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1

Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

Foutes, William; And Others

2

Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Test Structures: 3-Point Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers a program that calculates strain due to change in length of a beam. Written by Janet Marshall of the Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), this three-point formula program is the result of research on multi-layered microelectronics such as silicon chips. The program is intended for use by MEMS lab workers but would work well as part of a college-level engineering class exercise. Users can choose either a cantilevered or a fixed-fixed beam and then input sample data (a sample data set is provided) into a form to get an output of strain gradient and out-of-plane curvature. A link to a page showing the formulae used is provided.

3

Mecomtronics Module H: Electrical and Mechanical Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module H focuses on electrical and mechanical power systems and process control. Student technicians will construct a conveyor system to transport radio-labeled pharmaceuticals from one side of the plant to the other where the loading bay is located. The transportation of the pharmaceutical must be done within a minimum amount of time in order to preserve the usable lifetime of the drug. In order to determine the exact time of production, the speed of the conveyor system must be precisely maintained. To maintain the precise delivery time, a variable speed motor control circuit will be employed to drive the conveyor belt. Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

2009-11-26

4

Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed for integrated circuit analysis, including optical inspection, scanning laser microscopy (SLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) microscopy, light emission (LE) microscopy, acoustic microscopy and acoustic emission analysis. For example, the FIB was used to microsection microengines that developed poor performance characteristics. Subsequent SEM analysis clearly demonstrated the absence of wear on gear, hub, and pin joint bearing surfaces, contrary to expectations. Another example involved the use of infrared microscopy for thermal analysis of operating microengines. Hot spots were located, which did not involve the gear or hub, but indicated contact between comb structures which drive microengines. Voltage contrast imaging proved useful on static and operating MEMS in both the SEM and the FIB and identified electrostatic clamping as a potentially significant contributor to failure mechanisms in microengines. This work describes MEMS devices, FA techniques, failure modes, and examples of FA of MEMS.

Peterson, K.A.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

1997-10-01

5

Hybrid and Electric Automotive Systems: Combined Electrical, Mechanical, and Fuel Cell Opportunities for Personal Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric automobiles are clean, efficient, and powerful but are limited in range. Hybrid designs seek to enhance range through the use of liquid fuel. The energy, force, and power needs of a typical car are reviewed. The relationship to fuel cells as energy sources is discussed. Opportunities in the electrical arena, the mechanical arena, and the fuel cell arena are

Philip T. Krein

2006-01-01

6

Design of an electro-mechanical portable system using natural human body movements for electricity generation  

E-print Network

Design of an electro-mechanical portable system using natural human body movements for electricity and z. Design of an electromechanical portable system using human body movement for electricity that uses natural movements of the human body during walking motion, as a means of increasing the autonomy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Learning Activity Packets for Auto Mechanics II. Section B--Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for the instructional area of electrical systems in the auto mechanics II program. They accompany an instructor's guide available separately. The LAPs outline the study activities and performance tasks for these six units: (1) basic electrical theory, (2) battery service, (3) starting system, (4)…

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

8

Method permits mechanical and electrical checkout of piezoelectric transducers while installed in a system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Known dc voltage is applied and then removed suddenly in a method to permit checkout of the mechanical and electrical condition of piezoelectric transducers of the cantilever beam type, while installed in a system.

Jenkins, R. S.; Rogallo, V. L.

1966-01-01

9

Electrical Systems. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide Module 2. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide, which is based on 144 basic auto mechanics competencies identified on the Missouri Auto Mechanics Competency Profile. The instructor's materials in this document are for a 14-unit secondary education course. The following units are included: (1) principles…

Hevel, David; Donovan, Roger

10

Effects of electrical power off-take on finite inertia mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the onboard electrical power system on the operation of the mechanical prime mover, for example an aircraft gas-engine, is examined through experimental testing on a 100kW aircraft power system facility. Hardware- in-the-loop techniques are used to control two motor drives such that they emulate the dynamic characteristics of the shafts in an aircraft engine. Electrical generators are

R. Todd; F. Bryan; A. J. Forsyth; C. Gan; J. Bossard

2011-01-01

11

Design and Use of Interactive Learning Stations in Construction Education for Building Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, the building codes that govern the design and installation of mechanical and electrical systems for buildings have become increasingly prescriptive in nature, specifying detailed information related to the design and installation of the systems, while offering no reasoning behind their prescriptive measures. Students now read about the design and installation of these systems in textbooks, and using the building codes, have in-class exercises drafting the systems, which in industry are used for fabrication and installation. Therefore, in conjunction with a new curriculum proposed for the construction management department at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo an interactive learning station was developed for student use to enhance student learning. This paper focuses on the design and use of interactive learning stations for building mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems that allow construction students to perform hands-on fit-up exercises and test their performance.

Korman, Thomas

12

Mechanical Electrical and Plumbing Course Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Shannon Baird's Mechanical Electrical and Plumbing class, taught at Portland Community College. The course "covers the basic principles, types, and applications of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems in commercial construction." This syllabus includes a detailed course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Baird, Shannon

2011-12-27

13

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE)  

E-print Network

mechanics Integrated control system design Mathematics I Circuit theory Solid mechanics I Thermodynamics Design materials and manufacturing I Mathematics II Digital electronics Solid mechanics II Design

Burton, Geoffrey R.

14

Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.  

PubMed

Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

2013-01-01

15

Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical and electrical  

E-print Network

Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical, the requirements for enterprises have increased with regard to product and service quality. Due to the worldwide growing competition, enterprises are faced with a stronger pressure. The companies' tasks are frequently

Boyer, Edmond

16

Quantum mechanics on curved 2D systems with electric and magnetic fields  

E-print Network

We derive the Schroedinger equation for a spinless charged particle constrained to a curved surface with electric and magnetics fields applied. The particle is confined on the surface using a thin-layer procedure, giving rise to the well-known geometric potential. The electric and magnetic fields are included via the four-potential. We find that there is no coupling between the fields and the surface curvature and that, with a proper choice of the gauge, the surface and transverse dynamics are exactly separable. Finally, the Hamiltonian for the cylinder, sphere and torus are analytically derived.

Giulio Ferrari; Giampaolo Cuoghi

2008-03-18

17

Mechanical rectifier for micro electric generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a mechanical rectifier for micro electric generators. Since micro electric generators usually produce alternating-current power, innovation ideas for DC outputs are strongly demanded. Electric rectifiers are one of solutions; however, electric rectifier circuits using semiconductor elements have a threshold voltage. It means that the electric generator has to generate higher voltage than the threshold or

S. Nagasawa; T. Suzuki; Y. Takayama; K. Tsuji; H. Kuwano

2008-01-01

18

112. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

112. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) AND PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL VISIBLE AT SOUTH END OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110). PAYLOAD CABLE DISTRIBUTION BOX ON LEFT OF PHOTO, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

19

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. 236.308...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed...

2013-10-01

20

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. 236.308...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed...

2012-10-01

21

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. 236.308...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed...

2010-10-01

22

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. 236.308...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed...

2011-10-01

23

Diesel Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains eight instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to electrical systems; (2) electrical circuits; (3) electrical indicator circuits; (4) storage batteries; (5) starting systems and circuits; (6) ignition circuits; (7)…

Sprinkle, Tom; Huston, Jane, Ed.

24

Electrical Systems. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This electrical systems manual is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of electrical systems on mobile machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Electricity: How It…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

25

Hawaii electric system reliability.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

2012-09-01

26

Superconductivity for Electric Systems  

E-print Network

Superconductivity for Electric Systems Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report For the Period April 1, 2007, to June 30, 2007 #12;2 Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report Superconductivity Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory For: Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery

27

Superconductivity for Electric Systems  

E-print Network

1 Superconductivity for Electric Systems Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report For the Period October 1, 2006, to December 31, 2006 #12;2 Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report Superconductivity Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory For U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery

28

Superconductivity for Electric Systems  

E-print Network

Superconductivity for Electric Systems Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report For the Period January 1, 2007 to March 31, 2007 #12;2 Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report Superconductivity Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory For: Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery

29

T & I--Auto Mechanics. Electrical System. Kit No. 48. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto electrical systems are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

Lake, Robert

30

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

31

Mechanical systems: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

1975-01-01

32

Solar electric systems  

SciTech Connect

Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

Warfield, G.

1984-01-01

33

Master's Program Electrical Systems Engineering  

E-print Network

Module Master's Program Electrical Systems Engineering University of Paderborn Faculty........................................................................... 10 2.1 Modul Group: Introduction to Electrical Systems Engineering..................10 2.1.1 Advanced 2.3.2 Topics in Systems Engineering

Hellebrand, Sybille

34

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene is an exciting new atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) system of carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice structure. This "wonder material" has been extensively studied in the last few years since it's first isolation in 2004. Its rapid rise to popularity in scientific and technological communities can be attributed to a number of its exceptional properties. In this thesis I will present several topics including fabrication of graphene devices, electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. I will start with a brief introduction of electronic transport in nanosclae system including quantum Hall effect, followed by a discussion of fundamental electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. Next I will describe how graphene devices are produced: from the famous "mechnical exfoliation" to our innovative "scratching exfoliation" method, together with the traditional lithography fabrication for graphene devices. We also developed a lithography-free technique for making electrical contacts to suspended graphene devices. Most of the suspended devices presented in this thesis are fabricated by this technique. Graphene has remarkable electrical properties thanks to its crystal and band structures. In Chapter 3, I will first focus on proximity-induced superconductivity in graphene Josephson transistors. In this section we investigate electronic transport in single layer graphene coupled to superconducting electrodes. We observe significant suppression in the critical current I c and large variation in the product IcR n in comparison to theoretic prediction; both phenomena can be satisfactorily accounted for by premature switching in underdamped Josephson junctions. Another focus of our studies is quantum Hall effect and many body physics in graphene in suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene. We demonstrate that symmetry breaking of the first 3 Landau levels and fractional quantum Hall states are observed in both bilayer and trilayer suspended graphene devices. A surprising finding in these systems is the observation of insulating states in both suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene devices, which arises from electronic interactions. In bilayer graphene, we observe a phase transition between the single-particle metallic state and the interaction-induced insulating state in ultra-clean BLG, which can be tuned by temperature, disorder, charge density n and perpendicular electric field E ?. In trilayer graphene we demonstrate dramatically different transport properties arising from the different stacking orders, and an unexpected spontaneous gap opening in charge neutral ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. One of graphene's unique properties is that it is nature's thinnest elastic membrane with exceptional mechanical properties. In chapter 7 I will describe the first direct observation and controlled creation of one- and two-dimensional periodic ripples in suspended graphene sheets, using both spontaneously and thermally generated strains. We are able to control ripple orientation, wavelength and amplitude by controlling boundary conditions and exploiting graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient, which we measure to be much larger than that of graphite. In addition, we also study the morphological change of suspended graphene sheets by apply gate voltages, which is a simple and direct method to strain and buckle graphene. Our experimental results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electrical and mechanical properties of graphene, and may have important implications for future graphene based applications.

