey, M. W.; Mientek, A. P.; Obrien, J. J.

1984-01-01

102

Using utility information to calibrate customer demand management behavior models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of stress customers can help a utility by means of voluntary demand management programs if they are offered the right incentives. The incentives offered can be optimized if the utility can estimate the outage or substitution costs of its customers. This paper illustrates how existing utility data can be used to predict customer demand management behavior. More specifically,

Murat Fahrioglu; Fernando L. Alvarado

2001-01-01

103

Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA report Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities 1997 presents four years of summary financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities from 1993 to 1996. More detailed data is available for 1997, and highlights include an average sales for resale revenue per kilowatthour at 3.2 cent in 1997 and an average ultimate consumers revenue per kilowatthour at 6.8 cents. Strong economic growth and "close to normal" average heating and cooling degree days were cited as important factors.

1998-01-01

104

Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dayal, P. [ed.] [Tucson Electric Power Co., AZ (United States)

1995-12-31

105

Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

Miller, R. A.

1986-01-01

106

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

107

Cost analysis of wheeling in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Wheeling occurs in an electric power transmission system when electric utilities transfer power for others to use. Power transfers facilitate joint operations and bulk-power transactions in the electric utility industry. The increasing use of transmission systems for power transfers arises from the structural and economic changes that create incentives for mutually beneficial transactions involving utilities, wholesale power customers, and nontraditional suppliers of electricity such as cogenerators, small-power producers, and independent generating companies. This thesis develops methodologies for determining marginal and total short-run costs of wheeling. These methodologies are based on an optimal power flow model of an interconnected electric power system. This model provides an exact representation of power flows and losses. The basic approach to finding marginal wheeling costs uses sensitivity analysis on the optimal power flow model. The marginal wheeling costs are computed from area cost sensitivity factors estimated by solving a selected system of equations. Using this methodology, marginal wheeling costs can be directly computed for a power transfer between any two areas or points in an electric power system. Total wheeling costs are determined using a new approach to allocating costs between bulk power services.

Ray, D.J.

1987-01-01

108

Sweden: a model for a segmented electric-utility system  

SciTech Connect

The current state of the electric-utility industry requires a thorough evaluation of the nation's regulatory practices and procedures with respect to electric energy. One avenue cited for exploration is a possible reduction in regulation where competition is feasible. An important ingredient to any proposal to develop competitive bulk power markets is an adequate and available transportation system; i.e., a transmission grid. This article reports the successful operation of the Swedish electric system in a manner similar to what one might expect under deregulation. 16 references.

Hughes, J.D.; Rosenzweig, M.B.

1982-06-24

109

State regulatory policies for privately owned electric utilities in 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-specific data collected by means of a questionnaire on the environmental control policies affecting electric utilities are the basis of a simulation model that will assist the Environmental Protection Agency with its policy analyses and acid rain research. The data also reflect the economic and financial considerations at the state level as they affect environmental policy. Major sections of the

S. Hindman; D. Chapman; K. Cole

1982-01-01

110

Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

111

76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units...Manufacturers of motor vehicle parts and accessories. 221...Electric, gas, and sanitary...

2011-01-20

112

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

1997-10-15

113

Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry  

SciTech Connect

A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

114

A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets  

SciTech Connect

This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

Warwick, William M.

2002-06-03

115

Penetration of wind electric conversion systems into the utility grid  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the development of appropriate models for the interconnected operation of wind generator clusters with an autonomous power system and simulation techniques for the study of the degree of penetration of such wind electric conversion devices when operating in parallel with the utility grid. The quality of the interconnected system performance is specified in terms of operational constraints and the resultant penetration strategy is implemented via a microprocessor-based control scheme. The strategy assures a satisfactory level of system performance while optimizing the available energy transfer from the wind generators to the utility grid.

Vachtsevanos, G.J.; Kalaitzakis, K.C.

1985-07-01

116

Risk and rate of return for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the measures used to examine risk and their correlation to rate of return (ROR) for electric utilities. In a study of utilities covered by Value Line over a five year period, the authors found no correlation between ROR and beta coefficients, size, or price/book value ratios. Their results agree with a University of Chicago study that found no correlation of ROR with beta, but are in conflict with the same study which found a correlation with size and price/book value ratios. The results suggest that rate setters should exercise caution when assessing risk using any of these risk factors.

Lavely, J.; Bacon, F. (Longwood College, Farmville VA (United States))

1993-09-01

117

A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

Hill, L.J.

1995-10-01

118

Using Utility Information to Calibrate Customer Demand Management Behavior Models  

E-print Network

calibration, load curtailment, system security. Introduction The best resource for a utility to solve its and calibrated. Util- ities around the country are using nonlinear pricing to sell their power (anytime a utility offers different rates based upon customer size, it is using nonlinear pricing). The demand management

119

A battery management system for electric buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a contract funded by the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), the author was given the task of developing an advanced monitoring and control technology (MACT) to manage lead acid batteries used in electric vehicles. Using the latest semiconductor technology, his goal is to develop a battery management system that focuses on maximizing the discharge and recharge efficiency of

B. O'Brien

1994-01-01

120

A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

NONE

1993-08-11

121

Energy Management Guide for Building Management. Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use by commercial building management and operating staffs to encourage energy conservation. The measures suggested are meant to allow building operation at optimum efficiency while minimizing energy waste. Though mainly applicable to multistory buildings, the suggested energy conservation measures are also adaptable to…

Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

122

The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.

1980-12-01

123

Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

This review article presents: the current status and expected progress status of the fuel cell research and development programs in the USA, electrochemical problem areas, techno-economic assessments of fuel cells for electric and/or gas utilities and for transportation, and other candidate fuel cells and their applications. For electric and/or gas utility applications, the most likely candidates are phosphoric, molten carbonate, and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum-derived, or biomass fuels to hydrogen), while the second and third will be linked with a coal gasifier. A fuel cell/battery hybrid power source is an attractive option for electric vehicles with projected performance characteristics approaching those for internal combustion or diesel engine powered vehicles. For this application, with coal-derived methanol as the fuel, a fuel cell with an acid electrolyte (phosphoric, solid polymer electrolyte or super acid) is essential; with pure hydrogen (obtained by splitting of water using nuclear, solar or hydroelectric energy), alkaline fuel cells show promise. A fuel cell researcher's dream is the development of a high performance direct methanol-air fuel cell as a power plant for electric vehicles. For long or intermittent duty cycle load leveling, regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cells exhibit desirable characteristics.

Srinivasan, S.

1980-01-01

124

Business Plan for a New Engineering Consulting Firm in the Electrical Utility Market  

E-print Network

of electrical utilities. GCS has extensive experience on medium voltage up to extra high-voltage (13.8kV to 500kV). For additional details, refer to Section 6: Management. EMGT 835 Field Project GCS Business Plan Page 12 of 51 3.0 MARKETING 3.1 Market... substations and transmission lines. Keys to Success • Be indispensable to clients through comprehensive consulting service in the conceptual and detailed electrical and civil design of power substations and transmission lines. • Keep on...

Gois, Roberto Cavalcanti

2009-05-15

125

Utility Systems Management and Operational Optimization  

E-print Network

can be faced with a bewildering array of tariff options. Making the right choice of supplier is not simply a case of choosing the lowest unit cost of utility (e.g., cents per kWh). Most tariff structures include elements of maximum demand charges...-Wide Deployment", Joint AspenTech Celanese Press Announcement (February 27, 2002) 4. "Optimization of Refinery Utility Systems for Cost and Emissions Reduction", Eric Petela and Alison Eccleston, ERTC Environmental Conference, Vienna, Austria (April 2001) 83...

Dhole, V.; Seillier, D.; Garza, K.

126

76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management...comment on DOE's intent to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management...is targeted to the specific needs of electricity sector organizations and adds to...

2011-09-16

127

Neptune Orbiters Utilizing Solar and Radioisotope Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In certain cases, Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP), used in conjunction with other propulsion systems, could be used to reduce the trip times for outer planetary orbiter spacecraft. It also has the potential to improve the maneuverability and power capabilities of the spacecraft when the target body is reached as compared with non-electric propulsion spacecraft. Current missions under study baseline aerocapture systems to capture into a science orbit after a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage is jettisoned. Other options under study would use all REP transfers with small payloads. Compared to the SEP stage/Aerocapture scenario, adding REP to the science spacecraft as well as a chemical capture system can replace the aerocapture system but with a trip time penalty. Eliminating both the SEP stage and the aerocapture system and utilizing a slightly larger launch vehicle, Star 48 upper stage, and a combined REP/Chemical capture system, the trip time can nearly be matched while providing over a kilowatt of science power reused from the REP maneuver. A Neptune Orbiter mission is examined utilizing single propulsion systems and combinations of SEP, REP, and chemical systems to compare concepts.

Fiehler, Douglas I.; Oleson, Steven R.

2004-01-01

128

77 FR 11529 - Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of Petition for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-27-000] Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice...Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...

2012-02-27

129

Electric Utility Environmental Issues in the 1990's  

E-print Network

steps to combat smog, curb the emissions of toxic Bubstances blamed for high cancer rates in industrial corridors, and stop acid rain damage to lakes and forests of the Northeast. For the electric utility industry, a big part of the CAA proposals... focuses on acid rain. As you know, rain is acid. Naturally occurring conditions would produce rainfall with a pH of about 5.0. Nevertheless, the environmental community chose the name well, and our industry has been on the defensive every since...

Smith, J. R.

130

Nonpropulsive applications of ion beams. [electric propulsion technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of an investigation of the nonpropulsive applications of electric propulsion technology. Eight centimeter ion beam sources utilizing xenon and argon have been developed that operate over a wide range of beam energies and currents. Three types of processes have been studied - sputter deposition, ion beam machining, and ion beam surface texturing. The broad range of source operating conditions allows optimum sputter deposition of various materials. An ion beam source has also been used to ion mill laser reflection holograms using photoresist patterns on silicon. Ion beam texturing has been tried with many materials and has a multitude of potential applications.

Hudson, W. R.

1976-01-01

131

Driving Water and Wastewater Utilities to More Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) and industry leaders have identified the need for an energy roadmap to guide utilities of all sizes down the road to sustainable energy management through increased renewable energy production, energy...

Ferrel, L.; Liner, B.

2013-01-01

132

Managing utilization of new diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

In appropriate utilization of laboratory testing has been estimated to range from 10% to 50% of the volume encountered in hospital laboratories. Many strategies to control utilization of laboratory testing have been reported, including redesigning test requisitions, changing standing orders, the use of provider order entry, physician profiling, and educational initiatives. The major motivation to reduce utilization of unnecessary testing is financial, although other benefits also may be observed, such as reducing false-positive results stemming from testing patients in low prevalence populations, eliminating unnecessary follow-up procedures, avoiding iatrogenic anemia, and potentially lowering hospital length of stay resulting from the need to track down the significance of falsely abnormal tests. The majority of utilization control efforts have focused on reducing routine laboratory tests such as chemistry profiles and automated blood counts. In many hospitals novel diagnostic tests, especially in molecular genetics and oncology, are the major driver behind increasing laboratory costs. Traditional methods to control utilization of routine testing are usually ineffective in controlling testing of novel diagnostic methods. In most cases, test requests originate from a small group of physician specialists who typically are more knowledgeable in their area of expertise than is the clinical pathologist. For this reason, a different approach is generally required. It is particularly important to establish an institutional structure authorized to review and approve new laboratory tests. The clinical pathologist usually takes the lead in this effort because laboratory-based physicians are familiar with new tests being requested by physicians across a spectrum of medical specialties. To be successful, the laboratory physician must identify potential utilization issues, acquire and analyze data, function on interdepartmental teams, and develop strategies to satisfy the needs of clinicians while at the same time preventing introduction of inappropriate technologies into the laboratory. This article will give a perspective on approaches to laboratory test utilization and offer specific examples of initiatives we have undertaken in our institution. The examples will illustrate how the pathologist can use knowledge of medicine and the clinical laboratory in conjunction with organizational and team building skills. In the final analysis, the process is more of an art than a science. PMID:14692073

Lewandrowski, Kent

2003-01-01

133

Productivity analysis of the United States electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using stochastic distance and directional distance functions I assess the efficiency of firms in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry. Further, I compare utilities' marginal control costs for SO2 emissions to prices observed in the SO2 allowance marketplace to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting permit prices. I estimate stochastic distance functions and use them to calculate Malmquist productivity change (PC) indices which I decompose into efficiency change and technical change. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which uses linear programming techniques, has been widely used to compute Malmquist indices as ratios of fitted distances from a convex hull frontier. As an alternative, I develop and estimate a flexible, stochastic distance frontier, using a generalized method of moments strategy. This allows for statistical inference and imposes no restrictions on returns to scale, Finally, comparisons are drawn between the stochastic approach and the less flexible non-parametric and non-stochastic DEA method using a panel of 43 electric utilities over a time period from 1961 to 1992. Applying the same methodology I analyze a panel of 78 firms over the time period from 1988 to 1997. Based on my results I identify the most and least efficient firms in the industry. Further, I develop a methodology to explicitly take into account undesirable outputs. These outputs are produced in conjunction with desirable outputs and are not costlessly disposable. I specify and estimate input and output based stochastic distance and directional distance functions and compare the alternative approaches using panel data on 41 U.S. electric utilities observed in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. I apply the preferred approach, the output directional distance function, to a sample of 56 primarily coal-burning utilities observed in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Of particular interest is the shadow price for the undesirable output. I compare the shadow values to prices from the SO2 allowance market and find that the estimated marginal industry control cost is reasonably close to prices observed in the marketplace.

Honerkamp, Olaf

1999-11-01

134

Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-06

135

Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

136

UTILITY DATA ARCHIVING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA let a contract for a consultant to collect information about historical changes in operations and maintenance, design and construction, and planning and siting for water and wastewater infrastructure. The goal of this research study is to determine risk management alternativ...

137

Managing projects utilizing self-managed teams and managerial toolkits  

E-print Network

Project Management is an essential function in most software companies today. With increasing complexity and inter connectivity between software projects, it is not surprising that managing such large scale development ...

Mathur, Praveen, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

138

A serendipitous synergy: Why electric utilities should install the information superhighway  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities can seize the initiative and secure their future - while giving the nation's economy a significant competitive boost - by taking a leading role in developing a state-of-the-art national communications and information network. The authors argue that the electric power industry brings two of the most important elements required for the construction of the information superhighway: (1) the economic driver for initial installation and (2) the prospect of improved customer satisfaction. The economic driver that justifies a major role for the power companies in the information superhighway is demand-side management (DSM) - energy efficiency, conservation, and load control techniques for homes, businesses, and industry. The electric power industry is constantly looking for ways of reducing the cost of meeting new load growth. The ability to defer or avoid the need to build a central station power plant can be a powerful economic incentive to install cost-effective DSM systems. Customer satisfaction is likely to occur from providing customers with choices they have never had before. These choices relate to customers' ability to actively manage the size of their electric bill to comport with the [open quotes]energy lifestyle[close quotes] of their choosing. Use of a system with immediate feedback capabilities expands the array of customer service enhancements that each utility can offer to its customers. In the realm of energy management alone, the benefits include load management features such as verifiable load control options (eg, positive control discounts and time-of-use rates), real-time pricing, automated billing, informational billing, energy-efficiency education, and energy [open quotes]sales[close quotes].

Niggli, M.R.; Nixon, W.W.

1994-02-01

139

Management of electric vehicle battery charging in distribution networks.  

E-print Network

??This thesis investigated the management of electric vehicle battery charging in distribution networks. Different electric vehicle fleet sizes and network locations were considered. The energy… (more)

Grau, Iñaki

2012-01-01

140

The next decade and emission controls for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The historical efforts to achieve attainment with the ozone and particulate related standards span over 25 years and involve billions of dollars with only minimal success related to ozone and unknown success related to certain fine particulates. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated significant new efforts, including Title IV - Acid Rain, to achieve reductions in ozone and fine particulate precursors and attainment with the standards. Initial reduction efforts have only recently been implemented and yet another hot summer continues to portray our futile efforts to gain much ground towards attainment with existing and revised or new standards. In order to review the issues more fully and to investigate the issue of regional transport. EPA has given the states a reprieve on ozone attainment plans until mid-1997 and set up the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) structure to review implementation issues with new or revised standards. The states and other stockholders are involved in these EPA processes through the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the CAAAC along with numerous working groups to get new answers arid help towards innovative solutions. A major target in these efforts is emissions from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. The OTAG process has developed regional control strategy targets for utility NO{sub x} sources at three levels. These levels include consideration of costs, timing and availability of controls, and the anticipated reductions in NO{sub x}. The CAAAC is also considering regional controls and the associated implementation issues for both ozone and fine particulates. EPA is also considering a Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) to wrap all the utility control issues in a single consensus package. The next 10 years will be a crucial time for electric utilities in juggling environmental and competitive issues.

Herrin, W.D. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1997-12-31

141

Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

2014-09-01

142

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

143

Electric utility environmental issues. I. Projected Environmental Standards (1980-2000). II. Current Energy Use and Environmental Impact Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is divided into two sections: Projected Environmental Standards (1980-2000), and Current Energy Use and Environmental Impact Models. The first section discusses possible future trends in federal environmental policies. The objective is to help electric utility environmental managers develop a forecasting framework on three major themes: 1) hazardous and toxic substances, 2) pollution control and assessment, and 3) siting.

Baruch

1982-01-01

144

Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not have any apparent structure, and that using overly simple policies can be considerably suboptimal. I thus develop and analyze a triple-threshold policy that I show to be near-optimal. Using a financial engineering price model and calibrating it to data from the New York Independent System Operator, I show that storage can substantially increase the monetary value of a wind farm: If transmission capacity is tight, the majority of this value arises from reducing curtailment and time-shifting generation; if transmission capacity is abundant this value stems primarily from time-shifting generation and arbitrage. In addition, I find that while more storage capacity always increases the average energy sold to the market, it may actually decrease the average wind energy sold when transmission capacity is abundant. In Chapter 3, I examine how electricity storage can be used to help match electricity supply and demand. Conventional wisdom suggests that when supply exceeds demand, any electricity surpluses should be stored for future resale. However, because electricity prices can be negative, another potential strategy of dealing with surpluses is to destroy them. Using real data, I find that for a merchant who trades electricity in a market, the strategy of destroying surpluses is potentially more valuable than the conventional strategy of storing surpluses. In Chapter 4, I study how the operation and valuation of electricity storage facilities can be affected by their physical characteristics and operating dynamics. Examples are the degradation of energy capacity over time and the variation of round-trip efficiency at different charging/discharging rates. These dynamics are often ignored in the literature, thus it has not been established whether it is important to model these characteristics. Specifically, it remains an open question whether modeling these dynamics might materially change the prescribed operating policy and the resulting valuation of a storage facility. I answer this question using a representative setting, in which a battery is utilized to trade el

Zhou, Yangfang

145

Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of fuel cell development is reviewed. For terrestrial electric utility applications, the most promising are phosphoric acid, molten carbonate and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum derived and biomass fuels to hydrogen) while the second and third with a coal gasifier. As ground transportation power sources, the promising systems are phosphoric (or alternate acid) and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells. In the first case, methanol is most attractive while in the second, it will be hydrogen stored as a compressed gas or as a hydride. A technoeconomic assessment of a 'Regenerative Hydrogen-Halogen Energy Storage System' demonstrates the prospects of its use for load leveling when coupled with nuclear, solar or wind power plants.

Srinivasan, S.

