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1

Utility asset management in the electrical power distribution sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asset management is a concept that has been used in both the private and public sectors with a vast number of interpretations. In the context of an electricity distribution utility, asset management can be defined as a systematic process of, cost-effectively, operating, maintaining and upgrading of electrical assets by combining engineering practices and economic analysis with sound business practice. Any

Innocent E. Davidson

2005-01-01

2

Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

Glazner, Steve, Ed.

3

Managing for biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the electric utility industry-summary statement  

SciTech Connect

The conference entitled {open_quotes}Managing for Biodiversity: Emerging ideas for the Electric Utility Industry{close_quotes} was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, during 19-20 March 1996. This paper provides an overview of the key points, conclusions, and recommendations from both the presentations/papers and the discussions throughout the conference. Topics covered in this article are the following: sustainable development: challenge for utilities; Stewardship issues; where do we go from here-EPRI perspective. 34 refs.

Mattice, J.; Fraser, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Ragone, S. [S.E. Ragone & Associates, Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

4

ELECTRICAL UTILITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR A WHEELING-ENABLED OPEN INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation in the power industry has shifted management paradigms of formerly vertically integrated utilities. This has rendered their current systems economically inefficient in such a competitive environment. This paper outlines the changes brought about by deregulation in the electrical power industry in areas like management practices, economic activity and investment planning. A framework for a Y2K-compliant web-based, distributed multi-platform Scalable

E. G. Terence Swee; S. Elangovan; H. M. Mok

5

Market research for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

Shippee, G.

1999-12-01

6

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

7

Electric utilities in 2007  

SciTech Connect

A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1998-10-01

8

Electric-utility energy-efficiency and load-management programs: Resources for the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this report is to suggest much larger and more active roles for utilities in acquiring energy-efficiency and load-management resources. Valuable utility actions include increased efforts to: Assess existing and new demand-side technologies; Test alternative ways to implement demand-side programs; Aggressively acquire energy and capacity resources through efficiency and load- management programs; Work with governments to support

1989-01-01

9

Generating energy alternatives: demand-side management, renewable energy at America's electric utilities. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

In the face of warnings about looming power shortages in the 1990s, electric utilities are exploring a myriad of new business strategies to avoid building more central-station power plants. The success of these strategies will depend largely on utilities' ability to control customer energy usage patterns and on development of new power sources by industrial cogenerators and other independent energy producers. In their new role, utilities have come to regard capacity additions as the option of last resort and are beginning to view themselves less as electricity suppliers than as marketers of energy services. Escalating construction costs, regulators' disallowance of imprudent plant expenditures, uncertainty about future demand, emerging sources of competition and state legislatures adoption of least-cost planning initiatives are forcing utilities to reassess their position in the power industry. Also, electricity consumers are beginning to realize that they have a vital stake in the electricity business - a stake that goes beyond paying the bills for power plants and infrastructure that utilities build. These are some of the results of a 15-month survey research report involving 123 utilities across the nation. The entire 358 page report is available from IRRC; announced here is the Executive Summary.

Cogan, D.; Williams, S.

1987-01-01

10

Electric utilities and telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

Part I of this article will provide some background on the involvement of electric utilities in telecommunications. It will discuss the Power Radio Services, under which the FCC regulates radio communications of electric utilities, the pole attachment statute of the Communications Act, which authorized the FCC to regulate attachments of cable television cables to electric utility poles, and a recent Department of Energy (DOE) report on the need for a demonstration on the use of telecommunications for DSM. Part I will also discuss several recent developments relative to the Power Radio Services and the pole attachment statute. Part II will discuss electric utilities and telecommunications under PUHCA. It will outline the extensive and complex requirements of PUHCA that are applicable to public utility holding companies, as well as the specific requirements of PUHCA for the formation by public utility holding companies of subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss the seven instances in the past decade in which the SEC has approved the formation by public utility holding companies of such subsidiaries. Part III of this article will discuss a principal obstacle to expanded electric utility involvement in telecommunications activities-a series of administrative and judicial decisions that illustrate the potential for dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC to result in confusion and inefficiencies. It will also discuss proposals in Congress to minimize this potential. Part IV will discuss House Bill 3636 and Senate Bill 1822 and their proposals to amend PUHCA to facilitate the formation or acquisition by public utility holding companies of non-utility subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss their proposals to address the potential consequences of dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC of electric utilities involved in telecommunications.

Moeller, J.W. [Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-08-01

11

Electric utility deregulation: failure or success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric utilities approach for restructuring the power market determines the failure or success of electric utility deregulation. It will cost billions of dollars, if restructuring is not done properly. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 2000 endorses competitive power markets, and price signals for the purpose of managing electricity grid congestion and achieving reliability. In a deregulated competitive electricity

Narinder K. Trehan; Rohit Saran

2004-01-01

12

Management of Congestion Costs Utilizing FACTS Controllers in a Bilateral Electricity Market Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increased number of electricity market transactions and the high penetration of renewable power particularly wind power with intermittence nature on transmission networks, effective means for congestion management of transmission networks has become an increasingly important issue, particularly for transmission system operators (TSOs). Installations of FACTS controllers on transmission networks have been recognized as one of the cost-effective

X. P. Zhang; B. Chong; K. R. Godfrey; L. Yao; M. Bazargan; L. Schmitt

2007-01-01

13

Electric utility Executives' Forum. [On load management new regulations, and intervenors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The executives were asked to respond to several questions in three specific areas: load management, new forms of regulation, and openness to the public. As might be expected, a great diversity of opinion is presented. Then the executives were asked to talk about subjects of their own choosing. Among the latter, Mr. Floyd W. Lewis, Middle South Utilities, believes policies

Smartt

1979-01-01

14

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

15

Variables contributing to an excellent customer service management profile within the regulated electric utility industry: A comparison of self-concept with customer satisfaction for customer service management  

SciTech Connect

This research sought to address the relationship between self-concept and customer satisfaction: can customer satisfaction with a major electric utility be explained in terms of the self-reported, self-concept of the utility's managers The population to which the results of this study were generalized consisted of customer service managers in public electric utilities across the United States. In order to represent this population, a sample was selected consisting of customer service managers at a midwestern electric utility based in a large metropolitan area. Participants in this study were managers of four direct customer contact service organizations within six geographic division organizations. The methodology included comparisons of these four customer contact service organizations on twelve independent, self-concept variables and six customer satisfaction dependent variables using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Scheffe' tests, Chi-Square, and Stepwise multiple regression. The groups were found not to be significantly different and knowledge of the self-concept scores for managers will not increase the ability to predict customer satisfaction over no knowledge of self-concept scores.

Johnson, L.E.

1991-01-01

16

Electric utility franchise guide  

SciTech Connect

Through franchise agreements, municipalities grant energy providers the use of public easements for the transmission of electricity and natural gas from power sources to consumers. Generally, access to the public rights-of-way is generated in exchange for the payment to the City of a percentage of the gross revenues of the utility. This Guide presents a Model Electric Utility Franchise Agreement, structured by the city of Houston, to address cost-saving and revenue-enhancing issues that should be considered by any municipality in both the day-to-day administration of existing franchises, and at the time of franchise renewal and renegotiation. In addition to the model agreement this Guide includes Explanatory Comments that provide the basis and rationale for certain sections of the agreement as well as a Summary of Major Elements of franchise agreements in over sixty US municipalities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

17

Demand forecasting for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

For electric utilities, probably the most important element of providing reliable power supplies is the ability to forecast the demands of commercial, industrial and residential customers. The discipline of electric utility demand forecasting has evolved at a vigorous pace over the past two decades. The straight-line extrapolations of historical energy consumption trends that served well enough for the years of steady prices and steady growth became inadequate with the onset of inflation and rapidly rising energy prices. This book describes the most effective and accurate methods for forecasting of energy services appropriate for the parameters which can be expected to prevail in the 90s and beyond. The techniques which are described reflect the knowledge that the composite needs of utility customers can no longer be adequately represented by forecasts of peak demand and total energy use. Written specifically to meet the needs of utility managers, analysts, and planners, this authoritative presentation covers every aspect of state-of-the-art forecasting methods, addressing data acquisition and database construction, forecasting to innovative rates, load shape and forecasting, forecasting the impact of DSM strategies, and assessment of software systems available.

Gellings, C.W. (ed.)

1992-01-01

18

Utility overview study report, FY 1985: Regional indicators of potential for electric utility demand-side management programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of increasing marginal costs and slower growth in the 1970's along with a proactive regulatory environment have spurred utilities to explore alternatives to traditional planning methods. Key factors that affected the industry were the failure of expected high demand growth to materialize, rapid increase in construction costs, the emergence of environmental concerns relative to generation and transmission facilities,

W. Yen-Wood; E. Kahn; M. Levine

1987-01-01

19

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

SciTech Connect

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

Weller, G.H.

2001-07-15

20

Policy Initiatives for Electric Utility Load Management in AID-Assisted Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demand for electricity has been growing at a rate of over 7 percent per year, on average, for developing countries (in contrast, demand has been rising by less than 3 percent annually in the United States). While developing nations have traditionally ...

1990-01-01

21

Electric utility of the year for 1984: Potomac Electric Power  

SciTech Connect

High performance, efficiency improvements, a modest construction program, a clear balance sheet, and an effort to expend power plant life were among the qualities that earned Potomac Electric Power (PEPCO) the title of 1984 Utility of the Year. Other key elements in the utility's selection were its strategy for purchasing power, a load management plan, diversified investments into subsidiary businesses, community concern that considers the aesthetics of transmission facilities, and its interest in personnel development, especially among minorities. 3 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-01

22

Electric Utility Rate Design Proposals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the past several years, the costs of primary fuels and new generating capacity, as well as other utility costs, have risen sharply, forcing the average electricity prices paid by consumers to rise 70 percent in the 1970 to 1976 period. In response ...

1977-01-01

23

Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

24

Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

None

1989-02-01

25

Energy efficiency and electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Twenty years have now elapsed since the energy crisis irrevocably changed world energy priorities. The energy crisis banished all apparitions of cheap and almost limitless energy and made the public keenly aware of its scarcity. The sharp rise in energy prices that followed the Arab oil embargo created strong market incentives to conserve energy. Most users have substantially improved the efficiency with which they use energy, although one might lament that the gains have not been larger. In contrast to the increased efficiency with which electricity and other forms of energy are used, electric utilities themselves have singularly failed to improve their heat efficiency in generating electricity. This failure can be attributed to regulation preventing market forces from creating incentive to improve efficiency.

Studness, C.M.

1994-03-15

26

Electric and gas utilities thesaurus  

SciTech Connect

This thesaurus accommodates terminology employed in areas of utility regulation and utility-related products. The vocabulary used has been structured to function effectively in operations of subject control, subject searching, data retrieval, and information dissemination of DOE, Division of Rates and Energy Management information data base. Main entries, listed alphabetically, are characterized by exhibiting boldface print. Scope notes encompassed by parentheses are incorporated into the structural design of the thesaurus and are used to define, limit, or clarify meanings of main entries. Each descriptor contains a word block, listing terms directly associated with the main entry.

Not Available

1982-03-01

27

Aquatic biodiversity and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Results for a 1995 survey of utility company biologists indicate that aquatic biodiversity is an emerging and poorly understood issue. As a result, there is some confusion about what aquatic biodiversity actually is, and how we can best conserve it. Only one fourth (24%) of the respondents said their company has a stated environmental policy that addresses biodiversity. Many respondents indicate that over the years they have not specially managed for biodiversity, but have been doing that through their efforts to assure balanced indigenous populations. While regulations are still the major driver for biological work, an increasing number of companies are involved in voluntary partnerships in managing water resources. Of these voluntary partnerships, 70% have biodiversity as a goal. Biodiversity is becoming an increasingly common subject of study, and a vast majority (75%) of the respondents suggested is should be a goal for utility for resource management. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity is a complex task, and to date most aquatic efforts have been directed toward fish and macroinvertebrates. Ecological research and technological development performed by the utility industry have resulted in a number of successful biopreservation and biorestoration success stories. A common theme to preserving or enhancing aquatic biodiversity is preserving aquatic habitat. Increasingly, ecosystem management is touted as the most likely approach to achieve success in preserving aquatic biodiversity. Several utilities are conducting progressive work in implementing ecosystem management. This paper presents the potential interactions between power plants and biodiversity, and overview of aquatic biodiversity preservations efforts within the electric utility industry, more detail on the results of the survey, and recent initiatives in ecosystem management. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Olmsted, L.L. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States); Bolin, J.W. [Virginia Power, Ashland, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

28

Proceedings: 1989 electric utility franchise conference  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Conference was to present and discuss strategic issues related to franchising electric service. The theme for the conference was to both improve the management of existing franchises and the negotiation of new franchises. To promote a better understanding of the planning issues related to this theme, the following sessions were designed: (1) public utility franchising, (2) investor owned utility and community perspectives on franchising, (3) franchise case study presentations, (4) alternatives to franchise renewal: the public acquisition option, and (5) special franchise issues. The Conference combined results from research coupled with actual franchise negotiating experiences, and concepts and ideas considered or implemented by utilities, government agencies, consultants and others.

Romo, R.G.

1990-08-01

29

Acid rain and electric utilities 2  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO{sub 2}, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NO{sub x} control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances.

NONE

1997-12-31

30

Case studies in electric utility competition litigation  

SciTech Connect

Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K. [Sutherland, Asbill & Brennan, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1994-12-31

31

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01

32

Efficacy of Utility Database Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is needed to justify changes in current Law, Rules, Policy, Processes and Utility Data Management Requirements to affect savings in time and dollars to the Department's work Program. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the five...

A. Yalcin N. O. Collier S. Tsalatsanis S. C. Kranc

2007-01-01

33

Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

1995-08-01

34

Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical

Steven E. Letendre

1997-01-01

35

Interactive Command Language for OrCAD PSpice via Simulation Manager and its Utilization for Special Simulations in Electrical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Interactive Command Language (ICL) significantly extends the simulation performance of several programs based on SPICE3 standard for the analysis of electrical networks in the so-called sequential mode, when the relatively independent tasks are run consecutively with a possibility of data exchange. However, the ICL is not implemented in the well-known OrCAD PSpice simulation program. The paper describes a conception

D ALIBOR BIOLEK; JAROSLAV KADLEC; VIERA BIOLKOVÁ

2008-01-01

36

Impact of a solar domestic hot water demand-side management program on an electric utility and its customers  

SciTech Connect

A methodology to assess the economic and environmental impacts of a large scale implementation of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems is developed. Energy, emission and demand reductions and their respective savings are quantified. It is shown that, on average, an SDHW system provides an energy reduction of about 3200 kWH, avoided emissions of about 2 tons and a capacity contribution of 0.7 kW to a typical Wisconsin utility that installs 5000 SDHW system. The annual savings from these reductions to utility is {dollar_sign}385,000, providing a return on an investment of over 20{percent}. It is shown that, on average, a consumer will save {dollar_sign}211 annually in hot water heating bills. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Trzeniewski, J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-09-01

37

Waste heat: Utilization and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation\\/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving

S. Sengupta; S. S. Lee

1983-01-01

38

Financial statistics of selected electric utilities, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Electric Utilities (FSSEU) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; US Department of Energy. The FSSEU provides information about electric power accounting and operations in a concise format to satisfy the needs of a wide variety of audiences. The publication is intended to serve electric utilities, industry, consumers, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in today's society. There were 199 Class A and Class B companies in operation at the end of 1983. The uniformity of treatment accorded the companies' statements in this report will generally permit ready comparison of items among the various utilities included in the compilations. The tabulated data include balance sheets; income and retained earnings statements; statements of changes in financial position; electric operating revenues, sales, and customers by classes of service; electric operation and maintenance expenses; utility plant; physical quantities; rates of return on electric utility rate base; rates of return on common equity; interest coverage and capitalization ratios; advertising and sales expenses; environmental protection facilities; and actual expenses incurred.

Not Available

1985-02-21

39

State electric utility regulation: Financial issues, influences, and trends  

SciTech Connect

State regulatory agencies control utilities that produce over three fourths of the electricity in the United States. Thus, state regulation is a dominant instrument of energy policy. Electric utility regulation had acquired most of its present practices and grown resistant to change by the early 1950s. When the economic environment shifted radically after 1965, regulators found it hard to adapt their institutions to a new era. This review outlines the topics of electric utility regulation and finance, discusses the benign era in which they matured, describes the events and difficulties of the last 20 years, and spells out the challenges still facing regulators and utility managers. In conclusion, it indicates what the authors believe the future holds for utilities and regulation.

Hyman, L.S.; Habicht, E.R. Jr.

1986-01-01

40

Energy utilization of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses energy utilization and power train efficiency of electric and electric\\/flywheel hybrid vehicles. Results of EVSIM (a digital simulation program) and test data obtained from a mini-computer controlled dynamometer facility are presented. It is shown that the marginal improvement of vehicle range due to regenerative braking does not justify the complexity of its controls. Similarly, while the electric\\/flywheel

P. D. Agarwal; T. C. Wang

1982-01-01

41

Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council's Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

Not Available

1992-09-01

42

Proceedings: 1989 electric utility franchise conference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of the Conference was to present and discuss strategic issues related to franchising electric service. The theme for the conference was to both improve the management of existing franchises and the negotiation of new franchises. To pro...

R. G. Romo

1990-01-01

43

Utilities systems management - Flying demonstrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation of the utilities systems management (USM) hardware developed for the UK Experimental Aircraft Program (EAP) demonstrator are presented in extensive drawings and diagrams and briefly characterized. The USM links the basic aircraft systems (fuel, engine, environmental control, secondary power, hydraulics, etc.) to the avionics or mission bus. It comprises a dedicated MIL-STD-1553B bus, distributed data-acquisition units

I. Moir; P. H. Capener

1986-01-01

44

Electric Utility Rate Design Proposals. Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses in detail the likely impacts on energy use, utility capital requirements, and consumer costs of a wide range of alternative policies, including time-of-use, flat, inverted, and lifeline rates, load-management practices, utility-finan...

1977-01-01

45

Electric Utility Rate Design Study: equipment for load management - communications, metering, and equipment for using off-peak energy, topic 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information provided contributes to the needs of regulators and utilities by providing insights and information on: the availability of suitable equipment and its engineering limitations to establish technologically feasible load-management strategies; the modes of operation of load control and end-use equipment affecting whether customers will accept the equipment; the metering capability limiting the rate structures that are possible; the mode

1979-01-01

46

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities. I - Electric utility requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water battery was evaluated in an analytical and conceptual design study as a load-leveling system for an electric utility. The water battery produced hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water during periods when off-peak electrical power was available. During peak demand periods, the water battery, operating in the reverse mode, functioned as a fuel cell by producing electrical power

V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry; J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman

1977-01-01

47

Reliability analysis of electric utility SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility SCADA systems must be highly reliable given the potential for the SCADA system to directly contribute to load curtailment. This paper presents an analysis of SCADA system reliability in terms of its expected, aggregate contribution to load curtailment on the power system. Expressing this aggregate in system minutes and applying an appropriate damage cost function then provides an

A. G. Bruce

1998-01-01

48

Real time distribution analysis for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities are finding it increasingly necessary to better monitor, analyze and control their distribution systems. Planning and operation of the grid is increasing in complexity on one hand but subject to ever more binding constraints on the other. Real-time analysis is being seen as necessary to achieve acceptable operational efficiencies and quality of service. Real-time analysis is the combination

Jim See; W. Carr; S. E. Collier

2008-01-01

49

PRODCOST: an electric utility generation simulation code  

SciTech Connect

The PRODCOST computer code simulates the operation of an electric utility generation system. Through a probabilistic simulation the expected energy production, fuel consumption, and cost of operation for each plant are determined. Total system fuel consumption, energy generation by type, total generation costs, as well as system loss of load probability and expected unserved energy are also calculated.

Hudson, II, C. R.; Reynolds, T. M.; Smolen, G. R.

1981-02-01

50

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job...

M. Jette C. Dunlap J. Garlick M. Grondona

2002-01-01

51

Utilization management: A European perspective.  

PubMed

Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego

2013-03-13

52

10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490...Acquisition Mandate § 490.307 Option for Electric Utilities. (a) A covered...comply with this regulation by acquiring electric motor vehicles. (b) If a...

2013-01-01

53

Women in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Potomic Electric Power Co. (PEPCO) has won recognition for its progress in placing women in nontraditional jobs at all levels through its affirmative action program. PEPCO representatives and personnel managers take the initiative in making women aware of widening career opportunities and reversing the attitudes that have historically tied women to traditional employment. (DCK)

Reynolds, M.R.

1983-01-01

54

High slot utilization systems for electric machines  

DOEpatents

Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-06-23

55

Electricity users eye switch to cheaper utilities  

SciTech Connect

Electricity users are shopping for less-expensive power from neighboring utilities, with Pennsylvania serving as a test case in which the state commission is considering a request to shift Lukens Inc. to a lower-cost utility. Other industries, especially large users, will probably follow suit if a precedent is set and the commission ratifies an earlier court judgment that eliminated legal problems. Utilitiies note that remaining users will suffer if large customers withdraw from their service area, but attornies point out that large users will continue to be restricted geographically and economically. (DCK)

Barber, J.

1983-12-19

56

Top 100 electric utilities' 1980 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1980 operating data for the top 100 investor-owned electric utilities are presented in 10 tables comparing fossil-fuel consumption, reserve margins, generating capability, generating units by heat rate, heat rates, system heat rate, capacity addition, peak demand and capability, type of generation in the system, and transmission and distribution lines in operation. The summer heat wave raised peak demand 5.4% over

Smock

1981-01-01

57

Data Management, a Utility for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data management is a utilitarian endeavor. The oft-stated explosion in scientific data volumes has almost become cliché, and it is widely assumed that we will need to adopt innovative new technologies to manage and provide access to this huge volume of data. Yet users want to concentrate on analyzing or interpreting the data and would rather not be bothered with the cutting edge particulars of how the data flows into their model, analysis tool, or instruction module. They would prefer to just push a button and have the data flow and not worry about finding, extracting, and assessing the relevant data. In short, users would prefer that data management worked like a basic utility--simple, reliable, predictable, and easy to add on to. When data managers adopt this perspective--that data archiving and and delivery is much like a utility or infrastructural technology--it informs many aspects of data systems design from general cost models to software durability and interoperability to the particulars of a user interface. This perspective does not prohibit innovative approaches to data management challenges, but it does guide the approach we take to address those challenges. The software industry is beginning to realize that some software should be viewed as basic infrastructure (e.g., traffic light timing). Similarly, the business world now recognizes that basic information technology is a routine cost of doing business much like electricity and plumbing. By reviewing the experience of these two industries and the broader evolution of utilitarian and infrastructural technologies, we develop a set of best practices that can guide the development of data systems that are durable, reliable, and simple to use.

Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R.; Beitler, J.

2005-12-01

58

Pediatric electrical burns: management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to analyse the course of patients hospitalised with electrical burn wounds in the past 25 years at a major children's hospital in the United States in order to devise safe and cost effective management strategies for these patients. The study was a retrospective chart review of patients with electrical injuries admitted to the

Muhammad Zubair; Gail E. Besner

1997-01-01

59

Technical Order Managers Handbook: Utilization Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a utilization assessment of the Air Force Technical Order (TO) Managers Handbook. The handbook was developed by the Air Force Human Resources Lab. to provide TO managers with guidelines for selection of the most appropriate format opt...