Bao, Wenzhong

35

BIOPHYSICAL INJURY MECHANISMS IN ELECTRICAL SHOCK TRAUMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Electrical shock trauma,tends to produce,a very complex,pattern of in- jury, mainly because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interac- tions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical shocks. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved,the understanding,of the underlying biophysical in- jury mechanisms. Besides

Raphael C. Lee; Dajun Zhang; Jurgen Hannig

2000-01-01

36

Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer  

E-print Network

Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer N Kchit, G Bossis L.P.M.C. UMR. Magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) are smart materials made by aligning magnetic microparticles inside a liquid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are smart materials made by aligning magnetic microparticles inside a liquid polymer. Once the polymer is cured, this anisotropic structure is kept, giving to the composite new properties such as a large change in electrical resistivity with applied pressure. In order to understand the conduction mechanism in such composites, the influence of pressure on the electrical resistivity

N. Kchit; G. Bossis

2009-01-01

38

Electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated edition (from 1972) of technical aspects exhibited by electric systems which transmit power from the generator to the loads. A new area covered is the calculation of short-circuit currents due to symetrical faults and their impact on the ratings of circuit-interrupting devices. Not only have problems been added, but the use of a computer (over a wide-range of

J. R. Eaton; E. Cohen

1983-01-01

39

Electrical \\/ mechanical \\/ thermal design integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Intermediate Data Format (IDF) is a specification designed to provide a neutral representation for exchanging printed circuit assembly (PCA) data among mechanical design (MCAD), PCA layout (ECAD), and physical design analysis (MCAE) applications. Powerful analysis software, like Ansys, Maxwell, Semcad, Altium Designer or SolidWorks - CircuitWorks, can import the idf files and use the model for electromagnetic or thermal

Lucian Man; Dan Pitica; Monica Zolog

2009-01-01

40

ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

topics: Control Principles and Techniques Electric Vehicle Technologies Energy Supply Network Protection such as hydrogen-powered vehicles and wireless communications to gain practical training in core engineering fields on offer, along with an individual project that can be tailored to your own area of interest

Strathclyde, University of

41

Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

2011-01-01

42

Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates  

DOEpatents

A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

Chen, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

43

TOPEX electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

1991-01-01

44

Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems  

E-print Network

Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems NREL Energy Forum November 2009 www.novatorque.com Emily Liggett, CEO eliggett@novatorque.com November 3, 2009 #12;Proprietary Electric Motor System 2 Much higher over wider operating range with same size motor Uses up to 40% less electricity NREL Energy Forum

45

Electric vehicle drive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

Appleyard, M.

1992-01-01

46

Robot drive mechanism uses conventional electric motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of three phase asynchronous electric motors in robot technology are presented. The mechanical arm of a robot has as many drives as it has joints. Manipulators in use in modern industry must have six to nine degrees of mobility, and experimental prototypes with 18 coordinates of movement are already developed. A simple, common, and inexpensive industrial

I. Demchenko

1986-01-01

47

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has enabled large scale fabrication of graphene-based devices [1]. We apply transmission electron microscopy and AFM techniques to identify individual grain boundaries [2]. This further allows the direct investigation of mechanical and electrical properties of polycrystalline graphene in correlation with its grain structure. We used atomic force microscopy in order to induce and

Carlos Ruiz-Vargas; Arend van der Zande; Pinshane Huang; William Whitney; Mark Levendorf; Joshua Kevek; Shivank Garg; Jonathan Alden; David Muller; Paul McEuen; Jiwoong Park

2011-01-01

48

Smart electric vehicle charging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures, based on intelligent process. Due to the electrical power distribution network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed in a balanced way, taking into account past experience, weather information based on data mining, and simulation

Joao C. Ferreira; Vitor Monteiro; Joao L. Afonso; Alberto Silva

2011-01-01

49

Hybrid Mechanical Systems  

E-print Network

We discuss hybrid systems in which a mechanical oscillator is coupled to another (microscopic) quantum system, such as trapped atoms or ions, solid-state spin qubits, or superconducting devices. We summarize and compare different coupling schemes and describe first experimental implementations. Hybrid mechanical systems enable new approaches to quantum control of mechanical objects, precision sensing, and quantum information processing.

Philipp Treutlein; Claudiu Genes; Klemens Hammerer; Martino Poggio; Peter Rabl

2015-01-06

50

Mechanical and electrical interactions in bone remodeling  

SciTech Connect

The natural remodeling and adaptation of skeletal tissues in response to mechanical loading is a classic example of physical regulation in biology. It is largely because it involves forces that do not seem to fit into the familiar schemes of biochemical controls that bone adaptation mechanisms have intrigued us for at least a century. The effect of electromagnetic fields on organisms is another example of this, and the two have become linked in an attempt to explain bone remodeling (Yasuda`s hypothesis). This paper re-examines the roles of endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields in the response of bone to mechanical forces. A series of experiments is reviewed in which mechanical and electrical stimuli were applied to implants in the medullary canal of rabbit long bones. The results suggest that endogenously generated electrical currents are not required to initiate mechanically stimulated bone formation, but that direct mechanical effects on bone cells is the more likely scenario. Based on this and other evidence from the literature, it is suggested that when exogenous electromagnetic stimuli are applied, bone cells respond by modulating the activity of more primary activators such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical forces. 76 refs., 8 figs.

Spadaro, J.A. [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery] [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

1997-05-01

51

A revival of electric analogs for vibrating mechanical systems aimed to their efficient control by PZT actuators  

E-print Network

piezoelectric transducers­­uniformly distributed on the member­­to transform strain energy into capacitive, at the same time, as sensors and actuators. By means of analytical methods and numerical simulations: Mechanical vibrations control; Piezoelectric distributed control; Electro-mechanical dampers An analogy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Electric space propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active development of electric thrustors began 10 years ago. Today, several kinds of thrustors have achieved efficiencies above 90 % and lifetimes of several thousand hours. The following article derives the basic theory of electric thrust production at constant exhaust velocity, and at variable exhaust velocity programmed for optimum vehicle performance. Electrothermal or arcjet; electrostatic or ion; and electrodynamic or

Ernst Stuhlinger

1967-01-01

53

Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter  

DOEpatents

Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

Kellogg, Rick Allen (Tijeras, NM); Brotz, Jay Kristoffer (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-03-03

54

Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

Dudley, Michael R.

2010-01-01

55

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This model enables one to calculate the flow direction and local density of the charge exchange plasma, and indicates the degree to which this plasma can flow upstream of the thruster exhaust plane. A continuing effort to investigate the most desirable throttling technique for noble gas ion thrusters concentrated this year on experimentally determining the fixed flow rate throttling range of a 30-cm dia. thruster with a two-grid accelerator system. These experiments demonstrated a throttling capability which covers a 2.8 to 1 variation in input power. This throttling range is 55 percent greater than expected, and is due to better accelerator system performance at low net-to-total voltage ratios than indicated in the literature. To facilitate the development of large, higher power ion thrusters several brief studies were performed. system grid separation, and the development of a segmented thruster geometry which enables near term development of ion thrusters at power levels greater than 100 kW. &Finally, a paper detailing the benefits of electric propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative was written.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

1991-12-01

56

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This model enables one to calculate the flow direction and local density of the charge exchange plasma, and indicates the degree to which this plasma can flow upstream of the thruster exhaust plane. A continuing effort to investigate the most desirable throttling technique for noble gas ion thrusters concentrated this year on experimentally determining the fixed flow rate throttling range of a 30-cm dia. thruster with a two-grid accelerator system. These experiments demonstrated a throttling capability which covers a 2.8 to 1 variation in input power. This throttling range is 55 percent greater than expected, and is due to better accelerator system performance at low net-to-total voltage ratios than indicated in the literature. To facilitate the development of large, higher power ion thrusters several brief studies were performed. These include the development of a technique which simulates ion thruster operation without beam extraction, the development of an optical technique to measure ion thruster grid distortion due to thermal expansion, tests of a capacitance measurement technique to quantify the accelerator system grid separation, and the development of a segmented thruster geometry which enables near term development of ion thrusters at power levels greater than 100 kW. Finally, a paper detailing the benefits of electric propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative was written.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

1991-01-01

57

Mechanical and Electrical Systems for the Tallest Building/Man-Made Structure in the World: A Burj Dubai Case Study  

E-print Network

the impact of the outside air and most fan components of the system can be dynamically adjusted according to the micro conditions of the building. The plumbing and fire protection systems utilize the height of the building to provide gravity feed systems... regulators as may be required to ensure a steady low pressure gas flow to the equipment. FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY SYSTEMS Given the environment and the height of the building, a “defend in place” approach to fire protection in high rise...

Frechette, R.; Leung, L.; Boyer, J.

2006-01-01

58

Locating source regions of precursory seismo-electric fields and the mechanism generating electric field variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrodes consisting of a steel pipe in a deep borehole and a grounded wire surrounding the borehole were constructed to measure vertical electric fields, whereas conventional electrodes measure horizontal fields. Three years of monitoring showed that the anomalous variations in vertical underground electric fields preceding earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are much clearer than the variations in horizontal fields. The data also showed that there is much less man-made noise in the vertical fields. To determine whether these observed anomalies are forerunners of seismic disturbance, a system developed to locate precisely the source regions of underground vertical electric fields or volcanic tremors has been continuously operated. The system uses three or more time lags calculated by cross-correlating the electric fields or volcanic tremors recorded at four, or more, monitoring stations. If this system reveals the intensity distributions of the sources, prediction of imminent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions will become possible. To explain the mechanisms by which precursory electric field variations are generated, a model is proposed in which the electric field variations are generated by Earth current variations caused by increased electric conductivity in source regions before an earthquake. The conductivity is increased by free electrons and positive holes created on the fresh fracture surfaces caused by microcracks that occur before rock failure in the Earth's crust. The model can explain precursory electrical phenomena which are observed not only in the field before an earthquake but also in the laboratory before rock failure.