1980-04-01

146

Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.  

PubMed

Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models. PMID:23025863

Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

2012-10-01

147

The role of informatics and decision support in utilization management.  

PubMed

Information systems provide a critical link between clinical laboratories and the clinicians and patients they serve. Strategic deployment of informatics resources can enable a wide array of utilization initiatives and can substantially improve the appropriateness of test selection and results interpretation. In this article, we review information systems including computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, laboratory information systems (LISs), electronic health records (EHRs), laboratory middleware, knowledge management systems and systems for data extraction and analysis, and describe the role that each can play in utilization management. We also discuss specific utilization strategies that laboratories can employ within these systems, citing examples both from our own institution and from the literature. Finally, we review how emerging applications of decision support technologies may help to further refine test utilization, "personalize" laboratory diagnosis, and enhance the diagnostic value of laboratory testing. PMID:24084507

Baron, Jason M; Dighe, Anand S

2014-01-01

148

MATCHING WIND RESOURCE IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS WITH UTILITY ELECTRICAL LOADING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to see how well wind generated electricity in the Southern Great Plains matched the utility electrical loading and whether there were ways to improve this match so that renewable energy could make up a more significant portion (10-30%) of the utility’s total generation. Wind g...

149

Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

Temple, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-11-01

150

Large wind turbines: A utility option for the generation of electricity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wind resource is such that wind energy generation has the potential to save 6-7 quads of energy nationally. Thus, the Federal Government is sponsoring and encouraging the development of cost effective and reliable wind turbines. One element of the Federal Wind Energy Programs, Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Development, is managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for the Department of Energy. There are several ongoing wind system development projects oriented primarily toward utility application within this program element. In addition, a comprehensive technology program supporting the wind turbine development projects is being conducted. An overview is presented of the NASA activities with emphasis on application of large wind turbines for generation of electricity by utility systems.

Robbins, W. H.; Thomas, R. L.; Baldwin, D. H.

1980-01-01

151

Electrical characterization of a Space Station Freedom alpha utility transfer assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power, command signals and data are transferred across the Space Station Freedom solar alpha rotary joint by roll rings, which are incorporated within the Utility Transfer Assembly (UTA) designed and manufactured by Honeywell Space Systems Operations. A developmental Model of the UTA was tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center using the Power Management and Distribution DC test bed. The objectives of these tests were to obtain data for calibrating system models and to support final design of qualification and flight units. This testing marked the first time the UTA was operated at high power levels and exposed to electrical conditions similar to that which it will encounter on the actual Space Station. Satisfactory UTA system performance was demonstrated within the scope of this testing.

Yenni, Edward J.

1994-02-01

152

Oceano-SLA based management of a computing utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceano is a prototype of a highly available, scaleable, and manageable infrastructure for an e-business computing utility. It enables multiple customers to be hosted on a collection of sequentially shared resources. The hosting environment is divided into secure domains, each supporting one customer. These domains are dynamic: the resources assigned to them may be augmented when the load increases and

K. Appleby; S. Fakhouri; L. Fong; G. Goldszmidt; M. Kalantar; S. Krishnakumar; D. P. Pazel; J. Pershing; B. Rochwerger

2001-01-01

153

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES  

E-print Network

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES Svetlana implemented as a decision support system allowing simulation and evaluation of various proposals and scenarios and dependencies. Applying the system as an "on-the-fly" decision-support facility for the policy-makers has

Reiterer, Harald

154

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES  

E-print Network

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES Svetlana implemented as a decision support system allowing simulation and evaluation of various proposals and scenarios and dependencies. Applying the system as "on-the-fly" decision-support facility by the policy-makers has resulted

Scholl, Marc H.

155

Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1995-01-01

156

Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition  

SciTech Connect

The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2011-03-01

157

Systemic Sublingual Delivery of Octreotide Acetate Utilizing Low-Current Oral Electrical Stimulation in Rabbits  

E-print Network

A sublingual electronic pill is a novel device designed to enhance delivery of drugs/biologics sublingually utilizing low-current electrical stimulation. Our primary aim was to explore safe limits of oral electrical stimulus in animals and conduct a...

Bolch, Christina M.

2012-10-19

158

Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

1984-01-01

159

National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

Save, Phil

1994-01-01

160

Bits of power : the involvement of municipal electric utilities in broadband services  

E-print Network

Municipal electric utilities have been increasingly involved in telecommunications during the last decade. This research investigates why, with three hypotheses. First, the probability of MEUs involvement in telecommunications ...

Osorio Urzúa, Carlos A. (Carlos Alberto), 1968-

2004-01-01

161

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm for heterogenous network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm is proposed for broadband nongeostationary satellite network which works in the heterogeneous network environment and provides access services for various customers on the ground. Based on the game theory, the problem for optimizing the network's performance is turned into the problem for maximizing the network's long term utility in the proposed algorithm. With evaluation to the traffic condition and dimensions of Qos for the network at the moment while the access service requirements changing, the influence of this service requirement to the long term utility of the satellite network is audited and then the resource assignment decision can be made according to the rule for maximizing the satellite network's long term utility. The process directed by game theory guaranteed both that the benefit of the network and the requirements of the customers could be considered synthetically. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yan; Huang, Zailu

2007-11-01

162

A UK utility perspective on irradiated nuclear fuel management  

SciTech Connect

Before privatisation in 1990, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), had a statutory responsibility for the supply of electricity in England and Wales. Nuclear Electric took over the operation of the CEGB`s nuclear assets whilst remaining in the public sector. It now has to compete with private sector companies within the privatised market for electricity in the UK. The UK has had a tradition of reprocessing originating in the early weapons programme and all irradiated fuel from the Magnox reactors continues to be reprocessed. Specific consideration is given to the fuel used in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR) and the competing irradiated fuel management strategies of early reprocessing British Nuclear Fuel`s (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield or the alternative of long term storage followed by direct disposal. The fuel management strategy for the UK`s first Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), Sizewell B, will also be discussed. This review considers the following issues: (1) Plant technology and the effect on back-end strategies; (2) Nuclear Electric`s commercial approach to the changing UK business environment; (3) The inevitability of storage in the management of irradiated fuel; (4) Dry storage as an option in the UK Non economic issues such as safety, public perception, proliferation, International Safeguards and bilateral trade agreements; and (5) The experience of THORP and the issues it raises concerning two stage licensing. This paper not only reflects on the worldwide issues relating to the {open_quotes}reprocess or not decision{close_quotes} but also considers UK specific actions both historic and current. It concludes that whether to exercise the option of reprocessing in the short or long term, or at all, is a matter of commercial and strategic judgement of Nuclear Electric.

Wilmer, P.C.

1994-12-31

163

Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

Walls, B.

1995-01-01

164

Utility aspects of space power: Load management versus source management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power, as an area of study, is relatively young as compared to language, chemistry, physics, mathematics, philosophy, metallurgy, textiles, transportation, or farming. Practically all of the technology that has enabled the huge, continent-spanning power grids that have become ubiquitous in developed countries was developed in the last 150 years. In fact, Tesla's advocacy of alternating current for transmission just won out in the beginning of this century. Despite the novelty of the field as a whole, space power applications are, of course, much newer. This paper looks at the history of space power, and compares it to its older sibling on earth, forming a basis for determining appropriate transitions of technology from the terrestrial realm to space applications.

Walls, B.

1995-07-01

165

18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...141.1 FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...Prescription. The Form of Annual Report for Major electric...

2011-04-01

166

18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...141.1 FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...Prescription. The Form of Annual Report for Major electric...

2012-04-01

167

18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.  

...2014-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...141.1 FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...Prescription. The Form of Annual Report for Major electric...

2014-04-01

168

18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...141.1 FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...Prescription. The Form of Annual Report for Major electric...

2010-04-01

169

18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...141.1 FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities...Prescription. The Form of Annual Report for Major electric...

2013-04-01

170

AUTO-2440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If you’re an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells

2013-04-18

171

77 FR 30517 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a flexible risk management process tuned to...industry. The document was posted on May...has published the document entitled: Electricity...Cybersecurity Risk Management Process. The primary...methodology for this document. The Electricity...Cybersecurity Risk Management Process...

2012-05-23

172

Is strategic asset management applicable to small and medium utilities?  

PubMed

Urban water infrastructures provide essential services to modern societies and represent a major portion of the value of municipal physical assets. Managing these assets rationally is therefore fundamental for the sustainability of the services and to the economy of societies. "Asset Management" (AM) is a modern term for an old practice--assets have always been managed. In recent years, significant evolution occurred in terms of the AM formal approaches, of the monitoring and decision support tools and of the implementation success cases. However, most tools developed are too sophisticated and data seek for small utilities. The European R&D network COST Action C18 ( E-mail: www.costc18.org) identified key research problems related to the management of urban water infrastructures, currently not covered by on-going projects of the European Framework Program. The top 1 topic is "Efficient management of small community". This paper addresses challenges and opportunities for small and medium utilities with regard to infrastructure AM (IAM). To put this into context, the first sections discuss the need for IAM, highlight key recent developments, and present IAM drivers, as well as research and development gaps, priorities and products needed. PMID:21045331

Alegre, Helena

2010-01-01

173

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

2014-01-01

174

Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near-term electric utility applications. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed evaluation is made of TES through a careful screening, analysis, conceptual design, and evaluation to determine if it can meet the peak power needs of electric utilities for near-term applications. Primary emphasis is on electric utilities developing new plants, planned and designed to incorporate the TES. The new plants considered are conventional coal and nuclear fueled, which represent

E. W. Hall; W. Hausz; R. Anand; N. LaMarche; J. Oplinger; M. Katzer

1979-01-01

175

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

Not Available

1993-12-28

176

Utility-Aware Deferred Load Balancing in the Cloud Driven by Dynamic Pricing of Electricity  

E-print Network

in energy prices along with the rise of cloud computing brings up the issue of making clouds energy. In this paper, we use deferral with dynamic pricing of electricity for energy efficiency while using utilityUtility-Aware Deferred Load Balancing in the Cloud Driven by Dynamic Pricing of Electricity

Gupta, Rajesh

177

Information and automation technology: Serving electric utility customers in the 1990s: Conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These Proceedings contain written papers submitted by the speakers at the December 5--7, 1988 EPRI-sponsored conference Information and Automation Technology: Serving Electric Utility Customers in the 1990s. The purpose of the conference was to provide electric utilities with an overview of applications that rely on new and emerging information to enhance the value of electric service. There are 53 papers, organized into 10 subject areas corresponding to the sessions at the conference covering a broad range of information and communication technologies and electric utility applications. Three Appendices contain the conference agenda, the list of participants, and the list of exhibitors.

Not Available

1989-06-01

178

Fuels utilization for cost-effective energy management  

SciTech Connect

As energy costs continue to stabilize in a deregulated environment, there will be additional benefits available from load management, fuel-switching and interruptible strategies to maximize energy savings opportunities. Over the past few years, utility companies have prepared for full deregulation with specific plans to both defend their own territory and advance into new regions of the country. One concept is to form a non-regulated subsidiary that can assist a customer with energy management projects as a strategic energy partner. In this way, core competencies available from within the utility industry can be sold to the end-user through their non-regulated subsidiary. Utility subsidies may be available in some instances for end-users to increase energy efficiency and allow an Energy Services Company to finance these projects under a Performance Contract. In any event, the energy industry has been transitioning into a competitive environment which has created some unique and innovative opportunities to reduce energy costs through effective end-user fuel utilization programs. A customer is often lead to believe that they can reduce costs by simply waiting for full deregulation and choosing the lowest price from a supplier, power marketer or load aggregator. However, a proactive approach can generate far greater benefits, as outlined in a recent study completed for a $1.5 million per year energy customer in Connecticut. This paper explains the project.

Sher, B.A. [Thielsch Engineering, Inc., RI (United States)

1998-07-01

179

Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

1993-12-31

180

Battery Utilization in Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Analysis and an Almost Optimal Online Algorithm  

E-print Network

Battery Utilization in Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Analysis and an Almost Optimal Online In the last few years the idea of electrically powered cars has turned into reality. This old idea, from of the battery [MIT Electric Vehicle Team, 2008]. In other words, the battery's life is the total accumulated

Tamir, Tami

181

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning  

SciTech Connect

Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

2013-10-01

182

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

SciTech Connect

Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

2005-07-05

183

Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues  

SciTech Connect

A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-09-01

184

Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

Bennion, K.

2014-11-01

185

Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

Narumanchi, S.

2014-09-01

186

Detection of outlier loci and their utility for fisheries management.  

PubMed

Genetics-based approaches have informed fisheries management for decades, yet remain challenging to implement within systems involving recently diverged stocks or where gene flow persists. In such cases, genetic markers exhibiting locus-specific ('outlier') effects associated with divergent selection may provide promising alternatives to loci that reflect genome-wide ('neutral') effects for guiding fisheries management. Okanagan Lake kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), a fishery of conservation concern, exhibits two sympatric ecotypes adapted to different reproductive environments; however, previous research demonstrated the limited utility of neutral microsatellites for assigning individuals. Here, we investigated the efficacy of an outlier-based approach to fisheries management by screening >11 000 expressed sequence tags for linked microsatellites and conducting genomic scans for kokanee sampled across seven spawning sites. We identified eight outliers among 52 polymorphic loci that detected ecotype-level divergence, whereas there was no evidence of divergence at neutral loci. Outlier loci exhibited the highest self-assignment accuracy to ecotype (92.1%), substantially outperforming 44 neutral loci (71.8%). Results were robust among-sampling years, with assignment and mixed composition estimates for individuals sampled in 2010 mirroring baseline results. Overall, outlier loci constitute promising alternatives for informing fisheries management involving recently diverged stocks, with potential applications for designating management units across a broad range of taxa. PMID:25568028

Russello, Michael A; Kirk, Stephanie L; Frazer, Karen K; Askey, Paul J

2012-01-01

187

Detection of outlier loci and their utility for fisheries management  

PubMed Central

Genetics-based approaches have informed fisheries management for decades, yet remain challenging to implement within systems involving recently diverged stocks or where gene flow persists. In such cases, genetic markers exhibiting locus-specific (‘outlier’) effects associated with divergent selection may provide promising alternatives to loci that reflect genome-wide (‘neutral’) effects for guiding fisheries management. Okanagan Lake kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), a fishery of conservation concern, exhibits two sympatric ecotypes adapted to different reproductive environments; however, previous research demonstrated the limited utility of neutral microsatellites for assigning individuals. Here, we investigated the efficacy of an outlier-based approach to fisheries management by screening >11 000 expressed sequence tags for linked microsatellites and conducting genomic scans for kokanee sampled across seven spawning sites. We identified eight outliers among 52 polymorphic loci that detected ecotype-level divergence, whereas there was no evidence of divergence at neutral loci. Outlier loci exhibited the highest self-assignment accuracy to ecotype (92.1%), substantially outperforming 44 neutral loci (71.8%). Results were robust among-sampling years, with assignment and mixed composition estimates for individuals sampled in 2010 mirroring baseline results. Overall, outlier loci constitute promising alternatives for informing fisheries management involving recently diverged stocks, with potential applications for designating management units across a broad range of taxa. PMID:25568028

Russello, Michael A; Kirk, Stephanie L; Frazer, Karen K; Askey, Paul J

2012-01-01

188

Research on battery management system in electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the bridge of battery and vehicle management system and the drivers, battery management system (BMS) for electric vehicle performance is playing a more and more key role. This article introduces several kinds of battery display methods and displays, and for each display method on the feasibility study, also focuses on the electric car batteries systematic, modular design and the

Cuicui Yin; Yuqun Wang

2012-01-01

189

Research on battery management system for light electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the operation characteristics of light electric vehicle, the paper developed a battery management system of light electric vehicle. The system mainly contains battery protection module, battery equalization module, battery data management module. It could be real-time monitoring the operation parameters of batteries effectively: rotational speed of motor, State of Charge (SOC) of the batteries, voltage and current of

Feng Nenglian; Yong Jiawang; Bin Yang; Peng Jiankun; Tang Yanrong

2011-01-01

190

An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs  

SciTech Connect

The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

Rose, K.

1996-07-01

191

Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

2011-12-01

192

Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks  

SciTech Connect

The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk.

Henney, A.; Keers, G.

1998-10-01

193

18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription....

2010-04-01

194

Prognostic and health management for aircraft electrical power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the electrical power supply system analysis, a system of prognostic and health management (PHM) for the electrical power supply system is presented. The PHM system can accomplish the condition assessment of the key characteristics and device in the electrical power supply system without additional test equipment. The condition of rotating rectifier, contact resistance and so on can be

Haiyang Pan; Ensheng Dong; Yilin Jiang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

195

Electricity derivatives and risk management S.J. Denga,*  

E-print Network

Electricity derivatives and risk management S.J. Denga,* , S.S. Orenb a School of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Electricity of electricity production and distribution. Uncontrolled exposure to market price risks can lead to devastating

196

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

197

The rural utility response to Colorado’s electricity mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to

Sean Tierney

2011-01-01

198

Climate change adaptation in the U.S. electric utility sector  

E-print Network

The electric utility sector has been a focus of policy efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but even if these efforts are successful, the sector will need to adapt to the impacts of climate change. These are likely ...

Higbee, Melissa (Melissa Aura)

2013-01-01

199

Electric Utilities' Role in Industrial Competitiveness: Going Beyond the Energy Audit  

E-print Network

This paper describes EPRI's Partnership for Industrial Competitiveness. The Partnership, comprised of over 15 EPRI member utllities, was established to help electric utilities identify, develop; and implement competitiveness improvement...

Jeffress, R. D.

200

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

SciTech Connect

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

201

Advanced Medium-Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Conversion Systems for Future Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed

Haifeng Fan

2011-01-01

202

Electrically Small Folded Slot Antenna Utilizing Capacitive Loaded Slot Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an electrically small, coplanar waveguide fed, folded slot antenna that uses capacitive loading. Several antennas are fabricated with and without capacitive loading to demonstrate the ability of this design approach to reduce the resonant frequency of the antenna, which is analogous to reducing the antenna size. The antennas are fabricated on Cu-clad Rogers Duriod(TM) 6006 with multilayer chip capacitors to load the antennas. Simulated and measured results show close agreement, thus, validating the approach. The electrically small antennas have a measured return loss greater than 15 dB and a gain of 5.4, 5.6, and 2.7 dBi at 4.3, 3.95, and 3.65 GHz, respectively.

Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Merritt, Shane; Minor, John S.; Zorman, Christian A.

2007-01-01

203

Survey of Engineering and Construction Programs in the Electric Utility Industry.  

SciTech Connect

In July and August 1984, E and C surveyed five major electric utilities to determine how they are accomplishing their engineering and construction activities. The investigation gave particular attention to how each utility is responding to reduced system load growth and to other conditions that are affecting workloads, to what organizational or staffing changes they have made, and to their experience with contracting.

Nellis, Charles L.