D. E. Blair

1984-01-01

60

Electric-utility DSM programs: Terminology and reporting formats  

SciTech Connect

The number, scope, effects, and costs of electric-utility demand-site management programs are growing rapidly in the United States. Utilities, their regulators, and energy policy makers need reliable information on the costs of, participation in, and energy and load effects of these programs to make informed decisions. In particular, information is needed on the ability of these programs to cost-effectively provide energy and capacity resources that are alternatives to power plants. This handbook addresses the need for additional and better information in two ways. First, it discusses the key concepts associated with DSM-program types, participation, energy and load effects, and costs. Second, the handbook offers definitions and a sample reporting form for utility DSM programs. The primary purpose in developing these definitions and this form is to encourage consistency in the collection and reporting of data on DSM programs. To ensure that the discussions, reporting formats, and definitions will be useful and used, development of this handbook was managed by a committee, with membership from electric utilities, state regulatory commissions, and the US Department of Energy. Also, this data-collection form was pretested by seven people from six utilities, who completed the form for nine DSM programs.

Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sabo, C. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1991-10-01

61

Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

Not Available

1994-11-01

62

What marketing should mean to electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

As the electric utility environment becomes more competitive, increasing numbers of executives are exhorting their companies to become [open quotes]market-driven.[close quotes] In companies that include Pacific Gas and Electric, Public Service Colorado, Northeast Utilities, and Southern California Edison, those words are being translated into successful action, and the utilities are discovering that some of the basic tenets of being market-driven run counter to what they have traditionally associated with marketing. For example: Customer value is not just driven by price/rates; customers care about service features, too; All customers are not alike; even apparently similar customers can have very different needs; Being market-driven does not mean being responsive to customers at all costs; it means meeting customer needs profitably. These utilities have learned that they achieve significant benefits by becoming truly market-driven. They have also learned that moving in this direction required a new understanding of what marketing means, as well as new organizational skills, techniques, and capabilities. Increased sales growth per se is not the objective of becoming market-driven. Many utilities and regulators have voiced concern about efforts to build sales, efforts that could mean higher costs for customers if expensive new generating and transmission capacity are required to satisfy increased needs. Whether increased sales are desirable really depends on individual company circumstances. The two principal benefits of being market-driven-namely, more satisfied customers and less spending to produce them-far exceed the out-of-pocket and organizational investment needed to achieve them.

Farha, G.; Kamat, D. (McKinsey Co., Washington, DC (United States))

1993-05-15

63

Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States  

EIA Publications

Final issue of this report. Provides detailed statistics on existing generating units operated by electric utilities as of December 31, 2000, and certain summary statistics about new generators planned for operation by electric utilities during the next 5 years.

Information Center

2002-03-01

64

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

65

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances  

SciTech Connect

A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

1991-09-01

66

Utility competition urged for electricity reform  

SciTech Connect

Energy industries have been no exception to the restructuring changes that are taking place because of the emerging global economy, technical advances, and increasing competition. The market for electricity remains the last unrestructured energy market in the US, and generators and consumers will both suffer until regulation is updated and made responsive to today's economy. We must look for new approaches that will reduce the cost of power to consumers and enhance utility revenues at the same time. Regulations need to encourage productivity improvements. A task force in Pennsylvania studied these issues and concluded that the monopoly theory of utilities is obsolete and there should be incentives toward competitive behavior. The author describes the seven guiding principles of the task force and some experiments that would test the approach.

Scranton, W.W. III

1985-05-27

67

Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

68

Bring real capitalism to electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

Powers, B.F.

1991-01-15

69

Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

Not Available

1993-03-31

70

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities: Part I--Electric utility requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water battery, a reversible water electrolyser device being developed in a long-term research effort at Battelle's Columbus Laboratories, was evaluated in an analytical and conceptual design study as a load-levelling system for an electric utility. During periods when off-peak electrical power was available, the water battery would produce hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water; during peak demand periods

V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry; J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman

1977-01-01

71

The Measurement of Electric Utility Productivity. Volume I and Usage and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is one of series in an Experimental Technology Incentives Program (ETIP) project that developed analytic and management tools designed to accelerate or to otherwise improve electric utility rate case decisions in state regulatory commissions. T...

L. A. Merewitz R. E. Miller

1980-01-01

72

Statistical yearbook of the electric utility industry/1983  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents data on the electric utility industry, including generation, energy sales, customers and revenues, financial and economic. These data are collected and compiled from various sources. In all sections, except the Financial Section, data are presented for investor-owned Electric Utilities and the Total Electric Utility Industry. Dissimilarity between the investor-owned and the publicly-owned segments of the electric utility industry would make overall financial data incompatible even if it were available. Therefore, in the Financial Section, data are shown for investor-owned Electric Utilities only.

Bailey, J.D. (ed.)

1984-01-01

73

The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with

Joseph Eto

1996-01-01

74

Top 100 electric utilities' 1980 operating performance  

SciTech Connect

1980 operating data for the top 100 investor-owned electric utilities are presented in 10 tables comparing fossil-fuel consumption, reserve margins, generating capability, generating units by heat rate, heat rates, system heat rate, capacity addition, peak demand and capability, type of generation in the system, and transmission and distribution lines in operation. The summer heat wave raised peak demand 5.4% over 1979, while total generating capability rose only 1.7% and overall reserve margins dropped 23.3%. Most of the effect, however, was regional. Other trends indicate trouble spots due to capacity shortages in California and Florida and natural gas and coal substitution for oil. The Tennessee Valley Authority and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power were dropped from the listing, which now includes only those reporting financial data. (DCK)

Smock, R.W.

1981-08-01

75

Homeostatic control: the utility/customer marketplace for electric power  

SciTech Connect

A load management system is proposed in which the electric utility customer controls his on-site power demand to coincide with the lowest possible cost of power generation. Called Homeostatic Control, this method is founded on feedback between the customer and the utility and on customer independence. The utility has no control beyond the customer's meter. Computers located at the customer's site are continuously fed data on weather conditions, utility generating costs, and demand requirements for space conditioning, lighting, and appliances. The customer then directs the computer to schedule and control the power allotted for these functions. On-site generation by the customer can be incorporated in the system. It is argued that homeostatic control is technically feasible, that the level of control equipment sophistication can be adapted to the benefits received by the customer, that such a system would encourage the use of customer-site energy storage and energy conservation equipment, and that it represents a realistic method for allowing the customer to decide how he will use electric power during an era of increasing costs for power generation. (LCL)

Schweppe, F.C.; Tabors, R.D.; Kirtley, J.L.

1981-09-01

76

Utilizing Interns in Facilities Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facilities management is rapidly changing and developing from a position an individual stumbles into--or work one's way up through--to a discipline and vocation all of its own. There is a need for a collaborative strategy among leaders in practice, education, and research to share knowledge and experience and to establish professional and ethical…

Judkins, Clarissa; Morris, John P.; Molocznik, Chuck

2011-01-01

77

Cyber Security Management for Utility Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong identity management enforced with digital authentication mechanisms has become the leading requirement to improve cyber security for utility operations. Utility operators don?t really care how it works as long as they are confident that it does work. They want a solution that is standards-based, is interoperable with the commonly installed applications, and is extendable for legacy systems to lower

Dennis K. Holstein; Jose Diaz

2006-01-01

78

Advanced generating technologies - Motivation and selection process in electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric utilities are constantly seeking advanced methods for generating electricity to meet the future demand. The primary motivation for the development of advanced technologies is to generate electricity with minimum damage to the environment and with resources that are abundant. The utility planner evaluates the role of these technologies in the future system considering both quantifiable and nonquantifiable benefits and risks involved.

Bhavaraju, Murty P.

1993-03-01

79

Agricultural waste utilization and management  

SciTech Connect

These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

Not Available

1985-01-01

80

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new cluster resource management system called Simple Linux Utility Resource Management (SLURM) is described in this paper.\\u000a SLURM, initially developed for large Linux clusters at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a simple cluster\\u000a manager that can scale to thousands of processors. SLURM is designed to be flexible and fault-tolerant and can be ported to\\u000a other clusters of

Andy B. Yoo; Morris A. Jette; Mark Grondona

2003-01-01

81

Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). Th...

L. B. Parker

1997-01-01

82

Scheme for evaluating usage of wind energy by electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of integration of electric power, produced by wind energy, into utility networks, are studied by correlating the electric power load and the wind energy daily curves. A conceptual procedure for applying this approach and schematic illustrations are provided.

M. Segal; P. Alpert

1991-01-01

83

Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complex nature of hybrid electric vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to achieve satisfactory overall system efficiency. This paper presents a procedure for improving the energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck on the basis of dynamic optimization over a given drive cycle. Dynamic programming techniques are utilized to determine the optimal

Chan-Chiao Lin; Jun-Mo Kang; J. W. Grizzle; Huei Peng

2001-01-01

84

Three ways to decouple electric-utility revenues from sales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utility energy efficiency programs hurt shareholders because these programs reduce electricity use, and this reduction lowers revenues by more than costs are cut. Utilities and their regulators have adopted various methods to deal with these net lost reve...

E. Hirst E. Blank D. Moskovitz

1994-01-01

85

Costs and effects of electric-utility DSM programs: 1989--1997  

SciTech Connect

All US electric utilities are required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a comprehensive view of utility DSM-program costs and effects (energy savings and load reductions) for 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992 as well as projections for 1993 and 1997.

Hirst, E.

1994-06-01

86

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs

1991-01-01

87

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs

1991-01-01

88

Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and

Yuan-Yong Hsu; Shao-Yuan Lu

2010-01-01

89

The Demand for State Regulation of the Electric Utility Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory that the public interest is best served by state regulation of electric utilities is examined by studying its effect on electricity charges and utility profits and by comparing it with the opposing theory that regulation replaces public for private monopoly. Empirical evidence is presented to show that early state regulation favored the producer in that states having competitive

Gregg A. Jarrell

1978-01-01

90

TECHNOLOGIES OF LANDFILL GAS MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this paper is to review different technologies used for managing and utilizing landfill gas, in order to be compared according to their efficiency, costs and emissions. Systems for low generation rates of landfill gas, or low content in methane, include flaring of the extracted gas or its bioxidation using biofilters or non-catalytic oxidation technology. Also the case that

T. Tsatsarelis; A. Karagiannidis; N. Moussiopoulos; G. Perkoulidis

91

Solar energy and electric utilities - Should they be interfaced  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is conducted concerning the economics of solar energy systems which interface with conventional electric utility supply networks. It is found that solar collection systems generally will be economical only if they can deliver solar energy at a cost lower than the variable (fuel) cost component of off-peak electricity. It is concluded that solar energy systems and conventional electric

J. G. Asbury; R. O. Mueller

1977-01-01

92

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02

93

Solar energy and electric utilities: should they be interfaced?  

PubMed

Analyses of the economics of solar collection in the firm- and shifting-peak cases (that is, with off-peak electricity indefinitely available or with a flat load curve) indicate that, for many important applications, solar energy systems that interface with electric utilities can be justified only in terms of the value of the off-peak utility fuels that they displace. In regions where off-peak electricity costs are low, the most economically efficient solar energy systems will be those that use electricity as the auxiliary energy source. This implies extremely low break-even costs for a number of important solar energy applications. In regions where the cost of off-peak electricity is higher than that of competing energy forms, the most economical solar energy systems will utilize auxiliary fuels other than electricity. The general conclusion is that conventional electric utility systems and most solar energy systems represent a poor technological match. The basic problem is that both technologies are very capital intensive. The electric utility, because of the high fixed costs of generation, transmission, and distribution capacity, represents a poor backup for solar energy systems. On the other hand, the solar collection system, because it represents pure, high-cost capital and because of its outage problems, cannot be considered as a part-load source of auxiliary energy for the electric utility system. PMID:17734729

Asbury, J G; Mueller, R O

1977-02-01

94

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

95

SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management  

SciTech Connect

Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, and scheduling modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. Development will take place in four phases: Phase I results in a solid infrastructure; Phase II produces a functional but limited interactive job initiation capability without use of the interconnect/switch; Phase III provides switch support and documentation; Phase IV provides job status, fault-tolerance, and job queuing and control through Livermore's Distributed Production Control System (DPCS), a meta-batch and resource management system.

Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

2002-04-24

96

Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning  

SciTech Connect

Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

1994-09-01

97

Ecological Principles, Biodiversity, and the Electric Utility Industry  

PubMed

/ The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to relate to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) "Everything is interconnected" (and should usually stay that way), and (2) "We can never do merely one thing." The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry's programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Ecological principles; Habitat fragmentation; Edge effects; Greenhouse gases; Carbon dioxide; Electric utilities PMID:8895409

TEMPLE

1996-11-01

98

Critical links: The role of electric utilities in information infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities should seek out the role of providing {open_quotes}common infrastructure{close_quotes} for telecommunications services, some of which utilities need themselves. If they do so, in cooperation with cable and/or telephone companies, the public and utilities would be well served. After laboring for years to alert the industry and the public to the possibilities for electric utility involvement in advanced telecommunications networks and services, the author is thrilled by all the new alliances and demonstration projects that link power companies with information and telecommunications providers. But while a few electric utilities talk aggressively about entering competitive voice, data and video businesses, others still dread the very word `telecommunications.` By and large, no unanimity has emerged on how to capture the patent synergy of electricity and telecommunications while paving the way for a congenial, long-term fit between these two multi-faceted industries. Over the past several months, with assistance from the Office of Computational Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, the author has tried to fashion a model for the stable evolution of electric utilities into telecommunications and information. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of this inquiry as a `snapshot` of where U.S. electric utilities now stand vis-a-vis the nations`s telecommunications needs. Then he offers his own views about what utilities can and should do to help meet those needs to benefit themselves, their customers, and their shareholders.

Rivkin, S.R.

1995-10-01

99

Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

2006-09-01

100

Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn  

SciTech Connect

The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future.

Klein, R.

1991-10-01

101

Top 100 electric utilities' 1983 operating performance  

SciTech Connect

A midwestern heat wave and economic recovery during the second half of 1983 allowed 82 utilities in the top 100 to show gains in peak demand, compared to only 42 companies in 1982. Analysis of this year's annual growth of 4.2% indicates a resumption of strong demand growth. Data for the analysis come from the 1983 Uniform Statistical reports of the top 100 investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The data also show that the top 100 has cut oil consumption in half since 1978 (although there was an increase of oil consumption by utilities in the northeastern industrial states affected by the economic recovery), an end to the gas bubble, and a 3.9% gain in coal consumption. The data do not explain the reasons for a significant improvement in thermal efficiency. The addition of four new nuclear plants maintained the balance between plant retirements and new capacity. 9 tables.

Smock, R.

1984-08-01

102

Electric utility dividend changes during 1991  

SciTech Connect

Utility dividend declarations during 1991 reflected a normalcy of years gone by that has been absent since the early 1980s. There were no new dividend cuts or omissions for the first time since 1983, and dividends were increased by 68 percent (55 of a sample of 81 utilities that account for about 95 percent of investor-owned utility capital). This contrasts with the periodic dividend cuts and omissions of the previous seven years and is a milestone in the ending of the era of nuclear imprudence disallowances. Dividend cuts and omissions, of course, have been the most visible aspects of the financial distress caused by large imprudence disallowances. Nuclear plant construction has all but ended, and the related financial distress and dividend retrenchments are passing as well.

Studness, C.M.

1992-02-15

103

Electric utilities making major cuts in R and D spending  

SciTech Connect

Funding for electricity-related research and development by electric utilities decreased about 33% from 1993 through 1996, and further reductions were expected in 1997. The General Accounting Office (GAO) found that the Department of Energy`s R and D budget went from $1 billion in 1993 to $1.3 billion in 1995, and back again to $1 billion in 1996. However, electric utility R and D funding over the same period of time dropped from $708 million to $476 million. State energy programs were also reduced. The GAO report was limited to government and utility funding. Information on manufacturers R and D was not available. The primary reason found for the reduction in governmental funding was the overall effort to reduce budget deficits. Utilities, by contrast, cut R and D costs in anticipation of the shift from a regulated electric power industry to a competitive market.

Fleishman, B.J. [Dickstein Shapiro Morin and Oshinsky L.L.P., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-04-01

104

An overview of large wind turbine tests by electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of recent plants and experiences on current large wind turbine (WT) tests being conducted by electric utilities is provided. The test programs discussed do not include federal research and development (R&D) programs, many of which are also being conducted in conjunction with electric utilities. The information presented is being assembled in a project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the objective of which is to provide electric utilities with timely summaries of test performance on key large wind turbines. A summary of key tests, test instrumentation, and recent results and plans is given. During the past year, many of the utility test programs initiated have encountered test difficulties that required specific WT design changes. However, test results to date continue to indicate that long-term machine performance and cost-effectiveness are achievable.

Vachon, W. A.; Schiff, D.

105

Risk communication manual for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual focuses on the subject of risk communication to provide utilities with methods that facilitate effective public communication concerning perceived risks. Successful risk communication can enhance a company's image during regular activities or in an emergency situation can leave a legacy of public distrust and anger. Since the mid-1980s, researchers have been studying factors involved in risk communication. These

S. Swanson; S. Friedman; P. Bridgen; V. Covello; P. Slovic; J. Cohn

1991-01-01

106

Opportunities for electric utilities in telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the opportunities for utility participation in the telecommunications market on private microwave systems and hybrid microwave and fiber systems. The topics of the article include entering the market, national information infrastructure, business opportunities and considerations, levels of participation in telecommunications market, and regulatory objectives.

Meehan, C.M. (Utilities Telecommunications Council, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-11-01

107

Developing ''strategic support systems'' for electric utility strategic planning  

SciTech Connect

The continued improvement of strategic planning processes in electric utilities is of utmost importance, given their increasingly complex dynamic markets. Progress will be blocked unless electric utilities begin developing and integrating other organizational systems within their strategic planning processes to create ''strategic support systems.'' This article describes three dimensions for assessing the stage of development, discusses several major support systems, and notes the stage of development in strategic planning recently found within the industry.

McCann, J.E.

1986-01-01

108

Fuel-cells for electric utility and transportation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status and expected progress status of the fuel cell research and development programs in the USA, electrochemical problem areas, techno-economic assessments of fuel cells for electric and\\/or gas utilities and for transportation, and other candidate fuel cells and their applications are presented. For electric and\\/or gas utility applications the most likely candidates are phosphoric, molten carbonate, and solid

S. Srinivasan

1980-01-01

109

Sell lumens, not kilowatts: The future for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The key to the future for electric utilities will not be found in legislation or regulation. Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 will prove to be just as ineffectual in improving the industry's position as was the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. These legislative palliatives, which produced so much commotion and so many reams of heated commentary, are largely irrelevant to a successful future for electric utilities. The key will be found in economics, not in law, and the future will lie in completing Thomas A. Edison's century-old vision for the industry, half of which the industry has heretofore ignored. The industry must embrace the complete vision and evolve from electric utilities into [open quotes]end-use energy utilities.[close quotes

Piepmeier, J.M. (James M. Piepmeier Co., Evanston, IL (United States)); Jermain, D. (David O. Jermain Associates, Portland, OR (United States)); Egnor, T.L. (MicroGrid, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-04-01

110

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the key technology of electric vehicle (EV), a battery management system (BMS) is proposed here to settle the critical issues. The system includes several common modules: data acquisition unit, communication unit and battery state estimation model. Two additional management units are developed here, one is thermal management and the other is high voltage management which improve

Jiaxi Qiang; Lin Yang; Guoqiang Ao; Hu Zhong

2006-01-01

111

Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program  

SciTech Connect

Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working professionals wishing to update their skills or increase their knowledge of utility engineering design practices and procedures. By providing graduate educational opportunities for the above groups, the T&D Program will help serve a strong industry need for training the next generation of engineers in the cost-effective design, construction, operation, and maintenance of modern electrical transmission and distribution systems. In addition to developing the on-line engineering courses described above, the T&D Program also focused significant efforts towards enhancing the training opportunities available to power system operators in the northwest. These efforts have included working with outside vendors to provide NERC-approved training courses in Gonzaga University's (GU) system operator training facility, support for an accurate system model which can be used in regional blackstart exercises, and the identification of a retired system operator who could provide actual regional training courses. The GU system operator training facility is also being used to recruit young workers, veterans, and various under-represented groups to the utility industry. Over the past three years students from Columbia Gorge Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, Walla Walla Community College, Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Gonzaga University, and various local high schools have attended short (one-day) system operator training courses free of charge. These collaboration efforts has been extremely well received by both students and industry, and meet T&D Program objectives of strengthening the power industry workforce while bridging the knowledge base across power worker categories, and recruiting new workers to replace a predominantly retirement age workforce. In the past three years the T&D Program has provided over 170 utility engineers with access to advanced engineering courses, been involved in training more than 300 power system operators, and provided well over 500 college and high school students with an experienc

Peter McKenny

2010-08-31

112

Electric Utility Rate Design Proposals. Executive Summary of Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been a growing awareness of the need for a consistent public policy with respect to electric utilities. The central objective of such a policy should be to ensure that adequate and reliable supplies of electricity, efficiently generated from abu...

1977-01-01

113

Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of

Ysbrand John van der Werf

2006-01-01

114

EEI pocketbook of electric-utility industry statistics. [Pamphlet  

SciTech Connect

The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) statistics covering selected years since 1902 draw data from the Statistical Yearbook of the Electric Utility Industry. The contents are grouped under five major headings: Capacity and production; Capital and finance; Sales, Revenues, and Customers; Fuels; Government Ownership; and Miscellaneous. 32 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

115

Electric Utility Coal Consumption and Generation Trends, 1976-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1975, electric utilities accounted for roughly 400 million tons or 73 percent of total domestic coal consumption, a dramatic increase of 45% since 1955. For these and other reasons, well-founded estimates of future coal consumption for electricity gene...

1976-01-01

116

Electric-utility oil and gas use in the eighties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report forecasts possible levels of oil and gas use by electric utilities in the US through 1990. The analysis is done at a regional level. High and low levels of electricity demand as well as nominal and diminished availability of new generating capacity are assumed. Projected oil and gas use for 1990 ranges from 1000 to 3200 barrels per day.

Kolstad, C. D.; Abbey, D. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Williams, D. S.; Wolak, F. A., Jr.; Yeamans, M. K.

1982-04-01

117

Reliability issues in today's electric power utility environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable change is occurring in the structure and operation of electric power systems throughout the world. This paper describes some of these changes in North America and Europe, the forces creating them and the possible reliability issues associated with them. The main changes are deregulation and privatisation in the electric utility environment

R. Billinton; L. Salvaderi; J. D. McCalley; H. Chao; T. Seitz; R. N. Allan; J. Odom; C. Fallon

1997-01-01

118

Electric utility's view of passive solar backup energy costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) of the National Energy Act regulatory authorities and utilities are mandated to review ratemaking procedures. The outcome of this review may ultimately result in modifications away from residential class declining block rate structures to, where appropriate, time-of-day (TOD), demand related, or a combination of both electricity pricing. The backup energy

T. M. Lechner; W. Quigley

1980-01-01

119

Large windpower systems integrated with existing electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of the feasibility of the use of wind turbine generators as supplemental energy sources on an existing electric utility network. The time frame is the period of the next two decades. Specifically, the study is centered upon the geographical region served by Southwestern Public Service Company, an investor owned utility with present capacity of approximately

R. T. Smith; R. K. Swanson; C. C. Johnson; C. Ligon; J. Lawrence; D. Jordan

1976-01-01

120

Survey of Electric Utility Demand for Western Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for western coal. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Power Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases covering the period July 1972 through June 1976 and (2) d...