Takahashi, Kozo; Fujinawa, Yukio

1993-04-01

59

Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding  

E-print Network

Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding eg@ecs.soton.ac.uk Valentin electric vehicles are expected to place a consid- erable strain on local electricity distribution networks mechanisms are evaluated in depth, using data from a real-world trial of electric vehicles in the UK

Chen, Yiling

60

Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing  

PubMed Central

The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface. PMID:25489276

2014-01-01

61

Oscillation control system for electric motor drive  

DOEpatents

A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

1988-01-01

62

Oscillation control system for electric motor drive  

DOEpatents

A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

1988-08-30

63

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, achievement of thruster efficiency and specific impulse levels required for missions of interest, and demonstration of adequate engine life at these input power, efficiency, and specific impulse levels. To address these issues we have designed, built, and tested a 100 kW class, radiation-cooled applied-field MPD thruster and a unique dual-beam thrust stand that enables separate measurements of the applied- and self-field thrust components. We have also initiated the development of cathode thermal and plasma sheath models that will eventually be used to guide the experimental program. In conjunction with the cathode modeling, a new cathode test facility is being constructed. This facility will support the study of cathode thermal behavior and erosion mechanisms, the diagnosis of the near-cathode plasma and the development and endurance testing of new, high-current cathode designs. To facilitate understanding of electrode surface phenomenon, we have implemented a telephoto technique to obtain photographs of the electrodes during engine operation. In order to reduce the background vacuum tank pressure during steady-state engine operation in order to obtain high fidelity anode thermal data, we have developed and are evaluating a gas-dynamic diffuser. A review of experience with alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters led to the conclusion that alkali metals, particularly lithium, offer the potential for significant engine performance and lifetime improvements. These propellants are also condensible at room temperature, substantially reducing test facility pumping requirements. The most significant systems-level issue is the potential for spacecraft contamination. Subsequent experimental and theoretical efforts should be directed toward verifying the performance and lifetime gains and characterizing the thruster flow field to assess its impact on spacecraft surfaces. Consequently, we have begun the design and development of a new facility to study engine operation with alkali metal propellants.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

1992-01-01

64

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, achievement of thruster efficiency and specific impulse levels required for missions of interest, and demonstration of adequate engine life at these input power, efficiency, and specific impulse levels. To address these issues we have designed, built, and tested a 100 kW class, radiation-cooled applied-field MPD thruster and a unique dual-beam thrust stand that enables separate measurements of the applied- and self-field thrust components. We have also initiated the development of cathode thermal and plasma sheath models that will eventually be used to guide the experimental program. In conjunction with the cathode modeling, a new cathode test facility is being constructed. This facility will support the study of cathode thermal behavior and erosion mechanisms, the diagnosis of the near-cathode plasma and the development and endurance testing of new, high-current cathode designs. To facilitate understanding of electrode surface phenomenon, we have implemented a telephoto technique to obtain photographs of the electrodes during engine operation. In order to reduce the background vacuum tank pressure during steady-state engine operation in order to obtain high fidelity anode thermal data, we have developed and are evaluating a gas-dynamic diffuser. A review of experience with alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters led to the conclusion that alkali metals, particularly lithium, offer the potential for significant engine performance and lifetime improvements. systems-level issue is the potential for spacecraft contamination. Subsequent experimental and theoretical efforts should be directed toward verifying the performance and lifetime gains and characterizing the thruster flow field to assess its impact on spacecraft surfaces. Consequently, we have begun the design and development of a new facility to study engine operation with alkali metal propellants.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

1992-11-01

65

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2012-10-01

66

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2010-10-01

67

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2011-10-01

68

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2013-10-01

69

Electrical power systems for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

Giudici, Robert J.

1986-01-01

70

Electrical power systems for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

Giudici, Robert J.

1986-05-01

71

Electrical power generation systems - Combat aircraft perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical power generation system requirements of combat aircraft are briefly examined. In particular, attention is given to customer requirements, development of the installed electrical power in aircraft, electrical load analysis for designing the power generation system, and definition of aircraft electrical power supply characteristics and consumer qualities. The discussion also covers reliability requirements for power generation systems, design of a power generation system, control and protection equipment in power generation systems, and helicopter electrical power systems.

Moeller, R.

72

44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

73

A mechanical, thermal and electrical packaging design for a prototype power management and control system for the 30 cm mercury ion thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype electric power management and thruster control system for a 30 cm ion thruster is described. The system meets all of the requirements necessary to operate a thruster in a fully automatic mode. Power input to the system can vary over a full two to one dynamic range (200 to 400 V) for the solar array or other power source. The power management and control system is designed to protect the thruster, the flight system and itself from arcs and is fully compatible with standard spacecraft electronics. The system is easily integrated into flight systems which can operate over a thermal environment ranging from 0.3 to 5 AU. The complete power management and control system measures 45.7 cm (18 in.) x 15.2 cm (6 in.) x 114.8 cm (45.2 in.) and weighs 36.2 kg (79.7 lb). At full power the overall efficiency of the system is estimated to be 87.4 percent. Three systems are currently being built and a full schedule of environmental and electrical testing is planned.

Sharp, G. R.; Gedeon, L.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. S.; Siegert, C. E.

1978-01-01

74

A mechanical, thermal and electrical packaging design for a prototype power management and control system for the 30 cm mercury ion thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype Electric Power Management and Thruster Control System for a 30 cm ion thruster has been built and is ready to support a first mission application. The system meets all of the requirements necessary to operate a thruster in a fully automatic mode. Power input to the system can vary over a full two to one dynamic range (200 to 400 V) for the solar array or other power source. The Power Management and Control system is designed to protect the thruster, the flight system and itself from arcs and is fully compatible with standard spacecraft electronics. The system is designed to be easily integrated into flight systems which can operate over a thermal environment ranging from 0.3 to 5 AU. The complete Power Management and Control system measures 45.7 cm x 15.2 cm x 114.8 cm and weighs 36.2 kg. At full power the overall efficiency of the system is estimated to be 87.4 percent. Three systems are currently being built and a full schedule of environmental and electrical testing is planned.

Sharp, G. R.; Gedeon, L.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. S.; Siegert, C. E.

1978-01-01

75

A market mechanism for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

1996-01-01

76

Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

Foutes, William

77

6.061 / 6.690 Introduction to Electric Power Systems, Spring 2007  

E-print Network

This course is an introductory subject in the field of electric power systems and electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Electric power has become increasingly important as a way of transmitting and transforming energy ...

Kirtley, James

78

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

NONE

1996-03-04

79

Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

2014-10-01

80

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ń 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at EarthĄs surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

81

Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors  

SciTech Connect

Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

Hilton, J.W.

2001-07-30

82

Manned spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

1987-01-01

83

Mechanical strains and electric fields applied to topologically imprinted elastomers.  

PubMed

We analyze and predict the behavior of a chirally imprinted elastomer under a mechanical strain and an electric field, applied along the helical axis. As the strain and/or field increases, the system is deformed from a conical or transverse imprinted state towards an ultimately nematic one. At a critical strain and/or field there is a first-order transition to a low imprinting efficiency state. This transition is accompanied by a discontinuous global rotation of the director toward the axis of the imprinted helix, measured by the cone angle, theta . We show that the threshold electric field required for switching this transition can be conveniently low, provided an appropriate prestrain is imposed. We suggest that these properties may give rise to a "chiral pump." PMID:17025453

Burridge, D J; Mao, Y; Warner, M

2006-08-01

84

Electrical impedance controls mechanical sensing in ionic polymer metal composites.  

PubMed

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft electroactive materials that are recently finding extensive application as mechanical sensors and energy harvesters in liquids. In their most fundamental form, IPMCs are composed of a hydrated ionomeric membrane that is sandwiched between two electrochemically deposited metal electrodes. Ionomer swelling, counterion diffusion, and the formation of electric double layers are some of the physical phenomena underpinning energy transduction in IPMCs; however, a thorough understanding of the relative influence of such phenomena is yet to be established. Here, we propose a physics-based modeling framework, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system, to describe IPMC chemoelectrical response to an imposed time-varying flexural deformation. We utilize the method of matched asymptotic expansions to compute a closed-form solution for the electric potential and counterion concentration in the IPMC. The model predicts that IPMC sensing is independent of the time rate of deformation and linearly correlated to the mechanical curvature, with a coefficient of proportionality that is a function of the ionomer thickness and the temperature. Thus, our results demonstrate that the characterization of IPMC electrical impedance suffices to identify all the parameters that are relevant to sensing, in contrast with the current state of knowledge. Theoretical results are validated through experiments on patterned in-house fabricated IPMC samples that are subject to time-varying flexural deformations. PMID:24483477

Cha, Youngsu; Cellini, Filippo; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-12-01

85

Electrical impedance controls mechanical sensing in ionic polymer metal composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft electroactive materials that are recently finding extensive application as mechanical sensors and energy harvesters in liquids. In their most fundamental form, IPMCs are composed of a hydrated ionomeric membrane that is sandwiched between two electrochemically deposited metal electrodes. Ionomer swelling, counterion diffusion, and the formation of electric double layers are some of the physical phenomena underpinning energy transduction in IPMCs; however, a thorough understanding of the relative influence of such phenomena is yet to be established. Here, we propose a physics-based modeling framework, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system, to describe IPMC chemoelectrical response to an imposed time-varying flexural deformation. We utilize the method of matched asymptotic expansions to compute a closed-form solution for the electric potential and counterion concentration in the IPMC. The model predicts that IPMC sensing is independent of the time rate of deformation and linearly correlated to the mechanical curvature, with a coefficient of proportionality that is a function of the ionomer thickness and the temperature. Thus, our results demonstrate that the characterization of IPMC electrical impedance suffices to identify all the parameters that are relevant to sensing, in contrast with the current state of knowledge. Theoretical results are validated through experiments on patterned in-house fabricated IPMC samples that are subject to time-varying flexural deformations.

Cha, Youngsu; Cellini, Filippo; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-12-01

86

Electric vehicle energy management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

Alaoui, Chakib

87

Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable motion controller. Therefore the use of the term Programmable Electronic Systems (PES) is an encompassing description for a large spectrum of programmable electronic control devices.

Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

88

Skylab technology electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

1974-01-01

89

Design of Boeing 777 electric system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric power system for the Boeing 777 is comprised of two independent electrical systems, the main and the backup. The main electric system includes two engine-driven integrated drive generators, a generator driven by the auxiliary power unit, three generator control units, and a bus power control unit. The backup electric system includes two engine-drive generators and one integrated converter\\/control

L. Andrade; C. Tenning

1992-01-01

90

ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

S. Roy

2004-06-24

91

Electrical modeling of Piezoelectric ceramics for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectricity is an ability of some materials to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. Piezoelectric ceramics are often used for sensory systems to monitor mechanical characteristics of structures through an electrical signal. Thus, to support system level analysis and evaluation of sensory systems, understanding and estimating the electrical behavior of piezoelectric ceramics with a minimum effort

Jina Kim; Benjamin L. Grisso; Jeong K. Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Daniel J. Inman

2008-01-01

92

Research for Electric Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

Anderson, W.E. (ed.)

1991-06-01

93

Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-06-01

94

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the

S. C. Khamamkar

2000-01-01

95

Author's personal copy Electric Power Systems Research 96 (2013) 225236  

E-print Network

. A special- purpose test bed has been designed and fabricated for experimental validation of the health and pneumatic mechanisms with electrical configurations. As the complexity of industrial power systems grows, their criti- cal infrastructure increasingly depends on the reliable operation of electrical subsystems

Ray, Asok

96

Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

1999-08-31

97

Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

1999-08-31

98

Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems  

E-print Network

­2004 #12;#12;CONTENTS Preface xvii 1 Basic Electric and Magnetic Circuits 1 1.1 Introduction to Electric Circuits 1 1.2 Definitions of Key Electrical Quantities 2 1.2.1 Charge 2 1.2.2 Current 3 1.2.3 KirchhoffRenewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems Gilbert M. Masters Stanford University A JOHN WILEY

Kammen, Daniel M.

99

Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

Owens, William R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

100

Electrical system for a motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

Tamor, M.A.

1999-07-20

101

High current capacity electrical corrosive electrolyte battery electrical interconnection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a battery electrical connection system for use with corrosive electrolyte batteries. It comprises: battery terminals, each being integrally attached to a plate strap within a battery; conductor cables, each securely cast and engaged into one of the battery terminals to form an electrical connection; conductor cable insulation; battery seals integral with and extending the exterior of the

E. J. Ward; T. C. I. I. Ward

1990-01-01

102

Highly efficient contactless electrical energy transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the vehicle and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the vehicle, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the

H. Ayano; K. Yamamoto; N. Hino; I. Yamato

2002-01-01

103

Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is

Hideki Ayano; Hiroshi Nagase; Hiromi Inaba

2004-01-01

104

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

105

7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

106

31. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north; 'pins' and electrical connection. Both spans are down and locked. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

107

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

108

Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

Ferg, D. A.

1973-01-01

109

The Electrical Response to Injury: Molecular Mechanisms and Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Significance: Natural, endogenous electric fields (EFs) and currents arise spontaneously after wounding of many tissues, especially epithelia, and are necessary for normal healing. This wound electrical activity is a long-lasting and regulated response. Enhancing or inhibiting this electrical activity increases or decreases wound healing, respectively. Cells that are responsible for wound closure such as corneal epithelial cells or skin keratinocytes migrate directionally in EFs of physiological magnitude. However, the mechanisms of how the wound electrical response is initiated and regulated remain unclear. Recent Advances: Wound EFs and currents appear to arise by ion channel up-regulation and redistribution, which are perhaps triggered by an intracellular calcium wave or cell depolarization. We discuss the possibility of stimulation of wound healing via pharmacological enhancement of the wound electric signal by stimulation of ion pumping. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are a major problem in the elderly and diabetic patient. Any strategy to stimulate wound healing in these patients is desirable. Applying electrical stimulation directly is problematic, but pharmacological enhancement of the wound signal may be a promising strategy. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular regulation of wound electric signals may reveal some fundamental mechanisms in wound healing. Manipulating fluxes of ions and electric currents at wounds might offer new approaches to achieve better wound healing and to heal chronic wounds. PMID:24761358

Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

2014-01-01

110

Superconductivity for electric power systems: Program overview  

SciTech Connect

Largely due to government and private industry partnerships, electric power applications based upon high-temperature superconductivity are now being designed and tested only seven years after the discovery of the high-temperature superconductors. These applications offer many benefits to the national electric system including: increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, reduced emissions, increased stability/reliability, deferred expansion, and flexible electricity dispatch/load management. All of these benefits have a common outcome: lower electricity costs and improved environmental quality. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsors research and development through its Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. This program will help develop the technology needed for U.S. industries to commercialize high-temperature superconductive electric power applications. DOE envisions that by 2010 the U.S. electric power systems equipment industry will regain a major share of the global market by offering superconducting products that outperform the competition.

Not Available

1995-02-01

111

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene  

E-print Network

resistance between graphene and oxide, heat conductionNanoscale Systems: Graphene and Metal Oxide Switches, in,graphene flake to be 0.05K or less, which considers temperature gradients within the silicon, heat transfer through the oxide

Bao, Wenzhong

2011-01-01

112

Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

1983-01-01

113

Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

1983-01-01

114

Fluid Mechanical and Electrical Fluctuation Forces in Colloids  

E-print Network

Fluctuations in fluid velocity and fluctuations in electric fields may both give rise to forces acting on small particles in colloidal suspensions. Such forces in part determine the thermodynamic stability of the colloid. At the classical statistical thermodynamic level, the fluid velocity and electric field contributions to the forces are comparable in magnitude. When quantum fluctuation effects are taken into account, the electric fluctuation induced van der Waals forces dominate those induced by purely fluid mechanical motions. The physical principles are applied in detail for the case of colloidal particle attraction to the walls of the suspension container and more briefly for the case of forces between colloidal particles.

D. Drosdoff; A. Widom

2004-10-06

115

Measuring and monitoring system for electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the measuring and monitoring system for electric car. There are described basic function blocks and measuring traction batteries principles. Monitoring system enables measuring of all values, which are necessary for calculation of running time of car with electric power supply or other devices with battery source. It is composed from one on-board computer and 2 up to

R. Kuchta; R. Vrba

2003-01-01

116

Seismic reliability of electrical power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of electric power transmission systems is important for the probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants under a given earthquake loading as it relates to the loss of off site power to the nuclear power plants. Here, a comprehensive model to evaluate the seismic reliability of electric power transmission systems is presented. The model provides probabilistic assessments of

J. A. Pires; A. H.-S. Ang; R. Villaverde

1996-01-01

117

Electric Transmission Line Flashover Prediction System  

E-print Network

Electric Transmission Line Flashover Prediction System Ph.D. Thesis and Final Project Report Power Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Electric Transmission Line Publication 01-16 May 2001 #12;Information about this Report For information about this project contact

118

Nematodynamics modelling under extreme mechanical and electric stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nematic liquid crystals confined in asymmetric ?-cells and subjected to intense electrical and mechanical stresses undergo strong distortions which can be relaxed by means of the order reconstruction, a fast switching mechanism connecting topologically different textures, assuming bulk and/or surface characteristics depending on both amplitude of the applied electric fields and anchoring angles of the nematic molecules on the confining surfaces. In the frame of the Landau-de Gennes order tensor theory, we provide a numerical model implemented with a moving mesh finite element method appropriate to describe the nematic order dynamics, allowing to map the switching properties of the nematic texture.

Amoddeo, Antonino

2015-01-01

119

Mecomtronics Module D: Electrical and Mechanical Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module D's Filling Station project focuses on process control and production. Students will learn about power supply, sensors, solenoid valves and interfaces, electronic counters, and a sensor interfaces, and will use this knowledge to: Construct, test and verify the operation of the DC power supply Construct and evaluate the performance of the sensors and control system Assemble a liquid filling station Connect the binary counter and seven-segment converter to the digital display Interconnect the system components and verify operation of the filling station according to specifications Prepare and present a project report The filling station will have the capability to: Sense the presence of a container and its contents Fill it with a pre-determined quantity of liquid Count the number of containers filled Display the result Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College students Self Evaluation Data: Excellent instructional module to support a new or existing Engineering Technology course or program.

2009-11-27

120

Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems Lecture notes by Anton Bovier 12 Weierstrass-Institut f of statistical mechanics. This is a diĂ?cult, but in my opinion, important task in many respects. Statistical people in statistical mechanics are interested in come from physics, and they tend to be extremely varied

121

Captured key electrical safety lockout system  

DOEpatents

A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member's second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock.

Darimont, Daniel E. (Aurora, IL)

1995-01-01

122

Captured key electrical safety lockout system  

DOEpatents

A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member`s second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock. 7 figs.

Darimont, D.E.

1995-10-31

123

Optimization of Mechanical Systems Parameters  

SciTech Connect

We present a specific mathematical programming problem that allows us to obtain the optimal parameters for mechanical systems' stabilizers. The general approach is described, and the method is applied to optimization of two mechanical systems, namely, a harmonic oscillator and a satellite with gravitational stabilizer.

Seabra, A. [Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Campus Politecnico de Repeses, 3504-510, Viseu (Portugal)

2010-09-30

124

Fault-tolerant electrical power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrical system that will meet the requirements of a 1990s two-engine fighter is being developed in the Fault-Tolerant Electrical Power System (FTEPS) program, sponsored by the AFWAL Aero Propulsion Laboratory. FTEPS will demonstrate the generation and distribution of fault-tolerant, reliable, electrical power required for future aircraft. The system incorporates MIL-STD-1750A digital processors and MIL-STD-1553B data buses for control and communications. Electrical power is distributed through electrical load management centers by means of solid-state power controllers for fault protection and individual load control. The system will provide uninterruptible power to flight-critical loads such as the flight control and mission computers with sealed lead-acid batteries. Primary power is provided by four 60 kVA variable speed constant frequency generators. Buildup and testing of the FTEPS demonstrator is expected to be complete by May 1988.

Mehdi, Ishaque S.; Weimer, Joseph A.

1987-10-01

125

113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). QUALITY ASSURANCE ROOM (106A) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO; CABLE TRAYS OVERHEAD AT TOP; STAIRS TO LSB (BLDG. 770) ADDITION (ROOMS 117 THROUGH 120) IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

126

Advanced technology in satellite communication antennas: Electrical and mechanical design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antenna technology for earth stations and satellites is discussed. The fundamentals, including common analysis methods, for antenna technology for satellite communication are reviewed. Details of the analysis method for beam waveguide feeds are shown, and electrical and mechanical designs for earth station antennas are examined. Offset dual-reflector antennas and offset reflector antennas with beam waveguide feed are examined, giving comprehensive

Takashi Kitsuregawa

1990-01-01

127

Diagnostics of Mechanical Condition of Electrical Machine Sliding Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical condition of working surfaces of collectors and slip rings is one of the most important integral indices characterizing electrical machine quality, their separate units and parts. At collector profile impairment in the shape of projecting and sinking down separate collector segments and their groups, faulty performance of operating collector surfaces and collector rings from cylindrical shape, improper rotor balancing,

V. J. Sablukov

2005-01-01

128

Minimum Check List for Mechanical and Electrical Plans & Specifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fifth revision of the Minimum Check List since its origin in 1960 by North Carolina's School Planning. The checklist was developed to serve as a means of communication between school agencies and design professionals and has been widely used in the development and review of mechanical and electrical plans and specifications by…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Facility Services.