1984-09-01

204

Availability and Utilization of Opioids for Pain Management: Global Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Pain can significantly influence an individual's health status and can have serious negative consequences: poor nutrition, decreased appetite, abnormal sleep patterns, fatigue, and impairment of daily living activities. Pain can cause psychological impairment and decrease healing and recovery from injuries and illness. A hallmark of many chronic conditions, pain affects more patients' lives than diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cancer combined. However, many chronic sufferers do not have access to effective pain management for a variety of reasons, including limited access, restrictions, and personal and cultural biases. Methods This review summarizes issues of access, distribution, and cultural bias with regard to opioid agents and seeks to clarify the challenges related to opioid delivery. The considerable negative physical and mental consequences of chronic pain are discussed for the general and palliative care population. Results Opioids are an effective treatment for various intractable painful conditions, but problems in global opioid access for safe and rational use in pain management contribute to unnecessary suffering. These problems persist despite increased understanding in recent years of the pathophysiology of pain. Conclusions Comprehensive guidelines for goal-directed and patient-friendly chronic opiate therapy will potentially enhance the outlook for future chronic pain management. The improvement of pain education in undergraduate and postgraduate training will benefit patients and clinicians. The promise of new medications, along with the utilization of multimodal approaches, has the potential to provide effective pain relief to future generations of sufferers. PMID:24940131

Manjiani, Deepak; Paul, D. Baby; Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini

2014-01-01

205

ESTIMATES OF SULFUR OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY. VOLUME I: SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Electric Utility Analysis Project, a research project supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of the report is to provide detailed information on emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) in the atmosphere from electric gener...

206

ESTIMATES OF SULFUR OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY. VOLUME II: DATABOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared as part of the Electric Utility Analysis Project, a research project supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of the report is to provide detailed information on emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) in the atmosphere from electric gener...

207

An R and D policy for regulated natural gas and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a Research and Development policy for natural gas and electric utilities that will make plain the utility's risk, protect the rate payer and at the same time encourage R&D and allow the utility to recover costs associated with R&D and capture R&D benefits where appropriate. Current policy is reviewed and suggestions for improving it are presented.

D. Murry; B. Groten; J. Chambless

1991-01-01

208

The Grid Intelligent Planning Framework: Planning Electric Utility Investments in a Time of Accelerating Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the next ten years, electric power utilities will be required to invest billions of dollars to meet public policy goals\\u000a for a greener, smarter electricity grid. Renewable generation portfolio standards, electric vehicle infrastructure, advanced\\u000a metering infrastructure, and the replacement of aging grid assets are some of the factors driving these new investments. The\\u000a Grid Intelligent Planning Framework using GridLAB-D

Geoff Ryder; Fatimah Shahid; Sui Yan

209

The Electric Utility Industry--Change and Challenge  

E-print Network

and monitoring performance so that progress can be assessed and corrective action taken as a appropriate In Search Of Excellence, by Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman and the host of "excellence" books that have followed allemptto answer the question.... What do these findings have to do with planning? Comprehensive long-range planning is probably the single most important ingredient in the management of any organization. It provides the climate that allows the elements of excellence to flourish. A...

Williams, M. H.

210

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

211

Application of artificial intelligence and non-intrusive energy-managing system to economic dispatch strategy for cogeneration system and utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that artificial intelligence techniques and non-intrusive energy-managing technology (NIEM) will effectively manage energy demands within economic dispatch strategy analysis for the cogeneration plant and power utility. To test the performance of the proposed approach, data sets for electrical loads in the factories were analyzed and established using an electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) and onsite load measurement. The

Hsueh-hsien Chang; Ching-lung Lin; Lin-song Weng

2009-01-01

212

Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and affordable technology for providing detailed feedback on household electricity usage presents a host of opportunities for utilities and policy-makers to manage demand. This dissertation examines ways to use these devices to reduce - and shift the timing of - energy use in the residential sector by influencing consumers' behavior. The first portion of the study analyzes the impact of programmable thermostats (PTs) on energy use, focusing on residents' knowledge of climate control settings in the dwelling. I found that of households with natural gas heating systems, young households with PTs used 17 percent less heating energy on average. In addition, residents who did not know their thermostat settings tended to use 10 percent more energy for heating. The main portion of the dissertation focuses specifically on the potential for better feedback on electricity usage to reduce household energy consumption. The existing literature suggests that feedback can reduce electricity consumption in homes by 5 to 20 percent, but that significant uncertainties remain in our knowledge of the effectiveness of feedback. These uncertainties include the variation in feedback effectiveness between demographic groups and consumers in different climate regions. This analysis uses these uncertainties to perform an exploratory analysis to determine the conditions under which the benefits of feedback outweigh the costs and to compare the cost-effectiveness of providing feedback against that of other DSM programs. I found that benefits would likely outweigh costs for enhanced monthly billing and real-time feedback and that cost-effectiveness was superior to that of other DSM programs for these types of feedback. For feedback that is disaggregated by appliance type, cost effectiveness was competitive with other DSM programs under a limited set of cases. This study also examines how energy consumption devices should display feedback on GHG emissions from electricity use under a real-time pricing program. I found that load-shifting can cause GHG emissions to increase or decrease depending on region and season and in no discernable pattern. Therefore, feedback may be more useful and comprehensible to households in the form of total GHG emissions attributable to electricity usage instead of the emission rate of the marginal power plant. Finally, this dissertation explores ways to maximize the effect of feedback by evaluating which appliances may be best suited for appliance-specific feedback. Due to the energy use and behavioral factors associated with each appliance, the most promising appliances were those that heat water for taps, showers, hot tubs, and waterbeds.

Collins, Myles

213

Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.  

PubMed

The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements. PMID:20551507

Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

2010-07-01

214

Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of the electric utility. The negative impact of the regulatory environment declined with the increase in the size of the utility, indicating favorable treatment for larger utilities by financial markets. Similarly, for the electric utility industry as a whole, financial markets reacted negatively to nuclear power generation.

Vishwanathan, Raman

215

Reinforcement Learning Based Power Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power management, reinforcement learning. 1. INTRODUCTION Automobiles have from the increasing number of automobiles in use around the world have drawn attention of researchers and developers towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly automobiles. Hybrid electric vehicles

Pedram, Massoud

216

Financial risk management in a competitive electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes solutions for electricity producers in the field of financial risk management for electric energy contract evaluation. The efficient frontier is used as a tool to identify the preferred portfolio of contracts. Each portfolio has a probability density function for the profit. For important scheduling policies, closed form solutions are found for the amount of futures contracts that

Roger Bjorgan; Chen-Ching Liu; Jacques Lawarree

1999-01-01

217

Vehicle Yaw Control Utilizing Hybrid Electric Drivetrains with Multiple Electric Motors.  

E-print Network

??Vehicles with multiple electric motors coupled to individual wheels have excitingopportunities for safety control systems. An investigation is conducted to determine whatdynamic benefits can be… (more)

D'Iorio, James

2008-01-01

218

Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric utility distribution investment. The study makes use of data from an actual distribution planning area, located within PGandE's service territory, to demonstrate the important characteristics of this new costing approach. The most significant result of this empirical work is that geographic differences in the cost of capacity in distribution systems can be as much as four times larger than the current system average utility estimates. Furthermore, lumpy capital investment patterns can lead to significant cost differences over time.

Orans, Ren

1990-10-01

219

Innovative and Progressive Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Strategies  

E-print Network

investment in new equipment and engineering services. Some programs have addressed such areas as thermal storage and industrial processes, and others have included comprehensive facility energy studies where greater than fifty percent of the cost of energy...

Epstein, G. J.; Fuller, W. H.

220

Energy Conservation and Management for Electric Utility Industrial Customers  

E-print Network

been deve loped to determi ne their technical and economic merits based on operat ing conditions, energy costs, etc. for that specif ic plant relative to the existing equipment. The results of the EC&M application assessments in the form... to equipment size and cost. Where the "most economic system" does not supply the total amount of sink process energy required, all supple mental energy would be derived from existing equip-i 'ment operating in parallel with the EC&M system and , -, 209...

McChesney, H. R.; Obee, T. N.; Mangum, G. F.

221

Energy management for rational electricity use [cement plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an energy management system whose goals are energy cost reduction and reduction of specific energy consumption. The basic system concept is composed of three distinct, but closely interrelated management tasks which are supported by software and hardware information systems. The ELCON (electric load control) module keeps track of usage online and indicates where and when

C. Barreiro; B. Ferreira; C. Abreu; M. Blanck

1990-01-01

222

Controlling electrical hazards through effective risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concluded that effective management of worker safety and protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and the severity of work-related injuries. Effective risk management addresses all work-related hazards including those potential hazards that could result from a change in worksite conditions or practices, whether or not they are regulated by government

Dennis K. Neitzel

2011-01-01

223

Electrical-power-system data base for consumables analysis. Volume 2: Electrical equipment utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalogue is presented of space shuttle electrical equipment as used within a standardized data base for EPS consumables analyses. The general function and expected usage of each type of electrical equipment are described, and the usage of specific equipment of each type in the performance of EPS consumables analyses is defined.

Pipher, M. D.; Green, P. A.; Wolfgram, D. F.

1975-01-01

224

A UK utility perspective on irradiated nuclear fuel management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before privatisation in 1990, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), had a statutory responsibility for the supply of electricity in England and Wales. Nuclear Electric took over the operation of the CEGB`s nuclear assets whilst remaining in the public sector. It now has to compete with private sector companies within the privatised market for electricity in the UK. The UK

Wilmer

1994-01-01

225

SERI's photovoltaic research project: A foundation for tomorrow's utility-scale electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress and future directions in PV research managed by SERI for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are reviewed. The primary emphases of the research are on thin-film single-junction and multijunction devices. However, work also continues on advanced crystalline silicon sheet materials. Improvements in materials and processing, solar cell design, and cell fabrication techniques have led to continuing improvements in cell efficiencies in nearly all material areas. Recent research has identified the criticality of source-material purity and device-processing conditions for different PV materials. Attention to total device design and processing has increased understanding of metallic contacts, transparent conductors, and intermediate layers. Sophisticated models have been developed to quickly assess device concepts. Enhanced measurement and characterization techniques, along with increased interactions among PV scientists, are adding to the strong foundation of photovoltaics. Future directions in PV research are given in the recent Five Year Research Plan prepared by DOE. The plan is predicated on partnerships among the Federal government, private firms, universities, and electric utilities. As part of a consensus review of the plan, this multifaceted PV community identified the specific technical goals and pertinent R and D needed for success. These technical goals and future research are described in detail.

Mitchell, R. L.; Surek, T.

1988-05-01

226

Proper Use of Electric/Gas UtilityType Vehicles (FS4) Form FS-4 8/24/2011  

E-print Network

Proper Use of Electric/Gas UtilityType Vehicles (FS4) Form FS-4 8/24/2011 Regulation Governing Use of Electric/Gas Utility­Type Vehicles (EGUV): Individual operators will use their judgment on whether. · Electric vehicles will be recharged at a location appropriate for such use. Use of extension cords from

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

227

TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by URS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

2010-02-26

228

What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?  

SciTech Connect

This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2008-11-15

229

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-25

230

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done

Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

2005-01-01

231

An intelligent battery management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the keys to the acceptance of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the increased longevity of the large battery packs used in the vehicles. The objective of this research is to develop an intelligent battery management system that will lengthen the lifetime of the battery pack. The key to this operation is monitoring and charging of individual batteries

Manoj Maskey; Micheal Parten; Darrell Vines; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

232

Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

Fisher, S.C.

1995-12-31

233

Utilization of Information Provided by the Wisconsin Management System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management system developed by the Wisconsin Center for Cognitive Learning (CCL) is useful to principal investigators of individual projects for proposal development, project management, and project reporting, as well as to the CCL management for program planning, program management, and reporting to funding agencies. The system aids proposal…

Rossmiller, Richard A.

234

Power quality improvement in DC electric arc furnace plants utilizing multi-phase transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional feeding systems for DC electric arc furnace steel making plants usually include a 12 pulse rectifier that is fed by ?\\/? and ?\\/Y three phase transformers. In this paper the advantages of applying multi-phase transformers for supplying such loads are evaluated and compared with the traditional power supply systems. It is shown that utilizing multi-phase transformers can lead

Arash Dehestani Kolagar; Abbas Shoulaie

2012-01-01

235

Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

2006-01-01

236

THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It reviews the status of the electric utility industry in the six ORBES states: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Topics in...

237

CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

238

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

239

COMPARISON OF THE AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF EQUIPMENT IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to compare the reliability/availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems with equipment commonly used in the electric utility industry. Because many parameters used in reporting performance data for these systems have different definit...

240

Reliability Cost\\/Worth Associated With Wind Energy and Energy Storage Utilization in Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind is being recognized as an encouraging and cost effective generation source both in large grid connected systems and small isolated applications. The actual benefits obtained from utilizing wind energy for electric power generation can be investigated using reliability and economic evaluation techniques. The focus of these techniques is usually directed to the areas of reliability and the investment\\/operation alternatives

B. Bagen; R. Billinton

2008-01-01

241

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and\\/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems

Zaininger

1994-01-01

242

EPA DETERMINATION STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to determine whether the regulation of hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions from electric utility generating plants is necessary. This determination is to be made on or before December 15, 2000. It focuses primarily on the nee...

243

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate

Goodin

1984-01-01

244

Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of waste heat utilization in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander). The advantages associated with the SRG110 as they relate to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings for a spacecraft will be highlighted.

Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

2005-01-01

245

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

1992-01-01

246

Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost function obtained from Independent Service Operators. A consumer experiment is established to replicate the peak load behavior. As a result, consumers' utility function is estimated and optimal retail electricity prices are computed.

Kazan, Osman

247

Review article Influence of electric conductivity management  

E-print Network

their sugar: acid ratio, and influences the transpiration rate and the water uptake by the plant, which, and crop management. According to different studies and growth conditions, salinities higher than 2.3­5.1 m by the plant directly affects the quantity of photoassimilates available to the fruit, it also increases

Boyer, Edmond

248

Assessing cost and utilization in managed mental health care in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health cost containment in the United States has evolved from fragmented utilization review and discounted pricing programs in the 1980s to comprehensive mental health managed care programs in the 1990s, in which the network managing the care takes on financial risks associated with price and utilization for all mental health services provided to an enrolled population. While the earlier

Barbara Dickey

1997-01-01

249

Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries  

SciTech Connect

This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

NONE

1991-12-31

250

From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4) prevented industry profits from declining. This research adds to the existing literature on industry regulation in general, and specifically to the literature on the effects of regulation of the electric utility industry.

Reutter, Keith Alan

1997-09-01

251

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

1990-12-01

252

Managing electricity demand through dynamic pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responsive microprocessor meters are now cheaper than electro-mechanical time-of-use meters. The English residential Credit and Load Management Unit (CALMU) responds to dynamic prices broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation and turns off individual equipment at prices preselected by the homeowner. In the U.S. this meter could (with the thermal storage it will incite) displace one-third of the U.S. residential peak demand of 80 gigawatts (GW) and could displace the demand of new homes by 1 GW/year.

Peddie, R. A.; Bulleit, D. A.; Rosenfeld, A. H.

1985-11-01

253

System reliability in electric utility systems with independent wind and solar generation  

SciTech Connect

The use of alternative energy sources for the generation of electricity in the United States is increasing due to a growing concern about the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels. While alternative energy sources have their benefits, the inherent randomness of wind and solar energy can cause reliability problems for the power grid. Because of changes in the public policy of the US Congress and state governments, utilities are evolving toward a more distributed system with increasing amounts of non-utility generation. This evolution may improve the prospects for PV and other alternative energy sources as they gradually become cost competitive with other types of distributed generation such as gas turbines or cogeneration. This paper provides an overview of a methodology developed to integrate wind and solar energy sources into the electric utility generation mix. The wind and solar energy sources are assumed to be owned and operated by small power producing facilities (SPPF`s). The SPPF`s buy and sell electricity at prices determined by the local utility according to the time-of-day (spot pricing). During each time period, each SPPF makes its own decision whether to buy or sell power. The buy-or-sell decision depends on the price, the energy needs of the SPPF, and the amount of energy available to the SPPF from other sources.

Schooley, D.C. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Lombard, IL (United States). Bulk Power Operations; Puettgen, H.B. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computing Engineering

1999-11-01

254

77 FR 28872 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...ongoing outreach efforts. SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...meeting will be held at the Hyatt Regency Louisville, 320 W. Jefferson, Louisville,...

2012-05-16

255

New trends in electricity pricing in Sweden from a utility perspective  

SciTech Connect

Sweden is facing a re-structured electricity market beginning January 1, 1996, implying full competition in the purchasing and selling of electricity. The transmission and distribution of electricity will remain as a franchised monopoly and this business has to be strictly separated from the electricity trading. In the monopolistic environment, pricing of electricity has been based on more or less relevant costs and a resonable rate of return. The energy charges have reflected the system short range marginal costs while the demand and fixed charges have been adapted to give a total cost level corresponding to the system average cost. Tariffs of this type, known as time-of-use tariffs, have stimulated peak shaving during peak load (high cost hours) and valley filling during low load (low cost hours), increasing the load factor. Restructuring will influence the pricing in several ways. Pricing of transmission and distribution services will be based on costs and will be supervised by a new state authority. The network tariffs within local areas will be distance independent and the customers will be able to distinguish the transportation costs from the costs for electricity supply and taxes on the bill. Pricing of electricity supply will be influenced by the market and the strength of competition. However, as customers don`t value electricity itself, but the benefits of electricity use, there will be a strong trend for utilities to market energy services like light, power, space heating, indoor climate control, district cooling, etc., instead of kilowatt-hours. The price for these services will include a number of items and will be individually negotiated and adapted to the customer needs. A business concept of this type also offers possibilities for energy efficiency measures to be taken within the energy service agreement. Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the idea of green pricing of electricity.

Andersson, A.; Berghe, J.O. [Goeteborg Energi Naet (Sweden)

1996-03-01

256

Management information system of charging station for electric vehicle (EV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual problems and requirements of charging station, especially for electric vehicle, are analyzed. This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully digital smart management information system of charging station for EV, which has been already installed in Xihuangzhuang bus-station of Beijing. The collected data show that the system can be easily applied to shift the charger to

Yunyan Wang; Jingxin Li; Jiuchun Jiang; Liyong Niu

2005-01-01

257

Battery management system for series-hybrid electric shuttle bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a battery management system (BMS) of a lead-acid battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) shuttle bus is presented. The BMS is a necessary component for an optimal operation of power-train in the SHE V shuttle bus including for timely detection of an abnormal condition during charging and discharging the battery pack. The presented BMS

Teerayut Piboonrujananon; Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2011-01-01

258

A study on battery management system for blade electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blade electric vehicles (BEVs) use batteries, by which the performance and security of the BEVs is determined, as its only source of energy. However, there are so many cells, connected in series-parallel combination to match the load requirement, needed to be monitored and controlled that making it a great challenge to manage all the cells timely and efficiently. Thus, a

Kun Zheng; Dong Chen; Yunfeng Liu

2011-01-01

259

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational standard of 10 gauss. The use of an organophosphate containing fire resistant hydraulic fluid, Fyrquel-EH (1330785), was reported by employees. A significant correlation was identified between memory of past symptoms indicative of acute organophosphate exposure after working with Fyrquel-EH and current symptoms; however, blood cholinesterase levels were all within the normal range and no relevant neurologic abnormalities were noted on neurological examinations. The authors conclude that a hazard existed from the use of Fyrquel-EH. The authors recommend measures for the safe handling of organophosphate compounds.

Malkin, R.; Moss, C.E.; Reh, C.M.; Ragab, M.