J. G. Asbury H. R. Kim A. Kouvalis

1977-01-01

121

Achieving Energy Efficiency in Buildings that Utilize Subsidized Electrical Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the potential of improving energy efficiency in buildings that utilize subsidized electrical energy. As an example, in Kuwait the government subsidizes 85 percent of the cost of electricity. In addition, the customer pays a fixed figure cost that is 2 fils\\/kWh (0.006 $\\/kWh). This led to an escalation in the demand for electrical energy, until it reached

Fatouh A. Al-Ragom

2004-01-01

122

Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

New and affordable technology for providing detailed feedback on household electricity usage presents a host of opportunities for utilities and policy-makers to manage demand. This dissertation examines ways to use these devices to reduce - and shift the timing of - energy use in the residential sector by influencing consumers' behavior. The first portion of the study analyzes the impact

Myles Collins

2010-01-01

123

Electric utility forecasting of customer cogeneration and the influence of special rates. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cogeneration, or the simultaneous production of heat and electric or mechanical power, emerged as one of the main components of the energy conservation strategies in the past decade. Special tax treatment, exemptions from fuel use restrictions, and regulatory policy changes were crafted to encourage its more wide-spread adoption in anticipation of higher energy conversion efficiencies. The expansion of cogeneration still faces a broad spectrum of problems, current and future: environmental restrictions; capital constraints; fuel prices; utility rates and future utility economics; and the difficulties of management. The most debated issue has been the reform of rates between individual cogenerators and the local electric utility. Many of the major cogeneration studies in the late 1970's urged an analysis of the exact impact from current electric utility rates upon cogeneration project economics. The changes mandated by the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 (PURPA) are now reaching the final implementation stage and the cogeneration projects of the mid 1970s are nearing completion. To better understand the relationship between utility rates, the economics of cogeneration, and its potential development, the New England Electric System and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Laboratory Utility Systems Group began a study to refine methods for forecasting cogeneration in a specific utility service area with special attention devoted to the utility rates.

Pickel, F.H.

1981-03-01

124

Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

125

Statistical year book of the electric-utility industry, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The 1981 yearbook covers generation, energy sales, customers and revenues, and other financial and economic data on the electric-utility industry. These data were collected and compiled from various sources. Data are presented for investor-owned electric utilities and the total electric utility industry in all sections except the Financial Section, which shows data for investor-owned utilities only. There was an overall 3.5% increase in generating capacity to nearly 635 million kilowatts during the year. Of the new units added, conventional steam accounted for 33, hydro five, nuclear steam 4, and internal-combustion 3. Dependence on foreign oil continued to decline. Revenues totaled $111.6 billion, an increase of 17%. 18 figures, 90 tables.

Not Available

1982-01-01

126

18 CFR 292.303 - Electric utility obligations under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric utility obligations under this subpart...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...Policies Act of 1978 § 292.303 Electric utility obligations under this...

2013-04-01

127

18 CFR 292.302 - Availability of electric utility system cost data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Availability of electric utility system cost data. 292.302...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...1978 § 292.302 Availability of electric utility system cost data. (a)...

2013-04-01

128

76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility...

2011-01-20

129

Management of electric back-up demand for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need and effectiveness of load management techniques to improve the economics of electrical utilization of solar buildings is studied. The study looks into this problem as it relates to Northern and Southern utility areas. The study consists of developing computer simulation models of eight different solar systems equipped with load management control devices. Each load management system is optimized

Debs

1978-01-01

130

An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

2012-01-06

131

The Role of Evaluation When Electric Utilities Get Financial Incentives for Their DSM Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of evaluation in electric utility demand-side management (DSM) programs is explored, including the importance of evaluation in determining financial incentives that a company will earn for DSM programs. A hypothetical example is presented of the types of problems that might arise when evaluations are subject to litigation. (SLD)

Hirst, Eric

1992-01-01

132

Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

133

Electric-utility DSM programs: 1990 data and forecasts to 2000  

SciTech Connect

In April 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) released data on 1989 and 1990 electric-utility demand-site management (DMS) programs. These data represent a census of US utility DSM programs, with reports of utility expenditures, energy savings, and load reductions caused by these programs. In addition, EIA published utility estimates of the costs and effects of these programs from 1991 to 2000. These data provide the first comprehensive picture of what utilities are spending and accomplishing by utility, state, and region. This report presents, summarizes, and interprets the 1990 data and the utility forecasts of their DSM-program expenditures and impacts to the year 2000. Only utilities with annual sales greater than 120 GWh were required to report data on their DSM programs to EIA. Of the 1194 such utilities, 363 reported having a DSM program that year. These 363 electric utilities spent $1.2 billion on their DSM programs in 1990, up from $0.9 billion in 1989. Estimates of energy savings (17,100 GWh in 1990 and 14,800 GWh in 1989) and potential reductions in peak demand (24,400 MW in 1990 and about 19,400 MW in 1989) also showed substantial increases. Overall, utility DSM expenditures accounted for 0.7% of total US electric revenues, while the reductions in energy and demand accounted for 0.6% and 4.9% of their respective 1990 national totals. The investor-owned utilities accounted for 70 to 90% of the totals for DSM costs, energy savings, and demand reductions. The public utilities reported larger percentage reductions in peak demand and energy smaller percentage DSM expenditures. These averages hide tremendous variations across utilities. Utility forecasts of DSM expenditures and effects show substantial growth in both absolute and relative terms.

Hirst, E.

1992-06-01

134

Groundwater manual for the electric utility industry, Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This comprehensive manual brings together hydrogeologic information on subsurface water resources, the fundamentals of aqueous geochemistry, and details on state and federal groundwater laws and regulations. Designed for utility personnel responsible for power plant construction, management, and operation, this manual discusses groundwater management and aquifer protection.

Redwine, J.C.; Barton, A.R., Jr.; Boyd, K.W.; Tinsley, R.J.; Mintz, J.L. (Southern Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)); White, W.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Chandler, R.V.; Copeland, C.W.; Moffett, T.B.; Moore, J.D.; Raymond, D.E. (Alabama Geological Survey, University, AL (United States))

1991-10-01

135

Performance evaluation of selected U.S. utility commercial lighting demand-side management programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article selects 18 commercial lighting demand-side management programs of electric utilities in the United States and evaluates their performance. It first uses four conventional measures, i.e., rate impact measurement, total resource cost, total utility cost, and total customer cost, to analyze the costs and benefits of each program. Although all programs achieve good benefit to cost ratios under each

T. Chen; O. S. Yu

1997-01-01

136

ORFIN: An electric utility financial and production simulator  

SciTech Connect

With the coming changes in the electrical industry, there is a broad need to understand the impacts of restructuring on customers, existing utilities, and other stakeholders. Retail wheeling; performance-based regulation; unbundling of generation, transmission, and distribution; and the impact of stranded commitments are all key issues in the discussions of the future of the industry. To quantify these issues, financial and production cost models are required. The authors have created a smaller and faster finance and operations model call the Oak Ridge Financial Model (ORFIN) to help analyze the ramifications of the issues identified above. It combines detailed pricing and financial analysis with an economic dispatch model over a multi-year period. Several types of ratemaking are modeled, as well as the wholesale market and retail wheeling. Multiple plants and purchased power contracts are modeled for economic dispatch, and separate financial accounts are kept for each. Transmission, distribution, and other functions are also broken out. Regulatory assets such as deferred tax credits and demand-side management (DSM) programs are also included in the income statement and balance sheet. This report describes some of the key features of the model. Examples of the financial reports are shown, with a description of their formulation. Some of the ways these results can be used in analyzing various issues are provided.

Hadley, S.W.

1996-03-01

137

Electric and gas utility telecommunications opportunities created by FCC computer rules  

SciTech Connect

Electric and gas utilities may indirectly benefit from the Federal Communications Commission's recently instituted rule making to revise its computer rules. This rule making, Computer III, is intended to facilitate telephone company network integration of computer and communications technologies. Such network integration would provide for more efficient and technologically advanced data communications than the separate development of computer and communications technologies which the FCC's computer rules currently require. Electric and gas utilities, by interconnecting their communications systems to an upgraded telephone network, could develop more efficient and sophisticated telecommunications services and thereby enhance energy supply and management.

Reams, D.A.

1985-10-31

138

Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dayal, P. [ed.] [Tucson Electric Power Co., AZ (United States)

1995-12-31

139

Solar photovoltaic power systems: an electric utility R & d perspective.  

PubMed

Solar photovoltaic technology is receiving increasing attention as a prospective source of bulk, electric utility power within the next 10 to 20 years. Successful development will require solar energy conversion efficiencies of about 15 percent for photovoltaic flat-plate modules, or about 25 percent for photovoltaic cells using highly concentrated sunlight. Three different cell technologies have a better than even chance of achieving these target efficiencies with costs and operating lifetimes that would allow significant use by electric utilities. The challenge for the next decade is to push photovoltaic technology to its physical limits while expanding markets and user confidence with currently available systems. PMID:17734901

Demeo, E A; Taylor, R W

1984-04-20

140

Interlocking director positions: an area of concern for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Congress passed the Federal Power Act in 1935 in an effort to remedy the abuses associated with the pyramiding of holding companies in the electric utility industry. The recent amendment to Section 305, with its broad requirements for reporting interlocking positions, may make it more difficult for electric utilities to get highly qualified individuals to serve as directors. Whether the increased reporting requirements will lead to further amendments of Section 305(b) remains uncertain, but the reports now required by Section 305(c) may be one informational data base for amendments to Section 305(b) extending the Federal Power Commission's jurisdiction. 52 references.

Merriman, R.M.; Tiano, J.R.

1980-01-01

141

A water-battery concept for electric utility energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water battery (reversible water electrolyzer or regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell), as envisioned by BCL, is a single energy-storage device with long operational life and high storage efficiency suitable for use on an electric utility system at dispersed locations (e.g., substations). Available off-peak electric energy could be used to electrolyze water, thereby generating hydrogen and oxygen which can be stored

J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman

1976-01-01

142

Effects of resource acquisitions on electric-utility shareholders  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to see how shareholders fare when the utility acquires different kinds of resources. The resources considered are utility-built, -operated, and -owned power plants with different combinations of construction and operation costs; purchases of power; and DSM programs. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility`s operating environment. Our treatment of regulation considers the frequency and type (future vs historic test year) of rate cases, inclusion of construction work in progress in ratebase vs allowance for funds used during construction, ratebase vs expensing of DSM programs, book and tax depreciation schedules, possible disallowances of ``excess`` power-plant or DSM capital costs, and possible lack of adjustment for ``excess`` fuel or purchased power costs. The tax policies we studied include the existence and rates for property, sales, and income taxes and the existence and regulatory treatment of deferred taxes. The utility`s operating environment includes the overall inflation rate, load-growth rate, escalation in nonproduction expenses, and nongeneration construction (capital) requirements. Finally, given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we briefly considered alternatives to traditional cost-of-service regulation. We examined shareholder returns for the resources described above in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1994-05-01

143

Westinghouse coal gasification combined cycle system for electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse coal gasification process and its application to combined cycle plants for electric utility use is presented. The process permits the conversion of coal in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, to low-or medium-Btu gas for utility and industrial use. Basically, the combined cycle plant design incorporates an air-blown, fluidized bed gasification system, a combustion turbine system and

F. Gigliotti; R. M. Stavsky; M. Carrington

1981-01-01

144

Oil-linked gas discount limited to electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with price competition from a plummeting oil market, Southern California Gas Co. obtained permission to offer a price of $2.80 per million British thermal units (mmBtu); but only electric utilities will be able to buy at that price, not industrial or commercial customers. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) has authorized the special one-month rate for sales to Southern

Poplett

1986-01-01

145

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

146

77 FR 30517 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability...Department of Energy (DOE) of the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk...

2012-05-23

147

EPRI guide to managing nuclear utility protective clothing programs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controlling the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

Kelly, J.J. (Right Angle Industries, Melbourne, FL (USA))

1991-05-01

148

Financial Analysis of Investor-Owned Electric Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the past and projected financial condition of the investor-owned electric utilities from 1970 to 1995, with emphasis on regulatory responses to financial problems in the 1970's. Projections are based on tax law as it existed on January...

1986-01-01

149

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utilities, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the cost and quality of fossil fuels for electric utility plants on a plant-by-plant basis grouped on a State and regional basis permits comparison of prices for similar fuels delivered to other plants in the same state and region. Data are...

K. McClevey R. Marcotte

1984-01-01

150

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utilities Form 423.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the cost and quality of fossil fuels for electric utility plants on a plant-by-plant basis grouped on a State and regional basis permits comparison of prices for similar fuels delivered to other plants in the same State and region. Data are...

R. Salkov J. G. Colligan

1980-01-01

151

National Maglev Initiative: California Line Electric Utility Power System Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 3...

P. Save

1994-01-01

152

Engineered Wood Structures for The Electric Utility & Telecommunication Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the decrease in supply and the volatility of the price of steel, many electric utilities have increased their use of wood products, such as proven glued laminated structures. Laminates are available in almost any required cross section and length and are of sufficient strength to completely interchange with solid sawn. Laminated timbers and poles rely on \\

R. A. Reisdorff

2006-01-01

153

Electric utility value analysis methodology for wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology summarized in this report was developed in support of a study of the value of augmenting conventional electric energy generation with wind energy conversion systems (WECS). A major objective of the value analysis study is the creation of an analytical methodology to assess WECS installed in a utility's generation system. The pertinent measures of value include both the

L. R. Bush; C. K. Cretcher; T. H. Davey

1981-01-01

154

Summary of interview survey of electric utility communication specialists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survey yielded a great deal of useful information. It provided the staff members of the Center for Evaluation and Assessment with a focus for their efforts with regard to developing guidelines and mechanisms for effective communication between electric utilities and their customers. Moreover, the interviews confirmed the staff's initial judgment that there are substantial problems that must be overcome

S. Ludwig; L. A. Messe; W. D. Crano

1980-01-01

155

Power electronics in electric utilities: Static var compensators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with dynamic var compensation of electric power systems, applying power electronics for reactive power generation and control. After an overview of the emergence and status of modern, solid-state var compensators in utility and industrial applications, the first part of the paper explains how dynamic var compensation increases transmittable power by providing voltage support, transient stability improvement, and

L. Gyugyi

1988-01-01

156

Electric utility response to the Clean Air Act Amendments  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the actions and planning by electric utilities to meet regulations on nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. The topics of the article include sulfur dioxide response and options, the fuel, technology and allowance interplay, nitrogen oxides control, continuous emission monitors, air toxics, clean air response tool kit, and the economics of compliance.

Torrens, I.M.; Platt, J.B. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-01-01

157

Optimal preventive maintenance budget setting for electric power distribution utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a practical method of preventive maintenance budget setting for electric power distribution utilities. Power system reliability mainly depends on preventive maintenance programs including types and frequency of selected maintenance activities controlled by maintenance budgets. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to find the optimal budget settings in order to minimize the outage costs of

N. Phoothong; P. Vanittanakom; N. Teera-achariyakul; D. Rerkpreedapong

2008-01-01

158

FACTS controllers and the deregulated electric utility environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The push towards deregulation in the electric utility industry is forcing a revaluation of the way transmission systems are operated. Reliance on the natural flow of current cannot meet the new requirements imposed by deregulation. One method to dictate the power flows is the increased reliance of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). This paper presents some of the new directions

B. T. Ooi; G. Joos; F. D. Galiana; D. McGillis; R. Marceau

1998-01-01

159

76 FR 38383 - Revised Public Utility Filing; Requirements for Electric Quarterly Reports; Notice of Electric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ER02-2001-000] Revised Public Utility Filing; Requirements for Electric Quarterly...needed for this meeting. Documents to be discussed at the...number field to access the document. For assistance accessing document on eLibrary,...

2011-06-30

160

Energy Management Guide for Building Management. Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use by commercial building management and operating staffs to encourage energy conservation. The measures suggested are meant to allow building operation at optimum efficiency while minimizing energy waste. Though mainly applicable to multistory buildings, the suggested energy conservation measures are also adaptable to…

Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

161

Economic impact of non-utility generation on electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Utility Generation is a major force in the way electrical energy is now being produced and marketed, and electric utilities are reacting to the growth of this new industry. When a utility buys electric energy from a non-utility generation at short notice, such as a few hours, one of the difficult issues encountered by the utility is the evaluation of

Rajnish Gupta

1997-01-01

162

Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

163

Improving the Quality of Customer Service of Electrical Power Supply using an Integrated Outage Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Outage Management System (IOMS) is a utility owned, centralized information system. Using the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) methodology, the IOMS integrates different databases and components of outage management systems to improve the quality of service of electrical power to customers. This paper describes the development of an IOMS and its related utility functionality. The design considerations,

M. K. S. Sastry

2006-01-01

164

Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System ...

B. L. Philipp

1998-01-01

165

Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry  

SciTech Connect

A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-05-01

166

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

1997-10-15

167

Utility load management and solar energy: study background and outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale use of electrically-assisted solar heating, hot water, and air-conditioning (solar\\/electric HHWAC) systems can have a substantial effect on electric utiliities. Under some conditions, peak loads may be increased causing electricity generation costs to rise. This study analyzes the economic, environmental, and social impacts of various rate schedules and load-management strategies governing the use of solar\\/electric HHWAC systems. Target

H. Davitian; R. Bright; W. Marcuse

1978-01-01

168

76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management...comment on DOE's intent to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management...is targeted to the specific needs of electricity sector organizations and adds to...

2011-09-16

169

A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets  

SciTech Connect

This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

Warwick, William M.

2002-06-03

170

Markets for power: an analysis of electric utility deregulation  

SciTech Connect

Proposals to deregulate various aspects of electricity production and pricing are evaluated, which required the development of an analytical framework and an understanding of the particular technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the electric utility industry. Part I of the book presents this analytical framework, as well as more general theoretical concepts useful for evaluating behavior and performance of any firm. Part II analyzes four deregulation scenarios that draw heavily on the background of Part I, concluding with suggestions for public policy and including some deregulation and substantial regulatory and structural reform. 260 references, 12 tables.

Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.

1983-01-01

171

Multiobjective financial planning model for electric-utility rate regulation  

SciTech Connect

The interests of the three parties to the regulatory process (investors in an electric utility, consumers, and regulators) are often in conflict. Investors are concerned with shareholder wealth maximization, while consumers desire dependable service at low rates. If the desired end product of regulation is to establish rates that balance the interests of consumers and investors, then a financial planning model is needed that accurately reflects the multi-objective nature of the regulatory decision process. This article develops such a multi-objective programming model for examining the efficient trade-offs available to utility regulators in setting rates of return. 8 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

Linke, C.M.; Whitford, D.T.

1983-08-01

172

A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

Hill, L.J.

1995-10-01

173

Dynamics of Wind Generators on Electric Utility Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic interaction of wind-turbine-driven generators on electric utility networks was studied by computer simulation. Nonlinear representations of wind-turbine and various drive train elements and Park equation representations of synchronous and induction generators were implemented. An infinite capacity network was assumed. Time history responses for various system configurations were computed using as the input function severe wind gust data added to

CRAIGC. JOHNSON; RICHARDT. SMITH

1976-01-01

174

Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

van der Werf, Ysbrand John

175

A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

NONE

1993-08-11

176

Transition to competition in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Changing technological and supply conditions have dramatically altered the structure and costs of the electric utility industry. Assurance of the continued financial viability of the industry, maintenance of adequate levels of supply reserves, and reliability and protection of interests of residential and industrial consumers requires that a fundamental re-examination of traditional power-delivery institutions occur. The purpose of this article is to begin such an inquiry by proposing a menu of positive solutions to some of the basic problems facing the electric-utility industry. This article, however, is not intended, nor is it structured, as a traditional review of the law, and relatively little attention is paid to legal precedent. The framework that regulates the electric-utility industry today was built in the first forty years of this century, without any precedent, and structured to adapt to the changing environment of that time. Now that the industry has matured, it is only reasonable to look at how it can be shaped to reflect today's dynamic environment. Thus, it is the intent of this article to be a prospective policy paper that coherently addresses the problems of the industry and presents the solutions necessary for it to thrive in the future. 1 table.

O'Connor, P.R.; Levin, S.L.; Cahill, J.J.; Keenan, G.M.

1988-01-01

177

Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

1996-07-01

178

Changing dimensions of utility huMan-resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern developments in the management of people (officers and employees) are rapidly finding a place within the utility industries. Economic, technological, sociographic, and even political changes have dramatically altered the environment in which utilities operate and thus the skills and capabilities required of the people who run and manage them; but the personnel function has only recently been recognized as

Laros

1982-01-01

179

Utilizing the Mixer Method for Content Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content management is a confusing term used in several contexts. We define content management as the organizing of information (for a specific purpose) available in a system. We present the mixer method that uses servlet technology and the model-view-controller design pattern as a way to accomplish content management in a system. The heart of the mixer method is mixer which

Suru Dissanaike; Pierre Wijkman; Mitra Wijkman

2004-01-01

180

Online Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits from EM, many solution methods have been presented. Optimal solution methods are typically not feasible

John T. B. A. Kessels; Michiel W. T. Koot; Paul P. J. van den Bosch; Daniel B. Kok

2008-01-01

181

American Electrical: Managing an Environmental Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a case study for use in business communication classes to help students understand and learn both the context and the strategies for communication with business and management. Deals with an electrical company that finds itself with an environmental crisis on its hands. Includes five assignments as well as five samples. (SR)|

O'Rourke, James S., IV

1998-01-01

182

The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.

1980-12-01

183

Data and projections on US electric-utility DSM programs: 1989--1997  

SciTech Connect

All US electric utilities are required to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a comprehensive view of utility DSM-program costs and effects (energy savings and load reductions) for 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992 as well as projections for 1993 and 1997. For 1992, US utility DSM programs cost almost $2.4 billion, saved 31,800 GWh, and cut potential peak demand by 32,900 MW. Normalized by retail revenues, sales, and peak demand, utilities spent 1.3% of their revenues to achieve energy and demand reductions of 1.2 and 6.0%, respectively.

Hirst, E.

1994-12-01

184

Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978: electric utility rate reform  

SciTech Connect

Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) are examined with a focus on the economic bases and implications of retail sales by electric and natural gas utilities. Title I outlines the requirements and procedures for setting retail electricity rates. Six ratemaking standards and the various arguments in favor of rate reform are examined. Rate issues are traditionally argued at the state level, but PURPA directs the states to examine federal standards and ratemaking issues in terms of cost-effectiveness. The legislative history of the Act and the major compromises made are described. The states that have been reluctant to consider rate reforms may be encouraged to adopt cost-effectiveness criteria sooner, while the more-progressive states may find the legislation has slowed the process. If state commissions fail to serve national goals in their rate reform, the Federal government can assume a retail ratemaking role for the interstate market. (DCK)

Joskow, P.L.

1979-10-01

185

Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHV's). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO(x) and CO2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NOx and CO2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small--less than 1% of total utility emissions even with the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles.

1993-04-01

186

Electric utility industry addresses issue of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Global climate change is a high priority issue for the electric utility industry, and careful consideration is under-way of numerous options to deal effectively with the potential consequences. The earth's temperature has risen about 0.5 degrees Celsius during the past 100 years. It is not known, however, whether this warning is part of a natural cycle or whether man-made emissions will cause additional warning. Scientists speculate the earth's temperature would have to rise another four to five degrees Celsius for significant adverse effects to result from global warming. The utility industry plans to give careful consideration to an array of supply and demand options, he said. Reliable and affordable electric generation is imperative to our society and will be increasingly important in helping societies adapt if global warning does occur. The nation needs a balanced energy mix to ensure an adequate energy supply. The development of new clean coal burning technologies is essential and should be accelerated to increase efficiency and minimize atmospheric emissions. The utility industry is also looking at processes that will reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial and transportation sectors.

Not Available

1989-04-01

187

Time Management Problems and Discounted Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lens of behavioral decision theory offers a new perspective for research on time management. The basic idea of this approach is that people discount future consequences of their time management decisions, meaning that they work on tasks with smaller but sooner outcomes rather than on tasks with larger but later outcomes. The authors performed 2 experimental studies to test

Cornelius J. König; Martin Kleinmann

2007-01-01

188

Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

Hill, L.J.