129

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

130

Design for reliability of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a proposal to build Internet-based educational materials that describe the fundamental failure mechanisms in micro-electromechanical systems and their packaging, and provide techniques for using this information to design MEMS and microsystems that are less susceptible to failure by those mechanisms. The MEMS device, the structure of the package, and the electrical, optical, mechanical, and fluidic interconnections are

P. McCluskey

2002-01-01

131

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: An overview of biological effects and mechanisms relevant to EMF exposures from mass transit and electric rail systems. Final report, October 1991-July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. has implemented a national initiative to develop maglev (magnetic levitation) and other high-speed rail (HSR) systems. There are concerns for potential adverse health effects of the Extremely Low Frequency (3-3,000 Hz) electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by these systems. The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs is assisting the Federal Railroad Administration address these concerns; this comprehensive review is part of that effort. It outlines magnetic field exposure measurements of the TR07 German maglev system compared with other HSR and conventional systems.

Goldberg, R.B.; Creasey, W.A.; Foster, K.R.

1993-08-01

132

LDEF mechanical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following LDEF retrieval, a number of studies were made of mechanical hardware and structure flown on the LDEF. The primary objectives are to determine the effects of long term space exposure on (1) mechanisms either used on LDEF or as part of individual experiments; (2) LDEF structural components; and (3) fasteners. Results from examination and testing of LDEF structure, fasteners, LDEF end support beam, environment exposure control canisters, experiment tray clamps, LDEF grapple fixtures, and viscous damper are presented. The most significant finding is the absence of space exposure related cold welding. The instances of seizure or removal difficulties initially attributed to cold welding were shown to have resulted from installation galling damage or improper removal techniques. Widespread difficulties encountered with removal of stainless steel fasteners underscore the need for effective thread lubrication schemes to ensure successful application of proposed orbital replacement units onboard Space Station Freedom.

Spear, W. Steve; Dursch, Harry W.

1992-01-01

133

A Domain-Specific Language for Reactive Control Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Systems  

E-print Network

A Domain-Specific Language for Reactive Control Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Systems Huan for aircraft electric power systems. Given a base topology, the language consists of a set of primitives mechanical and hydraulic subsystems, instead increasing reliance on electric power to supply subsystems

Murray, Richard M.

134

Effect of Ar Ion Beam Pre-Treatment of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate on the Mechanical and Electrical Stability of Flexible InSnO Films Grown by Roll-to-Roll Sputtering System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of Ar ion beam irradiation on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate as surface pre-treatment method in the roll-to-roll (R2R) sputtering system and its contribution to the electrical durability of flexible InSnO (ITO) electrode upon that the flexible PET substrate under repeated mechanical stresses. It was found that the Ar ion beam irradiation of the flexible PET surface could improve an adhesion between R2R sputter-grown ITO film and the PET substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the Ar ion beam irradiation lead to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups when the working pressure, Ar ion beam power, and exposure time increases. Repetitive bending stresses for the flexible ITO/PET film which fabricated through the surface pre-treatment by Ar ion beam irradiation showed more stable electrical durability than those of ITO films on the wet-cleaned PET substrate due to enhanced interfacial adhesion between the ITO film and PET surface. This suggests that the Ar ion beam pre-treatment before sputtering of ITO film in R2R sputtering system is an effective technique to improve the adhesion between ITO film and PET substrate.

Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

2013-10-01

135

Energy storage system in electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing awareness of environmental protection and energy conservation are forcing the development of electric vehicle technology. Electricity is more than just another means of powering the vehicle. The EV requires an energy storing system which is one of the concerns of today's EV technology. Batteries are the energy storage means for EVs. Specific energy and specific power of electrochemical

S. K. Biradar; R. A. Patil; M. Ullegaddi

1998-01-01

136

Enhanced interaction between a mechanical oscillator and two coupled resonant electrical circuits  

E-print Network

This paper reports result of calculation and experimental realization of an electromechanical system that consists of a high-Q mechanical oscillator parametrically coupled in the manner of a capacitive transducer with a RF circuit, which is in turn inductively coupled with another RF circuit. The system operates in the resolved sideband regime when the mechanical oscillator's frequency is larger than the electrical circuits' bandwidths. Using two coupled RF circuits allowed one to enhance the interaction between them and the mechanical oscillator which is one of flexural vibrational modes of a free-edge circular silicon wafer. Such a coupled electromechanical system can be used as a high-sensitive capacitive vibration sensor.

Dmitriev, A V

2014-01-01

137

Space reactor electric systems: system integration studies, Phase 1 report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed by Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group (ESG). The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. The purpose of the studies was to provide timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities.

R. V. Anderson; D. Bost; W. R. Determan; R. B. Harty; B. Katz; V. Keshishian; A. F. Lillie; W. B. Thomson

1983-01-01

138

Space reactor electric systems: System integration studies, phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed were presented. The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. Timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities was studied. The preliminary system studies were performed by assembling the five different subsystems that are

R. V. Anderson; D. Bost; W. R. Determan; R. B. Harty; B. Katz; V. Keshishian; A. F. Lillie; W. B. Thomson

1983-01-01

139

How Do We Convert Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a compass, powerful magnet, and copper magnet wire to build a special generator known as a dynamo. Learners observe what happens to the compass needle when the magnet passes back and forth through the device. Learners can connect the device to a microampere meter to measure the electrical current. This experiment simulates Tesla's electric coil. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning," take an online interactive tour of Tesla's Niagara Power System, and create a diagram of how a dam generates electricity. Use this lesson to demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Hardesty, Jim; Hardesty, Judy

2013-07-30

140

Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems  

DOEpatents

A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

2013-07-02

141

How Do We Convert Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make an electromagnet motor to demonstrate the most basic method of changing electrical energy into mechanical energy. This experiment relates to Nikola Tesla's work in electrical engineering and his invention of the AC (alternating current) induction motor. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning" and write a report about the challenges Tesla faced as an inventor. Use this activity to help learners explore the Law of Conservation of Energy, motors, and electromagnets.

Hardesty, Jim; Hardesty, Judy

2013-07-30

142

Nonholonomic mechanical systems with symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops the geometry and dynamics of mechanical systems with nonholonomic constraints and symmetry from the perspective of Lagrangian mechanics and with a view to control-theoretical applications. The basic methodology is that of geometric mechanics applied to the Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation, generalizing the use of connections and momentum maps associated with a given symmetry group to this case. We begin

Anthony M. Bloch; P. S. Krishnaprasad; Jerrold E. Marsden; Richard M. Murray

1996-01-01

143

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani, V.

2000-06-18

144

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

145

Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

The rapid escalation of electricity prices has created an opportunity to re-introduce gas-fired air conditioning systems to the commercial building market. In 1985 Gas Research Institute initiated a program to develop an advanced gas engine...

Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

1988-01-01

146

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

147

SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side activities of the subsurface facility will be provided at the South Portal by the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the Off-Site Utility System for the receipt of power. The System interfaces with the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control. The System interfaces with MGR Site Layout System for the physical location of equipment and power distribution.

E.P. McCann

1999-04-16

148

Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets  

SciTech Connect

Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Rijk, G. de [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

2014-01-27

149

Dish electric systems heat engine assessment  

SciTech Connect

In this study, cost and performance estimates of several heat engine technologies were made and their performance was then evaluated with a dish electric system model. This analysis yielded the relative potential of the different heat engine technologies to meet the National Solar Thermal Technology program goal for levelized electricity cost. The heat engines evaluated were the Brayton engine, the Rankine engine (organic and liquid metal), the liquid metal thermoelectric converter, the Stirling engine (free piston and kinematic), and two binary (combined cycle) engines. The study indicates that the liquid metal thermoelectric converter, the Stirling engines, and the binary engines have the highest potential for cost effective dish electric systems.

Lukens, L.L.

1985-06-01

150

A Mechanical Arm Control System  

E-print Network

This paper describes a proposed mechanical arm control system and some of the lines of thought which led to this design. In particular, the paper discusses the basic systme required in order for the arm to control its ...

Waters, Richard C.

1974-01-01

151

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

152

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

153

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2014-10-01

154

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2013-10-01

155

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2012-10-01

156

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2010-10-01

157

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

158

49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 ...as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a...compliance with that standard. (b) All electrical systems installed, including...

2012-10-01

159

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2011-10-01

160

49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 ...as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a...compliance with that standard. (b) All electrical systems installed, including...

2013-10-01

161

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

162

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2012-01-01

163

46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.360 Section...16 Individuals on Board § 28.360 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2013-10-01

164

Intelligent tutoring system for electric circuit exercising  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent tutoring system called Circuit Exerciser is described. The system is designed to help university students learn more about electric circuits. It can formulate drill problems, solve them, and infer mistakes in a student's answer. It can also provide helpful comments to the students on how the mistake was made. The system shows the circuit of the presented problem

Atsushi Yoshikawa; Masafumi Shintani; Yujiro Ohba

1992-01-01

165

Reliability research on power MOSFET using coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an integral component of electronic equipments, power MOSFET with its degenerate performance affects the reliability of the whole system. The modeling of power device based on structural geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions can reduce the repetition test and shorten the failure analysis cycle. In this paper, coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis based on finite element model of TO-247 package power

Qiuyang Li; Guofu Zhai; Shujuan Wang

2012-01-01

166

System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed system performance analyses must be performed for early stages as well as for the fully assembled station up to 15 years after beginning of life. Such analyses were repeatedly performed using the FORTRAN code SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over a 10-year period. SPACE combines orbital mechanics routines, station orientation/pointing routines, PV array and battery performance models, and a distribution system load-flow analysis to predict EPS performance. Time-dependent, performance degradation, low earth orbit environmental interactions, and EPS architecture build-up are incorporated in SPACE. Results from two typical SPACE analytical cases are presented: (1) an electric load driven case and (2) a maximum EPS capability case.

Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Follo, Jeffrey C.