1996-01-01

260

Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and

Charalampos Doukas; Thomas Pliakas; Ilias Maglogiannis

2010-01-01

261

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

1995-03-01

262

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

NONE

1996-03-04

263

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-07-11

264

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-05-16

265

Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

1974-01-01

266

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Electric-discharge chemical laser utilizing a mixture of chlorine monofluoride with hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A determination was made of the energy, spectrum, and duration of emission of radiation generated as a result of vibrational-rotational transitions in HF and HCl molecules in a chemical laser utilizing ClF-H2-He mixtures and subjected to short-pulse initiation of the pump reactions by a transverse electric discharge preceded by photopreionization. When the total energy of the output radiation pulses due

V. B. Kolovskii; S. A. Drobakha; G. P. Zhitneva; G. A. Abakumov; Alexander P. Simonov

1984-01-01

267

Electric-discharge chemical laser utilizing a mixture of chlorine monofluoride with hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A determination was made of the energy, spectrum, and duration of emission of radiation generated as a result of vibrational-rotational transitions in HF and HCl molecules in a chemical laser utilizing ClF–H2–He mixtures and subjected to short-pulse initiation of the pump reactions by a transverse electric discharge preceded by photopreionization. When the total energy of the output radiation pulses due

V. B. Kolovskii; S. A. Drobakha; G. P. Zhitneva; G. A. Abakumov; Alexander P Simonov

1984-01-01

268

Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission  

SciTech Connect

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2009-07-01

269

Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

Yang, T.

2013-12-01

270

Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

Not Available

1982-05-01

271

Electric utility pole yard training facility: Designing an effective learning environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary responsibility of electric utilities is to supply consistent, dependable, and affordable energy to private customers, businesses, and industries. As with many businesses, electric utilities are experiencing the effects of an aging workforce and expending considerable resources to train their current and replacement workers. Community colleges can partner with electric utilities to provide effective learning environments for these workers, and gain access to new sources of revenue and community support for the colleges. The purpose of this study was to describe the functions, features, and major design issues of an effective learning environment for training electric utility industry workers, the electric utility line-worker pole yard. Case studies of three "state of the art" line-worker pole yard training environments provide the basis for the study's findings and implications. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What is the function of a line-worker pole yard in supporting effective training? (2) What are the features of present day ("state of the art") line-worker pole yard learning environments? and (3) What are the major issues that need to be addressed in designing a line-worker pole yard learning environment for the future? The study participants included industry representatives, training coordinators, instructors, and students from the three selected "state of the art" line-worker pole yard sites. The overall findings from the study resulted in composites of the desired features of learning outcomes, learning process, and learning environment for a line-worker pole yard training program and major issues that are affecting the future design of these training programs. Composite findings of a pole-yard training environment included unique features associated with: (a) outdoor, (b) indoor, (c) underground, (d) classroom, (e) gathering places, and (f) work-based learning components. Composite findings with regard to major issues that need to be considered in future designs of pole-yard training environments included: (a) available unrestricted land for expansion, (b) resource commitment level, (c) workforce demographics, (d) aging industrial infrastructure, (e) electronic information and communication capability, (f) quality and quantity of available instructors, and (g) environmental and economic impact.

Topping, Robert P.

272

Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA.

Moslin, S. I.; Wahap, N. A.; Han, O. W.

2014-02-01

273

Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2005-09-01

274

Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.  

PubMed

Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice. PMID:21097207

Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

2010-01-01

275

Collision management utilizing CCD and remote sensing technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the threat of damage to aerospace systems (space station, shuttle, hypersonic a/c, solar power satellites, loss of life, etc.) from collision with debris (manmade/artificial), there exists an opportunity for the design of a novel system (collision avoidance) to be incorporated into the overall design. While incorporating techniques from ccd and remote sensing technologies, an integrated system utilized in the infrared/visible spectrum for detection, tracking, localization, and maneuvering from doppler shift measurements is achievable. Other analysis such as impact assessment, station keeping, chemical, and optical tracking/fire control solutions are possible through this system. Utilizing modified field programmable gated arrays (software reconfiguring the hardware) the mission and mission effectiveness can be varied. This paper outlines the theoretical operation of a prototype system as it applies to collision avoidance (to be followed up by research).

Mcdaniel, Harvey E., Jr.

1995-01-01

276

Simultaneous Visualization of Different Utility Networks for Disaster Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic visualizations of crises are used to create a Common Operational Picture (COP) and enforce Situational Awareness by presenting and representing relevant information. As nearly all crises affect geospatial entities, geo-data representations have to support location-specific decision-making throughout the crises. Since, Operator's attention span and their working memory are limiting factors for the process of getting and interpreting information; the cartographic presentation has to support individuals in coordinating their activities and with handling highly dynamic situations. The Situational Awareness of operators in conjunction with a COP are key aspects of the decision making process and essential for coming to appropriate decisions. Utility networks are one of the most complex and most needed systems within a city. The visualization of utility infrastructure in crisis situations is addressed in this paper. The paper will provide a conceptual approach on how to simplify, aggregate, and visualize multiple utility networks and their components to meet the requirements of the decision-making process and to support Situational Awareness.

Semm, S.; Becker, T.; Kolbe, T. H.

2012-07-01

277

Utilizing Virtual Teams in a Management Principles Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe development of a component in a management principles course to develop university students' virtual team skills. There were several challenges in creating and implementing this new component. The paper aims to describe how these challenges were addressed and discusses outcomes associated with this…

Olson-Buchanan, Julie B.; Rechner, Paula L.; Sanchez, Rudolph J.; Schmidtke, James M.

2007-01-01

278

UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TO MANAGE IRRIGATION WATER FOR DIFFERENT CROPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several organizations are using satellite images in the field of water resources and agriculture including the National Water Research C enter (NWRC). Satellite images such as Landsat are used in land cover classificati on, water resources management, water quality evaluation, and crop area estimation. The main crops in Egypt are Cotton, wheat, and Rice and because of the large fl

Nagy Yakoub

279

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF LANDFILL GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3) for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the ...

280

CellPhone Based User Activity Recognition, Management and Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for aggregating and updating use activity data (called user profile in this paper) recognized by a cell phone equipped with active RFID transmitter\\/receiver. Each component of user profile information comes from a different source and is combined each other at the Profile Aggregator (PA), which is user profile management server. In the PA, a piece

Daisuke Morikawa; Masaru Honjo; Akira Yamaguchi; Satoshi Nishiyama; Masayoshi Ohashi

2006-01-01

281

Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement. The scores were given for Rate Achievement from 1 to 5 and Rank Importance from 1 to 10 to the survey outcomes for each topic. Then, rating and ranking matrix was constructed according to score ranges. Results show that Product Quality, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Infrastructure Stability and Customer Satisfaction are the major topics that needs to be improved according to the utility managers in Turkey. According to the outcomes of the study, water losses and unbilled unmetered consumption of water appeared to be the most important issues with the utility management. The utility managers also think there is still room for improvement to satisfy the needs of the users. Even though the rehabilitation of the infrastructure is a costly investment, it can be compensated with the help of the increased revenues as a result of improvement in water loss and unbilled water use. Suggestions given as a result of this study aim to aid decision makers and local authorities to overcome the significant problems faced during management and to achieve a sustainable utility management.

Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

2013-12-01

282

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's  

E-print Network

l i c y m a k e r G u i d e #12;Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 3Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P oG MEllon founD atIon, thE u.s. DEpaRtMEnt of EnERGy 's natIonal E nERGy t EChnolo Gy laboRatoRy, thE El

283

Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

1990-01-01

284

A collaborative research utilization approach to evaluate the effects of pain management standards on patient outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of research-based knowledge is incomplete unless it reaches clinicians at the point of care. Despite major advances in clinical research related to pain management, inadequate pain relief has become a significant quality issue in hospitalized patients, which has created an imperative for research-based pain management. Using a collaborative research utilization model, multidisciplinary academic scientists were paired with clinicians

Marlene A. Dufault; Mary Sullivan

2000-01-01

285

Can a chronic disease management pulmonary rehabilitation program for COPD reduce acute rural hospital utilization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a costly burden on healthcare. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is the best practice to better manage COPD to improve patient outcomes and reduce acute hospital care utilization. To evaluate the impact of a once-weekly, eight-week multidisciplinary PR program as an integral part of the COPD chronic disease management (CDM) Program at Kyabram District Health Services.

TM Rasekaba; E Williams; B Hsu-Hage

2009-01-01

286

The peregrine falcon in Arizona: Habitat utilization and management recommendations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The peregrine falcon once bred in significant numbers in Arizona. Good documentation is available for specific breeding sites and an additional 20 general locations. This report, based on the published literature, an extensive personal contact survey, an aerial habitat inventory (over 124 hours air time), and ground visits to over 300 locations, provides information on habitat preferences and management practices which can contribute to the bird's survival. In seeking to identify the habitat preferences of the falcon, many site description factors were examined. Those traits which appeared common to most recent Arizona sites (and therefore most useful in evaluating habitat) were: elevation less than 9,000 feet, cliffs tall or very tall, cliffs extensive, topographic relief high, and surface water readily available. All recent sites are in extensive canyon systems or in extensive mountain ranges. Using a habitat evaluation key derived from the traits common to known breeding sites, all cliff regions in Arizona and the Navajo Indian Reservation were flown and evaluated for suitability. Nineteen falcon eyries located in subsequent ground visits were all in areas previously ranked acceptable or better. Many management alternatives are discussed: management of information on breeding sites, habitat preservation, controlling disruptive human activities, and enhancing productivity through the creation of suitable breeding ledges, providing pesticide free prey, or direct reintroductions. Given their privacy (and an increasingly pesticide free environment) the peregrine falcon will likely exist indefinitely in suitable areas across Arizona.

Ellis, D.H.

1982-01-01

287

Electric power annual 1995. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

NONE

1996-12-01

288

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system was evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor were determined. The heat pump design was matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172 F and evaporator temperature between 0 F and 75 F. The heat pump was then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation.

Eltimsahy, A. H.

1980-06-01

289

A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

2003-01-01

290

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

Eltimsahy, A.H.

1980-06-01

291

Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

2009-06-01

292

Hydrogen gas production and utilization as electricity using a renewable energy source  

SciTech Connect

The present study includes two main parts. The first describes hydrogen production from electrolysis water depending on the DC output current of the photovoltaic (PV) energy source. The second part presents the utilization of produced hydrogen to generate electric power. The design of a closed loop cycle for electrolyzer and fuel cell to produce hydrogen and generate electrical energy, respectively, depending on a renewable energy source, is considered. Five different types of electrolyzer and fuel cells are studied to depict the effect of these types with respect to the current, voltage, cell temperature, cell pressure, sizing, and the required number of modules to produce one cubic meter of hydrogen per one hour. According to the various types of electrolyzer and fuel cell, multi PV systems are designed to produce 10 m{sup 3}/day of hydrogen. The daily PV solar energy consumption to produce 10 m{sup 3} of hydrogen gas is calculated. Also, I-V and P-V characteristics of PV arrays for different percentages of insolation for the selected isolated area (Aswan) are calculated. The results show that the first type of electrolyzer (conventional alkaline) is the most economical one to produce hydrogen gas at the lowest values of the electrical current and voltage. The first and the second types of the fuel cells (alkaline and polymer membrane) generate a higher value of electrical energy than the others.

Fahmy, F.H.; Abdel-Rehim, Z.S. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

1999-08-01

293

Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management  

PubMed Central

Natural resource management is littered with cases of overexploitation and ineffectual management, leading to loss of both biodiversity and human welfare. Disciplinary boundaries stifle the search for solutions to these issues. Here, I combine the approach of management strategy evaluation, widely applied in fisheries, with household utility models from the conservation and development literature, to produce an integrated framework for evaluating the effectiveness of competing management strategies for harvested resources against a range of performance metrics. I demonstrate the strengths of this approach with a simple model, and use it to examine the effect of manager ignorance of household decisions on resource management effectiveness, and an allocation tradeoff between monitoring resource stocks to reduce observation uncertainty and monitoring users to improve compliance. I show that this integrated framework enables management assessments to consider household utility as a direct metric for system performance, and that although utility and resource stock conservation metrics are well aligned, harvest yield is a poor proxy for both, because it is a product of household allocation decisions between alternate livelihood options, rather than an end in itself. This approach has potential far beyond single-species harvesting in situations where managers are in full control; I show that the integrated approach enables a range of management intervention options to be evaluated within the same framework. PMID:21205895

Milner-Gulland, E. J.

2011-01-01

294

Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management.  

PubMed

Natural resource management is littered with cases of overexploitation and ineffectual management, leading to loss of both biodiversity and human welfare. Disciplinary boundaries stifle the search for solutions to these issues. Here, I combine the approach of management strategy evaluation, widely applied in fisheries, with household utility models from the conservation and development literature, to produce an integrated framework for evaluating the effectiveness of competing management strategies for harvested resources against a range of performance metrics. I demonstrate the strengths of this approach with a simple model, and use it to examine the effect of manager ignorance of household decisions on resource management effectiveness, and an allocation tradeoff between monitoring resource stocks to reduce observation uncertainty and monitoring users to improve compliance. I show that this integrated framework enables management assessments to consider household utility as a direct metric for system performance, and that although utility and resource stock conservation metrics are well aligned, harvest yield is a poor proxy for both, because it is a product of household allocation decisions between alternate livelihood options, rather than an end in itself. This approach has potential far beyond single-species harvesting in situations where managers are in full control; I show that the integrated approach enables a range of management intervention options to be evaluated within the same framework. PMID:21205895

Milner-Gulland, E J

2011-01-25

295

Simulation of demand management and grid balancing with electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential role of electric vehicles in an electricity network with a high contribution from variable generation such as wind power. Electric vehicles are modelled to provide demand management through flexible charging requirements and energy balancing for the network. Balancing applications include both demand balancing and vehicle-to-grid discharging. This study is configured to represent the UK grid with balancing requirements derived from wind generation calculated from weather station wind speeds on the supply side and National Grid data from on the demand side. The simulation models 1000 individual vehicle entities to represent the behaviour of larger numbers of vehicles. A stochastic trip generation profile is used to generate realistic journey characteristics, whilst a market pricing model allows charging and balancing decisions to be based on realistic market price conditions. The simulation has been tested with wind generation capacities representing up to 30% of UK consumption. Results show significant improvements to load following conditions with the introduction of electric vehicles, suggesting that they could substantially facilitate the uptake of intermittent renewable generation. Electric vehicle owners would benefit from flexible charging and selling tariffs, with the majority of revenue derived from vehicle-to-grid participation in balancing markets.

Druitt, James; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit

2012-10-01

296

Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

Denholm, P.; Short, W.

2006-10-01

297

Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicle Page 1 of 5 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5501 Rev.: 0  

E-print Network

Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicle Page 1 of 5 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicle, purchasing, inventory and disposal of all Electric/Gas Utility-type Vehicles (EGUV, e.g. golf carts and non

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

298

Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric storage (HEES) system is highly dependent on the implemented management policy. This paper presents to a Li- ion battery only storage system and outperforms other online HEES system control policies in all

Pedram, Massoud

299

Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

Huang, Dange

300

Bedside open abdominal surgery. Utility and wound management.  

PubMed

Abdominal pathology in the critically ill or injured patient frequently leads to the use of open abdominal techniques or the actual performance of abdominal surgery in the ICU. All individuals responsible for the care of patients in the ICU should be familiar with the concepts and techniques of open abdomen wound management. ICU bedside abdominal surgery may be indicated if the patient is too unstable for transport to the operating room and the surgeon believes a limited procedure, such as a decompression of IAH, will be life-saving. Smaller procedures are also feasible, such as intra-abdominal packing changes for which the operating room is unnecessary. Development of a successful Surgery Outside the Operating Room program depends on mature cooperation between the surgeons and other professional ICU staff. Logistic details of such a program should be discussed and a scheduling protocol should be prepared before an emergent need for bedside surgery. PMID:10650505

Mayberry, J C

2000-01-01

301

Clinical utility of pharmacogenomics in the management of hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified for the first time more than 20 years ago. Since then, several studies have highlighted the complicated aspects of this viral infection in relation to its worldwide prevalence, its clinical presentation, and its therapeutic response. Recently, two landmark scientific breakthroughs have moved us closer to the successful eradication of chronic HCV infection. First, response rates in treatment-naïve patients and in prior non-responders to pegylated-interferon-? and ribavirin therapy are increasing as a direct consequence of the development of direct-acting antiviral drugs. Secondly, the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms near the interleukin 28B gene significantly related to spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance represents a milestone in the HCV therapeutic landscape. The implementation of this pharmacogenomics finding as a routine test for HCV-infected patients has enhanced our understanding of viral pathogenesis, has encouraged the design of ground-breaking antiviral treatment regimens, and has become useful for pretreatment decision making. Nowadays, interleukin 28B genotyping is considered to be a key diagnostic tool for the management of HCV-infected patients and will maintain its significance for new combination treatment schemes using direct-acting antiviral agents and even in interferon-free regimens. Such pharmacogenomics insights represent a challenge to clinicians, researchers, and health administrators to transform this information into knowledge with the aim of elaborating safer and more effective therapeutic strategies specifically designed for each patient. In conclusion, the individualization of treatment regimens for patients with hepatitis C, that may lead to a universal cure in future years, is becoming a reality due to recent developments in biomarker and genomic medicine. In light of these advances, we review the scientific evidence and clinical implications of recent findings related to host genetic factors in the management of HCV infection. PMID:25382982

Trinks, Julieta; Hulaniuk, María Laura; Redal, María Ana; Flichman, Diego

2014-01-01

302

Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

Not Available

1980-03-01

303

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS  

E-print Network

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS National Laboratory(a) ABSTRACT The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a relatively few number of power plants. Overall

304

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2013-10-01

305

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2012-10-01

306

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2011-10-01

307

42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under-utilization. (iv) Drug-drug interactions. (v) Incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3) Retrospective drug utilization review systems,...

2010-10-01

308

Financial risk management in a competitive electricity market  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes solutions for electricity producers in the field of financial risk management for electric energy contract evaluation. The efficient frontier is used as a tool to identify the preferred portfolio of contracts. Each portfolio has a probability density function for the profit. For important scheduling policies, closed form solutions are found for the amount of futures contracts that correspond to the efficient frontier. Production scheduling must consider resource constraints. It is found that, without resource constrains, the portfolio with the highest expected profit can be preferred--even for a risk-averse decision-maker. When resource constraints are present, portfolios not corresponding to the maximum expected profit criteria will more frequently be preferred.

Bjorgan, R.; Liu, C.C.; Lawarree, J.

1999-11-01

309

Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the advantages of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used to maintain electronic components within a controlled temperature range, to warm propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and to gasify liquid propellants. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated a very large quantity of waste heat due to the relatively low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have much higher conversion efficiencies than their predecessors and therefore may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of approx. 6 to 7% and 200 C housing surface temperatures, would need to use large and heavy radiator heat exchangers to transfer the waste heat to the internal spacecraft components. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation by using the heat exchangers or additional shields. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22% and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can use the available waste heat more efficiently by more direct heat transfer methods such as heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures allow the SRG110 much more flexibility to the spacecraft designers in configuring the generator without concern of overheating nearby scientific instruments, thereby eliminating the need for thermal shields. This paper will investigate using a high efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander) to illustrate the advantages with regard to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings.

Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Geng, Steven M.; Schrieber, Jeffrey G.; Tobery, E. Wayne; Palko, Joseph L.