1990-12-01

189

Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed.

Payne, S M

1987-01-01

190

Determining the value of conservation to Thailand's electric utility  

SciTech Connect

Incorporating demand-side resources into the planning regime of fast-growing electric utilities in developing countries is a particular challenge. In this paper, a method is developed for valuing the contribution of conservation under these circumstances and illustrated through scenarios of electricity savings in Thailand's large commercials sector. The primary value of these scenarios is in the creation of opportunities to defer or cancel plants planned for future inclusion in the system. The benefits of such deferments are twofold: a direct reduction in capacity needs commensurate with the load impacts of the scenario, plus a reduction in the reserve margin required to maintain system reliability. Comparison of the capital requirements of the conservation scenarios versus the deferrable plant capacity showed that conservation is substantially less capital intensive.

Busch, J.F. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US))

1992-08-01

191

Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-06

192

Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

193

Breakup of the Bell monopoly: Lessons for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Technological change, not regulatory change, was the prime mover behind the Bell breakup. Now, for the first time, technology threatens to recast the economic structure of the electric utility industry as well. Previous analyses of the restructuring of the telecommunications industry, as represented by the 1984 breakup of the Bell monopoly, focus on regulatory change as the precipitator and principal agent. Technology is recognized as an important factor but not the primary trigger. This view confounds the roles of the independent and dependent variables in the economic system. The mistake is more than misperception of a single, isolated event that is now over and done with; it is fundamental and it must be corrected in order to understand the implications that restructuring holds for electric utility monopolies. Technology, not regulation, was the primary trigger in the Bell System breakup. Technology acted as a virus, infecting the monopoly economics of telecommunications and in turn driving a complete transformation of that industry. Regulatory change was the consequence, not the cause.

Piepmeier, J.M. (James M. Piepmeier and Co., Evanston, IL (United States)); Jermain, D.O. (David O. Jermain Associates, Portland, OR (United States)); Egnor, T.L. (MicroGrid, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-07-01

194

Policies, Management, Technologies and Facilities for the Treatment of Electrical and Electronic Wastes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the development of information technologies, the amount of electrical and electronic wastes continues to increase rapidly. Social request for comprehensive electronic scrap utilization is stronger than ever in China. In order to achieve sustainable development of the society, relevant policies, management, technologies and facilities for the treatment of electrical and electronic wastes in China were analyzed in details.

Jinhui Li; Xuefeng Wen; Tongzhou Liu

195

Science and Technology: Free-market economics meets regulated electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Competition, conservation, and open access are catchwords that represent new directions in regulatory management policy for electric utilities. [open quotes]Regulated commoditization[close quotes] introduces a new catchword that describes a computer-created economic universe for electric utilities that can realize these objectives, and more, through a free-market pricing protocol that coexists with regulation. Regulation implies setting prices by largely administrative or political processes, while commoditization implies free and competitive markets in which prices are set by a combination of cost, supply and demand, competition, and profit factors. Because of the mercurial nature of electricity and the monopoly inherent in its local distribution, commoditizing electric power poses special challenges that do not arise with conventional commodities. Cracking the contradiction between commoditization and regulation depends first on a general acceptance of gross revenue regulation, or GRR, as a substitute for rate regulation, and then on the availability of computer software that makes it practical to price electric power with commodity precepts while simultaneously keeping gross revenues more or less fixed. GRR could be structured to realize the same basic objective as rate regulation, while allowing commoditization. What's more, the commoditization process could be introduced in steps. Further, a commodity algorithm would be feasible to define each commodity pricing component in terms of operational parameters and how they would be combined.

Chasek, N.E.

1993-10-15

196

Demand-side management of China`s electric power  

SciTech Connect

This article presents an analysis of China`s strategies for electricity demand-side management (DSM) by the year 2000. It discusses electricity shortages, potential for electricity conservation, and measures to cope with the problems. It concludes that the country should speed up the reform of electricity pricing, make executable laws, and invest capital in demand-side management.

Yang, M. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). School of Environment, Resources and Development

1996-04-01

197

Utilizing Predictors for Efcient Thermal Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional thermal management techniques are reactive in nature; that is, they take action after temperature reaches a predetermined threshold value. Such approaches do not always minimize and balance the temperature on the chip, and furthermore, control temperature at a noticeable performance cost. In this work, we investigate how to use predictors for forecasting future temperature and workload dynamics, and propose

Kivilcim Coskun; Tajana Simunic; Rosingy Kenny

198

TOXIC SCREENING MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER UTILITY MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act begin a new period of water quality management for water utilities. Of particular concern to water utilities depending upon surface sources are amendments that regulate more contaminants, define treatment techniques for each cont...

199

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigate...

R. Malkin C. E. Moss C. M. Reh M. Ragab

1996-01-01

200

18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and...

2013-04-01

201

18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. ...FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. ...The Form of Annual Report for Major electric utilities, licensees and...

2013-04-01

202

Fuelwood management and utilization seminar: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the seminar are included in this proceedings. Silvicultural and other management techniques for the development of private non-industrial woodloads for participation in the fuelwood market are discussed. Properties of wood, wood heating systems, productivity of wood lots, and harvesting techniques are also convered. Reports on the progress and programs underway in each state are presented at the end of the seminar proceedings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for selected items for inclusion in the Energy Date Base. (DMC)

Obyc, R.J. (comp.)

1982-01-01

203

Utilization of databases to manage resources  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how databases are used by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Project at Argonne National Laboratory to help manage the project and its resources. It documents our experiences in implementing database technology in a large scientific project. Some of the topics that will be discussed include: The APS database environment; decentralizing databases; extending the database environment (graphical, spreadsheet and barcode interfaces);choosing a database; and software development issues.

Sheridan, T.

1992-09-01

204

Utilization of databases to manage resources  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how databases are used by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Project at Argonne National Laboratory to help manage the project and its resources. It documents our experiences in implementing database technology in a large scientific project. Some of the topics that will be discussed include: The APS database environment; decentralizing databases; extending the database environment (graphical, spreadsheet and barcode interfaces);choosing a database; and software development issues.

Sheridan, T.

1992-01-01

205

Management skills and attitudes of principals toward energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the differences between the management skills and attitudes of principals on low, moderate, and high energy utilization\\/consumption campuses. The sample included elementary, middle, and high school principals employed by the Houston Independent School District, Texas, during the 1985-86 academic year. A questionnaire, the Survey of Energy Management, was administered to 51 school administrators to determine how they

Huntington

1987-01-01

206

CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)  

EPA Science Inventory

In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

207

Statistical yearbook of the electric-utility industry, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The 1982 statistical data on the electric-utility industry compares generation and sales by sector, identifies customers and revenues, and compares five-year trends in financial and economic figures for construction, operation, and investment. Highlights for the year include a 2.4% increase in generating capacity to over 650 million kilowatts; and increase in coal's share from 59.3 to 61.9% of total thermal generation; and a corresponding decrease in oil's share from 10.2 to 7.6%. Total revenues were $121.1 billion, up 9.5%, while ultimate customers increased 1.4% to 95.3 million. 17 figures, 90 tables. (DCK)

Bailey, J.D. (ed.)

1983-01-01

208

Rule-based Energy Management and Reporting System (EMRS) Applied to a Large Utility Power Station Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation of electricity and rising fuel costs are causing renewed interest in energy management systems (EMS) to service both the utility and private sectors. This article details a case study of the successful integration of a new class of rule-based energy management and reporting systems (EMRS) applied to a large industrial complex. In this case, the EMRS is in a

Dan Bamber; Ronald L. Childress Jr; James E. Robinson

2005-01-01

209

Effectiveness of pain management following electrical injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pain management after electrical injury. A retrospective hospital chart review was conducted among electrically injured patients discharged from the outpatient burn clinic of a rehabilitation hospital (July 1, 1999, to July 31, 2008). Demographic data, numeric pain ratings (NPRs) at initial assessment and discharge, medications, nonpharmacologic modalities, and their effects before admission and after rehabilitation were collected. Pain management effects were compared between high (> or =1000 v) and low (<1000 v) voltage, and between electrical contact and electrical flash patients, using Student's t-test and chi, with a P < .05 considered significant. Of 82 electrical patients discharged during the study period, 27 were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 55 patients who had a mean age +/-SD of 40.7 +/- 11.3 years, TBSA of 19.2 +/- 22.7%, and treatment duration of 16.5 +/- 15.7 months. The majority were men (90.9%), most injuries occurred at work (98.2%), mainly caused by low voltage (n = 32, 58.2%), and the rest caused by high voltage (n = 18, 32.7%). Electrical contact was more common (54.5%) than electrical flash (45.5%). Pain was a chief complaint (92.7%), and hands were the most affected (61.8%), followed by head and neck (38.2%), shoulders (38.2%), and back torso (38.2%). Before rehabilitation, the most common medication were opioids (61.8%), relieving pain in 82.4%, followed by acetaminophen (47.3%) alleviating pain in 84.6%. Heat treatment was the most common nonpharmacologic modality (20.0%) relieving pain in 81.8%, followed by massage therapy (14.5%) alleviating pain in 75.0%. During the rehabilitation program, antidepressants were the most common medication (74.5%), relieving pain in 22.0%, followed by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (61.8%), alleviating pain in 70.6%. Massage therapy was the most common nonpharmacologic modality (60.0%), alleviating pain in 75.8%, and then cognitive behavioral therapy (54.5%), alleviating pain in 40.0%. There were pain improvements in all anatomic locations after rehabilitation except for the back torso, where pain increased 0.7 +/- 2.9 points. Opioids were more commonly used in high voltage (P < .05), and cognitive behavioral therapy in low-voltage injuries (P < .05). Opioids were used in both electrical flash and electrical contact injuries. Pain in electrically injured patients remains an important issue and should continue to be addressed in a multimodal way. It is hoped that this study will guide us to design future interventions for pain control after electrical injury. PMID:20061840

Li, Adrienne L K; Gomez, Manuel; Fish, Joel S

210

Impact of 1980 Scheduled Capacity Additions on Electric-Utility Oil Consumption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electric-utility sector currently consumes approximately 8% of the total oil used in the Nation. This oil represented about 15% of total fuel consumed by electric utilities in 1979. Two important factors that affect the level of utility oil consumptio...

M. Gielecki G. Clark B. Roberts

1980-01-01

211

MATCHING WIND RESOURCE IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS WITH UTILITY ELECTRICAL LOADING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to see how well wind generated electricity in the Southern Great Plains matched the utility electrical loading and whether there were ways to improve this match so that renewable energy could make up a more significant portion (10-30%) of the utility’s total generation. Wind g...

212

Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to related to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) {open_quotes}Everything is interconnected{close_quotes} (and should usually stay that way), and (2) {open_quotes}We can never do merely one thing.{close_quotes} The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced-or even turned into conservation benefits-by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry`s programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones. 19 refs.

Temple, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-11-01

213

Ecological principles, biodiversity, and the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthetic field of conservation biology uses principles derived from many different disciplines to address biodiversity issues. Many of these principles have come from ecology, and two simple ones that seem to relate to many issues involving the utility industry are: (1) “Everything is interconnected” (and should usually stay that way), and (2) “We can never do merely one thing.” The first principle can be applied to both the biotic and physical environments that are impacted by industrial activities. Habitat fragmentation and the loss of physical and biotic connectedness that results are frequently associated with transmission rights-of-way. These problems can be reduced—or even turned into conservation benefits—by careful planning and creative management. The second principle applies to the utility industry's programs to deal with carbon released by burning fossil fuels. Ecological knowledge can allow these programs to contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in addition to addressing a pollution problem. Without careful ecological analyses, industry could easily create new problems while implementing solutions to old ones.

Temple, Stanley A.

1996-11-01

214

Programmable timed electrical power management device  

SciTech Connect

A programmable timed electrical power management device protects and controls electrical equipment and peripherals which are plugged into it. The front of the housing containing the electrical circuitry is provided with a LCD display, a series of pressure sensitive switches for inputting function and control commands to control the operation of the device. A series of LED's mounted on the front of the housing indicate the operational status of the device. The back of the housing is provided with an AC power input receptacle, an on/off reset switch, a series of AC outlets which are divided into pairs of filtered banks, and two or more modular jacks for receiving the modular plug of a telephone, fax, and/or modem. The device circuitry includes a CPU, timer/calendar, a sound generator, voltage sensors, and a back-up battery power supply. The outlets and modular plugs are protected from electrical surges. Each bank of outlets can be selectively programmed to turn on and off at a different time of the day and different days of the week. When more than one bank is set to start at the same time, power is sequentially supplied to each electrical outlet bank allowing the voltage to stabilize before turning on the next bank. A warning tone will sound fifteen, ten, and five minutes prior to shutting off any of the banks, to alert the user that the system is approaching the preset time for the power to the outlets to be turned off, to prevent accidental loss of information. 9 figs.

Nyenya, S.S.

1994-01-11

215

Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.  

PubMed

Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models. PMID:23025863

Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

2012-10-01

216

Exploring utility function in utility management: an evaluating method of library preservation.  

PubMed

In order to seek a new method of book evaluation and realize book resources sharing among the regional university libraries, we think that library should collect books of the high utility value in the case of limited funds. We proposed a changing Bellman equation as a utility function and used the explicit functions of the book usage factor and the book usage half-life derived from the utility function as an evaluating method of the collecting books. The results from empirical data given some conclusions such as the varieties diversity, the collected risk, the tendencies of reading varieties, species continuity and so on and a librarian can use the utility management to supplement the collections management. PMID:23607083

Yan, Bin; Shi, Feng; Yu, Rui-Qiang

2013-02-21

217

Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software.

Philipp, B.L.

1998-09-14

218

Mercury stack emissions from U.S. electric utility power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature estimates for worldwide anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions range from 900 to 6200 t\\/yr. EPA recently estimated that U.S. electric utilities emit about 93 t\\/yr. EPRI, DOE, and others have recently conducted field measurements to better quantify electric utility emissions of Hg and other trace substances. Hg emissions inventories based on these recent measurements indicate that total electric utility Hg

P. Chu; D. B. Porcella

1995-01-01

219

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

NONE

1995-12-01

220

Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition  

SciTech Connect

The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2011-03-01

221

Preliminary Energy Sector Assessments of Jamaica. Volume V: Electric Utility Rate Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyzes the electric utility rate structure of the Jamaica Public Service Company (JPS) in order to determine whether it promotes economically efficient use of electricity, is based on principles of equity and fairness, and provides JPS with su...

1980-01-01

222

Radioisotope electric propulsion missions utilizing a common spacecraft design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted that shows how a single radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) spacecraft design could be used for various missions throughout the solar system. This spacecraft design is based on an REP feasibility design from a study performed by NASA Glenn Research Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The study also identifies technologies that need development to enable these missions. The mission baseline for the REP feasibility design study is a Trojan asteroid orbiter. This mission sends an REP spacecraft to Jupiter's leading Lagrange point where it would orbit and examine several Trojan asteroids. The spacecraft design from the REP feasibility study would also be applicable to missions to the Centaurs, and through some change of payload configuration could accommodate a comet sample-return mission. Missions to small bodies throughout the outer solar system are also within reach of this spacecraft design. This set of missions, utilizing the common REP spacecraft design, is examined, and required design modifications for specific missions are outlined.

Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steven

2005-07-01

223

National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

Save, Phil

1994-05-01

224

Electric Utilities and Solar Energy: The Service Contract in a New Social Context.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposals have been advanced by both advocates and skeptics of solar energy suggesting a close merger between electric utilities and decentralized solar. It is found that there is a need for appropriate rate design by utilities to accommodate solar users,...

R. W. Gilmer R. E. Meunier

1979-01-01

225

Effect of electrical-utility-system voltage harmonics on induction motors  

SciTech Connect

Distortion of the electrical utility system voltage waveform can result in damage to or malfunction of user electrical equipment. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of utility voltage harmonics on the temperature rise of single-phase induction motors. The results suggest that utility voltage harmonics do not significantly affect the operating temperature of a single-phase induction motor until the amplitudes of the harmonics are much larger than the amplitudes currently present in the US utility system.

Rasmussen, N.E.

1981-03-01

226

Capital requirements for the US investor-owned electric utility industry, 1985-2005: Final report  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, financial concerns have increasingly constrained the traditional utility planning focus, on engineering and economic tradeoffs. After a troubled period, however, many utilities have completed major construction programs and face fewer financial constraints in the near term, while other utilities hope to achieve this status shortly. At the same time, many utilities and regulatory commissions are reluctant to begin construction of large new plants, both because of current high reserve margins and because of past unhappy outcomes for ratepayers and investors when load growth proved lower than expected. This study examines the potential long-run financial constraints and risks the electric utility industry faces as a result of the current incentives to delay the start of major new projects as long as possible. The study analyzes industry-wide financial and operating data from 1985 to 2005 under several scenarios. The findings suggest that if the future is no worse than postulated in our scenarios, total construction expenditures and external funding requirements should be manageable at the national level. Also, the study finds that the cost of delaying new construction /en dash/ although possibly significant /en dash/ will depend critically on the relative prices of coal and natural gas which actually occur. Thus this report concludes that the possibility of significant future financial constraints does not appear to be a problem at the national level. There is good reason to believe, however, that there could be a problem under certain adverse conditions for specific regions and for individual utilities. Given the relatively large amount of external funds likely to be needed by some utilities in those situations and the risks investors may perceive in supplying these funds, financial constraints may cause some construction delays. 23 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

Kolbe, A.L.; Johnson, S.K.; O'Loughlin, M.P.

1988-06-01

227

Oceano-SLA based management of a computing utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceano is a prototype of a highly available, scaleable, and manageable infrastructure for an e-business computing utility. It enables multiple customers to be hosted on a collection of sequentially shared resources. The hosting environment is divided into secure domains, each supporting one customer. These domains are dynamic: the resources assigned to them may be augmented when the load increases and

K. Appleby; S. Fakhouri; L. Fong; G. Goldszmidt; M. Kalantar; S. Krishnakumar; D. P. Pazel; J. Pershing; B. Rochwerger

2001-01-01

228

Choice of discount rates in utility planning: a critique of conventional betas as risk indicators for electric utilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports statistical tests of the way betas are conventionally calculated. The results demonstrate that conventional betas are not appropriate for assessing the risk of electric utility investments. Electric utility betas calculated in an alternative way indicate a much higher level of risk, while the relative risks of comparison unregulated industries do not prove sensitive to the alternative calculation. For example, the results imply that recent data could lead to estimates of the cost of equity that are about 3 percentage points too low for electric utilities. Further tests reveal that more work is needed. In Phase II of this project, Charles River Associates Incorporated explores, with mixed results, alternative formulations of the relative risk, of utility investments.

Kolbe, L.

1984-02-01

229

Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencie...

D. Beattie M. Wolfson

2001-01-01

230

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Electric Utilities and Fusion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utili...

J. D. Rogers H. J. Boenig W. V. Hassenzahl

1978-01-01

231

Electric utility\\/advocacy group interaction: A case history report on the key outcomes of DSM\\/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings derived from ten case studies of activities undertaken by energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) to influence the use of cost-effective Demand-Side Management (DSM) by electric utilities and to promote Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). Nine of these ten cases included some form of interactive effort involving utilities and, in almost all cases, other nonutility parties (NUPs)

M. Schweitzer; M. English; S. Schexnayder; J. Altman

1995-01-01

232

Solar energy: a view from an electric utility standpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy alternatives may be classified as either technological conversion systems or natural collection systems. The technological systems include thermal conversion for heating and cooling of buildings and thermal conversion for electric power production and direct conversion systems such as photovoltaic conversion to electricity. The natural collection approaches include ocean-thermal gradients and wind energy, which can be used for electric

1975-01-01

233

Rethinking Regulated Ratemaking: Menu-of-Service Electric Utility Tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retail electricity consumers are demanding more choice in the reliability, power quality, and efficiency of their energy services. Electric distribution companies provide delivery services for the electricity commodity provided by central power generators. More customer choice in the use of the transmission and distribution system would benefit customers and would increase the application of distributed energy resources, including on-site generation,

N. Treadway

2006-01-01

234

The death spiral: An assessment of its likelihood in electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

First, we present the death spiral hypothesis (high rate increases leading to bankruptcy), providing a historical background on its inception and discussing the observations provided in other industries of its occurrence through the years. Then we provide a discussion of the conditions necessary for the spiral effect. In doing this we provide insight into the assumptions implied by those who forecast such doom. Based on this discussion, we then provide the reader with a discussion of the implications such a concept has for regulatory policy. In addition, we conclude that given the structure of the regulatory process, the chances of a spiral effect for the electric utility industry have probably been overstated. It is shown that the occurrence of a death spiral is based on unrealistic conditions about the response of a utility's customers to higher rates, the incentives of and constraints facing regulators regarding pricing and permitting a utility to experience permanent financial distress, and the intense actions of a utility's management to avoid financial disaster.

Hemphill, R.C.; Costello, K.W.

1987-01-01

235

Impact of decentralized renewable energy systems on electric utility companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effort of homeowners centering around the displacement of conventional energy supplies through utilization of decentralized renewable energy systems is described. The impact of this effort on utilities is discussed. Field tests are being performed on active solar systems; passive, superinsulated, and underground houses; wind generators; photovoltaic cells; and energy efficient appliances involving interfacing decentralized energy resources with utility systems

R. T. DAquanni; D. L. Ouellette

1981-01-01

236

Electromagnetic Fields, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Prostate Cancer Mortality in Electric Utility Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mortality from prostate cancer among US electric utility workers. Data on participants, who were current and former employees of five large US electric utility companies, had been collected during 1987-1994, and the mortality of the

Luenda E. Charles; Dana Loomis; Carl M. Shy; Beth Newman; Robert Millikan; Leena A. Nylander-French; David Couper

2003-01-01

237

Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

Not Available

1993-12-28

238

Predictive energy management of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) strategy is developed for the first time to solve the optimal energy management problem of power-split hybrid electric vehicles. A power-split hybrid combines the advantages of series and parallel hybrids by utilizing two electric machines and a combustion engine. Because of its many modes of operation, modeling a power-split configuration is complex

H. A. Borhan; A. Vahidi; A. M. Phillips; M. L. Kuang; I. V. Kolmanovsky

2009-01-01

239

A study of the utilization of ex-managers  

SciTech Connect

The basic purpose of the study was to identify the problems of ex-manager utilization, evaluate their seriousness, and to develop recommendations for solutions, if necessary. The scope and direction of the study was defined by the formulation of the following questions: Is this valuable human resource effectively utilized How can we unsure optimal reassignments to maximize benefits to all What are the issues, problems, and solutions What changes in policies and practices are needed Although these questions were continually reassessed and many variations were considered, they remained as the framework defining the basic charter for the study group. 1 fig.

Austin, A.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-01

240

Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms.

Barnes, P. R.; Vandyke, J. W.

1991-03-01

241

Transmission Congestion Management Assessment in Deregulated Electricity Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open access to the transmission network has resulted the problem of management of the transmission system due to congestion. Congestion occurs when the transmission network is not sufficient to transfer electric power according to the market desire. There are several alternatives schemes suitable for different electricity market structures have been proposed to manage the transmission congestion such as re-

F. Hussin; M. Y. Hassan; K. L. Lo

2006-01-01

242

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997  

SciTech Connect

The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

243

Application of TQM principles to the utilization management process.  