1993-01-01

167

Neurophysiological and biophysical evidence on the mechanism of electric taste  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of electric taste was investigated by recording from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat in response to both electrical and chemical stimulations of the tongue with electrolytes in order to gain some insight into its mechanism on both a neurophysiological and biophysical basis. The maximum neural response levels were identical for an individual salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2), whether it was presented as a chemical solution or as an anodal stimulus through a subthreshold solution. These observations support the idea that stimulation occurs by iontophoresis of ions to the receptors at these current densities (less than 100 microA/cm2). Electric responses through dilute HCl were smaller than the chemically applied stimulations, but the integrated anodal responses appeared similar to chemical acid responses, as evidenced by an OFF response to both forms of stimuli. Hydrogen may be more permeant to the lingual epithelium and would thus be shunted away from the taste receptors during anodal stimulation. When the anion of electric taste was varied via subthreshold salt solutions, the response magnitude increased as the mobility of the anion decreased. The transport numbers of the salts involved adequately explains these differences. The physical aspects of ion migration occurring within the adapting fluid on the tongue are also discussed. Direct neural stimulation by the current appears to occur only at higher current densities (greater than 300 microA/cm2). If the taste cells of the tongue were inactivated with either iodoacetic acid (IAA) or N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), or removed with collagenase, then responses from the chorda tympani could be obtained only at these higher current densities. Latency measurements before and after IAA or NEM treatment corroborated these findings. The results are discussed in terms of several proposed mechanisms of electric taste and it is concluded that an ion accumulation mechanism can adequately explain the data. PMID:2993476

1985-01-01

168

Microelectromechanical systems in electrical metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will have an important role in metrology. The essential features of a MEMS are (1) a piece of single crystal silicon forming a spring; (2) metallized surfaces of silicon structures that define an electrode geometry; (3) electrostatic forces between surfaces in a vacuum. With an electrostatic drive and readout such a system will dissipate very little power.

Heikki Seppä; Jukka Kyynäräinen; Aarne Oja

2001-01-01

169

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

170

A test and instrumentation system for the investigation of degradation of electrical insulating materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic test methods of aging and deterioration mechanisms of electrical insulating materials are discussed. A comprehensive test system developed to study the degradation process is described. This system is completely checked, and calibrated with a few insulating material samples.

1982-01-01

171

Dynamic responses of electrically coupled systems  

PubMed Central

An identified pair of electrically coupled neurons in the buccal ganglion of the freshwater snail Helisoma trivolvis is an experimentally accessible model of electrical synaptic transmission. In this investigation, electrical synaptic transmission is characterized using sinusoidal frequency (Bode) responses computed by Laplace transforms and responses to brief stimuli. The frequency response of the injected neuron shows a 20-dB/decade attenuation and a phase shift from 0 degree at low frequencies to -90 degrees at high frequencies. The response of a coupled cell shows a 40-dB/decade attenuation and a phase shift from 0 degrees at low frequencies to -180 degrees at high frequencies. A simple mathematical model of electrical synaptic transmission is described that displays each of these crucial features of the measured frequency responses. Methods are described to estimate the frequency responses of coupled systems based on presynaptic measurements. The responses of the coupled system to brief pulses of current were computed using the principle of superposition. The electrical properties of coupled systems impose a minimum delay in reaching a peak in all postsynaptic responses. The delays in the postsynaptic responses to brief stimuli are related to the electrical and anatomical parameters of coupled networks. PMID:3009685

1986-01-01

172

Electric control system for automobile transmission  

SciTech Connect

An electric control system for an automobile transmission includes an endless transmission member running on a pair of V-shaped pulley units, the mutual distances of the conical sheaves of which are hydraulically adjustable to transmit an output torque of an engine to a driven apparatus. The electric control system is arranged to determine an optimum fluid pressure in relation to the actual output torque of the engine and to determine an optimum transmission ratio for low fuel consumption in relation to the actual output power of the engine. The control system produces a first electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum fluid pressure and the actual fluid pressure in one of actuators for the respective pulley units and produces a second electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum and actual transmission ratios. The pressure of fluid applied to one of the actuators is controlled in response to the first electric control signal, and the flow quantity of fluid applied to the other actuator is controlled in response to the second electric control signal.

Hattori, Y.; Goshima, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Matsui, K.; Takei, T.

1984-08-21

173

Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally greater than 0.9, heat loads are often substantial. This heat must be rejected by thermal control systems which generally have specific masses of 15-30 kg/kW. PPU's also represent a large fraction of the electric propulsion system dry mass. Simplification or elimination of power processing in a propulsion system would reduce the electric propulsion system specific mass and improve the overall reliability and performance. A direct drive system would eliminate all or some of the power supplies required to operate a thruster by directly connecting the various thruster loads to the solar array. The development of concentrator solar arrays has enabled power bus voltages in excess of 300 V which is high enough for direct drive applications for Hall thrusters such as the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). The option of solar array direct drive for SPT's is explored to provide a comparison between conventional and direct drive system mass.

Hamley, John A.

1995-01-01

174

Blackouts in electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analysis of blackouts in electric power transmission systems is implemented and studied in simple networks with a regular structure. The proposed model describes load demand and network improvements evolving on a slow timescale as well as the fast dynamics of cascading overloads and outages. The model dynamics are demonstrated on the simple power system networks.

KARAMITSOS IOANNIS; ORFANIDIS KONSTANTINOS

2006-01-01

175

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the key technology of electric vehicle (EV), a battery management system (BMS) is proposed here to settle the critical issues. The system includes several common modules: data acquisition unit, communication unit and battery state estimation model. Two additional management units are developed here, one is thermal management and the other is high voltage management which improve

Jiaxi Qiang; Lin Yang; Guoqiang Ao; Hu Zhong

2006-01-01

176

Major Concepts of Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation is a general overview of the concepts and technologies incorporated into hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). These materials are used in the course, "Intro to Mechatronics" at Lawrence Technological University and were developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The following topics are discussed: hybrid powertrain configurations (series, parallel, and series-parallel), hybrid types (mild, medium, and full), components (mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic), and operating modes (start-stop and regenerative).

University, Lawrence T.

177

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

2010-07-01

178

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

2011-07-01

179

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping...Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in...

2011-10-01

180

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

2012-07-01

181

46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350 Section 28.350 Shipping...Board § 28.350 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a...

2011-10-01

182

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping...Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in...

2014-10-01

183

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions]...

2012-07-01

184

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions]...

2014-07-01

185

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

2014-07-01

186

46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350 Section 28.350 Shipping...Board § 28.350 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a...

2012-10-01

187

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping...Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in...

2012-10-01

188

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions]...

2013-07-01

189

46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350 Section 28.350 Shipping...Board § 28.350 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a...

2013-10-01

190

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

2013-07-01

191

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions]...

2011-07-01

192

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping...Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in...

2013-10-01

193

Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

2002-01-01

194

MEASUREMENT OF SMALL MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF BRAIN TISSUE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY-LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposur...

195

an electric power transmission system  

E-print Network

“Geomagnetically induced currents ” (GIC) in ground-based technological networks are a manifestation of space weather. GIC are a potential source of problems to the systems and therefore important in practice. GIC in a power system (or in principle in any other discretely-earthed system) can be calculated conveniently by using matrix equations presented earlier. Since temporal variations associated with GIC are slow compared to the 50/60 Hz frequency used in power transmission, a dc treatment is acceptable. An essential quantity in calculations of GIC in a power grid is the earthing impedance matrix, which is the transfer function coupling GIC flowing to (from) the Earth with the voltages between the earthing points, called nodes or (sub)stations, and a remote earth. The diagonal elements of the matrix equal the earthing resistances of the nodes whereas an off-diagonal element expresses how much GIC at one earthing point affects the voltage at another node. In GIC calculations, except for some special treatments of individual sites, the off-diagonal elements are usually neglected by saying simply that the earthing points (are assumed to) lie distantly enough. In this paper, we examine the effects of off-diagonal elements of the earthing impedance matrix, i.e. the effects of interactions between different stations, on GIC calculations in greater detail and more quantitatively than before. We consider a fictitious system that represents a high-voltage power grid and a simple “network ” consisting of two stations with a line connecting them. For both systems, the conclusion can be drawn that the off-diagonal elements do not play a major role

Risto Pirjola

2007-01-01

196

A NEW FAILURE MECHANISM BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE INDUCED ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF TUNGSTEN WINDOWS IN  

E-print Network

A NEW FAILURE MECHANISM BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE INDUCED ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF TUNGSTEN..................................................................15 2.1.3 Mechanics of CVD Tungsten 2.2.2 Tungsten Corrosion

Pearton, Stephen J.

197

Mechanical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites.  

SciTech Connect

Effects of Ag particle dispersions on microstructural development and some properties were investigated for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. They were fabricated by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS) Process to achieve finer and densified microstructure. ZnO/Ag nanocomposites with novel microstructure which were prepared by a reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powders were compared with microcomposites prepared by mixing of Ag and ZnO powders. SEM observation indicated that fine Ag particles were homogeneously dispersed within the ZnO matrix grains and at the grain boundaries for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites prepared by the reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powder. Hardness and fracture toughness increased with increasing the Ag volume fraction. Linear resistivity was decreased with increasing Ag volume fraction. However, the mechanical and electrical properties appeared to the significantly different for composites prepared by two different powder processes.

Hayashi, Y.

1998-08-27

198

MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary results of the COMPASS MW-class electric propulsion power system study are reported, and discussion is provided on how the analysis might be used to guide future technology investments as NASA moves to more capable high power in-space propulsion systems.

LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

2011-01-01

199

Developing Business Case for Electrical System Replacement  

E-print Network

it is assumed that 8000kVA of new load will need to be added to the electrical system 5000kVA of this load will be 4000V motor load and the remaining 3000kVA of load will be 480V loads. The largest proposed load addition will be a 3500HP, 4000V motor. PTW... Page i of v Developing Business Case For Electrical System Replacement Projects Acknowledgements My many life experiences have helped me to achieve this big goal. There have been many collogues along my journey that have encouraged me...