2005-01-01

310

Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

NONE

1997-12-01

311

Task analysis and rationale for a performance based consultative sales training program for electric utility customer engineers  

SciTech Connect

A job task analysis was performed to determine the major tasks and specific competencies required of electric power company customer engineers in a changing economic and technological climate. Through an examination of occupational documents, interviews with occupational specialists, and a questionnaire completed by an electric utility company focus group, 13 major customer tasks and 222 specific competencies were identified. Based on the data, guidelines for a consultative sales training curriculum were recommended. While three of the 222 customer engineer competencies were unconfirmed, this study does represent the single source of at least 219 verified electric utility customer-engineer competencies, heretofore not in existence. Formal training of electric utility customer engineers should include a thorough orientation to the many specific terms, requirements, practices, rules, and procedures of the electric utility industry and company, and this training should include on the job coaching with followup instruction. The formal training should be consistent with the consultative selling style and philosophy to meet changing needs of customers as well as the electric utility industry and its representatives.

Schmidt, D.C.

1985-01-01

312

Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the values for the same amount of energy during different time and at different location can vary dramatically. Moreover, for the same hour, the values for the same amount of power at base load level or at peak load level are different due to the different generation technologies and other non-convex constraints like unit commitment. The multiple market products at zonal/nodal levels with different time horizon and time of use categories are designed to reflect more realistic demand and supply conditions at various temporal and spatial granularities. Detailed market rules, rights and regulations (3Rs) concerning the sub-markets interactions, product hierarchy and financial settlements are also examined.

Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

313

FC/Battery Power Management for Electric Vehicle Based Interleaved dc-dc Boost Converter Topology  

E-print Network

FC/Battery Power Management for Electric Vehicle Based Interleaved dc- dc Boost Converter Topology.fr Keywords Fuel cell System (FCS), Electric vehicle, Energy management, Interleaved Boost DC-DC Converter (FC for electric vehicle may not be feasible to satisfy the peak demand changes especially during accelerations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Real-time management of faulty electrodes in electrical impedance tomography  

E-print Network

Real-time management of faulty electrodes in electrical impedance tomography Alzbeta E. Hartinger as soon as possible to minimize data loss. Index Terms Electrical impedance tomography, biomedical-time management of faulty electrodes in electrical impedance tomography I. INTRODUCTION E LECTRICAL impedance

Adler, Andy

315

PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WATER HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 1  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

316

PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WASTE HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

317

Electrical management of spiral wound VRLA batteries in cycling applications  

SciTech Connect

The need for effective electrical management of series strings of VRLA batteries in deep cycling applications is increasingly apparent from field observations, for example in electric vehicles. This appears particularly true in cases where the charging is voltage limited. A popular management concept, increasing in use, is the bypass regulator. These function by providing a voltage dependent current bypass to individual modules in a series string pack. Bypass regulators called the Run X Equalizer made by Gycom Batteriteknik AB (Sweden) were tested on three Optima Yellow Top{trademark} deep cycle batteries in series with three other Yellow Tops{trademark} without equalizers. The results showed a definite positive influence of the regulators in maintaining capacity and balance of the batteries so equipped. The equalizers were capable of balancing a battery purposely unbalanced by 2 Ah. Their efficacy appeared to be dependent upon the charge regime used. The bypass equalizers appeared most effective when the batteries were cycled with a charge profile that resulted in apparent undercharging of the batteries. Testing with a charge profile that fully charged the batteries did not reveal a positive effect of the equalizers.

Olson, J.B.

1998-07-01

318

Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

1985-09-01

319

WESPAC; An integrated digital protection and control system for electric utility substations  

SciTech Connect

During the past few years, great interest has been generated throughout the electric utility industry in the application of new electronic technologies such as micrprocessors and fiber optics to achieve performance and feature improvements and to reduce lifetime costs of substation protection and control systems. Implementations using the new microprocessor technology have taken two forms. One form is discrete stand-alone boxes designed as one-for-one replacements of conventional relays. The second form, which is the subject of this paper, is integrated systems that combine the protection and local or supervisory control functions. The system known as WESPAC{sup {trademark}} (Westinghouse substation protection and control), employs clusters of multiple microprocessors, multiplexed digital communications, optical fiber data transmission media, and electronic display devices to integrate the relaying and control functions. The present paper emphasizes the implementation and test of the final system, the field experience gained, and plans for additonal installations beyond the prototype systems.

Deliyannides, J.S. (Westinghouse Elecxtric Corp., Relay and Telecommunications Div., Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1988-01-01

320

Administrative politics in the Ohio Department of Energy: the regulation of electric utility strategic planning  

SciTech Connect

The study examines political behavior manifested by several regulatory and quasi-regulatory state agencies in the development and implementation of a procedure to review electric utility long-range forecasts of demand and resources. The analysis identifies the political issues which orient political behavior during the development and implementation of the forecast evaluation process, and examines the social and cultural resources that various actors manipulate in pursuit of support for their political goals. A processual framework is employed to trace actors' dynamic manipulative strategies, including those involving the manipulation of cultural forms such as myth and ideology. The research results suggest that bureaucratic agencies are adept at manipulating social and cultural forms in their pursuit of legislative and administrative support for their political goals.

Stroup, K.M.

1984-01-01

321

77 FR 13585 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk...Guideline AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability...DOE's intent to publish the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity...

2012-03-07

322

Three-dimensional electric field visualization utilizing electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric-field-induced second-harmonic-generation signal in a nematic liquid crystal is used to map the electric field in an integrated-circuit-like sample. Since the electric-field-induced second-harmonic-generation signal intensity exhibits a strong dependence on the polarization of the incident laser beam, both the amplitude and the orientation of the electric field vectors can be measured. Combined with scanning second-harmonic-generation microscopy, three-dimensional electric field

I.-Hsiu Chen; Shi-Wei Chu; Francois Bresson; Ming-Chun Tien; Jin-Wei Shi; Chi-Kuang Sun

2003-01-01

323

Lung cancer in relation to employment in the electrical utility industry and exposure to magnetic fields.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A recent study found that lung cancer may be associated with exposures encountered in the electrical utility industry. To further evaluate this possibility, data were collected and analysed from five large electrical utility companies in the United States. METHODS: A cohort of 138905 male workers employed between 1950 and 1986 was followed up for mortality to the end of 1988, with 20733 deaths identified of which 1692 were due to lung cancer. Mortality from lung cancer was examined in relation to the duration of employment in specific jobs thought to have high exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields and to an index of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on personal measurements. Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) as estimated from another study was also considered. Poisson regression generated rate ratios for categories of exposure based on comparisons within the cohort adjusted for age, calendar year, race, socioeconomic status, work status, and estimated exposure to asbestos. RESULTS: Mortality rose modestly with duration of work as an electrician or power plant operator reaching rate ratios of 1.4 with > or = 20 years in those jobs but not with duration of work as a lineman or a combination of jobs thought to have high exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields or PEMFs. Cumulative indices of exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields and PEMFs were both associated with rate ratios of 1.2-1.3 in the highest intervals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lung cancer is not strongly associated with duration of employment in specific jobs associated with high potential exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields or to PEMFs. Small associations of lung cancer with indices of both 60 Hz magnetic fields and PEMFs leave open the possibility that larger associations have been diluted through exposure misclassification. Refined exposure assessment, especially to PEMFs, would be required to evaluate that possibility. PMID:9245945

Savitz, D A; Dufort, V; Armstrong, B; Thériault, G

1997-01-01

324

Centralized care management support for "high utilizers" in primary care practices at an academic medical center.  

PubMed

Although evidence of effectiveness is limited, care management based outside primary care practices or hospitals is receiving increased attention. The University of Michigan (UM) Complex Care Management Program (CCMP) provides care management for uninsured and underinsured, high-utilizing patients in multiple primary care practices. To inform development of optimal care management models, we describe the CCMP model and characteristics and health care utilization patterns of its patients. Of a consecutive series of 49 patients enrolled at CCMP in 2011, the mean (SD) age was 48 (+/- 14); 23 (47%) were women; and 29 (59%) were White. Twenty-eight (57%) had two or more chronic medical conditions, 39 (80%) had one or more psychiatric condition, 28 (57%) had a substance abuse disorder, and 11 (22%) were homeless. Through phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contact with patients and primary care providers (PCPs), care managers coordinated health and social services and facilitated access to medical and mental health care. Patients had a mean (SD) number of hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in 6 months prior to enrollment of2.2 (2.5) and 4.2 (4.3), respectively, with a nonstatistically significant decrease in hospitalizations, hospital days, and emergency room visits in 6 months following enrollment in CCMP. Centralized care management support for primary care practices engages high-utilizing patients with complex medical and behavioral conditions in care management that would be difficult to provide through individual practices and may decrease health care utilization by these patients. PMID:24761538

Williams, Brent C; Paik, Jamie L; Haley, Laura L; Grammatico, Gina M

2014-01-01

325

Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

Not Available

1993-06-01

326

Managed Care, Utilization Review, and Financial Risk Shifting: Compensating Patients for Health Care Cost Containment Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines current tort remedies for personal injury claims and explores the problems that arise when these remedies are applied to physicians' actions that are directed by third-party payers. Part II of this Article explores the organization and historical development of managed health care products. Part III considers the past and present uses of the utilization review process and

Vernellia R. Randall

1993-01-01

327

Management support services to the Office of Utility Technologies. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Utility Technologies works cooperatively with industry and the utility sector to realize the market potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Under this contract, BNF has provided management support services for OUT R&D activities for the following Program offices: (1) Office of Energy Management; (2) Office of Solar Energy Conversion; (3) Office of Renewable Energy Conversion; and (4) Deputy Assistant Secretary. During the period between 4/17/91 and 9/17/93, BNF furnished the necessary personnel, equipment, materials, facilities and travel required to provide management support services for each of the above Program Offices. From 9/18/93 to 12/17/93, BNF has been involved in closeout activities, including final product deliverables. Research efforts that have been supported in these Program Offices are: (1) for Energy Management -- Advanced Utility Concepts Division; Utility Systems Division; Integrated Planning; (2) for Solar Energy Conversion -- Photovoltaics Division; Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division; (3) for Renewable Energy Conversion -- Geothermal Division; Wind, Hydroelectric and Ocean Systems Division; (4) for the Deputy Assistant Secretary -- support as required by the Supporting Staff. This final report contains summaries of the work accomplished for each of the Program Offices listed above.

Not Available

1993-12-16

328

Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

2012-11-30

329

A Service-Oriented Architecture for Electric Power Transmission System Asset Management  

E-print Network

A Service-Oriented Architecture for Electric Power Transmission System Asset Management Jyotishman,tua,honavar,jdm}@iastate.edu Abstract. In electric power transmission systems, the assets include transmis- sion lines, transformers

Honavar, Vasant

330

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1994-08-01

331

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1994-08-01

332

The future of America's electric utilities: Reconciling deregulation and least-cost planning  

SciTech Connect

For more than a decade, two dynamic reform movements have been reshaping the utility industry. One camp follows the banner of least-cost of integrated-resource planning and investment; it puts special emphasis on previously neglectetd improvements in the efficiency of energy use, enlisting both public and private sectors in a search for cost-effective ways to get more services out of less energy. The other vision is rooted in the ideology and practice of deregulation; it seeks to reduce costs and boost supplies by spurring increased competition in the sale of kilowatt-hours. This article seeks a reconciliation of these views, whose proponents often have not yet paused even to acknowledge each others; existence. Yet the best of both ideals can be realized under proper regulatory and management regimes.

Cavanagh, R. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-05-01

333

Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

1977-01-01

334

Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change  

SciTech Connect

In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

1996-07-01

335

Research recommendations for ac interfacing between electric utility transmission and distribution systems and wind, photovoltaics, and OTEC energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work that deals semiquantitatively with many integration problems that may have to be solved as wind, photovoltaic, and ocean energy systems are tied into electrical transmission utility grids is documented. The problems that will arise as these distributed storage and generation (DSG) energy systems are integrated into the electric utility grids are not yet fully known, and their extent may depend on the level of penetration of the DSGs into the grid network. Aspects of DSG integration covered are fuse and relay coordination, harmonics, communications, control protocols, safety, and artificial intelligence (computer driven controls). An appendix on the effects of electromagnetic pulse is also included.

Longrigg, P.; Buell, E. H.

1985-03-01

336

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1992-08-01

337

Effects of fly ash from coal-burning electrical utilities on ecosystem and utilization of fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power plants that burn fossil fuels emit several pollutants linked to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and the possibility of global climate change. Not only are gaseous and particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants of environmental concern, but also their byproduct, fly ash may lead to contamination because of the possible release of both major and

Alper Baba; MUMTAZ A. USMEN

338

Comparison of photovoltaics with solar thermal trough electric systems as a central station utility resource in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach and results of work to compare solar thermal parabolic trough systems and photovoltaic systems as utility electric generation resources in the mid-to-late-1990s are discussed. Assumptions, methodology, designs, performance simulation, value analysis, cost estimates, and economic feasibility analysis are presented. Results, based on standard utility financial criteria and avoided costs, show that central station solar power generation is not

Daniel S. Shugar; James M. Eyer; George A. Hay; Jeremy Newberger; David Kearney

1991-01-01

339

Communication Concept for Sensors at an Inverter-Fed Electric Motor Utilizing Power-Line Communication and Energy Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel communication concept for sensors at an inverter-fed electric motor is proposed. The concept utilizes power-line communication and a motor cable in data transmission. The signal used in communication is inductively coupled to the motor cable. The supply power for sensing and communication at the electric motor is harvested from the motor-phase conductor with a current-transformer-based

Antti Kosonen; Jero Ahola

2010-01-01

340

Field test of electric vehicle battery chargers: Customer and utility acceptance: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test was implemented to evaluate the electrical system and customer impacts of recharging up to 10 electric cars. The test was performed in a suburban community during an off-peak electricity demand period. The electrical service in this community is representative of the type of service found throughout the country. The predominant load - electric vehicle battery chargers -

R. A. Popeck; K. Tolios

1987-01-01

341

Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

2013-08-01

342

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among electric utility workers in Ontario: the evaluation of alternate indices of exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To examine associations between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and exposures to 60 Hz magnetic and electric fields in electric utility workers with a series of indices that capture a variety of aspects of field strength.?METHODS—The study population consisted of 51 cases of NHL and 203 individually matched controls identified from within a cohort of male electric utility workers in Ontario. Odds ratios were calculated for several exposure indices with conditional logistic regression models. Aspects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields that were modelled included: the percentage of time spent above selected threshold field intensities, mean transitions in field strength, SD, and the arithmetic and geometric mean field intensities.?RESULTS—For the most part, there was a lack of an association between exposure indices of magnetic fields and the incidence of NHL. Subjects in the upper tertile of percentage of time spent above electric field intensities of 10 and 40 V/m had odds ratios of 3.05 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07 to 8.80) and 3.57 (1.30 to 9.80), respectively, when compared with those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, the percentages of time spent above these electric field thresholds were significant predictors of case status over and above the association explained by duration of employment and the arithmetic or geometric mean exposure.?CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that exposures above electric field threshold intensities of 10 and 40 V/m are important predictors of NHL. Consequently, the findings support the hypothesis that electric fields may play a promoting part in the aetiology of this cancer. Further occupational studies that include assessment of exposure to electric fields and measures of field strength above similar threshold cut off points are needed to confirm these findings.???Keywords: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; electric fields; magnetic fields PMID:10810111

Villeneuve, P.; Agnew, D.; Miller, A.; Corey, P.

2000-01-01

343

77 FR 16494 - Revised Public Utility Filing Requirements for Electric Quarterly Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for greater transparency in wholesale electricity markets through a greater understanding...will bolster transparency in wholesale electricity markets by facilitating a greater...counterparties in which party A sells an electricity product to party B at one location...

2012-03-21

344

Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.  

PubMed

Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds. PMID:20586458

Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

2011-06-01

345

Managed care for the Medicaid disabled: effect on utilization and costs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the effect on health care utilization and costs of a program of managed care for the Medicaid disabled. The study was designed as a pre/post enrollment cohort comparison and was carried out in three Ohio counties. The subjects were disabled Medicaid-insured patients who voluntarily enrolled in a managed care program for at least 6 months between July 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997, and who had (1) at least one Medicaid claim in the 24-months pre-enrollment period and (2) overall satisfactory postenrollment encounter-level data. Ohio Medicaid provided claims and reimbursements (costs) for the pre-enrollment period and encounter-level data for the postenrollment period. Postenrollment costs were estimated by applying category-specific average pre-enrollment costs to postenrollment utilization data. We measured the following per patient-month: (1) trends in category-specific utilization and costs for up to 24 months before and after enrollment, (2) differences in overall and category-specific costs 1 year before and after enrollment, and (3) changes in the distribution of services 1 year before and after enrollment. Utilization categories included inpatient care, outpatient hospital (including emergency department) care, physician services, prescription medications, durable medical equipment and supplies, and home health care. We found that satisfactory encounter data were available in two of three counties. Of 1,179 enrollees, 592 met all inclusion criteria. Before enrollment, utilization and costs were increasing significantly in four of six categories and were unchanging in two. Postenrollment, decreasing utilization was observed for three categories, one remained unchanged, and two were increasing, but from a lower "baseline." Except for physician services and home health care, there were lower utilization and estimated costs in all categories in the year after enrollment. Estimated inpatient and total costs declined by $155/patient-month (44.9%) and $210/patient-month (37.1%), respectively. Findings were similar across sites. Inpatient care, outpatient hospital care, and prescription medications accounted for 97% of the reductions in estimated costs in the postenrollment period. Among patients voluntarily enrolled for at least 6 months, managed care for the Medicaid disabled was associated with striking decreases in health care utilization and estimated costs. The effect of managed care on these patients' satisfaction, access to specialized services, quality of care, and health outcomes are understood incompletely. PMID:11194305

Cebul, R D; Solti, I; Gordon, N H; Singer, M E; Payne, S M; Gharrity, K A

2000-12-01

346

Intensive management of high-utilizing adults with sickle cell disease lowers admissions.  

PubMed

A minority of super-utilizing adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) account for a disproportionate number of emergency department (ED) and hospital admissions. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing the rate of admission before and after the opening of a clinic for adults with SCD. Unique to this clinic was an intensive intervention management strategy, focusing on super-utilizing adults with 12 or more admissions per year. ED/hospital and 30 days admission rates were compared, 1 year pre- and post-intervention, for those adults who established in the clinic. Prior to the intervention, 17 super-utilizers, comprising 15% of the pre-intervention cohort (n=115), accounted for 58% of the total admissions and had an admission rate of 28 per patient-year. When pre- and post-intervention years were compared, rate of ED/hospital admission per patient-year for super-utilizers decreased from 27.9 to 13.5 (P< 0.001), while there was not a significant reduction for the entire cohort (7.1 vs. 6.1, P=0.84). Similarly, the decrease in rate of 30 day re-admission was larger for the super-utilizers (13.5 per patient-year to 1.8, P<0.001), than the whole cohort (2.6 per patient-year to 0.7, P=0.006). Among the super-utilizers, the reduced rate of admission from the pre- to post-clinic intervention year equated to 252 fewer ED/hospital admissions and 227 fewer 30 day re-admissions. This management strategy focusing on super-utilizing adults with SCD lowered admission and 30 day re-admission rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25469750

Koch, Kathryn L; Karafin, Matthew S; Simpson, Pippa; Field, Joshua J

2014-12-01

347

The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

2014-07-01

348

Energy, environmental, health and cost benefits of cogeneration from fossil fuels and nuclear energy using the electrical utility facilities of a province  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is investigated for increasing the utilization efficiency of energy resources and reducing environmental emissions, focusing on utility-scale cogeneration and the contributions of nuclear energy. A case study is presented for Ontario using the nuclear and fossil facilities of the main provincial electrical utility. Implementation of utility-based cogeneration in Ontario or a region with a similar energy system and

Marc A. Rosen

2009-01-01

349

The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

Rau, N.S.