PubMed

Application of the philosophy and principles of TQM and CQI to utilization management within an institution necessitates an in-depth review of the systems and processes of the flow of inpatients throughout their stay. This encompasses a total systems perspective, beginning with the admitting process and going through the discharge process. TQM and CQI philosophies identify that the most significant and costly inefficiencies are due to faulty systems and processes, not individuals. Applying this management strategy to a health care institution requires a detailed review and analysis of processes by which service is delivered and requires evaluation of the outcomes of patient care and patient satisfaction. PMID:10118412

Miller, J B; Rose, M S; Milakovich, M; Rosasco, E J

244

Prognostic and health management for aircraft electrical power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the electrical power supply system analysis, a system of prognostic and health management (PHM) for the electrical power supply system is presented. The PHM system can accomplish the condition assessment of the key characteristics and device in the electrical power supply system without additional test equipment. The condition of rotating rectifier, contact resistance and so on can be

Haiyang Pan; Ensheng Dong; Yilin Jiang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

245

Transmission Management and Planning: The aftermath of Turkish Electricity Restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to enhancing electricity restructuring is to have an adequate competition in the generation sector of power industry. This concept requires a sufficient transmission capacity to support trading in electricity markets, while maintaining the system reliability. However, transmission expansion planning (TEP) for managing adequate transmission capacity is a major challenge which involves uncertainties and risks in restructured electricity environment.

O. B. Tor; M. Shahidehpour

2006-01-01

246

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational

R. Malkin; C. E. Moss; C. M. Reh; M. Ragab

1996-01-01

247

Exposure to 50Hz Electric Field and Incidence of Leukemia, Brain Tumors, and Other Cancers among French Electric Utility Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on the association between exposure to 50- to 60-Hz fields and cancer carried out among electric utility workers have focused mainly on the magnetic field component of exposure. The authors have investigated tumor risks specifically associated with electric fields, as this exposure is distinct from magnetic fields. The study design is a case-control study nested within a cohort

Pascal Guenel; Javier Nicolau; Ellen Imbemon; Anne Chevalier; Marcel Goldberg

248

Reforming the Energy Market and Utilization of Electrical Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to provide an overview of reforming the Turkish energy market, including the electricity production and consumption values of Turkey and restructuring in the eight European Union countries. Turkey's electricity demand has been growing very rapidly. It has increased from about 47 TWh in 1990 to some 142 TWh in 2003, and it

Arif Hepbasli

2006-01-01

249

Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of

P. R. Barnes; J. W. Vandyke

1991-01-01

250

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also,

Gerke; Frank G

2001-01-01

251

Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

1993-12-31

252

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

SciTech Connect

Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

2005-07-05

253

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

254

Wind Power for America: Rural Electric Utilities Harvest New Crop (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Wind Power for America: Rural Electric Utilities Harvest a New Crop is a trifold brochure that strives to educate rural landowners and rural co-op utilities about the benefits of wind power development. It provides examples of rural utilities that have successful wind energy projects and supportive statements from industry members.

Not Available

2002-02-01

255

Electric-utility value determination for wind energy. Volume II. A user's guide  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for determining the value of wind energy systems to electric utilities. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system.

Percival, D.; Harper, J.

1982-01-01

256

Utility DSM programs could cut electricity use 20% during the next two decades.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between now and the year 2010, electric utilities are likely to face major changes. These changes will affect the mix of resources that utilities use to produce energy services and the ways that utilities deliver services to their customers. A key element...

E. Hirst

1991-01-01

257

Integrated Resource Planning at Electric Utilities: The Planning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Activities during the initial 18-month cycle of the Demand and Resource Evaluation (DARE) Program of the Puget Sound Power and Light Company (Washington State) are described. The role of evaluation in public utility planning is discussed. Cooperation, communication, and consensus among utility planning staff are concluded to be vital. (SLD)|

Hirst, Eric

1989-01-01

258

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor\\/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is

Ulrich Hopman; Richard W. Kruiswyk

2005-01-01

259

An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs  

SciTech Connect

The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

Rose, K.

1996-07-01

260

Detection of outlier loci and their utility for fisheries management  

PubMed Central

Genetics-based approaches have informed fisheries management for decades, yet remain challenging to implement within systems involving recently diverged stocks or where gene flow persists. In such cases, genetic markers exhibiting locus-specific (‘outlier’) effects associated with divergent selection may provide promising alternatives to loci that reflect genome-wide (‘neutral’) effects for guiding fisheries management. Okanagan Lake kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), a fishery of conservation concern, exhibits two sympatric ecotypes adapted to different reproductive environments; however, previous research demonstrated the limited utility of neutral microsatellites for assigning individuals. Here, we investigated the efficacy of an outlier-based approach to fisheries management by screening >11 000 expressed sequence tags for linked microsatellites and conducting genomic scans for kokanee sampled across seven spawning sites. We identified eight outliers among 52 polymorphic loci that detected ecotype-level divergence, whereas there was no evidence of divergence at neutral loci. Outlier loci exhibited the highest self-assignment accuracy to ecotype (92.1%), substantially outperforming 44 neutral loci (71.8%). Results were robust among-sampling years, with assignment and mixed composition estimates for individuals sampled in 2010 mirroring baseline results. Overall, outlier loci constitute promising alternatives for informing fisheries management involving recently diverged stocks, with potential applications for designating management units across a broad range of taxa.

Russello, Michael A; Kirk, Stephanie L; Frazer, Karen K; Askey, Paul J

2012-01-01

261

18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

2013-04-01

262

Electric utility second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for a more efficient, less costly, and more environmentally responsible method for generating electrical power from coal, research and development has turned to advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification technologies. A logical extension of this work is the second-generation PFBC plant, which incorporates key components of each of these technologies. In this new type

A. Robertson; D. Bonk

1992-01-01

263

Benefits of SVC and STATCOM for electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absfmcr-- Examination of the behavior of SVCS and STATCOMs in electric power systems is pmnted. Ihe paper is based on ansrytieal and simulation analysis, and conclusions ran be used as power industry guidelioes. We explain the principle st~eture~ of SVCs and STATCOMs the models for dynamic studies and the impact of these deviees on steady state voltage and transient voltage

M. Noroozian; A. N. Petersson; B. Thorvaldson; B. A. Nilsson; C. W. Taylor

2003-01-01

264

Radioisotope electric propulsion missions utilizing a common spacecraft design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted that shows how a single radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) spacecraft design could be used for various missions throughout the solar system. This spacecraft design is based on an REP feasibility design from a study performed by NASA Glenn Research Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The study also identifies technologies that need development

Douglas Fiehler; Steven Oleson

2005-01-01

265

Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUCs analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in Calif...

G. Mosey L. Vimmerstedt

2009-01-01

266

Cost-Allocation Model for Assessing the Impact of Energy-Storage Technologies Upon Electric Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to assist DOE in prioritizing, developing, and commercializing storage technologies, a computer simulation code was developed to assess the impact of alternative residential heating and cooling technologies upon electric utility generation, trans...

R. Giese L. Holt R. Scheithauer

1978-01-01

267

User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates  

SciTech Connect

SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

1982-05-01

268

Electric utilities in the future: Competition is certain, the impact is not  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the results of a survey conducted by R.J. Rudden Associates and Fitch Investors Service that polled state commissions on their practices, policies, attitudes, and opinions regarding electric utility competition. The Rudden/Fitch Survey addressed six different forms of competition that will most greatly influence electric markets - wholesale wheeling, retail wheeling, self-serving wheeling, self-generation, fuel substitution, and municipalization. Dramatic changes are affecting the US electric utility industry as legislative actions and regulatory policies increasingly promote competition. Although unprecedented in the electric power industry, these changes are not so unusual when compared to the extensive deregulation that has already occurred in the railroad, trucking, airline, and telecommunications industries. While the electric utility industry is not poised for immediate, broad-based deregulation, selective deregulation and accelerating competition will have significant implications for all industry stakeholders.

Rudden, R.J.; Hornich, R.

1994-05-01

269

Solar energy and electric utilities: should they be interfaced. [In general, poor match  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the economics of solar collection in the firm- and shifting-peak cases (that is, with off-peak electricity indefinitely available or with a flat load curve) indicate that, for many important applications, solar energy systems that interface with electric utilities can be justified only in terms of the value of the off-peak utility fuels that they displace. In regions where

J. G. Asbury; R. O. Mueller

1977-01-01

270

Capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recreation impact monitoring system was developed and applied in 1984 1986 and in 1991 to all backcountry river-accessed campsites within Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Results suggest that actions implemented by park managers in response to problems identified by the initial survey were highly effective in reducing resource degradation caused by camping. In particular, the elimination of some designated campsites and installation of anchored firegrates reduced the total area of disturbance by 50%. Firegrate installation provided a focal point that increased the concentration of camping activities, allowing peripheral areas to recover. As suggested by predictive models, additional resource degradation caused by increased camping intensities is more than offset by improvements in the condition of areas where use is eliminated. The capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs, illustrated by the Delaware Water Gap monitoring program, are also presented and discussed.

Marion, Jeffrey L.

1995-09-01

271

Future Developments of Diversification of Electric Utilities. Comparative Study of Public Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To find out future developments on the diversification in electric power industry, comparative studies on public enterprises in Japan such as gas, railway, and telecommunication business were carried out. The results, concluded as follows: (1) Motives and...

N. Iguchi

1988-01-01

272

Physics of Electrical Discharges to Control and to Utilize Them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three topics related to the field of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) are summarized for this special issue. First one deals with the fundamental process of long gap discharge. As the second one, the topics of a vacuum discharge occurred on the solar cell of the spacecraft is introduced. The last one shows the arc motion in the rail-gun.

Yumoto, Motoshige

273

Integrated systems for utilizing waste heat from steam electric plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From symposium on beneficial uses for thermal discharges; New York (19 ; Aug 1971). Multiple use of waste heat and cooling waters from power plants will ; become an impontant consideration in the development, siting, and certification ; of these plants. The heat in the cooling wnter must be considered a resource to ; be managed for effective use. At

L. Boersma; K. A. Rykbost

1973-01-01

274

Innovative electricity marketing. Utilities must rethink how they can meet their customers' needs  

SciTech Connect

Tradition-bound utility commissioners and electricity providers who believe electric utilities are insulated from competition until retail wheeling arrives should carefully assess just how quickly competition is remaking the electric power marketplace. The widely predicted industry evolution spawned by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is becoming nothing less than a revolution. Some utilities and their regulators still don't seem to grasp the sea-change taking place. Others are genuinely rethinking how utilities can serve their most valued customers and try to win new ones-even if it means taking customers away from another utility. Electric utilities that respond by understanding, communicating, and meeting needs in the marketplace will likely thrive in the new era. Those that don't are tempting fate. And fate could arrive before a full-fledged retail wheeling proposal becomes law. Regulators fixated on retail wheeling per se or determined to defend the status quo are missing the point. Large users of electricity certainly want retail wheeling. They're applying pressure wherever and however they can to win it. But they're not waiting until they get retail wheeling to flex their purchasing clout. Some state commissioners need to recognize this and empower utilities to respond.

Pierobon, J.R.

1994-04-15

275

Are price caps the answer for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

There is no widely acceptable alternative to traditional rate-base/rate-of-return regulation. The industry is keenly interested in the experiment currently unfolding in the telephone industry: the price cap approach being followed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in regulating AT and T, and by many states in regulating local telephone companies. This approach offers an interesting and possibly useful alternative to traditional utility regulation.

Silverman, L.P. (McKinsey and Co., Washington, DC (United States)); Wenner, D.L.; Peters, R.S. (McKinsey and Company, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1991-04-15

276

Utilizing fuel cell and supercapacitors for automotive hybrid electrical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new control algorithm for utilizing PEM fuel cell and supercapacitors for automotive system. A PEM fuel cell is operated as a directional main power source connected to 42 V dc bus (PowerNet) by boost converter, and supercapacitors is controlled as a fast bidirectional auxiliary power source connected to dc bus by a 2-quadrant dc\\/dc converter. The

Phatiphat Thounthong; Stéphane Raël; Bernard Davat

2005-01-01

277

Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and affordable technology for providing detailed feedback on household electricity usage presents a host of opportunities for utilities and policy-makers to manage demand. This dissertation examines ways to use these devices to reduce - and shift the timing of - energy use in the residential sector by influencing consumers' behavior. The first portion of the study analyzes the impact of programmable thermostats (PTs) on energy use, focusing on residents' knowledge of climate control settings in the dwelling. I found that of households with natural gas heating systems, young households with PTs used 17 percent less heating energy on average. In addition, residents who did not know their thermostat settings tended to use 10 percent more energy for heating. The main portion of the dissertation focuses specifically on the potential for better feedback on electricity usage to reduce household energy consumption. The existing literature suggests that feedback can reduce electricity consumption in homes by 5 to 20 percent, but that significant uncertainties remain in our knowledge of the effectiveness of feedback. These uncertainties include the variation in feedback effectiveness between demographic groups and consumers in different climate regions. This analysis uses these uncertainties to perform an exploratory analysis to determine the conditions under which the benefits of feedback outweigh the costs and to compare the cost-effectiveness of providing feedback against that of other DSM programs. I found that benefits would likely outweigh costs for enhanced monthly billing and real-time feedback and that cost-effectiveness was superior to that of other DSM programs for these types of feedback. For feedback that is disaggregated by appliance type, cost effectiveness was competitive with other DSM programs under a limited set of cases. This study also examines how energy consumption devices should display feedback on GHG emissions from electricity use under a real-time pricing program. I found that load-shifting can cause GHG emissions to increase or decrease depending on region and season and in no discernable pattern. Therefore, feedback may be more useful and comprehensible to households in the form of total GHG emissions attributable to electricity usage instead of the emission rate of the marginal power plant. Finally, this dissertation explores ways to maximize the effect of feedback by evaluating which appliances may be best suited for appliance-specific feedback. Due to the energy use and behavioral factors associated with each appliance, the most promising appliances were those that heat water for taps, showers, hot tubs, and waterbeds.

Collins, Myles

278

Pilot Measurements of ELF Contact Currents in Some Electric Utility Occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact currents from touching objects with different voltages can produce electric fields within the body that produce neurological and other biological effects. To begin measuring these exposures among electric utility workers, a new contact current meter (CCM) was tested in a pilot study at Southern California Edison. The CCM was worn for 82 full-shift measurements by 76 volunteers from eight

Joseph Bowman; John Niple; Rob Kavet

2006-01-01

279

Effects of Solar Water Heating Systems on the Electric Utility. Residential Conservation Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a residential demonstration project relating to the effects of solar water heating systems with electric back-up on the electric utilities. The project, which was funded by the Florida Public Service Commission, was con...

T. L. Belser

1982-01-01

280

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utilities, Monthly Cumulative for 1987 (FERC 423).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on the tape are submitted by electric utilities on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 423. The data consists of the cost and quality of fossil fuels delivered to steam-electric plants with a rated generating capacity of 50 megawatts...

K. McClevey M. E. Golby

1987-01-01

281

Summary of major electric utilities revised demand forecasts and resource plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summary compares revised data with corresponding data submitted in 1978 under the Common Forecasting Methodology-II (CEM-II) by four California utilities - Southern California Edison; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power San Diego Gas and Electric; and Pacific Gas and Electric. Table 1 is a statewide summary of the updated forecasted peak demand compared to the CEM II forecast

G. Hargan; V. Patel; D. Morse

1979-01-01

282

The impact of solar central electric technology on the regulated utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale-up of the generation of electric power from solar energy to pilot-plant level is discussed. The 'framework in which the solar central electric technology will likely be developed' is outlined, admittedly without any 'detailed engineering cost estimates of specific plants.' The pro forma impact of pilot plant designs for a proposed (Hobbs, New Mexico) solar central on the local utility

D. A. Murray

1977-01-01

283

Economic impact of non-utility generation on electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-Utility Generation is a major force in the way electrical energy is now being produced and marketed, and electric utilities are reacting to the growth of this new industry. When a utility buys electric energy from a non-utility generation at short notice, such as a few hours, one of the difficult issues encountered by the utility is the evaluation of the rate (buyback rate) it should pay the non-utility generation such that the utility maximizes its economic benefit. Utilities calculate their purchase rates based on a number of different formulae. Short term buyback rates should be based on the operating cost that a utility avoids by utilizing energy from a non-utility generation. This cost is termed as the avoided operating cost in this thesis. Suitable techniques for thermal and hydrothermal systems are developed to assess the short term avoided operating cost under different operating conditions. The studies described in this thesis focus specifically on the economic assessment of the incorporation of non-utility generation in the short term planning of power systems at the generation level and the composite generation and transmission level. In another study, it was assumed that non-utility generation produces energy from its cogeneration and wind facilities. These sources of energy have some typical characteristics that make them different from other sources of electricity. These characteristics were taken into account in modeling the non-utility generation and studies were performed to show their effect on a thermal power system. Composite generation and transmission assessment involves a composite appraisal of both the generation and transmission facilities and their ability to supply adequate, dependable and suitable electrical energy to the major load point. Studies were performed to show the impact of non-utility generation on a thermal power system at this level. The studies and examples presented in the thesis suggest that the proposed techniques for the evaluation of the avoided operating cost will treat both parties involved in energy transaction consistent and include the standard operating practices used by utilities. They can also be used by the utility as a basic framework upon which relevant systems operating criteria and cost parameters can be added to assess a generic buyback rate appropriate for a utility.

Gupta, Rajnish

284

Real-time dynamic power management of electrically assisted bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the issues of the dynamic power management of electrical system in power assisted electric bicycle. The features of this bicycle focused on different road conditions and terrain slope when rider is cycling under the given command velocity. The proposed controller estimated the corresponding human power that the rider required and predicted the limitation of maximum assisted power

Stone Cheng; Ï Ivan Huang

2011-01-01

285

Reliability assessment of non-utility generation and demand-side management in composite power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have brought about significant changes in the resource planning environment of electric power utilities throughout the world. The conventional generation technologies that have been the backbone of every electric utility i.e., coal, hydro, nuclear, oil and natural gas, are being re-examined to address environmental concerns and resource utilization. The research described in this thesis focuses on

Steve Kwaku Adzanu

1998-01-01

286

MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

287

NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

288

Future Costs of Capital in the Electric Utility Sector. Volume II. The Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Volume II of a two volume report in which the feasibility of forecasting the future costs of capital to the electric utility sector is analyzed. It can be argued that historically the rate of return that a utility seeks is related to its cost of c...

1982-01-01

289

The Science-Technology-Utilization Relationship in Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of management science into management practice is examined. Starting with the TIMS definition of management science, we delineate three fundamental classes of activity and associated personnel: (1) management science and scientists, (2) management technology and technologists, (3) management practice and managers. The inter-group communication flows which are necessary for the transfer of management science into management practice are

William H. Gruber; John S. Niles

1975-01-01

290

Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

291

Managing electricity reliability risk through the futures markets  

SciTech Connect

In competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, often cease to exist. Typically, the burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to insure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, we model a spot market for electricity and futures markets for both electricity and AS. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its expected utility of wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optional quantities of electricity and AS traded in each market by all participants, as well as the corresponding market-clearing prices. We show that future prices for both electricity and AS depend on expectations of the spot price, statistical aspects of system demand, and production cost parameters. More important, our model captures the fact that electricity and AS are substitute products for the generators, implying that anticipated changes in the spot market will affect the equilibrium futures positions of both electricity and AS. We apply our model to the California electricity and AS markets to test its viability.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.

2000-10-01

292

Financial impacts on utilities of load shape changes: The Texas Utilities Electric Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this LBL project is to develop tools and procedures that measure the financial impacts of load shape changes to utility ratepayers and society. This application studies the financial impacts of policies that raise the efficiencies of residential appliances. The analysis is based on detailed forecasts of energy use by computer simulation models developed at LBL. These models

J. Eto; J. Koomey; J. McMahon; P. Chan

1986-01-01

293

Estimating Potential Stranded Commitments for U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regulations are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. We developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing U.S. investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

Baxter, L.

1995-01-01

294

Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

1995-01-01

295

Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

Tsou, J.L. (ed.) (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Mussalli, Y.G. (Stone and Webster Environmental Services, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-03-01

296

Efficient energy management for electrical scooters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an energy recharging controller (ERC) for electrical scooters (ESs) which includes a recharging control unit, a battery recharging control unit, a voltage-boost control unit, a braking control unit, a motor and a battery. There are three recharging modes in the proposed ERC: low-side driving circuit recharging mode, boost recharging mode, and brake assistant mode. With the proposed

Chi-Tong Huang; Chun-Liang Lin; Chia-Sung Lee

2010-01-01

297

Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of the electric utility. The negative impact of the regulatory environment declined with the increase in the size of the utility, indicating favorable treatment for larger utilities by financial markets. Similarly, for the electric utility industry as a whole, financial markets reacted negatively to nuclear power generation.

Vishwanathan, Raman

298

Power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using neural network based trip modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a next-generation HEV with great promise of higher fuel economy. Global optimization charge-depletion power management would be desirable. This has so far been hampered due to the a priori nature of the trip information and the almost prohibitive computational cost of global optimization techniques such as dynamic programming

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhongren Peng

2009-01-01

299

Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric utility distribution investment. The study makes use of data from an actual distribution planning area, located within PGandE's service territory, to demonstrate the important characteristics of this new costing approach. The most significant result of this empirical work is that geographic differences in the cost of capacity in distribution systems can be as much as four times larger than the current system average utility estimates. Furthermore, lumpy capital investment patterns can lead to significant cost differences over time.

Orans, Ren

1990-10-01

300

Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects.

Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.

2001-07-30

301

Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

1997-08-01

302

What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?  

SciTech Connect

This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2008-11-15

303

Decision factors affecting transmission and distribution efficiency improvements by Northwest electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this report was to assess and document the attitude of Northwest electric utilities toward possible BPA conservation acquisition programs that may provide incentive(s) to reduce losses on T and D lines. Secondary objectives were to examine existing incentives for making such improvements, to categorize prior T and D efficiency improvements, and to examine factors affecting the decision-making process for system improvements. Much of the information presented in the report is derived from a survey administered during personal interviews at 29 Northwest electric utilities between November 1984 and January 1985.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Darwin, R.F.

1986-01-01

304

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-25

305

A UK utility perspective on irradiated nuclear fuel management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before privatisation in 1990, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), had a statutory responsibility for the supply of electricity in England and Wales. Nuclear Electric took over the operation of the CEGB`s nuclear assets whilst remaining in the public sector. It now has to compete with private sector companies within the privatised market for electricity in the UK. The UK

Wilmer

1994-01-01

306

Econometric model of monthly peak load: case study for an electric utility system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stock-adjustment model of peak load is developed which is macroeconometric and does not involve the problem of extensive data requirements. The model divides the process of electricity demand formation into: 1) the short-run characterized by variable utilization rates but fixed appliance stock, 2) the long-run adjustment featured by variable utilization and appliance stock adjustment, and 3) the long-run equilibrium

1984-01-01

307

77 FR 134 - In the Matter of Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Northeast Utilities; NSTAR (Yankee Nuclear Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...License No. DPR-3] In the Matter of Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Northeast Utilities; NSTAR...Application Regarding Proposed Merger I Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic or the licensee) is the holder of Facility...

2012-01-03

308

Recent trends and progress in synchronous machine modeling in the electric utility industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of synchronous machines which have been developed and used to analyze problems in the electric utility industry are described. The development of alternative models, the transitions among the models, and the relations between problem and model are demonstrated. Lower order models using standardized data are used in multigenerator stability studies. Machine and system tests and the computer results of

P. L. Dandeno; P. Kundur; R. P. Schulz

1974-01-01

309

Effects of Information Kits on Teacher Utilization of The Electric Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 900 teachers who had previously requested a free information kit on The Electric Company (TEC) received questionnaires to assess the impact of the kit on class utilization of the TEC series. Results (completion rate 30%) indicated that the kit'...