Miller, Carles

2006-05-19

200

Arye Nehorai Chair, Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering  

E-print Network

Arye Nehorai Chair, Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering The Eugene and Martha Lohman Curriculum Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering ECEDHA Meeting New Orleans, March 21, 2009 #12 of Electrical & Systems Engineering #12;BSEE Pre-med Curriculum Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering

Nehorai, Arye

201

MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor  

E-print Network

In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

Meenen, Jordan N

2010-01-01

202

Supercomputers in mechanical systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in supercomputers is examined vis a vis mechanical systems research. A list of 40 Class VI supercomputers is given, with sites, purposes and computer type specified; purposes include weapons research, reactor research, military, atmospheric science, aerodynamics, oceanography, engineering research, geophysics, petroleum engineering, and jet engine simulation. The availability of such machines has motivated scientists and

A. H. Soni

1985-01-01

203

Electrical and mechanical properties of vapour grown gallium monotelluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of gallium monotelluride (GaTe) in different crystalline habits was established in the growth ampoule, strongly depending on the temperature gradient. Proper control on the temperatures of source and growth zones in an indigenously fabricated dual zone furnace could yield the crystals in the form of whiskers and spherulites. Optical and electron microscopic images were examined to predict the growth mechanism of morphologies. The structural parameters of the grown spherulites were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The stoichiometric composition of these crystals was confirmed using energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The type and nature of electrical conductivity were identified by the conventional hot probe and two probe methods, respectively. The mechanical parameters, such as Vickers microhardness, work hardening index, and yield strength, were deduced from microindentation measurements. The results show that the vapour grown p-GaTe crystals exhibit novel physical properties, which make them suitable for device applications.

Reshmi, P. M.; Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.

2013-10-01

204

Tidal energy in electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the uses and advantages of tidal energy in restructured power systems. The paper defines the resources as well as the ways in which tidal energy is converted into electricity. The paper also reviews a few tidal power projects around the world. It also shows the working of hydro tidal power plant. A comparative review of renewable energy

S. Sheth; M. Shahidehpour

2005-01-01

205

Harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data pertaining to research on harmonics of electric power distribution systems. Harmonic data is presented on RMS and average measurements for determination of harmonics in buildings; fluorescent ballast; variable frequency drive; georator geosine harmonic data; uninterruptible power supply; delta-wye transformer; westinghouse suresine; liebert datawave; and active injection mode filter data.

NONE

1996-03-01

206

A Self-Instructional System in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-instructional system is presented designed to teach high school students fundamental concepts of electricity and how they are applied in daily life. In six lessons, the student attends to a self-paced slide and tape presentation and makes written responses in the workbooks. A supplementary application problem, requiring the assembly of some…

Greene, Mark M.; And Others

207

Emerging Electric Power Systems and Future Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on electric power systems and future grid by P.K. Sen, Colorado School of Mines, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Sen, P.K.

208

Visualization of an electric power transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization techniques are applied to an electric power system transmission network to create a graphical picture of network power flows and voltages. A geographic data map is used. Apparent power flow is encoded as the width of an arrow, with direction from real power flow. Flows are superposed on flow limits. Contour plots and color coding failed for representing bus

P. M. Mahadev; R. D. Christie

1994-01-01

209

A battery management system for electric buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a contract funded by the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), the author was given the task of developing an advanced monitoring and control technology (MACT) to manage lead acid batteries used in electric vehicles. Using the latest semiconductor technology, his goal is to develop a battery management system that focuses on maximizing the discharge and recharge efficiency of

B. O'Brien

1994-01-01

210

Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

1992-12-01

211

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

Mancini, T.R.

1997-12-31

212

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

213

Electrically and Mechanically Tunable Electron Spins in Silicon Carbide Color Centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron spins of semiconductor defects can have complex interactions with their host, particularly in polar materials like SiC where electrical and mechanical variables are intertwined. By combining pulsed spin resonance with ab initio simulations, we show that spin-spin interactions in 4H-SiC neutral divacancies give rise to spin states with a strong Stark effect, sub-10-6 strain sensitivity, and highly spin-dependent photoluminescence with intensity contrasts of 15%-36%. These results establish SiC color centers as compelling systems for sensing nanoscale electric and strain fields.

Falk, Abram L.; Klimov, Paul V.; Buckley, Bob B.; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Calusine, Greg; Koehl, William F.; Gali, Ádám; Awschalom, David D.

2014-05-01

214

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers carefully roll into place a platform with a second radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for installation on the Cassini spacecraft. In background at left, the first of three RTGs already has been installed on Cassini. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

215

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) worker Mary Reaves mates connectors on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to power up the Cassini spacecraft, while quality assurance engineer Peter Sorci looks on. The three RTGs which will be used on Cassini are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

216

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) employees Norm Schwartz, at left, and George Nakatsukasa transfer one of three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to be used on the Cassini spacecraft from the installation cart to a lift fixture in preparation for returning the power unit to storage. The three RTGs underwent mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

217

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying a neutron radiation detector, Fred Sanders (at center), a health physicist with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and other health physics personnel monitor radiation in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility after three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) were installed on the Cassini spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification tests. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

218

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Missile and Space Co. employees Joe Collingwood, at right, and Ken Dickinson retract pins in the storage base to release a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in preparation for hoisting operations. This RTG and two others will be installed on the Cassini spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1997-01-01

219

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) employees bolt a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) onto the Cassini spacecraft, at left, while other JPL workers, at right, operate the installation cart on a raised platform in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). Cassini will be outfitted with three RTGs. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

220

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers David Rice, at left, and Johnny Melendez rotate a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to the horizontal position on a lift fixture in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTG is one of three generators which will provide electrical power for the Cassini spacecraft mission to the Saturnian system. The RTGs will be installed on the powered-up spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification testing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

221

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers Dan Maynard and John Shuping prepare to install a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). The three RTGs which will provide electrical power to Cassini on its mission to the Saturnian system are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

222

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility remove the storage collar from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in preparation for installation on the Cassini spacecraft. Cassini will be outfitted with three RTGs. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle.

1997-01-01

223

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers prepare the installation cart (atop the platform) for removal of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) from the adjacent Cassini spacecraft. This is the second of three RTGs being removed from Cassini after undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The third RTG to be removed is in background at left. The three RTGs will then be temporarily stored before being re-installed for flight. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

224

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), at center, will undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing now that it has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. A handling fixture, at far left, is still attached. Three RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1997-01-01

225

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported on a lift fixture, this radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), at center, is hoisted from its storage base using the airlock crane in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are preparing to install the RTG onto the Cassini spacecraft, in background at left, for mechanical and electrical verification testing. The three RTGs on Cassini will provide electrical power to the spacecraft on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

226

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify pressure relief device bellows integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

227

Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

1991-01-01

228

ECE 438 Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric  

E-print Network

ECE 438 ­ Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric vehicle configurations. Vehicle mechanics. Energy sources and storage. Range prediction. Motor for HEVs. Electric drive components. Vehicle transmission system. Credits

229

46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

2012-10-01

230

46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

2014-10-01

231

46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

2011-10-01

232

46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

2010-10-01

233

46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

2013-10-01

234

FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM LEAST SQUARES ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

FIRST-ORDER SYSTEM LEAST SQUARES AND ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY HUGH MACMILLAN, STEVE MCCORMICK, TOM MANTEUFFEL Abstract. In Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), an image is created. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) belongs to a family of imaging methods that distinguish interior

235

Mechanical responses of the organ of corti to acoustic and electrical stimulation in vitro.  

PubMed

The detection of sound by the cochlea involves a complex mechanical interplay among components of the cochlear partition. An in vitro preparation of the second turn of the jird's cochlea provides an opportunity to measure cochlear responses with subcellular resolution under controlled mechanical, ionic, and electrical conditions that simulate those encountered in vivo. Using photodiode micrometry, laser interferometry, and stroboscopic video microscopy, we have assessed the mechanical responses of the cochlear partition to acoustic and electrical stimuli near the preparation's characteristic frequency. Upon acoustic stimulation, the partition responds principally as a rigid plate pivoting around its insertion along the spiral lamina. The radial motion at the reticular lamina greatly surpasses that of the tectorial membrane, giving rise to shear that deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundles. Electrically evoked mechanical responses are qualitatively dissimilar from their acoustically evoked counterparts and suggest the recruitment of both hair-bundle- and soma-based electromechanical transduction processes. Finally, we observe significant changes in the stiffness of the cochlear partition upon tip-link destruction and tectorial-membrane removal, suggesting that these structures contribute considerably to the system's mechanical impedance and that hair-bundle-based forces can drive active motion of the cochlear partition. PMID:16169985

Chan, Dylan K; Hudspeth, A J

2005-12-01

236

Mechanical Responses of the Organ of Corti to Acoustic and Electrical Stimulation In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The detection of sound by the cochlea involves a complex mechanical interplay among components of the cochlear partition. An in vitro preparation of the second turn of the jird's cochlea provides an opportunity to measure cochlear responses with subcellular resolution under controlled mechanical, ionic, and electrical conditions that simulate those encountered in vivo. Using photodiode micrometry, laser interferometry, and stroboscopic video microscopy, we have assessed the mechanical responses of the cochlear partition to acoustic and electrical stimuli near the preparation's characteristic frequency. Upon acoustic stimulation, the partition responds principally as a rigid plate pivoting around its insertion along the spiral lamina. The radial motion at the reticular lamina greatly surpasses that of the tectorial membrane, giving rise to shear that deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundles. Electrically evoked mechanical responses are qualitatively dissimilar from their acoustically evoked counterparts and suggest the recruitment of both hair-bundle- and soma-based electromechanical transduction processes. Finally, we observe significant changes in the stiffness of the cochlear partition upon tip-link destruction and tectorial-membrane removal, suggesting that these structures contribute considerably to the system's mechanical impedance and that hair-bundle-based forces can drive active motion of the cochlear partition. PMID:16169985

Chan, Dylan K.; Hudspeth, A. J.

2005-01-01

237

Prognostic and health management for aircraft electrical power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the electrical power supply system analysis, a system of prognostic and health management (PHM) for the electrical power supply system is presented. The PHM system can accomplish the condition assessment of the key characteristics and device in the electrical power supply system without additional test equipment. The condition of rotating rectifier, contact resistance and so on can be

Haiyang Pan; Ensheng Dong; Yilin Jiang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

238

Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

Cronin, M. J.

1983-01-01

239

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures  

E-print Network

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures Trieu Mai Electricity of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity

Van Veen, Barry D.