1994-08-01

350

Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

1982-01-01

351

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-P- 574 Srivastava*, R.K., Sedman*, C.B., Kilgroe*, J.D., Smith D., and Renninger, S. Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers. 01/24/2001 Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Envir...

352

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/SR-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control, following release of Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units Final Report to Congress, in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPAs December 2000 deci...

353

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-237 Kilgroe*, J.D., Sedman*, C.B., Srivastava*, R.K., Ryan*, J.V., and Thorneloe*, S. Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers: Interim Report. EPA-600/R-01-109, Available: NTIS. 12/20/2001 The report provides additional information on mer...

354

The demand-side management program development process: A utility perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an aspect of DSM that has received little attention, namely, how utilities develop DSM programs. The selection of utilities to study purposely was biased in favor of those with reputations for being experienced DSM program developers so as to optimize the chances to obtain detailed information. The DSM planning process is affected by organizational factors and external influences: (1) the location of the demand-side planning department within the utility; (2) the demand-side planning group`s functional responsibilities; (3) upper management participation in the DSM program development process; and (4) the organizational relationship between (or, separation of) supply-side and demand-side planning. Organizational factors reflect utilities` views of DSM programs and thus can affect the adoption of a technology- or customer-oriented approach. Despite repeated claims of the uniqueness of the demand- side planning process and its resistance to standardization, two general approaches to program development were discerned, namely technology- or customer-orientation. Although utilities consider customer related and technological factors in their DSM program development process, utilities can be differentiated by their emphasis on one or the other approach. 25 refs.

Wolfe, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yourstone, N.E. [Yourstone (Evelin), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-03-01

355

The demand-side management program development process: A utility perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an aspect of DSM that has received little attention, namely, how utilities develop DSM programs. The selection of utilities to study purposely was biased in favor of those with reputations for being experienced DSM program developers so as to optimize the chances to obtain detailed information. The DSM planning process is affected by organizational factors and external influences: (1) the location of the demand-side planning department within the utility; (2) the demand-side planning group's functional responsibilities; (3) upper management participation in the DSM program development process; and (4) the organizational relationship between (or, separation of) supply-side and demand-side planning. Organizational factors reflect utilities' views of DSM programs and thus can affect the adoption of a technology- or customer-oriented approach. Despite repeated claims of the uniqueness of the demand- side planning process and its resistance to standardization, two general approaches to program development were discerned, namely technology- or customer-orientation. Although utilities consider customer related and technological factors in their DSM program development process, utilities can be differentiated by their emphasis on one or the other approach. 25 refs.

Wolfe, A.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Yourstone, N.E. (Yourstone (Evelin), Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-03-01

356

Information utilization in tactical decision making of middle management health managers.  

PubMed

Healthcare is an information-intensive field, as information is needed to make strategic, tactical, and operational decisions. The purpose of this study was to identify the tactical decisions that middle management healthcare managers make, the information that is available, and the necessary information that is missing using the cardiac care process as an example. Data were collected through focused interviews of nurses and physicians who work in middle management in a secondary healthcare field. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the thematic content analysis method. We identified two main categories of tactical decisions: those concerning the process of care and those concerning the resources for the care. We termed the categories "process decisions" and "resource decisions." The availability of information varied. Much of the necessary information was created and processed manually. Our results show that the collection, mining, and systematic use of information are difficult because of the existence of many types of information systems and their varying abilities to produce and report information. Finally, much of the important information is missing. In conclusion, the information management process in healthcare settings needs to be improved, and a new generation of information system is needed to support tactical decision making in middle management. PMID:22872042

Kontio, Elina; Lundgren-Laine, Heljä; Kontio, Juha; Korvenranta, Heikki; Salanterä, Sanna

2013-01-01

357

Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Citizens Utility Board); (BuildingIQ Pty Ltd, Australia); (PJM Interconnection LLC)

2011-08-11

358

A Battery Management System for electric vehicle based on Zigbee and CAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the wireless sensor networks (WSN) are adopted for electric vehicle BMS (Battery Management System) to observe the battery signals by ZigBee. The BMS is composed of LECU (Local Electrical Control Unit) and BMU (Battery Management Control Unit). This paper develops LECU as ZigBee end device, which is embedded two sensors (temperature sensor and voltage sensor for single

Yun Wu; Xiaofei Liao; Wen Chen; Dao Chen

2011-01-01

359

Development of battery management system for nickel–metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of

Do Yang Jung; Baek Haeng Lee; Sun Wook Kim

2002-01-01

360

Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this dissertation, basic financial risk management concepts relevant for wholesale electric power markets are carefully explained and illustrated. In addition, the financial risk management problem in wholesale electric power markets is generalized as a four-stage process. Within the proposed financial risk management framework, the critical problem of financial bilateral contract negotiation is addressed. This dissertation analyzes a financial bilateral contract negotiation process between a generating company and a load-serving entity in a wholesale electric power market with congestion managed by locational marginal pricing. Nash bargaining theory is used to model a Pareto-efficient settlement point. The model predicts negotiation results under varied conditions and identifies circumstances in which the two parties might fail to reach an agreement. Both analysis and agent-based simulation are used to gain insight regarding how relative risk aversion and biased price estimates influence negotiated outcomes. These results should provide useful guidance to market participants in their bilateral contract negotiation processes.

Yu, Nanpeng

361

Agent-Based Electrical Power Management Model in Consideration of Weather Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grid systems have been actively discussed in order to achieve a sustainable, low-carbon society that efficiently consumes electric power and introduces photovoltaic power generation via renewable energy or electric vehicles. In this study, we focus on the smart meter system based on an agent model to manage electric power use in residential homes that are equipped with solar panels

Nobuyasu Mizutani; Ryo Kanamori; Takayuki Ito

2012-01-01

362

Agent-based electrical power management model for houses equipped with storage battery and photovoltaic units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grid systems have been actively discussed to realize a sustainable and a low-carbon society that efficiently consumes electric power and to introduce photovoltaic power generation, i.e., renewable energy or electric vehicles. In this study, we focus on the smart meter system based on an agent model to manage electric power use in residential homes with which solar panels and

Ryo Kanamori; Takayuki Ito; Nobuyasu Mizutani

2011-01-01

363

Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle  

E-print Network

Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

364

Statistical Learning Controller for the energy management in a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle  

E-print Network

the acceptance of these cars in the current car market. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are considered of electric cars with the high autonomy of conventional vehicles and are considered a potential solutionStatistical Learning Controller for the energy management in a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle M

365

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability  

SciTech Connect

Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

1995-03-01

366

Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic In Depth explores some of what the Web has to offer on the subject of electricity.The first site from Thinkquest.org called Electricity Online (1) gives an excellent overview, with topics ranging from circuits and transformers to electricity's discovery and history. The site even contains games, activities, and quizzes. The second site, Edison's Miracle of Light (2) from PBS.org, is a companion site to a PBS special of the same name. The site explores the life and accomplishments of one of the 19th century's greatest inventors, offering a timeline, recordings, and more. From Clark Public Utilities of Clark County Washington, the next site is called Electricity (3). This Web site offers information from a public utilities perspective, with subjects like electrical safety, how electricity gets to your home, what it costs to run appliances, and so on. Next, from the US Department of Energy, is a site that offers an Overview of the Electric Power Industry (4). Here, visitors can find information, data, publications, statistics, and more relating to electric power in the US. The fifth site from ExploreScience.com is called Multimedia Activities (5) and contains just that. Geared towards students, the four interactive lessons include an introduction to electricity and magnetism, an introduction to plasma, coulomb force, and lissajous figures. The next site, provided by the BBC, is another interactive learning site, called Activity Electricity (6). Users click through a lesson about circuits and current, answering questions along the way. The site also contains a fact sheet and quiz. From NASA, the Dataset Information site (7) contains data archived and cataloged by the Global Hydrology Resource Center relating to lighting. Several datasets from varying sources are available for free and include such things as Long Range Cloud to Ground Data. The last site is offered by the Canada Science and Technology Museum and is called Background Information for Electricity (8). This Web site for kids offers simple descriptions and illustrations about electricity, who discovered it, conductors and insulators, fuses, and more. The electricity workshop link also contains lesson plans and additional student activities.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

367

Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users  

E-print Network

The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

Collier, S. E.

1984-01-01

368

The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

369

Effects function analysis of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electric utility work environment.  

PubMed

The incomplete understanding of the relation between power-frequency fields and biological responses raises problems in defining an appropriate metric for exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. Based on evidence from biological experiments, one can define alternative metrics or effects functions that embody the relationship between field exposure patterns and hypothetical health effects. In this paper, we explore the application of the "effects function" approach to occupational exposure data. Our analysis provides examples of exposure assessments based on a range of plausible effects functions. An EMDEX time series data set of ELF frequency (40-800 Hz) magnetic field exposure measurements for electric utility workers was analyzed with several statistical measures and effects functions: average field strength, combination of threshold and exposure duration, and field strength changes. Results were compared for eight job categories: electrician, substation operator, machinist, welder, plant operator, lineman/splicer, meter reader, and clerical. Average field strength yields a different ranking for these job categories than the ranks obtained using other biologically plausible effects functions. Whereas the group of electricians has the highest exposure by average field strength, the group of substation operators has the highest ranking for most of the other effects functions. Plant operators rank highest in the total number of field strength changes greater than 1 microT per hour. The clerical group remains at the lowest end for all of these effects functions. Our analysis suggests that, although average field strength could be used as a surrogate of field exposure for simply classifying exposure into "low" and "high," this summary measure may be misleading in the relative ranking of job categories in which workers are in "high" fields. These results indicate the relevance of metrics other than average field strength in occupational exposure assessment and in the design and analysis of epidemiological studies. PMID:9209718

Zhang, J; Nair, I; Sahl, J

1997-01-01

370

Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional, procedural, and interactional fairness. This research illustrates the need for leaders to consider the culture in their organizations and its readiness for change prior to implementation of significant transformation.

Korns, Michael T.

371

79 FR 34829 - Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...operation of our electric power grid. The proposal would also...the proposed methodology for computing state goals based on application...net electricity sent to the grid. The difference between gross...output sent to the electric grid or used for thermal...

2014-06-18

372

Battery choice and management for new-generation electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of electric vehicles (EVs) have been recently designed with the aim of solving pollution problems caused by the emission of gasoline-powered engines. Environmental problems promote the adoption of new-generation electric vehicles for urban transportation. As it is well known, one of the weakest points of electric vehicles is the battery system. Vehicle autonomy and, therefore, accurate detection of

Antonio Affanni; Alberto Bellini; Giovanni Franceschini; Paolo Guglielmi; Carla Tassoni

2005-01-01

373

WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water  

SciTech Connect

Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

2004-11-01

374

Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications, 'Reliability Program Requirements for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1A-l); 'Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems,' NHB 5300.4(1E); and 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1B).

1989-01-01

375

Overview and discussion of the key regulatory issues in implementing the electric utility provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

SciTech Connect

Title 4 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expand in order to emit sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system created by the CAAA will be grafted onto an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. How public utility commissions (PUCs) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulate these allowances will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and, therefore, the cost of compliance to ratepayers. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

1991-06-01

376

Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

377

Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report  

SciTech Connect

There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

1993-11-26

378

Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

2014-09-01

379

Adding concentrated solar power plants to wind farms to achieve a good utility electrical load match  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Texas has the greatest installed wind turbine capacity of any state in the United States, the percentage of wind capacity approaches 10% of the utilities capacity (in 2010 the total wind generated capacity in Texas was 8%). It is becomimg increasingly difficult for the utility to balance the elec...

380

Clinical Utility of Viral Load in Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection after Solid Organ Transplantation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The negative impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on transplant outcomes warrants efforts toward improving its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. During the last 2 decades, significant breakthroughs in diagnostic virology have facilitated remarkable improvements in CMV disease management. During this period, CMV nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) evolved to become one of the most commonly performed tests in clinical virology laboratories. NAT provides a means for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of CMV infection in transplant recipients. Viral quantification also introduced several principles of CMV disease management. Specifically, viral load has been utilized (i) for prognostication of CMV disease, (ii) to guide preemptive therapy, (iii) to assess the efficacy of antiviral treatment, (iv) to guide the duration of treatment, and (v) to indicate the risk of clinical relapse or antiviral drug resistance. However, there remain important limitations that require further optimization, including the interassay variability in viral load reporting, which has limited the generation of standardized viral load thresholds for various clinical indications. The recent introduction of an international reference standard should advance the major goal of uniform viral load reporting and interpretation. However, it has also become apparent that other aspects of NAT should be standardized, including sample selection, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, detection, and calibration, among others. This review article synthesizes the vast amount of information on CMV NAT and provides a timely review of the clinical utility of viral load testing in the management of CMV in solid organ transplant recipients. Current limitations are highlighted, and avenues for further research are suggested to optimize the clinical application of NAT in the management of CMV after transplantation. PMID:24092851

2013-01-01

381

COE projection for the modular WARP{trademark} wind power system for wind farms and electric utility power transmission  

SciTech Connect

Wind power has emerged as an attractive alternative source of electricity for utilities. Turbine operating experience from wind farms has provided corroborating data of wind power potential for electric utility application. Now, a patented modular wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark}, forms the basis for next generation megawatt scale wind farm and/or distributed wind power plants. When arranged in tall vertically clustered TARP{trademark} module stacks, such power plant units are designated Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP{trademark}) Systems. While heavily building on proven technology, these systems are projected to surpass current technology windmills in terms of performance, user-friendly operation and ease of maintenance. In its unique generation and transmission configuration, the WARP{trademark}-GT System combines both electricity generation through wind energy conversion and electric power transmission. Furthermore, environmental benefits include dramatically less land requirement, architectural appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and virtual elimination of bird mortality potential. Cost-of-energy (COE) is projected to be from under $0.02/kWh to less than $0.05/kWh in good to moderate wind resource sites.

Weisbrich, A.L. [ENECO, West Simsbury, CT (United States); Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, New York, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

382

Reading the Tea Leaves: How Utilities in the West Are Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in their Resource Plans  

SciTech Connect

The long economic lifetime and development lead-time of many electric infrastructure investments requires that utility resource planning consider potential costs and risks over a lengthy time horizon. One long-term -- and potentially far-reaching -- risk currently facing the electricity industry is the uncertain cost of future carbon dioxide (CO2) regulations. Recognizing the importance of this issue, many utilities (sometimes spurred by state regulatory requirements) are beginning to actively assess carbon regulatory risk within their resource planning processes, and to evaluate options for mitigating that risk. However, given the relatively recent emergence of this issue and the rapidly changing political landscape, methods and assumptions used to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of this analysis on the selection of a preferred resource portfolio, vary considerably across utilities. In this study, we examine the treatment of carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning, through a comparison of the most-recent resource plans filed by fifteen investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities in the Western U.S. Together, these utilities account for approximately 60percent of retail electricity sales in the West, and cover nine of eleven Western states. This report has two related elements. First, we compare and assess utilities' approaches to addressing key analytical issues that arise when considering the risk of future carbon regulations. Second, we summarize the composition and carbon intensity of the preferred resource portfolios selected by these fifteen utilities and compare them to potential CO2 emission benchmark levels.

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-02-01

383

Natural monopoly and solutions to be implemented - why do we prefer to regulate electric utilities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the reasons that brought regulation to be generally preferred over franchise bidding mechanism in the sector of electricity distribution. The first part reminds the social and economic problem of a natural monopoly as well as existing solutions and then, examines the reasons of considering the electricity distribution sector as being one. The second part is a short

Roxana Saplacan

384

Impact of electric passenger automobiles on utility system loads, 1985 - 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supply model is described which includes an Electric Vehicle Design Model, and calculates factors such as weight, battery size, and cost of a vehicle from user-supplied design characteristics. In the next stage of the analysis, calculation of electric vehicle sales and stocks, the \\

E. P. Marfisi; C. W. Upton; C. E. Agnew

1978-01-01

385

Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields  

DOEpatents

A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Wham, Robert M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01

386

1985 EPRI benefits assessment program: a report to the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a joint EPRI-utility program undertaken in 1985 to perform quantitative assessment of the benefits to the industry of EPRI R and D. Twenty-four utilities participated as a cross-section of the more-than-500 EPRI member utilities. Utility staff reviewed a selected set of 450 products, to identify which products were already in use and which could be used, and to make estimates where possible of the actual and potential dollar benefits of such applications. The results from 21 of the 24 participating utilities are presented in some detail in this report, along with an analysis of product trends. A major finding of the study is that all 24 selected utilities are realizing positive net benefits. Reported cost-benefit ratios range from 1.2 to 1 up to 13.6 to 1 as benefits are compared with dues paid to support the EPRI R and D program. The utilities also indicated that the intangible and unquantifiable benefits of the research are as important, if not more important. The study results indicate that benefits will increase over time through wider application of both existing and future products.

Beardsworth, E.; Black, R.; Lindgren, N. (eds.)

1986-09-01

387

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOEpatents

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24

388

Electric vehicles as storage devices for Supply-Demand management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electric vehicles as storage devices is investigated, with a view to improving the supply\\/demand matching of electrical networks. Consideration is given to making this supplementary function compatible with the primary function as a means of transport. Case studies showed that, where solar energy is the primary energy source, daytime charging, combined with evening\\/overnight regeneration, provides the optimum

D. Johnston; E. Bentley; M. Narayana; Tianxiang Jiang; P. Suwanapingkarl; G. Putrus

2010-01-01

389

Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage  

E-print Network

energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possi- ble when prices;#12;Abstract Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable

Sadeh, Norman M.

390

Batteries and battery management systems for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The battery is a fundamental component of electric vehicles, which represent a step forward towards sustainable mobility. Lithium chemistry is now acknowledged as the technology of choice for energy storage in electric vehicles. However, several research points are still open. They include the best choice of the cell materials and the development of electronic circuits and algorithms for a more

M. Brandl; H. Gall; M. Wenger; V. Lorentz; M. Giegerich; F. Baronti; G. Fantechi; L. Fanucci; R. Roncella; R. Saletti; S. Saponara; A. Thaler; M. Cifrain; W. Prochazka

2012-01-01

391

Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  

PubMed

Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

2012-01-01

392

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour  

PubMed Central

Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No adverse events were reported. Authors’ conclusions There is only limited evidence that TENS reduces pain in labour and it does not seem to have any impact (either positive or negative) on other outcomes for mothers or babies. The use of TENS at home in early labour has not been evaluated. TENS is widely available in hospital settings and women should have the choice of using it in labour. PMID:19370680

Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

2014-01-01

393

Improved Drought Management Strategies for the Triangle Area Utilizing Climate-Information based Probabilistic Streamflow Forecasts (NC Water Resources Research  

E-print Network

Improved Drought Management Strategies for the Triangle Area Utilizing Climate- Information based: Sankarasubramanian Arumugam PROJECT SUMMARY A prognostic approach to improve drought management in the Triangle Area is proposed here that integrates climate information based seasonal streamflow forecasts with the drought

Arumugam, Sankar

394

Weather Factors and Performance of Network Utilities: A Methodology and Application to Electricity Distribution  

E-print Network

Incentive regulation and efficiency analysis of network utilities often need to take the effect of important external factors, such as the weather conditions, into account. This paper presents a method for estimating the effect of weather conditions...

Jamasb, Tooraj; Orea, Luis; Pollitt, Michael G.