J. W. Swinehart

1979-01-01

310

Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with existing electric utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted concerning the feasibility of the use of windpower generating systems as supplemental energy sources on existing electric utilities. Wind duration, power density, and annual energy density data were calculated and computations regarding the conversion of the kinetic wind energy to useful busbar energy were carried out. Questions of energy storage are considered, taking into account the

R. T. Smith; R. K. Swanson; C. C. Johnson; C. Ligon; J. Lawrence; D. Jordan

1976-01-01

311

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants: 1982 Annual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This series of summary reports contains annual information on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to electric utility plants in the contiguous United States and District of Columbia with a combined capacity of 25 megawatts or greater. Data for Al...

1983-01-01

312

Electric and gas utility telecommunications opportunities created by FCC computer rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric and gas utilities may indirectly benefit from the Federal Communications Commission's recently instituted rule making to revise its computer rules. This rule making, Computer III, is intended to facilitate telephone company network integration of computer and communications technologies. Such network integration would provide for more efficient and technologically advanced data communications than the separate development of computer and communications

Reams

1985-01-01

313

Indoor air quality seminar - implications for electric utility conservation programs: proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings contain papers presented, selected questions and answers, and results of an attendee survey from the Indoor Air Quality Seminar: Implications for Electric Utility Conservation Programs. The meeting was conducted in two sections: in Atlanta, Georgia, on March 6 and 7, 1984, and in Denver, Colorado, on May 1 and 2, 1984. The meeting was cosponsored by EPRI and

W. Whiddon; K. Hart

1985-01-01

314

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and\\/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems

Zaininger

1994-01-01

315

Analysis on implementation of pen tablet technology to improve electric utility railcar maintenance processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a feasibility study to analyze the implementation of pen tablet technology to more efficiently capture data for the purposes of railcar maintenance in the electric utility industry. The study provides details on system functionality, a framework for integration with existing systems, and estimated cost of implementation.

Wes Conwell; Dale W. Callahan

2002-01-01

316

Development of coal-fueled gas turbine systems for electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' companies are working to establish the technology base for an advanced direct coal-fired gas turbine system. This work, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is directed at the electric utility application. This paper describes the technical approach and discusses its feasibility. Successful development of a slagging combustor is key to this effort. Integrated testing incorporates the subscale slagging

R. J. Thoman; D. A. Horazak; F. A. Hals

1987-01-01

317

Economic and Financial Impacts of Federal Air and Water Pollution Controls on the Electric Utility Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in the financial profile of the electric utility industry which are likely to result from federal air and water pollution controls for the 1975-1990 period are discussed. The analysis provides operating and financial projections at the national an...

1976-01-01

318

THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It reviews the status of the electric utility industry in the six ORBES states: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Topics in...

319

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utilities, 1984 (Form 423) (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the cost and quality of fossil fuels for electric utility plants on a plant-by-plant basis grouped on a state and regional basis permits comparison of prices for similar fuels delivered to other plants in the same state and region. Data are...

1984-01-01

320

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utilities, Form 423, Current.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the cost and quality of fossil fuels for electric utility plants on a plant-by-plant basis grouped on a State and regional basis permits comparison of prices for similar fuels delivered to other plants in the same state and region. Data are...

K. McClevey R. Marcotte

1984-01-01

321

CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

322

Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990s, the

Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn

2006-01-01

323

Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s,

Klong Luang

324

APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

325

Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached

J Frauenhofer; J Grundmann; G Klaus; W Nick

2008-01-01

326

Regulatory conflicts facing electric utilities under the clean air act amendments of 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments (CAAA, or amendments) will significantly affect the electric generation sector for decades to come. The Act is much broader than its acid rain and allowance trading provisions. The authors believe that in considering its effects on the utility industry, one must recognize the interrelated effects of several programs on the industry. One

Charles A. Patrizia; Elinor L. Colbourn; Gregory L. Wortham

1992-01-01

327

`Excellence against all odds'Canada's electric utilities triumph over distance, topography and weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is the second largest country in the world in terms of geographical boundaries. Located between latitude 49° north and the North Pole, Canada stretches from east to west, across 5 1\\/2 time zones, a distance of 7500 kilometers. These tremendous distances and the variations in topography and weather have provided a formidable challenge for Canadian electric power utilities as

W. S. Read

1990-01-01

328

Reliability Cost\\/Worth Associated With Wind Energy and Energy Storage Utilization in Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind is being recognized as an encouraging and cost effective generation source both in large grid connected systems and small isolated applications. The actual benefits obtained from utilizing wind energy for electric power generation can be investigated using reliability and economic evaluation techniques. The focus of these techniques is usually directed to the areas of reliability and the investment\\/operation alternatives

B. Bagen; R. Billinton

2008-01-01

329

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-09-01

330

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

331

Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues  

SciTech Connect

A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

Not Available

1980-09-01

332

Guidelines for cofiring refuse-derived fuel in electric utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970s, nine electric utilities in the United States have cofired refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal or oil in electric utility boilers. Of these, only four continue to cofire RDF in 1988, the others having discontinued operations for a variety of reasons, mostly economic. In order to document this experience and provide a basis for planning future RDF cofiring projects, EPRI and the US Department of Energy cosponsored the development of the guidelines for RDF cofiring in electric utility boilers. The guidelines address the procedures for evaluating proposed RDF cofiring projects, RDF specifications and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The economic analysis examples suggest that the value of RDF to the utility is only a fraction of the value of the fuel being replaced. This is because the incremental fuel savings derived from RDF cofiring are at least partially offset by the incremental capital and O M costs. In order to maximize RDF value, it is important to select units for RDF cofiring that have at least 15 years of remaining life, operate at high capacity factor, are of sufficient size to consume the available RDF stream, and do not exhibit boiler slagging and fouling, electricstatic precipitator, or unit derating problems while burning coal or oil. 71 figs., 70 tabs.

Fiscus, D.E. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Wolfs, K.E.; Ege, H.D.; Kimber, A. (Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Joensen, A.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (USA)); Savage, G.M. (Cal Recovery Systems, Inc., Richmond, CA (USA))

1988-06-01

333

Trip based optimal power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using gas-kinetic traffic flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, is considered a next-generation hybrid electric vehicles with great promise of higher fuel economy. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEV, i.e. the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle reaches the destination of the trip. Global

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

2008-01-01

334

Integrating demand side options in electric utility planning: A multiobjective approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes simultaneous integration of DSM options in a multiobjective framework (using compromise programming technique) for electric utility planning. The two distinct advantages of this method are: (1) explicit consideration of all associated benefits of DSM options viz. cost reduction, emissions reduction and improvement of supply system reliability; (2) consideration of the integration method specific characteristics of various types of DSM options depending upon the control of utility on their usage. The methodology is applied for an Indian utility (Maharashtra State Electricity System (MSES)) for its integrated resource planning for the period 1990--2000 to illustrate the methodological issues. Various methodological issues related to the specific nature of DSM options and multiobjective framework are discussed in the context of MSES.

Chattopadhyay, D.; Banerjee, R.; Parikh, J. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1995-05-01

335

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model

Cristian Carraretto; Andrea Zigante

2006-01-01

336

Management utilization of computers in American local governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional concepts of management information systems (MIS) bear little relation to the information systems currently in use by top management in most US local governments. What exists is management-oriented computing, involving the use of relatively unsophisticated applications. Despite the unsophisticated nature of these systems, management use of computing is surprisingly common, but also varied in its extent among local governments.

William H. Dutton; Kenneth L. Kraemer

1978-01-01

337

System Integration and Power-Flow Management for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Supercapacitors and Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, system integration and power-flow management algorithms for a four-wheel-driven series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) having multiple power sources composed of a diesel-engine-based generator, lead acid battery bank, and supercapacitor bank are presented. The super-capacitor is utilized as a short-term energy storage device to meet the dynamic performance of the vehicle, while the battery is utilized as a

Hyunjae Yoo; Seung-Ki Sul; Yongho Park; Jongchan Jeong

2008-01-01

338

Impacts of electric demand-side management programs on fuel choice: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make $2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has rapidly penetrated nearly 100% of the potential market, and (4) over 90% of the affected homes in the participating region have traditionally used electricity for space heating. Heating equipment data for all manufactured homes built in the region since 1987 were sampled and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the DSM program and fuel shares. The quantitative data were supplemented with interview data to better understand the relationship between the program and fuel choice. The results should be useful for program design and evaluation.

Lee, A.D.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Vinnard, A.B. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1994-04-01

339

The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

Zaininger, H.W.

1994-01-01

340

From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4) prevented industry profits from declining. This research adds to the existing literature on industry regulation in general, and specifically to the literature on the effects of regulation of the electric utility industry.

Reutter, Keith Alan

1997-09-01

341

Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.  

SciTech Connect

This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1990-06-01

342

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

1990-12-01

343

The Utilization of Project Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 99 pharmaceutical companies concerning their organization and use of project management techniques for research and development found that the industry is using project management increasingly in a variety of ways for better business planning and operations. (MSE)|

Krusko, Diane; Cangemi, Robert R.

1987-01-01

344

A research agenda for muti-attribute utility analysis in human resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most applications of utility analysis in Human Resource Management have focussed upon only one outcome of a selection system-the value of job performance in dollars. Multi-attribute utility (MAU) analysis allows decision makers to incorporate multiple outcomes into their analytic decisions. MAU also increases the participation of decision makers in the utility analysis process by asking them what factors to consider,

Philip Bobko

1997-01-01

345

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 93-1062-2558, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Martin Lake Steam Electric Station, Tatum, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from workers at the Texas Utilities Electric Company (SIC-4911), Martin Lake Steam Electric Station in Tatum, Texas, the incidence of neurologic symptoms and exposure to electromagnetic fields and organophosphates were investigated. Workers reported neurological symptoms, including memory loss, dizziness and fatigue. A site visit to the station revealed electromagnetic field levels below the current occupational standard of 10 gauss. The use of an organophosphate containing fire resistant hydraulic fluid, Fyrquel-EH (1330785), was reported by employees. A significant correlation was identified between memory of past symptoms indicative of acute organophosphate exposure after working with Fyrquel-EH and current symptoms; however, blood cholinesterase levels were all within the normal range and no relevant neurologic abnormalities were noted on neurological examinations. The authors conclude that a hazard existed from the use of Fyrquel-EH. The authors recommend measures for the safe handling of organophosphate compounds.

Malkin, R.; Moss, C.E.; Reh, C.M.; Ragab, M.

1996-01-01

346

Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2002, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) released this comprehensive report of electric generating plant capacity for the year 2000. Over 300 pages in length, the document contains detailed discussions, tables, and charts of the country's electric utilities. There is a large amount of capacity and usage data that is broken down into primary energy source categories, including coal, gas, hydroelectric, nuclear, petroleum, and renewables. Much of the information is divided into statistics for individual states. The report also has "a 5-year summary (2001-2005) of proposed changes to existing generating units."

2002-01-01

347

Why electric utilities and affiliates are handicapped in a partly regulated and partly competitive environment  

SciTech Connect

As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete.

St.Marie, S.M.

1999-11-01

348

What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer

L. M. Fuld; D. L. Borska

1995-01-01

349

Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information on strategies electric utilities are using to comply with Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and estimates of the costs of selected utilities for compliance. Compliance strategies are discussed including technological considerations and costs for the six main strategies: (1) fuel switching and/or blending; (2) obtaining additional allowances; (3) installing flue gas desulfurization equipment (scrubbers); (4) using previously implemented controls; (5) retiring facilities; and (6) boiler repowering. Impacts on coal demand and supply are also examined.

Not Available

1994-03-01

350

Survey of utility load management projects: Third revised report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 86 utility sponsored thermal energy storage (TES) projects and 158 communication and load control (C&CL) projects are described. These projects are grouped into two main sections (TES and C&CL) and into several subsections, according to the type of TES or C&CL system or device utilized. Each subsection contains: a technical description of the particular system or device, a discussion of installed costs, if such information is available, and a listing of the manufacturer(s) of the hardware. A comprehensive table of all utility projects that involve the use of this hardware is presented. Additional information on selected projects in expanded summary forms is presented. These projects were selected based on their uniqueness, scope, maturity, results or because they are representative of utility projects utilizing similar hardware.

1981-10-01

351

Evaluation of energy recovery and CO2 reduction potential in Japan through integrated waste and utility management.  

PubMed

This paper examines the potential of integrated waste and utility power management over the mid-term planning horizon in Japan. Energy recovery and CO(2) emission reduction were estimated under two situations: (1) energy recovery efforts within the current waste management/power generation framework and (2) integrated waste management with sewage treatment systems and electric power industries. Scenario simulation results showed that under the current policy framework it is not feasible to achieve large energy recovery and CO(2) emission reduction, while the integrated waste management scenarios show the potential of large energy recovery which is equivalent to about an 18 million t-CO(2) emission reduction. The utilization of dry wastes for power generation at existing fossil power stations is significant in achieving the result. We also consider the effects of the 'CO(2) emission per GW generated' for electric power generation on the total CO(2) emission reduction because it varies by country and assumptions selected. Although this research did not include an economic analysis, based on estimated CO(2) emissions and energy recovery, the integrated scenarios indicate a large potential in countries that have high dependence of fossil power generation and relatively low power generation efficiency. PMID:19272763

Horio, M; Shigeto, S; Shiga, M

2009-03-09

352

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

1995-03-01

353

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

NONE

1996-03-04

354

Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

355

The potential of combined wind-solar energy conversion systems for electric utility capacity displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An hourly computer simulation model is developed to evaluate the performance of commercial-scale combined wind-solar systems and to make comparisons with simulated performance data for solar-only systems. A major feature of the model is the capability to conduct a first-order assessment of the potential for electric utility capacity displacement by the introduction of combined wind-solar systems.

L. Icerman; K. Myers; A. Swift

1980-01-01

356

Sediment-water interactions affect assessments of metals discharges at electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three examples to show the importance of sediment-water interactions to electric utilities: 1) Selenium (Se), in\\u000a ash pond effluents, has caused declines in fish populations in North Carolina. A biogeochernistry model appears to explain\\u000a Se dynamics for several reservoirs. However, further work on sediment water interactions is needed to predict the speed of\\u000a reservoir Se declines following cessation

J. S. Mattice; D. B. Porcella; R. W. Brocksen

1997-01-01

357

Project demonstration of wind-turbine electricity: interconnecting a northern Michigan fruit farm with a major utility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this proposed energy related project is to test the economic feasibility of wind turbine technology for generating electricity as it relates to: (1) use of wind generated electricity on a commercial fruit farm; (2) interconnecting a commercial fruit farm with a major utility, Cherryland Rural Electric Cooperative Association (CRECA), to sell power. Progress on the project is reviewed.

Amon, D.M.

1981-01-01

358

Electric utilities broaden their vision, again, and move beyond energy services...to communications services  

SciTech Connect

Energy production and delivery will be tightly coupled with telecommunications and information services for the foreseeable future. In order to control access to the customer and prevent erosion of their customer bases, utilities will be driven to become more aggressive in deploying both supply-side information technologies for improved operation of their generation, transmission, and distribution facilities; and demand side Energy Information Service (EIS). Those information services will enable utilities to provide higher quality services at lower cost with lower environmental impact, and to give their ratepayers better control over their power usage. Utilities have important assets that will be valuable in deploying telecommunications networks that support EIS and other value-added information services. Electric power utilities have the potential to become significant players in the National Information Infrastructure, providing commercial EIS, non-energy value-added services, and telecommunications services. Utility entry into telecommunications markets would bring more competition to those markets and contribute toward universal service goals. Regulatory restrictions on utility entry into telecommunications markets are inconsistent with more recent government policies promoting competition. Joint ventures and other forms of partnering will be necessary to build utility networks, and partnering with telecommunications companies will be especially important to utilities. Pivotal business alliances and regulatory policies that will shape the business environment for both industries are likely to be decided int the next few years. Utilities face a brief window of necessity and opportunity: the necessity to assess the EIS and telecommunications capabilities they will need to support their core business in the future; and the opportunity to consider what new sources of revenue could be opened up by those capabilities.

Mann, M. [Electric Power Research Institutes, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

359

Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission  

SciTech Connect

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2009-07-01

360

Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1990 and Preceding Years.  

SciTech Connect

This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1990 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. The report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1990 time period, and gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1990. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell annually to four sectors. Data is provided on each retail customer sector and also on the customers Bonneville serves directly: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. 21 figs., 40 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-06-01

361

Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume V: electric utility rate analysis  

SciTech Connect

The study analyzes the electric utility rate structure of the Jamaica Public Service Company (JPS) in order to determine whether it promotes economically efficient use of electricity, is based on principles of equity and fairness, and provides JPS with sufficient resources to maintain acceptable service quality. Current tariffs are described, and features such as declining block tariffs (decreasing unit price with increasing volume used), expander clauses (decreasing rate if total energy use increases without increasing maximum power demand), and ratchet clauses (little or no reduction in charges if use falls below a previously set high), which may not encourage conservation or efficient system usage, are noted. Various tariff options, based on marginal cost pricing principles (tying prices to the additional cost of supplying the electricity), are presented for each rate category in the JPS system (residential, small commercial, industrial, and large commercial). Flat rate (with and without demand charges), time of use pricing, fuel adjustment, and cost of service adjustment are considered.

Not Available

1980-01-01

362

Guidelines for cofiting refuse-derived fuel in electrical utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970s, nine electric utilities in the United States have cofired refuse-derived fuel (RDF) prepared from municipal refuse with coal or oil in electric utility boilers. Of these, four are continuing to cofire RDF as of 1988, the others having discontinued operations for a variety of reasons, mostly economic. In order to document this experience and provide a basis for planning future RDF cofiring projects, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy cosponsored the development of guidelines for RDF cofiring. The guidelines, discussed in this paper, address the procedures for evaluating proposed RDF projects, RDF specifications and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O and M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The economic analysis suggests that the value of RDF to the utility is only a fraction of the value of the fuel replaced, because the incremental fuel savings derived from RDF cofiring are at least partially offset by the incremental capital and O and M costs.

McGowin, C.R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Joensen, A.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (USA)); Fiscus, D.E. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Wolfs, K.E.; Ege, H.D. (Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Savage, G.M. (Cal Recovery Systems, Inc., Richmond, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

363

Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

Not Available

1982-05-01

364

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-05-16

365

Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

2008-07-11

366

Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2005-09-01

367

Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.  

PubMed

Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

2005-09-01

368

Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

Huang, Dange

369

Electric power annual 1995. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

NONE

1996-12-01

370

Data Platform for Managing Utilities Along Highway Corridors: User Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this manual is to assist users in the process of developing a geographic information system (GIS)-based inventory of utilities within the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) right-of-way (ROW) as well as an Internet-based system for ...

C. Quiroga C. Ellis S. Y. Shin R. Pina

2002-01-01

371

The Career Management and Utilization of Reserve Component USAWC Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the Reserve Component officers attendance of the U. S. Army War College (USAWC) Nonresident Course is presented. The areas receiving primary attention are: prerequisites, selection procedures, curriculum, and subsequent utilization. The purpose is to evaluate the current system of achieving a USAWC education. The objective of the study…

Coleman, Edward R.; And Others

372

The chloroplast Tat pathway utilizes the transmembrane electric potential as an energy source.  

PubMed

The thylakoid membrane, located inside the chloroplast, requires proteins transported across it for plastid biogenesis and functional photosynthetic electron transport. The chloroplast Tat translocator found on thylakoids transports proteins from the plastid stroma to the thylakoid lumen. Previous studies have shown that the chloroplast Tat pathway is independent of NTP hydrolysis as an energy source and instead depends on the thylakoid transmembrane proton gradient to power protein translocation. Because of its localization on the same membrane as the proton motive force-dependent F(0)F(1) ATPase, we believed that the chloroplast Tat pathway also made use of the thylakoid electric potential for transporting substrates. By adjusting the rate of photosynthetic proton pumping and by utilizing ionophores, we show that the chloroplast Tat pathway can also utilize the transmembrane electric potential for protein transport. Our findings indicate that the chloroplast Tat pathway is likely dependent on the total protonmotive force (PMF) as an energy source. As a protonmotive-dependent device, certain predictions can be made about structural features expected to be found in the Tat translocon, specifically, the presence of a proton well, a device in the membrane that converts electrical potential into chemical potential. PMID:17513364

Braun, Nikolai A; Davis, Andrew W; Theg, Steven M

2007-05-18

373

The Chloroplast Tat Pathway Utilizes the Transmembrane Electric Potential as an Energy Source  

PubMed Central

The thylakoid membrane, located inside the chloroplast, requires proteins transported across it for plastid biogenesis and functional photosynthetic electron transport. The chloroplast Tat translocator found on thylakoids transports proteins from the plastid stroma to the thylakoid lumen. Previous studies have shown that the chloroplast Tat pathway is independent of NTP hydrolysis as an energy source and instead depends on the thylakoid transmembrane proton gradient to power protein translocation. Because of its localization on the same membrane as the proton motive force–dependent F0F1 ATPase, we believed that the chloroplast Tat pathway also made use of the thylakoid electric potential for transporting substrates. By adjusting the rate of photosynthetic proton pumping and by utilizing ionophores, we show that the chloroplast Tat pathway can also utilize the transmembrane electric potential for protein transport. Our findings indicate that the chloroplast Tat pathway is likely dependent on the total protonmotive force (PMF) as an energy source. As a protonmotive-dependent device, certain predictions can be made about structural features expected to be found in the Tat translocon, specifically, the presence of a proton well, a device in the membrane that converts electrical potential into chemical potential.

Braun, Nikolai A.; Davis, Andrew W.; Theg, Steven M.

2007-01-01

374

Self-Management Plan, Perceived Quality of Life and Medical Resource Utilization of Asthmatic Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of asthma self-management programs on medical resource utilization has been studied repeatedly. The impact of these programs on a child's perceived quality of life, however, has not been addressed. This descriptive, correlational study compared...

M. M. Carey

1997-01-01

375

Hydrologic Feasibility of Utilizing Palms for Water Management in Southern Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of utilizing date and ornamental palms as a management tool for beneficial use of groundwater and waste water in water-short areas such as the southwestern United states was investigated. Three potential planting sites in southern Nevada, ...

R. O. Patt D. E. Zimmerman

1978-01-01

376

Reagan administration and the future of the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

In a series of interviews with administration officials, industry representatives, regulators, and environmentalists conducted recently by Public Utilities Fortnightly, a picture of the Reagan administration's evolving policy on the nation's electric-utility industry emerges. The worst-case scenario - brownouts and blackouts by 1988 or 1992 - is today the basis for one of the largest-scale studies of the electric-utility industry in its history. Howard Perry, under the direction of DOE Director of Policy, Planning, and Analysis Hunter Chiles, is coordinating the Cabinet council task force organized to develop an in-depth analysis and report on the industry's financial and reliability problems. The wide range of predispositions and expectations expressed indicate that work now underway by this task force, if and when it is unveiled, may be heralded with trumpet blasts by advocates of free-market economic policies and caution from regulators and those uncertain that less government necessarily means better government. Whether months of labor will result in a mere thesis on economics and regulatory reform or actually initiate policy change is still a speculative matter.

Not Available

1982-08-05

377

Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization  

SciTech Connect

Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

378

Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.  

PubMed

Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice. PMID:21097207

Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

2010-01-01

379

Electric arc furnace dust management: A review of technologies  

SciTech Connect

Technologies to recover and recycle values from, stabilize and dispose of, and glassify and sell electric arc furnace dust by pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and hybrid methods continue to emerge, be reduced to commercial practice, then succeed and move forward or fail and fade away. The current development and/or commercial status of the following types of processes have been reviewed and analyzed: pyrometallurgical such as kiln, flame reactor, bath smelting, and plasma and electric furnace-based processes; hydrometallurgical involving acidic or basic leaching alone or combined with electrowinning; hybrid hydrometallurgical/pyrometallurgical stabilization techniques using cement and other additives; and glassification. Comparative costs, the trend toward higher value-added products, and the prognosis for these technologies are assessed. Regulations changed significantly during 1995 regarding allowable disposal methods, toward more flexible options. These changes are affecting current and future dust producers, processors and developers of dust management technology. The impacts are discussed.