395

Studies of solar hybrid repowering of utility electric-power plants (interim report)  

SciTech Connect

A baseline repowering configuration used as a reference is defined, and the potential benefits of repowering are outlined from the programmatic, utility, and national viewpoints. The market size for solar repowering is reviewed with the split by plants and their requirements imposed on solar technology and plant design. Various solar technology implementation options are discussed. Highlights of the key results of studies on the economics of integration of solar repowered plants into utility systems are presented. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-01

396

Performance of selective catalytic reduction technology at electric utility boilers in the United States, Germany and Sweden  

SciTech Connect

In January 1996 the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Air and Radiation initiated an effort to locate and collect NO{sub x} emissions data from coal-fired electric utilities using selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. SCR applications in the United States, Germany and Sweden were examined, and, as of this report, SCR related NO{sub x} data from fourteen utility plants and twenty-five separately monitored coal-fired boiler units have been obtained. Continuous hourly or half-hourly data were obtained for eleven units, and summary data covering up to a year were obtained for fourteen. Summarized in Table 1 are the data received to date. At the request of several German utilities, the identities of plants in Table 1 have been coded to maintain confidentiality. This report presents the NO{sub x} emissions data that have been received, which provide an effective characterization of SCR performance at coal-fired utility boilers in the United States and Western Europe. Findings based on these data indicate very low NO{sub x} emission levels are being achieved at coal-fired utilities that are using SCR. Where continuous hourly or half-hourly data were provided, the overall average emission levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.16 lbs/mmBtu. Where only summary data were provided, the average emission levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 lbs/mmBtu.

Srivastava, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Quarles, P. [Perrin Quarles Associates, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1997-12-31

397

Risk Management and Risk Analysis-Based Decision Tools for Attacks on Electric Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incident data about disruptions to the electric power grid provide useful information that can be used as inputs into risk management policies in the energy sector for disruptions from a variety of origins including terrorist attacks. This paper uses data from the Disturbance Analysis Working Group (DAWG) database, which is maintained by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) to

Jeffrey S. Simonoff; Carlos E. Restrepo; Rae Zimmerman

2004-01-01

398

Risk-Management and Risk-Analysis-Based Decision Tools for Attacks on Electric Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incident data about disruptions to the electric power grid provide useful information that can be used as inputs into risk management policies in the energy sector for disruptions from a variety of origins including terrorist attacks. This paper uses data from the Disturbance Analysis Working Group (DAWG) database, which is maintained by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) to

Jeffrey S. Simonoff; Carlos E. Restrepo; Rae Zimmerman

2007-01-01

399

A hybrid thermal energy storage system for managing simultaneously solar and electric energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid thermal energy storage system (HTESS) is proposed for managing simultaneously the storage of heat from solar and electric energy. Solar energy is stored during sunny days and released later during cloudy days or at night, and to smooth power demands, electric energy is stored during off peak periods and later used during peak periods. A heat transfer model

Zouhair Ait Hammou; Marcel Lacroix

2006-01-01

400

Modeling and simulation of an energy management system for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modeling, control strategy and simulation results of an energy management strategy (EMS) for a specific plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A good control strategy is required among components, such as the energy storage system, an electric motor, a power control unit, and an internal combustion engine in order to ensure that the vehicle achieve an improvement in

Salisa Abdul Rahman; Nong Zhang; Jianguo Zhu

2008-01-01

401

Heat transfer in phase change materials for thermal management of electric vehicle battery modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature of battery modules in electric vehicles (EVs) must be controlled adequately to remain within a specified range for optimum performance. In this paper, thermal management of battery modules with phase change materials (PCMs) is investigated experimentally. An electric heater is used to simulate the heat source of a battery cell. Two different PCM designs are investigated: one with

X. Duan; G. F. Naterer

2010-01-01

402

Adaptive Battery Management Systems for the new generation of Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper functioning of rechargeable batteries is of crucial importance for any electrical vehicle, especially for plug-in electrical vehicles (PEV). Modern battery management systems (BMS) provide a driver for a number of important indications, such as remaining operation time, remaining charge and power. Therefore, BMS is a key element of PEV. However, the performance of the batteries deteriorates during the cycle

D. Danilov; P. H. L. Notten

2009-01-01

403

Environmental Issues and Management Strategies for Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic

Timothy G. Townsend

2011-01-01

404

77 FR 2973 - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...point incentive adder to PPL Electric's base return on equity; and (2) authorization...progress (CWIP) to be included in rate base, subject to the use of appropriate accounting methodologies to prevent double recovery. Any person desiring to...

2012-01-20

405

CHP Modeling as a Tool for Electric Power Utilities to Understand Major Industrial Customers  

E-print Network

the available options and appropriate strategy is to properly understand the customers’ thermal and electric energy needs, and the existing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. This paper outlines an approach for developing such models at low cost, and using...

Kumana, J. D.; Alanis, F. J.; Swad, T.; Shah, J. V.

406

Utility/Industry Partnerships Involving Distributed Generation Technologies in Evolving Electricity Markets  

E-print Network

Electricity markets in the United States are undergoing unprecedented structural changes as a result of the confluence of regulatory, competitive, and technological forces. This paper will introduce the role of distributed generation technologies...

Rastler, D. M.

407

The Benefits of Restructuring: It's Not Your Grandfather's Electric Utility Anymore  

SciTech Connect

The key to achieving and maintaining most of the benefits from the emerging competitive market for electricity supply is to have a workably competitive wholesale generation market. By any objective measure, the PJM regional transmission organization is fulfilling its mission.

Switzer, Sheldon; Straub, Mary M.

2006-02-01

408

High speed 5000 hp superconducting propulsion motor for marine electric drives utilizing YBCO field coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrical summary of a 2-pole, 900 kAT, 5000 HP compact superconducting propulsion motor with YBCO rotor windings and liquid nitrogen cooling with a power density of 3750 kVA\\/m3 is presented. This is a retrofit to the field of the 5.0 Tesla superconducting turbine generator built with a Nb-Ti conductor. The paper presents the electrical machine design and preliminary certification

Stephen Kuznetsov

1999-01-01

409

Outpatient utilization by infants auto-assigned to Medicaid managed care plans.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that infants auto-assigned to a Medicaid managed care plan would have lower primary care and higher emergency department (ED) utilization compared to infants with a chosen plan. Retrospective cohort study. Medicaid administrative data were used to identify all children 0-3 months of age at enrollment in Michigan Medicaid managed care in 2005-2008 with 18-months of subsequent enrollment. Medicaid encounter and state immunization registry data were then acquired. Auto-assigned infants were compared versus chosen plan infants on: (1) well-child visits (WCVs); (2) immunizations; (3) acute office visits; and (4) ED visits. Chi squared and rank-sum tests and logistic and negative binomial regression were used in bivariate and multivariable analyses for dichotomous and count data, respectively. 18% of infants were auto-assigned. Auto-assigned infants were less likely to meet goal number of WCVs in 18-months of managed care enrollment (32 vs. 53%, p < 0.001) and to be up-to-date on immunizations at 12 months of age (75 vs. 85%, p < 0.001). Auto-assigned infants had fewer acute office visits (median: 4 vs. 5, p < 0.001) but were only slightly more likely to have 2 or more ED visits (51 vs. 46%, p < 0.001) in 18-months of enrollment. All results were significant in multivariable analyses. Auto-assigned infants were less likely to use preventive and acute primary care but only slightly more likely to use emergency care. Future work is needed to understand mechanisms of differences in utilization, but auto-assigned children may represent a target group for efforts to promote pediatric preventive care in Medicaid. PMID:23775252

Zickafoose, Joseph S; Cohn, Lisa M; Clark, Sarah J

2014-04-01

410

The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

2013-01-01

411

Utilization of remotely-sensed data in the management of inland wetlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data and aerial photography are proving to be a useful tool for the inventory and management of inland wetlands. Two examples of the application of remotely-sensed data to specific wetland management needs or requirements are discussed. Studies of the Great Dismal Swamp are utilizing ERTS-1 imagery and color IR photography in: (1) study area selection; (2) field inspection; (3) vegetation mapping; (4) identification of drainage characteristics and moisture regime; (5) location of intensive study areas; and (6) detection of change. Thematic extractions of ERTS-1 data made using the United States Geological Survey's Autographic Theme Extraction System are aiding analyses of swamp hydrologic regime and providing information pertinent to quick recognition and inventory of wetlands from ERTS-1. DCP'S in south Florida wetlands provide near-real time data for water resources managers. Data relayed by satellite can be entered into models to provide predictive data and water storage information for long-term and short-term decision making.

Carter, V.; Smith, D. G.

1973-01-01

412

A Modular Power and Energy Management Structure for Dual-Energy Source Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modular approach to the design and implementation of a power and energy management system (PEMS) for electric vehicles (EV). The model EV is powered by dual energy sources, consisting of batteries and ultracapacitors. Operation of the PEMS has been structured into modular hierarchical process shells. The energy management shell (EMS) handles the longer-term decisions of energy

L. Rosario; P. C. K. Luk; J. T. Economou; B. A. White

2006-01-01

413

Particle Swarm Optimization for energy management fuzzy controller design in dual-source electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to distribute the power between battery bank and supercapacitor modules to obtain good performance is a vital problem in dual-source electric vehicles. Traditional fuzzy controller design for energy management relies too much on the expert experience, and is easy to get the sub-optimal performance. in order to overcome this drawback, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is introduced for energy management

Zhang Chenghui; Shi Qingsheng; Cui Naxin; Li Wuhua

2007-01-01

414

Novel power management for high performance and cost reduction in an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel power management scheme to achieve high performance and cost reduction in an electric vehicle for short profile fleet application. The measured drive cycle of an internal combustion engine meter-reading vehicle has been analyzed for the optimization of the EV system design and power management. Zinc Bromine batteries will be employed to provide the continuous power

Xinxiang Yan; Dean Patterson

2001-01-01

415

Design of a battery charger and charging management system for an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is concerned with the design and development of a battery charger and charging management system that is capable of charging the multi-cell, series connected battery bank that will be employed by the Swinburne University of Technology electric car team. The system developed features three primary components: a controllable, variable power supply, an intelligent battery charger management system and

Aaron W. Cousland; Richard J. Ciaravolo; Gary Blieden; Nasser Hosseinzadeh

2010-01-01

416

Management and Monitoring of Telecommunication System in Electric Power Transmission Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In process of operative costs reduction in companies that base their business on telecommunication systems and networks employment, application of management tool selection concept represents important solution. Therefore, in this paper, short survey of general principles and approaches in telecommunication networks management from viewpoint of application on telecommunication system used by Electric Power Transmission Company (EPS) is given. EPS's optical

M. Mraovic; N. Gospic; V. Milosevic

2007-01-01

417

Impacts and Benefits of a Satellite Power System on the Electric Utility Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this limited study was to investigate six specific issues associated with interfacing a Satellite Power System (5 GW) with large (by present standards) terrestrial power pools to a depth sufficient to determine if certain interface problems and/or benefits exist and what future studies of these problems are required. The issues investigated are as follows: (1) Stability of Power Pools Containing a 5 GWe SPS; (2) Extra Reserve Margin Required to Maintain the Reliability of Power Pools Containing a 5 GWe SPS; (3) Use of the SPS in Load Following Service (i.e. in two independent pools whose times of peak demand differ by three hours); (4) Ownership of the SPS and its effect on SPS Usage and Utility Costs; (5) Utility Sharing of SPS related RD and D Costs; (6) Utility Liability for SPS Related Hazards.

Winer, B. M.

1977-01-01

418

Comparative governance and regulatory restructuring of the electric utilities industry in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation seeks to identify internal and external institutional arrangements that would allow investor owned utility companies to best economize on costs. The main body of this work is structured around three interdependent essays. The first essay is a theoretical exploration from which a synthesis between Transaction Costs Economics and the Theory of Contestable Markets is derived. The second essay utilizes the framework developed in the essay to explore the institutional changes associated with regulatory restructuring. The third essay is an empirical analysis using iterated seemingly unrelated regression with a one-way fixed effects specification. Findings show a strong relationship economies of vertical separation and short-term contracting.

Baksh, Andre Haroun

419

Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management  

SciTech Connect

The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

A. David Lester

2008-10-17

420

Central electrical utility power for a satellite ring city in low earth orbit space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on central electrical power for a satellite ring city, defined as a group of large free flyers of 10 to 20 units with perhaps 100 people in each unit, and organized in a circle so that power can be fed from a central location. The free flyers would be located at 300 to 700 miles in altitude, and spaced about a kilometer apart. Potential activities of a ring city are listed as well as the electrical power needs. Information is given on costs and individual and centralized solar arrays and nuclear reactor systems.

Myers, Ira T.; Faymon, Karl A.; Patton, A. D.

1989-01-01

421

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01

422

EVALUATION OF MOLECULAR SIEVES FOR SAMPLING N0X EMISSIONS AT ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of molecular sieves for collection of NOx (NO + NO2) emissions from utility boilers. It was found that NOx could be collected efficiently (99%) at sample flow rates of 1 L/min over 20- to 40-min sampling periods at the NOx levels en...

423

Dose–response effects for depression and Schizophrenia management on hospital utilization in Illinois Medicaid: a multivariate regression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of schizophrenia and depression in the United States is far higher among Medicaid recipients than in the general population. Individuals suffering from mental illness, including schizophrenia and depression, also have higher rates of emergency department utilization, which is costly and may not generate the positive health outcomes desired. Disease management programs strive to help individuals suffering from chronic illnesses better manage their condition(s) and seek health care in the appropriate settings. The objective of this manuscript is to estimate a dose–response impact on hospital inpatient and emergency room utilizations for any reason by Medicaid recipients with depression or schizophrenia who received disease management contacts. Methods Multivariate regression analysis of panel data taken from administrative claims was conducted to test the hypothesis that increased contacts lower the likelihood of all-cause inpatient admissions and emergency room visits. Subjects included 6,274 members of Illinois’ non-institutionalized Medicaid-only aged, blind or disabled population diagnosed with depression or schizophrenia. The statistical measure is the odds ratio. The odds ratio association is between the monthly utilization indicators and the number of contacts (doses) a member had for each particular disease management intervention. Results Higher numbers of intervention contacts for Medicaid recipients diagnosed with depression or schizophrenia were associated with statistically significant reductions in all-cause inpatient admissions and emergency room utilizations. Conclusions There is a high correlation between depression and schizophrenia disease management contacts and lowered all-cause hospital inpatient and emergency room utilizations. PMID:24989717

2014-01-01

424

Management of food waste materials: Biogas and biomass production and utilization  

SciTech Connect

Management of food wastes has been the subject of investigation especially in developing countries where food processors produce enormous quantities of waste materials from the processed foods they manufacture. One possible solution is to integrate biogas technology to augment, at least, the fuel needs of the company. The escalation in the cost of energy brought about by the cartel members of the oil-exporting countries has affected considerably food processing companies in maintaining an optimal margin of profit. Conversion of food wastes into biofuel through the process of anaerobic digestion may lessen energy consumption significantly, in addition to reduction of environmental pollution in the area. In this paper, researches on the possibility of utilizing some food processing wastes from food manufacturing industries have been undertaken. This may be the time that regional research cooperation be intensified to help and solve the common problems on energy in developing countries.

Angelo, P.G.; Alamis, M.A.; Pacheco, M.; Tan, B.V.

1983-12-01

425

Report of Energy Efficiency Study and Metering/Utilities Profile for Electricity Deregulation at Texas A&M University – Texarkana (TAMU–T) Texarkana, Texas  

E-print Network

System Submitted by Yeqiao Zhu Dan Turner David Claridge Energy Systems Laboratory The Texas A&M University System December, 1999 Acknowledgement The Electric Utility Regulation and Energy Efficiency Study for all universities in the TAMU System...

Zhu, Y.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-01-01

426

Utility scale hybrid wind–solar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a hybrid wind–solar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer

J. P. Reichling; F. A. Kulacki

2008-01-01

427

Electric utilities' use of flue gas desulfurization technology in the united states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an updated report on units which remove sulfur compounds from stack gases of coal-burning electric power generating plants. The earlier comprehensive report, 'The Status of Flue Gas Desulfurization Applications in the United States,' was issued in July 1977 by the former Federal Power Commission.

Dasti

1977-01-01

428

A micro level study of an Indian electric utility for efficiency enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper DEA (Data envelopment analysis), a non-parametric approach to frontier analysis, is applied to evaluate the relative performance of 29 EDDs (Electricity Distribution Divisions) of an Indian hilly state, namely Uttarakhand. Input oriented DEA is applied to evaluate the relative overall efficiency, technical efficiency and scale efficiency of EDDs. The results indicate that numerous divisions have scope for

Vinod Kumar Yadav; N. P. Padhy; H. O. Gupta

2010-01-01

429

Use of continuous emission monitoring in the electric utility industry. Paper 81. 48. 3  

SciTech Connect

Steam electric generating plants are subject to continuous monitoring regulations. Reliable emission data are recorded to be reported to regulatory agencies. The continuous monitor is being used as a diagnostic tool for optimizing operation of control equipment also. Monitored data identify the magnitude, duration, and time of any emissions exceeding compliance standards so that corrective actions may be taken.

Van Gieson, J.

1981-01-01

430

PROJECT GOALS Use electricity accounts and Building Management System  

E-print Network

be attributed to maintaining appropriate humidity and temperature conditions for the art collections of average usages needs reconsideration. NATIONAL GALLERY CARBON EMISSIONS INVENTORY February 2010 EDUCATION benefits of altering lighting and computer management, and installing solar panels. Key recommendations

431

Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth depending in part on environmental conditions design approach assembly technologies and the materials used This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence Function sim ERU RUIS ISR DR where newline ERU Efficiency Rate of Environmental Resources Utilization newline RUIS Resource Utilization Infra-Structure ISR In Situ Resources newline DR Degradation Rate The limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability approaching 100 for system functioning and operation and must minimize the rate of any system degradation To date only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems as repair data and spare parts and the humans as exercise and psychological support Such maintenance requires huge infrastructures including research and development complexes and management agencies which currently cannot move beyond the Earth When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space In

Murphy, K.; Rygalov, V.; Johnson, S.

432

Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the available energy sources, the electric vehicle (EV) cannot compete with the conventional vehicle in terms of driving range and initial cost. In the near future, the hybrid EV (HEV) is not only an interim solution for implementation of zero emission vehicles but a practical solution for commercialization of super-ultra-low-emission vehicles. This paper firstly presents an overview of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2002-01-01

433

Research on Battery Identification of Electric Vehicle Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of electric vehicle depends on power battery performance to a great extent. Accurate assessment of the power battery status is the premise of power battery playing its best performance under the existing technology conditions. The order 2 RC battery model is verified by comparing simulation result with experiment data. A standard identification form which is suitable for gradient

Gu Qiang; Cheng Xiusheng

2010-01-01

434

SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL IN PRECISION FORESTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a useful measurement and indicator of relative productivity of agronomic crops on some soil types. In non-saline soils, spatial variation in soil ECa is strongly related to texture, topsoil depth and profile variations; factors which spatially correlate...