Zunkel, A.D. [A.D. Zunkel Consultants Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1997-03-01

380

Bias versus Fairness: The Social Utility of Issues Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies the lack of a common conceptual grounding in education, theory, and ideology as three critical factors missing in issues management. Suggests this lack leads to the failure of organizations to communicate readily how they and their leadership stand on crucial concerns. (KEH)|

Nelson, Richard Alan

1990-01-01

381

CONSERVATION, UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest genetic resources can be defined as the economic, scientific or social values of the heritable materials contained within and between species. They are associated with different levels of natural diversity from ecosystems to species, populations, individuals and genes. Conservation of forest genetic resources means managing forest genetic resources for human use to yield the greatest sustainable benefits for present

S. L. Lee; Y. Y. Sam; B. Krishnapillay

382

Improved thermal management strategies for utilizing cryocoolers in satellite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate the risk of utilizing cryocoolers in space-based sensors, I proposed four key strategies: First, further refinement\\/development of the Fiber Support Technology (FiST) Focal Plane Array (FPA) support approach, developed as part of my master's thesis, was necessary to make the concept a valid support technology for optical systems. Second, development of a thermal link technology that

Scott Mentor Jensen

2002-01-01

383

Max-utility wireless resource management for best-effort traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Due to the characteristics of wireless channels, utility-based resource management in wireless networks requires a set of mechanisms that are different from those for wireline networks. This paper explores in detail why and how the require- ments are different. In particular, we analyze the wireless network performance to find out the scheduling algorithm that maximizes total utility of the system.

Zhimei Jiang; Y. Ge; Y. Li

2005-01-01

384

Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A 16,000-A HTS lead has been designed and is being constructed. An evaluation program for component performance was conducted to confirm performance predictions and/or to qualify the design features for construction. Performance of the current lead assemblies will be evaluated in a test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of the evaluations to date are presented.

Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Rey, C. M.; Dixon, K. D.

385

Electric Utility Rate Design Study: comments on An Evaluation of Four Marginal-Costing Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

This report is an extension of NP-24255 (EAPA 6:1820), An Evaluation of Four Marginal Costing Methodologies (RDS No. 66), which summarizes, contrasts, and evaluates four marginal costing methodologies currently in use by various electric utilities. The proponents of the four methodologies evaluated by Temple, Barker, and Sloane (TBS) were asked to comment on the TBS report (RDS No. 66). Other selected reviewers were asked to comment on the TBS report. This report, RDS No. 67, is an anthology of all those comments plus a response to them by TBS. The rebuttal comments from TBS appear first, followed by comments submitted by Ralph Turvey, an authority in microeconomics. The next comments are to the Rate Design Study by members of Advisory Group I, experts in the field of electricity pricing. The next four sections present detailed comments submitted by the four marginal-cost proponents: Cicchetti, Gillen, and Smolensky; Ernst and Ernst; Gordian Associates; and National Economic Research Associates.

Not Available

1980-06-12

386

Hydrogen gas production and utilization as electricity using a renewable energy source  

SciTech Connect

The present study includes two main parts. The first describes hydrogen production from electrolysis water depending on the DC output current of the photovoltaic (PV) energy source. The second part presents the utilization of produced hydrogen to generate electric power. The design of a closed loop cycle for electrolyzer and fuel cell to produce hydrogen and generate electrical energy, respectively, depending on a renewable energy source, is considered. Five different types of electrolyzer and fuel cells are studied to depict the effect of these types with respect to the current, voltage, cell temperature, cell pressure, sizing, and the required number of modules to produce one cubic meter of hydrogen per one hour. According to the various types of electrolyzer and fuel cell, multi PV systems are designed to produce 10 m{sup 3}/day of hydrogen. The daily PV solar energy consumption to produce 10 m{sup 3} of hydrogen gas is calculated. Also, I-V and P-V characteristics of PV arrays for different percentages of insolation for the selected isolated area (Aswan) are calculated. The results show that the first type of electrolyzer (conventional alkaline) is the most economical one to produce hydrogen gas at the lowest values of the electrical current and voltage. The first and the second types of the fuel cells (alkaline and polymer membrane) generate a higher value of electrical energy than the others.

Fahmy, F.H.; Abdel-Rehim, Z.S. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

1999-08-01

387

Privatization of state-owned electric utility in Thailand: Expected effects on economic efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation analyzes the prospects of improving the economic efficiency of electricity generation in Thailand by privatization. It examines the monopoly state-owned electric utility, its cost minimizing behavior, and the induced distortion in input prices. This study employs the generalized cost function to investigate the economic efficiency. The basic model follows the relative price efficiency analysis developed by Atkinson and Halvorsen (1984). The econometric models estimate and test the effects of the cost distortion on input utilization and on productivity growth. The existence of scale economies is tested. The empirical results reveal the efficient performance of EGAT under the current environment. One could not reject the efficiency of input choice. Productivity growth rose around 1.15 per cent per year during the study period. The total factor productivity (TFP) growth indicates no remarkably divergent predictions between the electricity generating sector and the industrial sector. This implies that EGAT's productivity grew at the same annual rate as that of the average for total privately owned manufacturing firms. It appears that the smaller power plants attained higher positive percentages of scale economies while the larger power plants did not. The minimum positive value of scale economies and the minimum average cost reported at 260 MW (computed at 65% load factor) of power plant size. The diseconomies of scale of the larger power plants and the U-shaped average cost curve support that the market could absorb several suppliers, particularly at the 260 MW size. The promotion of competition in the electricity generating sector could not be faulted in terms of sacrificing economies of scale. The recommendation drawn from this study is that there is no need to privatize EGAT. The price efficiency test could not reject the hypothesis that EGAT fulfill the objective of cost minimization.

Ruangrong, P.

1992-01-01

388

18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

2010-04-01

389

18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

2009-04-01

390

NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document. Program Summary. Project Number 669.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), 'NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary,' to document th...

1992-01-01

391

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

Eltimsahy, A.H.

1980-06-01

392

Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

Denholm, P.; Short, W.

2006-10-01

393

Can a chronic disease management pulmonary rehabilitation program for COPD reduce acute rural hospital utilization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a costly burden on healthcare. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is the best practice to better manage COPD to improve patient outcomes and reduce acute hospital care utilization. To evaluate the impact of a once-weekly, eight-week multidisciplinary PR program as an integral part of the COPD chronic disease management (CDM) Program at Kyabram District Health Services.

TM Rasekaba; E Williams; B Hsu-Hage

2009-01-01

394

Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

NONE

1997-12-01

395

77 FR 13585 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk...Guideline AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability...DOE's intent to publish the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity...

2012-03-07

396

Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper

Ville Niutanen; Jouni Korhonen

2002-01-01

397

The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500MW

Elisabeth A. Gilmore; Jay Apt; Rahul Walawalkar; Peter J. Adams; Lester B. Lave

2010-01-01

398

Project demonstration of wind-turbine electricity: Interconnecting a northern Michigan fruit farm with a major utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reviewed in a project to test the economic feasibility of wind turbine technology for generating electricity. The use of wind generating electricity on a commercial fruit farm interconnecting a commercial fruit farm with a major utility to sell power are the find project goals.

D. M. Amon

1981-01-01

399

Project demonstration of wind-turbine electricity: Interconnecting a northern Michigan fruit farm with a major utility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reviewed in a project to test the economic feasibility of wind turbine technology for generating electricity. The use of wind generating electricity on a commercial fruit farm interconnecting a commercial fruit farm with a major utility to sell power are the find project goals.

Amon, D. M.

400

An off-peak energy storage concept for electric utilities: Part II--The water battery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water battery (reversible water electrolyser) as envisaged by Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) is a single energy storage device for use on an electric utility system at dispersed locations such as substations. Available off-peak electric energy can be used to electrolyse water, thus producing hydrogen and oxygen, which can be stored externally to the device. These gases can be recycled,

J. E. Clifford; E. W. Brooman; V. T. Sulzberger; Y. Z. El-Badry

1977-01-01

401

Using Data Stream Management Systems to analyze Electric Power Consumption Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of AMM (Automatic Metering Management), it will be possible for electric power suppliers to acquire from the customers their electric power con- sumption up to every second. This will generate data arriving in multiple, continuous, rapid, and time-varying data streams. Data Stream Management Systems (DSMS) - currently avail- able as prototypes - aim at facilitating the management

Talel Abdessalem; Raja Chiky; Georges Hebrail; Jean Louis Vitti

2007-01-01

402

An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs  

Microsoft Academic Search

If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a

A. A. Pesaran; M. Keyser; S. Burch

1999-01-01

403

Economic regulation by state commissions: the case of the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Many of the theories of regulation in economics and political science are attempts to predict and explain how regulators distribute wealth among private groups. Although these theories as an aggregate have pointed toward several key participants in the regulatory process - (1) the regulator, (2) the regulated group, and (3) the public - rarely has the behavior of all these actors been considered in a single coherent theory. It is the central thesis of this dissertation that an explanation of the pattern of the distribution of wealth among private groups requires an analysis of variation in the incentives and goals of these three actors, and in the resources they command. As such, I develop a theory based on a conception of electric-utility regulatory process as involving three key actors: (1) the state regulatory commission, and two private groups - (2) the firms in the regulated electric-utility industry, and (3) the group of consumers of the industry. The theory suggests that the distribution of regulatory benefits between these two private groups can be explained by the goals of these actors, the natures of the incentives of the actors for various types of political activity, and the resources available to the actors. The theory is tested comparatively using multivariate cross-sectional regression analysis with both the regulated firm and the American state as units of analysis.

Berry, W.D.

1980-01-01

404

The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

Not Available

1994-06-01

405

Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management  

PubMed Central

Natural resource management is littered with cases of overexploitation and ineffectual management, leading to loss of both biodiversity and human welfare. Disciplinary boundaries stifle the search for solutions to these issues. Here, I combine the approach of management strategy evaluation, widely applied in fisheries, with household utility models from the conservation and development literature, to produce an integrated framework for evaluating the effectiveness of competing management strategies for harvested resources against a range of performance metrics. I demonstrate the strengths of this approach with a simple model, and use it to examine the effect of manager ignorance of household decisions on resource management effectiveness, and an allocation tradeoff between monitoring resource stocks to reduce observation uncertainty and monitoring users to improve compliance. I show that this integrated framework enables management assessments to consider household utility as a direct metric for system performance, and that although utility and resource stock conservation metrics are well aligned, harvest yield is a poor proxy for both, because it is a product of household allocation decisions between alternate livelihood options, rather than an end in itself. This approach has potential far beyond single-species harvesting in situations where managers are in full control; I show that the integrated approach enables a range of management intervention options to be evaluated within the same framework.

Milner-Gulland, E. J.

2011-01-01

406

Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program was to explore the feasibility of the use of windpower generating systems as supplemental energy sources on existing electric utilities in the time frame of the next two decades. Specifically, the study was centered upon the geographical region served by Southwestern Public Service Company, an investor-owned utility with headquarters in Amarillo, Texas. The region includes

R. K. Swanson; R. T. Smith; C. C. Johnson

1976-01-01

407

Electric utility rates: the new rules of the game are being decided in Colorado. [Controversy of residential pricing structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in the solar building industry has foundations in rapidly escalating fuel prices and uncertainity as to the availability of many conventional energy forms. These same changes in energy prices and availability have shaken the electric utilities industry. The Metropolitan Denver Home Builders Association (MDHBA) has filed a complaint with the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) against the

1976-01-01

408

Tool Helps Utilities Assess Readiness for Electric Vehicle Charging (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL research helps answer a fundamental question regarding electric vehicles: Is the grid ready to handle them? Environmental, economic and security concerns regarding oil consumption make electrifying the transportation sector a high national priority. NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies & Systems (CTTS) has developed a framework for utilities to evaluate the plug-in vehicle (PEV) readiness of distribution transformers. Combining a wealth of vehicle performance statistics with load data from partner utilities including the Hawaiian Electric Company and Xcel Energy, NREL analyzed the thermal loading characteristics of distribution transformers due to vehicle charging. After running millions of simulations replicating varying climates and conditions, NREL is now able to predict aging rates for transformers when PEVs are added to existing building loads. With the NREL tool, users define simulation parameters by inputting vehicle trip and weather data; transformer load profiles and ratings; PEV penetration, charging rates and battery sizes; utility rates; the number of houses on each transformer; and public charging availability. Transformer load profiles, drive cycles, and ambient temperature data are then run through the thermal model to produce a one-year timeseries of the hotspot temperature. Annual temperature durations are calculated to help determine the annual aging rate. Annual aging rate results are grouped by independent variables. The most useful measure is transformer mileage, a measure of how many electrically-driven miles must be supplied by the transformer. Once the spectrum analysis has been conducted for an area or utility, the outputs can be used to help determine if more detailed evaluation is necessary, or if transformer replacement is required. In the majority of scenarios, transformers have enough excess capacity to charge PEVs. Only in extreme cases does vehicle charging have negative long-term impact on transformers. In those cases, upgrades to larger transformers would be recommended. NREL analysis also showed opportunity for newly-installed smart grids to offset distribution demands by time-shifting the charging loads. Most importantly, the model demonstrated synergies between PEVs and distributed renewables, not only providing clean renewable energy for vehicles, but also reducing demand on the entire distribution infrastructure by supplying loads at the point of consumption.

Not Available

2011-10-01

409

Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

SciTech Connect

The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

2009-06-01

410

In-situ utilization of generated electricity in an electrochemical membrane bioreactor to mitigate membrane fouling.  

PubMed

How to mitigate membrane fouling remains a critical challenge for widespread application of membrane bioreactors. Herein, an antifouling electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed based on in-situ utilization of the generated electricity for fouling control. In this system, a maximum power density of 1.43 W/m(3) and a current density of 18.49 A/m(3) were obtained. The results demonstrate that the formed electric field reduced the deposition of sludge on membrane surface by enhancing the electrostatic repulsive force between them. The produced H2O2 at the cathode also contributed to the fouling mitigation by in-situ removing the membrane foulants. In addition, 93.7% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 96.5% [Formula: see text] removal in average as well as a low effluent turbidity of below 2 NTU were achieved, indicating a good wastewater treatment performance of the EMBR. This work provides a proof-of-concept study of an antifouling MBR with high wastewater treatment efficiency and electricity recovery, and implies that electrochemical control might provide another promising avenue to in-situ suppress the membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:23886542

Wang, Yun-Kun; Li, Wen-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-07-09

411

Safe utilization of hyperglycemia management in the ICU.  

PubMed

Critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) often present with multiple medical or surgical problems requiring a high level of care. In addition to a patient's underlying illness, a number of known risk factors can predispose patients to episodes of hyperglycemia as well as hypoglycemia. The concept of glycemic control and its implication on morbidity and mortality has been well-described, along with the potential risks. Conflicting study results have complicated implementing universal methods for optimal glycemic control in the ICUs. There are many factors to consider when implementing intensive glycemic control, including reliability of point-of-care testing for glucose measurement, healthcare resources, types of protocols and appropriate target ranges. It is important that clinicians fully understand the risks and benefits of glucose management in the ICU setting to safely administer this potentially beneficial therapy. PMID:20210715

Loh-Trivedi, Mira; Croley, W Christopher

2010-01-01

412

A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility`s report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

Hirst, E.

1992-12-01

413

Fibromyalgia: patient perspectives on symptoms, symptom management, and provider utilization.  

PubMed

Two surveys of individuals with fibromyalgia were conducted to assess the frequency and prevalence of symptoms (N = 99) as well as healthcare providers, medications, and self-care activities used to manage one's fibromyalgia (N = 54). The pervasiveness of symptoms was striking, with 24 various symptoms ranging from cognitive to intestinal problems occurring in at least 75% of the respondents. Significant correlations were present between health status and both physical (P = .002) and psychological (P =.008) symptoms. There was also a significant correlation between the total number of symptoms and the degree of life disruption attributed to fibromyalgia (P =.015). A variety of healthcare professionals were seen, with internists, family physicians, and rheumatologist most frequently used. Although at least 80% of the respondents reported difficulty with anxiety, confusion, irritability, depression, and cognitive difficulties, less than 10% of the respondents reported seeing a psychiatrist. Most frequently used medications were: amitriptyline, (fluoxetine HCl) Prozac, ibuprofen (Motrin), sertraline HCI (Zoloft), and zolpidem (Ambein). Self-care activities used with the most success were walking, stretching, and exercising. These studies indicate the need for more research and support for healthcare providers as well as patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:11839925

Wassem, Rebecca; McDonald, Marie; Racine, Janet

2002-01-01

414

Pilot measurements of ELF contact currents in some electric utility occupations.  

PubMed

Contact currents from touching objects with different voltages can produce electric fields within the body that produce neurological and other biological effects. To begin measuring these exposures among electric utility workers, a new contact current meter (CCM) was tested in a pilot study at Southern California Edison. The CCM was worn for 82 full-shift measurements by 76 volunteers from eight occupations who did not work directly with energized electrical equipment. The volunteers were exposed to an average of 285.8 contact current events above the meter's 1-microA threshold, but most of these were electrostatic spark discharges. Fourteen employees experienced an average of 135.1 contact currents events whose primary frequency was 60 Hz. Using a circuit model of the human body, the average contact currents going from arm to arm was 9.8 microA (maximum = 178.0 microA), and the average going down the torso was 25.5 microA (maximum = 662.0). The maximum exposures were experienced by a technical support employee working in a substation. All measurements in this pilot study were below the 3000 microA maximum permissible exposure for contact currents set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Combining these current measurements with the results of high-resolution dosimetry, the internal electric fields averaged an estimated 1.7 mV/m in the heart (maximum = 21.0 mV/m), and 1.9 mV/m in the hematopoietic bone marrow in the torso (maximum = 56.5 mV/m). These internal electric fields from contact currents are below the basic restriction of 943 mV/m in the IEEE exposure standards but are above 1 mV/m, a level where biological effects have been often reported in laboratory studies. Safety concerns limited the measurements to de-energized equipment, so we did not obtain data on work in energized high-voltage environments, the most likely sources of high contact currents. This pilot study identified other improvements to the contact current meter that would make it better able to measure exposures in future health studies. PMID:16718950

Bowman, Joseph; Niple, John; Kavet, Rob

2006-06-01

415

The impact of deregulation and restructuring: An empirical case study of the electric utility industry from 1998 through 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study analyzed the residential electricity prices in the competitive U.S. electric market from 1998 to 2007. This analysis revealed that electricity restructuring has not yet resulted in lower prices for the majority of residential consumers in areas open to competition. This study reviewed actual experiences of eight states in the deregulated and restructured electricity markets: Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The study began with a historical look at the deregulated and restructured electricity market from 1990 to 2007. The electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition and price caps. The results indicated that both had an effect on residential prices. This study used data from the Energy Information Administration and the 8 public utility commissions. Contrary to common expectations, residential electricity costs for consumers have increased rather than decreased.

Robinson, Deborah E.

416

Electric-discharge chemical laser utilizing a mixture of chlorine monofluoride with hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A determination was made of the energy, spectrum, and duration of emission of radiation generated as a result of vibrational--rotational transitions in HF and HCl molecules in a chemical laser utilizing ClF--H/sub 2/--He mixtures and subjected to short-pulse initiation of the pump reactions by a transverse electric discharge preceded by photopreionization. When the total energy of the output radiation pulses due to both HF and HCl molecules was 0.16 J, the efficiency of the laser measured relative to the energy deposited in the active medium was 60%, the specific output energy was 4 J/liter, and the power per pulse was 0.4 MW.

Kolovskii, V.B.; Drobakha, S.A.; Zhitneva, G.P.; Abakumov, G.A.; Simonov, A.P.

1984-12-01

417

The electric utility-industrial user partnership in solving power quality problems  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes various views on power quality among industrial end users and utility personnel. The issues raised include: the most salient power quality problems, their causes, and designing the most effective technical and organizational responses to these problems. Recent technological advancement has helped to precipitate power quality problems through the widespread influx of sophisticated electrical equipment that is sensitive to common power quality problems; particularly momentary loss of power and inadvertent noise that infiltrates into sensitive logic circuits. These problems have been exacerbated through the growing use of power electronics equipment which, although beneficial, can generate harmonic distortion and notching of the line voltage. Although these are not the only power quality problems, identifying and technically solving these emerging problems is an engineering challenge that can be met on a case by case basis.

Stratford, R.P. (Power Tech Inc. (US)); Smith, J.C. (Electric Power Research Institute (US)); Clemmensen, J.M. (Collective Intelligence, Palo Alto, CA (US)); Saunders, L.F. (Chevrolet-Pontiac-Canada Group (CA)); Potts, C.D. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (US)); Emmett, G.L. (CR Engineering, Inc. (US)); Moncrief, W.A. (Georgia Power, GA (US)); Singletary, B. (Bayboro Corp. (US))

1990-08-01

418

Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

Lyons, Joseph T.

419

Administrative politics in the Ohio Department of Energy: the regulation of electric utility strategic planning  

SciTech Connect

The study examines political behavior manifested by several regulatory and quasi-regulatory state agencies in the development and implementation of a procedure to review electric utility long-range forecasts of demand and resources. The analysis identifies the political issues which orient political behavior during the development and implementation of the forecast evaluation process, and examines the social and cultural resources that various actors manipulate in pursuit of support for their political goals. A processual framework is employed to trace actors' dynamic manipulative strategies, including those involving the manipulation of cultural forms such as myth and ideology. The research results suggest that bureaucratic agencies are adept at manipulating social and cultural forms in their pursuit of legislative and administrative support for their political goals.

Stroup, K.M.

1984-01-01

420

Study of Flowfield around a Hypersonic Model of HOPE-X Utilizing the Electric Discharge Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock shapes, boundary layers, and temperature layers around a model of HOPE-X traveling at a hypersonic speed were visualized utilizing the electric discharge method. The experiments were carried out under the condition that the angles of attack were 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To visualize 3-D shock shapes around the model, the observation of shock shapes were conducted from the side and back of the model. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the two kinds of shock shapes interacted with each other. The various kinds of shock shapes according to the model angles of attack were also obtained. Subsequently, the visualized results of temperature layer around the model were described. Furthermore, the boundary layers generated around the model were visualized and compared with the temperature layers. A hypersonic gun tunnel was used in these experiments. The main characteristics of the tunnel were the Mach number was 10 and the duration was 10ms.

Nishio, Masatomi; Kotake, Mutsuo; Sezaki, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroaki

421

Lung cancer in relation to employment in the electrical utility industry and exposure to magnetic fields.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A recent study found that lung cancer may be associated with exposures encountered in the electrical utility industry. To further evaluate this possibility, data were collected and analysed from five large electrical utility companies in the United States. METHODS: A cohort of 138905 male workers employed between 1950 and 1986 was followed up for mortality to the end of 1988, with 20733 deaths identified of which 1692 were due to lung cancer. Mortality from lung cancer was examined in relation to the duration of employment in specific jobs thought to have high exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields and to an index of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on personal measurements. Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) as estimated from another study was also considered. Poisson regression generated rate ratios for categories of exposure based on comparisons within the cohort adjusted for age, calendar year, race, socioeconomic status, work status, and estimated exposure to asbestos. RESULTS: Mortality rose modestly with duration of work as an electrician or power plant operator reaching rate ratios of 1.4 with > or = 20 years in those jobs but not with duration of work as a lineman or a combination of jobs thought to have high exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields or PEMFs. Cumulative indices of exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields and PEMFs were both associated with rate ratios of 1.2-1.3 in the highest intervals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lung cancer is not strongly associated with duration of employment in specific jobs associated with high potential exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields or to PEMFs. Small associations of lung cancer with indices of both 60 Hz magnetic fields and PEMFs leave open the possibility that larger associations have been diluted through exposure misclassification. Refined exposure assessment, especially to PEMFs, would be required to evaluate that possibility.