435

Analysis of fixed-base flywheel systems for electric utility applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an Oak Ridge Laboratories assessment of utility peaking applications of flywheels, compressed air energy storage (CAES), and batteries in order to reduce peaking power plant fuel consumption are reported. Attention was focused on the economic aspects of peaking storage systems, with consideration given to the present worth of the annual revenue required to meet all annual operating costs and the required capital investment sequencing of alternative plans for utility plant additions. A break-even index was formulated for comparing the storage technologies. CAES was found to be presently the least cost storage option if favorable geologic conditions are available. A target cost was calculated for flywheels to become cost competitive, resulting in a $720/kW figure, i.e., 68% of the 1982 cost. Specific programs aimed at producing flywheels at the necessary cost are enumerated.

Olszewski, M.

436

Utilization of Geotextile Tube for Sandy and Muddy Coastal Management: A Review  

PubMed Central

Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However, for the muddy coasts, mangrove rehabilitation and conservation were additional concerns in coastal management schemes. The mangrove forests are natural barriers which can be found on the muddy coasts of many tropical countries. In this paper, the viability of geotextile tubes in sandy and muddy beaches was analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of geotextile tubes in coastal management were discussed based on the experiences from the tropical countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, and Thailand. From the case studies, impressive improvements in coastal restoration after installation of geotextile tubes were shown. Based on the discussion, several recommendations to improve the application of geotextile tubes were suggested in this paper. PMID:24955408

Lee, Siew Cheng; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin; Song, Ki-Il

2014-01-01

437

Modis data acquisition and utilization for forest fire management in india  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard Terra & Aqua Spacecrafts Scans the earth in 36 spectral bands & covers the entire earth in two days. MODIS data has proved to be very useful for ocean & land studies with resolution ranging from 250 m to 1000 meters. The Data Reception system at Shadnagar (Refer to the Block diagram Fig.1), receives the data transmitted in X-band on 8160 MHz carrier SQPSK modulated with a data rate of 15 MBPS from the Aqua satellite. The down converted IF signal is fed to the demodulator & bit-synchronizer unit. The data and clock output signals of bitsynchronizer unit are given to a PC based DAQLB system where real-time telemetry processing is carried out and data is recorded onto hard disk in real time. The effectiveness of the system in supporting the forest fire management during the 2011, 12, 13 & 14 is also presented in the paper. Near real-time active fire monitoring, interactive fire visualization, fire database and statistical analysis functions also presented. Preliminary results of the upgrading satellite receiving system and in expanding the utilization of satellite data for multi-disciplinary resources management will also be presented and discussed.

Satyanarayana, A. N.; Chandrashekara Rao, B.; Lalitha, D.; Lakshmi, B.

2014-12-01

438

Utilization of geotextile tube for sandy and muddy coastal management: a review.  

PubMed

Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However, for the muddy coasts, mangrove rehabilitation and conservation were additional concerns in coastal management schemes. The mangrove forests are natural barriers which can be found on the muddy coasts of many tropical countries. In this paper, the viability of geotextile tubes in sandy and muddy beaches was analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of geotextile tubes in coastal management were discussed based on the experiences from the tropical countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, and Thailand. From the case studies, impressive improvements in coastal restoration after installation of geotextile tubes were shown. Based on the discussion, several recommendations to improve the application of geotextile tubes were suggested in this paper. PMID:24955408

Lee, Siew Cheng; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin; Song, Ki-Il

2014-01-01

439

Neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool in the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents efforts by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to pilot test the use of neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool for reducing stack emissions from a natural gas-fired power generating facility. The project was funded in part by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VI. combustion control is quickly becoming an emerging alternative for reducing utility plant emissions without installing costly end of pipe controls. The LCRA estimates that the technology has the potential to improve the thermal efficiency of a large utility boiler by more than 1 percent. preliminary calculations indicate that a 1% improvement in thermal efficiency at the 430 MW gas-fired utility boiler could results in an estimated energy savings of 142, 140 mmBtus and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions of 8,774 tons per year. This paper describes the process that were undertaken to identify and implement the pilot project at LCRA's Thomas C. Ferguson Power Plant, located in Marble Falls, Texas, Activities performed and documented include lessons learned, equipment selection, data acquisition, model evaluation and projected emission reductions.

Johnson, M.L.

1998-07-01

440

High-voltage electrical apparatus utilizing an insulating gas of sulfur hexafluoride and helium  

DOEpatents

High-voltage electrical apparatus includes an outer housing at low potential, an inner electrode disposed within the outer housing at high potential with respect thereto, and support means for insulatably supporting the inner electrode within the outer housing. Conducting particles contaminate the interior of the outer housing, and an insulating gas electrically insulates the inner electrode from the outer housing even in the presence of the conducting particles. The insulating gas is comprised of sulfur hexafluoride at a partial pressure of from about 2.9 to about 3.4 atmospheres absolute, and helium at a partial pressure from about 1.1 to about 11.4 atmospheres absolute. The sulfur hexafluoride comprises between 20 and 65 volume percent of the insulating gas.

Wootton, Roy E. (Murrysville, PA)

1980-01-01

441

Analysis of Electric Field Induced by ELF Magnetic Field Utilizing Generalized Equivalent Multipole-Moment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a generalized equivalent multipole-moment method for calculating three-dimensional Laplacian fields in multi-spherical system. The Greengard & Rokhlin's M2M, M2L, and L2L formulae enable the multipole-moment method to calculate the fields in general arrangement of multi-spheres, which involve exclusive and multi-layered spherical arrangement. We applied this method to electric field calculation in biological structures induced by ELF magnetic fields. The induced electric fields in a three eccentric and exclusive spheres system, which models human head with two eyeballs, are calculated under the application of homogeneous and magnetic-dipole fields. The validity of this method is successfully confirmed by comparing the calculated fields with those by the fast-multipole surface-charge-simulation method.

Hamada, Shoji; Yamamoto, Osamu; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

442

Optimizing Short-Term Natural Gas Supply Portfolio for Electric Utility Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas fired power plants (NGFPP) are important electricity generation resources in the United States. Optimizing the natural gas supply portfolio, especially the short-term portfolio, is critical for the day-to-day operations and the financial performance of NGFPPs. Traditionally, such optimization problems are solved using cost-minimization-based frameworks. However, such frameworks are facing challenges due to the lack of consideration of associated

Hanjie Chen; Ross Baldick

2007-01-01

443

Electrical Maxwell Demon and Szilard Engine Utilizing Johnson Noise, Measurement, Logic and Control  

PubMed Central

We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell's demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard's engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics. PMID:23077525

Kish, Laszlo Bela; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

2012-01-01

444

Electrical Maxwell demon and Szilard engine utilizing Johnson noise, measurement, logic and control.  

PubMed

We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell's demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard's engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics. PMID:23077525

Kish, Laszlo Bela; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

2012-01-01

445

Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that NAMWATER’s management approaches adhere to the NPM paradigm but some NPM core-ideas such as customer orientation and external accountability (performance contracts) were visibly missing.

Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

446

Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

1995-11-01

447

Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"  

SciTech Connect

Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

2009-12-01

448

Modeling Storage and Demand Management in Electricity Distribution Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage devices and demand control may constitute beneficial tools to optimize electricity generation with a large share of intermittent resources through inter-temporal substitution of load. We quantify the related cost reductions in a simulation model of a simplified stylized medium-voltage grid (10kV) under uncertain demand and wind output. Benders Decomposition Method is applied to create a two-stage stochastic program. The

Andreas Schröder; Jan Siegmeier; Murk Creusen

2011-01-01

449

Progress in utilization of a mobile laboratory for making storm electricity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mobile atmospheric science laboratory has been used to intercept and track storms on the Great Plains region of the U.S., with the intention of combining the data obtained with those from Doppler and conventional radars, NASA U-2 aircraft overflights, balloon soundings, and fixed-base storm electricity measurements. The mobile lab has proven to be valuable in the gathering of ground truth verifications for the two commercially operated lightning ground-strike locating systems. Data acquisition has recently been expanded by means of mobile ballooning before and during storms.

Rust, W. David

1988-01-01

450

Efficient management and promotion of utilization of the video information acquired by observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the deep sea videos are made from the research by JAMSTEC submersibles in 1982, and the information on the huge deep-sea that will reach more 4,000 dives (ca. 24,700 tapes) by the present are opened to public via the Internet since 2002. The deep-sea videos is important because the time variation of deep-sea environment with difficult investigation and collection and growth of the living thing in extreme environment can be checked. Moreover, with development of video technique, the advanced analysis of an investigation image is attained. For grasp of deep sea environment, especially the utility value of the image is high. In JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences (DrC), collection of the video are obtained by dive investigation of JAMSTEC, preservation, quality control, and open to public are performed. It is our big subject that the huge video information which utility value has expanded managed efficiently and promotion of use. In this announcement, the present measure is introduced about these subjects . The videos recorded on a tape or various media onboard are collected, and the backup and encoding for preventing the loss and degradation are performed. The video inside of a hard disk has the large file size. Then, we use the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which attracts attention with image management engineering these days. Cost does not start compared with the usual disk backup, but correspondence years can also save the video data for a long time, and the operatively of a file is not different from a disk. The video that carried out the transcode to offer is archived by disk storage, and offer according to a use is possible for it. For the promotion of utilization of the video, the video public presentation system was reformed completely from November, 2011 to "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep Sea Images (http:// www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/)" This new system has preparing various searches (e.g. Search by map, Tree, Icon, Keyword et al.). The video annotation is enabled with the same interface, and the usability of use and management is raised. Moreover, In the "Biological Information System for Marine Life : BISMaL (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/bismal/e/index.html)" which is a data system for biodiversity information, particularly in biogeographic data of marine organisms, based on photography position information, the visualization of living thing distribution, the life list of a deep sea living thing, and the deep sea video were used, and aim at the contribution to biodiversity grasp. Future, aiming at the accuracy improvement of the information given to the video by Work support of the comment registration by automatic recognition of an image and Development of a comment registration tool onboard, it aims at offering higher quality information.

Kitayama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shimabukuro, R.; Hase, H.; Ogido, M.; Nakamura, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Sonoda, A.

2012-12-01

451

A Simulated System of Battery-Management-System to test Electric Vehicles Charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the implementation of a Simulated System of Battery-Management-System (SS-BMS) based on a computer with CAN communication interface to test the Electric Vehicles (EV) Charger. The SS-BMS includes the mathematical models to simulate the electrical and thermal properties of power battery, provides users with defining a variety of mode to simulate different charging circumstances and real-time information, such

Xiangwu Yan; Wei Li; Jiancheng Gu; Xiangning Xiao

2012-01-01

452

A long-term risk management tool for electricity markets using swarm intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the optimal involvement in derivatives electricity markets of a power producer to hedge against the pool price volatility. To achieve this aim, a swarm intelligence meta-heuristic optimization technique for long-term risk management tool is proposed. This tool investigates the long-term opportunities for risk hedging available for electric power producers through the use of contracts with physical (spot

F. Azevedo; Z. A. Vale; P. B. Moura Oliveira; H. M. Khodr

2010-01-01

453

A New Practical Electric Vehicle Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The lithium battery gradually becomes the mainstream of traction battery owing to its small volume, light weight, high voltage,\\u000a high power, less self discharge, long service life and other advantages. However certain management is required during the\\u000a application of Li-ion battery for its obvious nonlinearity, inconsistency and time-variant characteristics. If lithium batteries\\u000a are used in power equipment in serial, they

Yanpeng Shi; Guoxin Wu

2011-01-01

454

The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.  

PubMed

The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

2014-08-12

455

NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

Not Available

2014-06-01

456

Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence, specific capabilities, and use of local aerial radiation detection systems would be critical in planning the response, even before federal assets arrive on the scene. The relationship between local and federal aerial assets and the potential role for the further use of the MARS training and expanded AMS Reachback capabilities in facilitating such interactions will be discussed.

Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

2013-03-12

457

Economic regulation of electricity distribution utilities under high penetration of distributed energy resources : applying an incentive compatible menu of contracts, reference network model and uncertainty mechanisms  

E-print Network

Ongoing changes in the use and management of electricity distribution systems - including the proliferation of distributed energy resources, smart grid technologies (i.e., advanced power electronics and information and ...

Jenkins, Jesse D. (Jesse David)

2014-01-01

458

A haemophilia disease management programme targeting cost and utilization of specialty pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

The high cost of clotting factor concentrate (CFC) used to treat haemophilia and von Willebrand disease (VWD) attracts health plans' attention for cost management strategies such as disease management programmes (DMPs). In 2004, Indiana's high risk insurance health plan, the Indiana Comprehensive Health Insurance Association, in partnership with the Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center developed and implemented a DMP for beneficiaries with bleeding disorders. This report evaluates the effectiveness of the DMP 5 years post implementation, with specific emphasis on the cost of CFC and other medical expenditures by severity of disease. A pre/post analysis was used. The main evaluation measures were total cost, total outpatient CFC IU dispensed and adjusted total outpatient CFC cost. Summary statistics and mean and median plots were calculated. Overall, 1000 non-parametric bootstrap replicates were created and percentile confidence limits for 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Mean emergency department (ED) visits and mean and median duration of hospitalizations are also reported. The DMP was associated with a significant decrease in mean annualized total cost including decreased CFC utilization and cost in most years in the overall group, and specifically in patients with severe haemophilia. Patients with mild and moderate haemophilia contributed little to overall programme expenditures. This specialty health care provider-administered DMP exemplifies the success of targeted interventions developed and implemented through a health care facility expert in the disease state to curb the cost of specialty pharmaceuticals in conditions when their expenditures represent a significant portion of total annual costs of care. PMID:24456125

Duncan, N; Roberson, C; Lail, A; Donfield, S; Shapiro, A

2014-07-01

459

Heart failure patients utilizing an electric home monitor: What effects does heart failure have on their quality of life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heart Failure continues to be a major public health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. Heart Failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for persons older than 65 years, has a poor prognosis and is associated with poor quality of life. More than 5.3 million American adults are living with heart failure. Despite maximum medical therapy and frequent hospitalizations to stabilize their condition, one in five heart failure patients die within the first year of diagnosis. Several disease-management programs have been proposed and tested to improve the quality of heart failure care. Studies have shown that hospital admissions and emergency room visits decrease with increased nursing interventions in the home and community setting. An alternative strategy for promoting self-management of heart failure is the use of electronic home monitoring. The purpose of this study was to examine what effects heart failure has on patient's quality of life that had been monitoring on an electronic home monitor longer than 2 months. Twenty-one questionnaires were given to patients utilizing an electronic home monitor by their home health agency nurse. Eleven patients completed the questionnaire. The findings showed that there is some deterioration in quality of life with more association with the physical aspects of life than with the emotional aspects of life, which probably was due to the small sample size. There was no significant difference in readmission rates in patients utilizing an electronic home monitor. Further research is needed with a larger population of patients with chronic heart failure and other chronic diseases which may provide more data, and address issues such as patient compliance with self-care, impact of heart failure on patient's quality of life, functional capacity, and heart failure patient's utilization of the emergency rooms and hospital. Telemonitoring holds promise for improving the self-care abilities of persons with HF.

Simuel, Gloria J.

460

Optimal energy management for a series–parallel hybrid electric bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present a new type of series–parallel hybrid electric bus and its energy management strategy. This hybrid bus is a post-transmission coupled system employing a novel transmission as the series–parallel configuration switcher. In this paper, the vehicle architecture, transmission scheme and numerical models are presented. The energy management system governs the mode switching between the series mode

Weiwei Xiong; Yong Zhang; Chengliang Yin

2009-01-01

461

Uncertainty management in telecommunications uninterruptible power supply systems and on their network by utilizing human reasoning methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study to find the essential and important matters which can effect the reliable uninterrupted operation of telecommunications power supply systems and to suggest an optimal uncertainty management scheme is reported. The main goal was to find simple and practical but effective methods on which the uncertainty management and the implementation of its tool can be based. Uncertainty management ensures that there is enough reserve energy and minimizes additional uncertainties. It turned out that an optimal solution can be obtained by means of intelligent supervision, control and alarm facilities by utilizing human reasoning methodology, and minimize-uncertainty principles.

Suntio, Teuvo

1992-01-01

462

Long-Term Effects of Outpatient Geriatric Evaluation and Management on Health Care Utilization, Cost, and Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The long-term effectiveness and efficiency of an outpatient geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) program was compared to usual primary care (UPC). Design and Method: A randomized controlled group design was used. Health care utilization, cost of care, and survival were assessed during a 48-month period among a sample of 160 male…

Engelhardt, Joseph B.; Toseland, Ronald W.; Gao, Jian; Banks, Steven

2006-01-01

463

Seikan tunnel electric train propulsion -- Regenerative energy management  

SciTech Connect

The mission was to model the electric propulsion and regenerative energy requirements for the Kaikyo passenger train and the Kamotsusen freight train system currently operating between Tappikaitei and Yoshiokakaitei through the Seikan tunnel under the Pacific Ocean. The Seikan tunnel is over 54 km in length and connects Aomori on the main Japanese island of Honshu to the North island of Hokkaido. Further, over 24 km of the Seikan tunnel is 100 meters below the sea bed of the Tsugaru Strait which joins the Pacific with the Sea of Japan. While, the sea bed is 140 meters below the mean Pacific sea level, at the deepest point. Safety and energy conservation issues led to reliable regenerative energy recovery and braking systems.

Isshiki, Seita [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield, Hills, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

464

Intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery: a point prevalence survey on utilization, management, and documentation in Italy.  

PubMed

The frequency of neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery is underreported in Italy. The present survey depicts and describes the patterns of use, management, documentation for IONM devices of IONM during thyroid surgery by surgeons in Italy. A point prevalence survey was undertaken. Source data were mixed from Italian surgeons attending the 2014 International Neuromonitoring Study Group (INMSG) meeting, four IONM manufacturers available in Italy and surgical units were identified from Company sales data. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to analyze. Questions probed IONM prevalence, surgeon background, hospital geographic practice locations, type of hospital, rationale for IONM use, sources of initial capital investment for IONM acquisition, type of equipment, use of continuous IONM, monitoring management, use of distinctive standards, and IONM documentation. IONM is currently delivered through 48 units in Italy. In 2013, the distribution of IONM by specialties included: general (50 %), ENT (46 %), and thoracic surgery (4 %). Overall, 12.853 IONM procedures were performed in the period from 2006 to 2013: 253 were performed in 2007 and about 5,100 in 2013. Distribution according to the type of hospital is: public 48 %, academic setting 37 %, and private maintenance 15 %. The use category of high volume thyroid hospitals represented 33 %. Initial capital investment for the acquisition of the monitoring equipment was 67 % public and 33 % with charitable/private funding. Audio plus graphic and EMG electrodes surface endotracheal tube-based monitoring systems accounted for the majority. Continuous IONM was introduced in 5 Academic Centers. Overall motivations expressed are legal (30 %), RLN confirmation (20 %), RLN identification (20 %), prognosis (10 %), helpful in difficult cases (10 %), decrease surgical time (5 %), and educational (5 %). The survey revealed that participants had few experience with the standardized approach of IONM technique (28 %). General IONM information to patients and/or subsequent specific IONM informed consent was initiated in 8 % of centers. EMG determinations were included in medical chart in 20 %. There were no significant associations found between all parameters considered. The present study describes an increased utilization of IONM in Italy. We highlighted areas for improvement in the management and documentation of IONM. PMID:25465057

Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Lombardi, Davide; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Carcoforo, Paolo; Boniardi, Marco; Innaro, Nadia; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Cavicchi, Ottavio; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Zaccaroni, Angelo; Mangano, Alberto; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Nicolai, Piero; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Toma, Giorgio; Bellantone, Rocco; Sacco, Rosario

2014-12-01

465

Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.  

PubMed

Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This