Savitz, D A; Dufort, V; Armstrong, B; Theriault, G

1997-01-01

422

Lessons Learned: A review of utility experience with conservation and load management programs for commercial and industrial customers  

SciTech Connect

This report examines utility experience with conservation and load management (C LM) programs of commercial and industrial (C I) customers in order to summarize the lessons learned from program experiences to date and what these teach us about how to operate successful programs in the future. This analysis was motivated by a desire to learn about programs which achieve high participation rates and high electricity savings while remaining cost effective. Also, we wanted to review the very latest experiences with innovative program approaches -- approaches that might prove useful to utilities as they scale up their C LM activities. Specific objectives of this phase of the study are threefold: (1) To disseminate information on utility C LM experience to a nationwide audience. (2) To review current New York State utility programs and make suggestions on how these programs can be improved. (3) To collect data for the final phase of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy/New York State Energy Research and Development Authority project, which will examine the savings that are achievable if C LM programs are pushed to the limit'' of current knowledge on how to structure and run cost-effective C LM programs. 19 tabs.

Nadel, S.

1990-10-01

423

Least cost planning regulation; Restructuring the roles of utility management and regulators  

SciTech Connect

This purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of regulators in long-range utility resource planning. Summary of major points include: Three regulatory options exist today with respect to integrated resource planning: Command and Control Regulation; Incentive Regulation; and Flexible Regulation. If deregulation is likely in the end, flexible regulation today offers the greatest promise of long-run success. Flexible regulation requires commissions and companies to agree on underlying principles and for utility management to exercise defensible judgment.

Donovan, D.J.; Goldfield, S.R. (Richard Metzler and Associates, Northbrook, IL (US))

1992-01-01

424

A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility's report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

Hirst, E.

1992-12-01

425

Long-range forecast and plan report for the Maryland Electric Utilities, 1983-1993. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of declining load growth and reduced load growth projections over the past few years, Maryland's electric utilities have scaled back their construction programs. Accompanying the scaling back of power plant construction has been the recent emergence of 'demand-side' programs. The State's utilities have introduced and the Public Service Commission has approved 'buy-back' rates which enable non-utility power producers to sell their power to the utility. This arrangement is intended to encourage the development of alternative energy sources, including industrial cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectricity, municipal solid waste and photovoltaics.

Not Available

1984-02-01

426

A survey of state PUC (Public Utility Commission) activities to incorporate environmental externalities into electric utility planning and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental effects that accompany operation of electric generating plants have significant impacts on society. In 1985, electricity production from fossil-fired facilities accounted for about two-thirds of the SOâ and about one-third of the NOâ and COâ emitted in the US SOâ and NOâ are precursors to acid rain, which causes serious damage to forests, lakes, and agriculture. In addition,

S. D. Cohen; J. H. Eto; C. A. Goldman; J. Beldock; G. Crandall

1990-01-01

427

Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

Not Available

1993-06-01

428

A utility survey and market assessment on repowering in the electric power industry  

SciTech Connect

Section 1 of this report provides a background about the DOE High Performance Power Systems (HIPPS) program. There are two kinds of HIPPS cycles under development. One team is led by the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, the other team is led by the United Technologies Research Center. These cycles are described. Section 2 summarizes the feedback from the survey of the repowering needs of ten electric utility companies. The survey verified that the utility company planners favor a repowering for a first-of-a-kind demonstration of a new technology rather than an all-new-site application. These planners list the major factor in considering a unit as a repowering candidate as plant age: they identify plants built between 1955 and 1965 as the most likely candidates. Other important factors include the following: the need to reduce operating costs; the need to perform major maintenance/replacement of the boiler; and the need to reduce emissions. Section 3 reports the results of the market assessment. Using the size and age preferences identified in the survey, a market assessment was conducted (with the aid of a power plant data base) to estimate the number and characteristics of US generating units which constitute the current, primary potential market for coal-based repowering. Nearly 250 units in the US meet the criteria determined to be the potential repowering market.

Klara, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Weinstein, R.E. [Parsons Power Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Wherley, M.R. [Science Applications International Corp., Reston, VA (United States)

1996-08-01

429

Nonoperative management of solid organ injuries in children results in decreased blood utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The administration of blood products to injured children has been recognized as a potential risk of nonoperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate blood utilization in the management of solid organ injuries in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma victims.Methods: One hundred sixty-one children (?16 years old) with solid organ injuries over an 8-year study period (1990 through

David A Partrick; Denis D Bensard; Ernest E Moore; Frederick M Karrer

1999-01-01

430

An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects  

SciTech Connect

This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity. The projects were sorted into eight categories (capacitors, load transfer, new feeder, new line, new substation, new transformer, reconductoring, and substation capacity increase) and descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, total cost, number of observations, and standard deviation) were constructed for each project type. Furthermore, statistical analysis has been performed using ordinary least squares regression analysis to identify how various project variables (e.g., project location, the primary customer served by the project, the type of project, the reason for the upgrade, size of the upgrade) impact the unit cost of the project.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

2004-06-01

431

Technology review - Utilizing rotating thermosyphon technology in aircraft thermal management and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is made of the development status and performance benefits of rotating thermosyphon aircraft thermal management control applications. Rotating two-phase thermosyphons furnish reliable, low maintenance cooling for such rotating systems as electric motors, compressors, and generators. Thermosyphons are uniquely suited for aircraft applications in their insensitivity to operating environments involving high G-loads, vibration, and multiple orientations.

Yerkes, Kirk L.

1990-10-01

432

The future of America's electric utilities: Reconciling deregulation and least-cost planning  

SciTech Connect

For more than a decade, two dynamic reform movements have been reshaping the utility industry. One camp follows the banner of least-cost of integrated-resource planning and investment; it puts special emphasis on previously neglectetd improvements in the efficiency of energy use, enlisting both public and private sectors in a search for cost-effective ways to get more services out of less energy. The other vision is rooted in the ideology and practice of deregulation; it seeks to reduce costs and boost supplies by spurring increased competition in the sale of kilowatt-hours. This article seeks a reconciliation of these views, whose proponents often have not yet paused even to acknowledge each others; existence. Yet the best of both ideals can be realized under proper regulatory and management regimes.

Cavanagh, R. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-05-01

433

Meeting the 'Producer Responsibility' Challenge The Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s, various governments have been moving towards a new market- based approach to waste management known as 'Producer Responsibility'. Through this approach, producers of electrical and electronic equipment will be made respon- sible for the end-of-life waste management costs of their products. Focusing on Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (W E E E), this paper examines

Kieren Mayers

434

NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

Not Available

1992-08-01

435

Optimal energy management for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Real-time controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A converted Toyota Prius 2007 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) uses additional large capacity battery, so that it can enhance the pure electric drivability and increase its electric range. To accomplish real time energy distribution management system in this PHEV, firstly, a specific model is established which contains most of the powertrain properties and partly vehicle dynamics. Secondly, an optimal

Xiao Lin; H. Banvait; S. Anwar; Yaobin Chen

2010-01-01

436

Emerging technologies for the management and utilization of landfill gas. Final report, August 1994August 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3), for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the utilization of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from LFG. The emerging technologies that are considered to be Tier

S. Roe; J. Reisman; R. Strait; M. Doorn

1998-01-01

437

Utility benefits from targeting demand-side management programs at specific distribution areas. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeting demand-side management (DSM) programs to specific locales that are experiencing demand growth within a utility service area may delay or eliminate some capital expenditures. This case study of three substation areas also indicates that certain locales show greater potential savings from DSM programs than others.

Rosenbloom

1986-01-01

438

Utility of Early MRI in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimal diagnostic evaluation for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ICH diagnosis and management. Methods: Eighty-nine (72%) of 123 patients with spontaneous ICH underwent a brain CT and MRI within 30 days of ICH onset. Seventy patients with a mean age of 62

Christine A. C. Wijman; Chitra Venkatasubramanian; Sara Bruins; Nancy Fischbein; Neil Schwartz

2010-01-01

439

Effects of Transmission Speed on Equipment Performance and Utilizing Spatial Equipment Performance Data for Management Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With fuel prices reaching all time highs, agricultural producers are searching for ways to minimize operational costs such as fuel usage while also increasing productivity. Adjustment of tractor operational variables including gear selection can optimize fuel usage and improve productivity during field operations. Further, spatial equipment performance data collected using GPS can also be utilized to make more informed management

C. M. Kichler; J. P. Fulton; R. L. Raper; W. C. Zech; T. P. McDonald; E. B. Schwab

440

Utilizing a new management system to solve a difficult economizer tube failure problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economizer tube leaks in the waste heat recovery boilers at the Dow Chemical Pittsburgh, California Power Plant began to increase significantly in 1985. The author reports on a new management system introduced to the site that utilized statistical analysis and other tools to solve problems and improve quality. The economizer leak problem was chosen as the first problem on which

Tannenbaum

1988-01-01

441

Utility of social network analysis for primate behavioral management and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

New management strategies for detecting social instabilities and promoting social cohesion are needed to reduce aggression-based morbidity and mortality among captive groups of rhesus macaques. This study was conducted to determine the utility of social network analysis for deciphering patterns of aggression and wounding in rhesus macaques. Over 37,000 observations of affiliative, submissive and aggressive activities were collected over a

Brenda McCowan; Kristen Anderson; Allison Heagarty; Ashley Cameron

2008-01-01

442

Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic In Depth explores some of what the Web has to offer on the subject of electricity.The first site from Thinkquest.org called Electricity Online (1) gives an excellent overview, with topics ranging from circuits and transformers to electricity's discovery and history. The site even contains games, activities, and quizzes. The second site, Edison's Miracle of Light (2) from PBS.org, is a companion site to a PBS special of the same name. The site explores the life and accomplishments of one of the 19th century's greatest inventors, offering a timeline, recordings, and more. From Clark Public Utilities of Clark County Washington, the next site is called Electricity (3). This Web site offers information from a public utilities perspective, with subjects like electrical safety, how electricity gets to your home, what it costs to run appliances, and so on. Next, from the US Department of Energy, is a site that offers an Overview of the Electric Power Industry (4). Here, visitors can find information, data, publications, statistics, and more relating to electric power in the US. The fifth site from ExploreScience.com is called Multimedia Activities (5) and contains just that. Geared towards students, the four interactive lessons include an introduction to electricity and magnetism, an introduction to plasma, coulomb force, and lissajous figures. The next site, provided by the BBC, is another interactive learning site, called Activity Electricity (6). Users click through a lesson about circuits and current, answering questions along the way. The site also contains a fact sheet and quiz. From NASA, the Dataset Information site (7) contains data archived and cataloged by the Global Hydrology Resource Center relating to lighting. Several datasets from varying sources are available for free and include such things as Long Range Cloud to Ground Data. The last site is offered by the Canada Science and Technology Museum and is called Background Information for Electricity (8). This Web site for kids offers simple descriptions and illustrations about electricity, who discovered it, conductors and insulators, fuses, and more. The electricity workshop link also contains lesson plans and additional student activities.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

443

77 FR 16494 - Revised Public Utility Filing Requirements for Electric Quarterly Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for greater transparency in wholesale electricity markets through a greater understanding...will bolster transparency in wholesale electricity markets by facilitating a greater...counterparties in which party A sells an electricity product to party B at one location...

2012-03-21

444

Comparison of photovoltaics with solar thermal trough electric systems as a central station utility resource in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach and results of work to compare solar thermal parabolic trough systems and photovoltaic systems as utility electric generation resources in the mid-to-late-1990s are discussed. Assumptions, methodology, designs, performance simulation, value analysis, cost estimates, and economic feasibility analysis are presented. Results, based on standard utility financial criteria and avoided costs, show that central station solar power generation is not

Daniel S. Shugar; James M. Eyer; George A. Hay; Jeremy Newberger; David Kearney

1991-01-01

445

Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Citizens Utility Board); (BuildingIQ Pty Ltd, Australia); (PJM Interconnection LLC)

2011-08-11

446

The intelligent management and control technology for enterprise based on electrical characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a new method on its own, from the perspective of electric gives a new solution on management problem. It firstly proposes a corresponding between electric and management problem in symbol level and then in equivalent circuit diagram level. Secondly, in the circuit level it outlines four basic principles. Finally, take an actual problem in enterprise's management as an example to illuminates the application of this control method.

Dong, Peng; Dai, Feng; Zhao, Tao; Li, Tianhe

2009-07-01

447

Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change  

SciTech Connect

In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

1996-07-01

448

Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

Khalil, Yehia Fahim

449

Power management and distribution system for a more-electric aircraft (MADMEL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-phase Power Management and Distribution System for a More-Electric Aircraft (MADMEL) program was awarded by the Air Force to Northrop\\/Grumman Military Aircraft Division in September 1991. The objective of the program is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced electrical power generation and distribution system for a More-Electric Aircraft (MEA). The MEA emphasizes the use of electrical power in

M. A. Maldonado; G. J. Korba

1999-01-01

450

Advanced electrolysis development for hydrogen-cycle peak shaving for electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of operation of a hydrogen cycle peak shaving (HCPS) system are reported. The HCPS system has an electrolyzer to generate hydrogen in off peak hours for storage and later generation of electricity either through use in a fuel cell or as a replacement fuel for natural gas in turbines. The H2 can be stored as a gas or in a hydride (more expensive) and burned with O2 in the fuel cell for power that would be inverted to utility-grade ac current. Alternatively, the H2 could be fed directly into the natural gas pipelines up to a saturation concentration of 10-15 percent; a reformer would be installed to extract H2-rich gas from the pipeline, thereby making the auxiliary generator available at all times. A 4.5 MW alkaline electrolysis fuel cell installation was scheduled for operation in New York City in 1983, and an advanced unit in the 250 kW-1 MW range could be functioning by 1985.

Fernandes, R. L. A.; Nuttall, L. J.

1983-09-01

451

Political economy of partnerships with applications to power pooling in the electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The models studied here have one feature in common. Individuals all have a need for a divisible private good and are able to reduce the cost of satisfying their collective need by creating a partnership. Two dimensions differentiate the partnership models studied in the thesis, 1) the type of economic interdependence that leads to the formation of the partnership and 2) the characterization of individuals' demand for the private good. Two forms of economic interdependence are studied. The interdependence arising from a diversity of production technologies among members is shown to give the partnership the structure of a Shapley-Shubik market. The interdependence arising from the subadditivity of a cost function common to all members is shown to give the partnership the structure of a consumers' cooperative. Price-inelastic demands lead to cooperative models with distributive equity concepts. Price-elastic demands lead to noncooperative models with procedural equity concepts. For price-inelastic models a cost allocation rule is derived satisfying the equity concept called subsidy freedom in recent work on natural monopoly theory. Original theorems are proved for a class of models whose economic structure characterizes the interdependence among electric utility companies in power pools.

Herriott, S.R.

1984-01-01

452

Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines. final report  

SciTech Connect

The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO/sub 2/.8Y/sub 2/O/sub 3//NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca/sub 2/SiO/sub 4//NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

Bratton, R.J.; Lau, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.

1982-07-01

453

Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

2008-02-01

454

Economic Assessment and Impacts Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 provides an economic assessment of the impacts of PHEV adoption on vehicle owners and on electric utilities. The paper finds favorable impacts on LCC to vehicle owners, and average costs of power for both types of utilities.

Scott, Michael J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Elliott, Douglas B.; Warwick, William M.

2007-01-31

455

Solar-thermal conversion to electricity utilizing a central receiver, open-cycle, gas turbine design. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to develop a solar\\/electric power plant which utilizes an open cycle gas turbine as the prime mover is discussed. A conceptual design for a commercial-scale plant, with a nominal rating of 60 MWe, was prepared. The characteristics of that baseline design, which employs an elevated central receiver surrounded by a field of heliostats, are presented. The turbine is

Grosskreutz

1978-01-01

456

Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly

C. Ligon; G. Kirby; D. Jordan; J. H. Lawrence; W. Wiesner; A. Kosovec; R. K. Swanson; R. T. Smith; C. C. Johnson; H. O. Hodson

1976-01-01

457

Revised emissions estimation methodologies for industrial, residential, and electric utility stationary combustion sources. Final report, October 1991September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the development of improved and streamlined EPA emission estimation methods for stationary combustion area sources by the Joint Emissions Inventory Oversight Group (JEIOG) research program. These sources include categories traditionally labeled 'other stationary source combustion': residential, commercial\\/institutional, industrial, and electric utility fuel-burning sources that are not inventoried as point sources because they are too small or numerous

D. Bowman; S. Lowe; D. Winkler; D. Zimmerman

1992-01-01

458

Electric energy and the environment. Analysis of the emission of air pollutants in the Argentine public utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis was made of the emission of air pollutants by the Argentine public utilities, taking into account the historical evolution from 1970 to 1989. This has shown the impact which the substitution policies implemented in the electrical sector have h...

D. Carnevali C. E. Suarez

1990-01-01

459

A purely ultracapacitor energy storage system hybrid electric vehicles utilizing a based DC-DC boost converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of a purely ultracapacitor energy storage system for the improvement of hybrid electric vehicles is presented. The system utilizes two large ultracapacitor banks for energy storage and a dc-dc boost converter that is capable of supplying 8 kW for voltage regulation. The system provides greater roundtrip efficiency over batteries, improves a vehicle's ability to recapture energy

Erik J. Cegnar; Herb L. Hess; Brian K. Johnson

2004-01-01

460

Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

World wind energy resources are substantial, and in many areas, such as the US and northern Europe, could in theory supply all of the electricity demand. However, the remote or challenging location (i.e. offshore) and especially the intermittent character of the wind resources present formidable barriers to utilization on the scale required by a modern industrial economy. All of these

Alfred Cavallo

2007-01-01

461

Impacts of the proposed Clean Air Act amendments of 1982 on the coal and electric-utility industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to provide legislators, policymakers, analysts, and observers with an estimate of electric utility and consumer costs of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions, as proposed in Senate Bill S.3041, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1982. The analysis identifies the acid rain issue and the cutbacks in emissions mandated in S.3041. Through use of Energy Information

B. OBrien; A. Fuldner; M. Paull; T. Petersik; S. Kanhouwa

1983-01-01

462

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-P- 574 Srivastava*, R.K., Sedman*, C.B., Kilgroe*, J.D., Smith D., and Renninger, S. Preliminary Estimates of Performance and Cost of Mercury Control Technology Applications on Electric Utility Boilers. 01/24/2001 Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Envir...

463

Battery choice and management for new-generation electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of electric vehicles (EVs) have been recently designed with the aim of solving pollution problems caused by the emission of gasoline-powered engines. Environmental problems promote the adoption of new-generation electric vehicles for urban transportation. As it is well known, one of the weakest points of electric vehicles is the battery system. Vehicle autonomy and, therefore, accurate detection of

Antonio Affanni; Alberto Bellini; Giovanni Franceschini; Paolo Guglielmi; Carla Tassoni

2005-01-01

464

Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management  

PubMed Central

Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

2010-01-01

465

Energy, environmental, health and cost benefits of cogeneration from fossil fuels and nuclear energy using the electrical utility facilities of a province  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is investigated for increasing the utilization efficiency of energy resources and reducing environmental emissions, focusing on utility-scale cogeneration and the contributions of nuclear energy. A case study is presented for Ontario using the nuclear and fossil facilities of the main provincial electrical utility. Implementation of utility-based cogeneration in Ontario or a region with a similar energy system and

Marc A. Rosen

2009-01-01

466

Managing steam: An engineering guide to industrial, commercial, and utility systems  

SciTech Connect

This book is a guide to steam production, utilization, handling, transport, system optimization, and condensation and recovery. This book incudes a description of how steam, condensate, and hot water are used in various industrial, commercial, institutional, and utility sectors and explains how steam is generated and distributed. Waste-heat recovery, fluidized-bed boilers, and cogeneration systems and boiler control theory are discussed. The book also describes different types of valves, valve components, regulators, steam traps, and metering devices available for managing steam and condensate and discusses maintaining steam systems for optimum service and longer life.

Makansi, J.

1985-01-01

467

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability  

SciTech Connect

Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

1995-03-01

468

Microbial Utilization of Electrically Reduced Neutral Red as the Sole Electron Donor for Growth and Metabolite Production  

PubMed Central

Electrically reduced neutral red (NR) served as the sole source of reducing power for growth and metabolism of pure and mixed cultures of H2-consuming bacteria in a novel electrochemical bioreactor system. NR was continuously reduced by the cathodic potential (?1.5 V) generated from an electric current (0.3 to 1.0 mA), and it was subsequently oxidized by Actinobacillus succinogenes or by mixed methanogenic cultures. The A. succinogenes mutant strain FZ-6 did not grow on fumarate alone unless electrically reduced NR or hydrogen was present as the electron donor for succinate production. The mutant strain, unlike the wild type, lacked pyruvate formate lyase and formate dehydrogenase. Electrically reduced NR also replaced hydrogen as the sole electron donor source for growth and production of methane from CO2. These results show that both pure and mixed cultures can function as electrochemical devices when electrically generated reducing power can be used to drive metabolism. The potential utility of utilizing electrical reducing power in enhancing industrial fermentations or biotransformation processes is discussed.

Park, D. H.; Laivenieks, M.; Guettler, M. V.; Jain, M. K.; Zeikus, J. G.

1999-01-01

469

Electric Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) in the Treatment of Angina Pectoris: A Cost-Utility Analysis.  

PubMed

For the last 15 years electric spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been employed in patients with confirmed ischemic heart disease who suffer from refractory angina pectoris despite maximum medical/surgical treatment. The purpose of this investigation was to assess not only the economic consequences of SCS treatment (cost-utility analysis) but also altered quality of life in SCS patients. The retrospective study includes 18 consecutive patients, six women and 12 men, with an average age of 56.5 years (range 50-68), submitted to implantation of a SCS system at Odense University Hospital. Before implantation of the SCS system, the patients were in a transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment 2-11 months. At the submission all patients were in New York Heart Association functional group III/IV. The results are based on cost data from the year prior to start of TENS treatment compared with the year after implantation of the SCS system. Medical records of the patients were examined and data concerning use of general practitioners and emergency services were collected from a nationwide database. Quality of life data were collected using identical questionnaires (perception of pain, mobility, function in daily life, and physical activity) related to the period immediately before start of the TENS treatment and one year after SCS implant. Savings were found at hospital level (reduction in number of admissions) and for non-hospital related expenses (such as medication and visits at general practitioners). In addition, improvements were registered in all respects which constituted assessment of the quality of life of the patients. The study is a repetition of a similar analysis with identical results made in 1990 and including the 16 first angina pectoris patients treated with SCS at Odense University Hospital. SCS is effective in reducing hospital and non-hospital related expenses and improving quality of life of the patients. SCS is a simple treatment for the patient to use. The implantation technique is not more invasive than permanent cardiac pacing. The decisive part of the procedure is the insertion of the electrode and follow-up with support and adjustments of the stimulation. PMID:22151189

Rasmussen, Malene Bladt; Hole, Peter; Andersen, Claus

2004-04-01

470

The demand-side management program development process: A utility perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an aspect of DSM that has received little attention, namely, how utilities develop DSM programs. The selection of utilities to study purposely was biased in favor of those with reputations for being experienced DSM program developers so as to optimize the chances to obtain detailed infor