240

Carbon nanofiller/polymer nanocomposites: Diffusion, mechanical and electrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery two decades ago, fullerene family has drawn remarkable attention because of their unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical and flammable properties. They have been widely used to improve polymer properties. These nanofillers produce huge interfacial areas between the polymer and the fillers. Despite the intensive research on fullerene nanocomposites, understanding of the importance of the filler-polymer interface is still limited and further investigation of the structure-property relationships is needed. This dissertation probed influence of nanoparticles on polymer tracer diffusion and molecular weight dependence of composite mechanical properties, and developed a coated particle process to obtain composites with high electrical conductivity. Deuterated polystyrene (dPS) diffusion in nanoparticle/polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites was measured by an elastic recoil detection method. We used single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and C60 as nanofillers and found that the nanofillers have a significant influence on polymer tracer diffusion. When the tracer molecules ( Rg) are larger than the fillers ( RCNT), the tracer diffusion coefficient exhibits a minimum as a function of filler concentration. In contrast, the tracer diffusion in nanocomposites is constant when the tracer chains are smaller than the fillers. A trap model simulation was developed to understand the minimum diffusion coefficient. The load transfer mechanism from polymer matrix to fillers were studied by tensile testing and Raman spectroscopy in SWCNT/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite fibers. Without strong filler-polymer interactions, effective load transfer is limited to small strains, and Raman peak shift and stress-strain curve of composite fibers are reversible, suggesting an elastic deformation. Beyond this strain region, the load transfer is nonlinear because of a slippage at the polymer-filler interface. The stress on nanotubes reaches a maximum and then decreases with further increase in the strain. A coated particle process (CPP) method was developed to prepare nanocomposites with a cellular filler structure. The fillers are SWCNTs and PMMA is used as polymer matrix. Compared with the coagulated nanocomposites with well dispersed SWCNTs, the CPP-made nanocomposites have a higher electrical conductivity (2 orders higher), a smaller percolation threshold (50%).

Mu, Minfang

241

Structure Formation Mechanisms and Electrical Properties of PVD Fluoropolymer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of forming fluoropolymer coatings on silicon substrates via condensation from an active gas phase using directed flows of accelerated electrons and ions are studied. It is demonstrated that electrical properties of the resulting fluoropolymer films strongly depend on the technological parameters of the deposition process. Their most optimal properties are reported when condensation takes place at the temperatures within ~373-386 K. It is shown that thermal annealing of the films in vacuum at 430-470 K improves their electrophysical parameters by re-evaporating the low-molecular complexes from the structure and decreasing the concentration of defects and spin-radicals, while annealing in air gives rise to formation of additional polar groups.

Luchnikov, P. A.

2015-01-01

242

PBS: Tesla Teaching Resources - Converting Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a standards-based lab for grades 9-12 that explores how energy is converted in a simple electromagnet, using materials that are readily available at hardware stores. The electromagnet is constructed by wrapping a 4-inch nail with copper magnet wire. The experiment was designed to give students a basis for understanding how an AC source produces currents that flow in one direction and then the other. The lesson includes illustrated instructions for teachers and ideas for assessment. This web page is part of the PBS Online resource collection on the life of Nikola Tesla. SEE RELATED MATERIALS for a link to a closely related lesson on converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Hardesty, Judy; Hardesty, Jim

2010-06-26

243

Direct fault location in electrical power systems  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents an alternative to existing fault locating procedures in electrical power systems. The theoretical approach is based on the adjoint network concept, utilizing Tellegen's theorem. This theorem may be applied in the frequency or time domain. Also the current and voltage measurements taken from different networks, with the same topology and branch numbering, may be taken at different times. The aim is to apply the theorem in locating balanced or unbalanced faults in electric power transmission and distribution systems, using terminal voltage and current measurements combined with a minimum knowledge of the internal voltages and currents of the network. A detailed description of the theoretical basis for the proposed approach is presented along with numerical examples illustrating the potential application of the proposed technique.

Thomas, B.J.

1985-01-01

244

Design analysis mechanisms for carbon auction market through electricity market coupling  

E-print Network

Design analysis mechanisms for carbon auction market through electricity market coupling Mireille electricity produc- ers selling their production on an electricity market and buying CO2 emission al- lowances functions of the electricity production. We set out a clear Nash equilibrium on the power market that can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

246

Toward Standards for Dynamics in Electric Energy Systems  

E-print Network

Toward Standards for Dynamics in Electric Energy Systems Future Grid Initiative White Paper Power Systems Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;Toward Standards for Dynamics In Electric Energy Systems The Future Grid to Enable Sustainable Energy

247

Optimized design and simulation of electrical capacitance sensor for electrical capacitance tomography system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a software method for electrical capacitance sensor design of electrical capacitance tomography system is presented by using finite element analysis techniques. Electrical capacitance sensor theory model is established, and capacitance sensitivity field distribution and structure parameters of the sensor to measurement effect are analyzed by the method. The optimized design and simulation of electrical capacitance sensor is

Deyun Chen; Guibin Zheng; Congjing Yang; Xiaoyang Yu

2002-01-01

248

Study on double rotor type driving system of electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicle has been developed in many countries as a national project. But its capability is still insufficient for its incompleteness. In energy charging system, the battery is not sufficient to the commercial demand, and in the driving system, initial pick-up and inclined slope capability, maximum high speed, and low efficiency at low speed are its problems. In this study, double-rotor drive system is suggested to overcome the demerit of existing drive system. To improve the efficiency at low speed and to achieve effective control of torque-speed, wound-type induction motor drive system with slip power recovery is adopted and analyzed theoretically. From the results of the analysis, prototype motors are designed and tested to verify this suggestion and analysis. Double-rotor type drive system for electric vehicle suggested in this study shows that acceleration ability is improved 1.8 times that of existing drive system by using the dynamic drive system with pulse driving and the efficiency at low speed is improved by slip power recovery system. Though the mechanical structure is somewhat complex, this system is very robust. A development for commercial application would overcome this difficulty.

Young-Moon, Hwang

249

Fatigue Response of a PZT Multilayer Actuator under High-Field Electric Cycling with Mechanical Preload  

SciTech Connect

An electric fatigue test system has been developed for piezoelectric actuator with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator (MLA) with a plate-through electrode configuration have been studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of a coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 1.0x10^9 cycles were carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under a high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized by using FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation). It has been observed that both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients underwent a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86x10^8 cycles under the relevant preload, and then fluctuated to a certain extent. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also exhibited the fluctuations after a certain amount of drop but at different levels relative to the pre-fatigue. And finally, the results were discussed with respect to domain wall mobility, microcracking, and other pre-existing anomalies.

Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

2009-01-01

250

Fatigue response of a PZT multilayer actuator under high-field electric cycling with mechanical preload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric fatigue test system was developed for evaluating the reliability of piezoelectric actuators with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator with a platethrough electrode configuration were studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of the coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 109 cycles was carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under the high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized using fast Fourier transformation. Both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients exhibited a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86×108 cycles under certain preloading conditions, and then fluctuated. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also fluctuated after a decrease. The results are interpreted and discussed with respect to domain wall activities, microdefects, and other anomalies.

Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Lin, Hua-Tay

2009-01-01

251

Searching for Electrical Properties, Phenomena and Mechanisms in the Construction and Function of Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1) chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2) chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3) chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a) electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b) electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c) mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important. PMID:24688715

Kanev, Ivan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Mizuno, Akira; DeHaai, Kristi; Sanmann, Jennifer; Hess, Michelle; Starr, Lois; Grove, Jennifer; Dave, Bhavana; Sanger, Warren

2013-01-01

252

Modeling of an electrical power transmission system using hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we proceed to the modeling of an electric power transmission system, using hybrid input\\/output automata (HIOA), based on a framework presented in our previous work. The system is assumed to consist of several distinct components. Some of them such as loads drive the continuous dynamics while others such as protection devices exhibit event-driven discrete dynamics. Such behavior

George K. Fourlas

2005-01-01

253

49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a)...

2013-10-01

254

49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a)...

2010-10-01

255

49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a)...

2011-10-01

256

49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a)...

2012-10-01

257

Electricity Storage Systems and the Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power as baseline power or power from renewables requires either a system for storage of electrical energy that can respond quickly to demand or a back-up power source, usually a gas turbine plant that has a quick response time. We have studied six technologies for storing electrical energy from the grid: pumped hydropower, compressed air storage, batteries, flywheels, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and electrochemical capacitors. In addition, the power conversion systems (PCS) that connect storage to the grid are both expensive and critical to the success of a storage technology. Each of these six technologies offers different benefits, is at a different stage of readiness for commercial use, and offers opportunities for research. Advantages and disadvantages for each of the technologies and PCS will be discussed.

Howes, Ruth

2007-04-01

258

Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.  

PubMed

Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

Galley, Chad R

2013-04-26

259

Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

Laudenslager, James B. (inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (inventor)

1987-01-01

260

Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits  

DOEpatents

A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

1988-04-12

261

Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits  

DOEpatents

A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

Jatko, William B. (10601 Rivermist La., Knoxville, TN 37922); McNeilly, David R. (Rte. 12, Box 538, Maryville, TN 37801)

1988-01-01

262

Power electronics layout in a hybrid electric or electric vehicle drive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power electronics in a drive system of a hybrid electric or electric car can be subdivided in different function blocks without considering the effective concept of the drive system (series\\/parallel hybrid, range extender) or the kind of electrical machine in use (direct\\/alternating current machines). This paper identifies the main function blocks and discusses the requirements and possible solutions. Some

A. Vezzini; K. Reichert

1996-01-01

263

Development of battery management system for nickel–metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of

Do Yang Jung; Baek Haeng Lee; Sun Wook Kim

2002-01-01

264

An Investigation on the Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Electrical Response of Automobile Thermoelectric Materials and Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can directly convert heat to electrical energy, possess wide application potential for power generation from waste heat. As TE devices in vehicle exhaust power generation systems work in the long term in a service environment with coupled thermal-mechanical-electrical conditions, the reliability of their mechanical strength and conversion efficiency is an important issue for their commercial application. Based on semiconductor TE devices wih multiple p- n couples and the working environment of a vehicle exhaust power generation system, the service conditions of the TE devices are simulated by using the finite-element method. The working temperature on the hot side is set according to experimental measurements, and two cooling methods, i.e., an independent and shared water tank, are adopted on the cold side. The conversion efficiency and thermal stresses of the TE devices are calculated and discussed. Numerical results are obtained, and the mechanism of the influence on the conversion efficiency and mechanical properties of the TE materials is revealed, aiming to provide theoretical guidance for optimization of the design and commercial application of vehicle TE devices.

Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Zhai, Pengcheng; Li, Guodong; Zhang, Qingjie

2013-07-01

265

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOEpatents

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24

266

Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

2013-01-01

267

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers examine the interface surface on the Cassini spacecraft prior to installation of the third radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The other two RTGs, at left, already are installed on Cassini. The three RTGs will be used to power Cassini on its mission to the Saturnian system. They are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

268

ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

Geppert, S.

1980-01-01

269

Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)  

SciTech Connect

The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

2007-12-31

270

Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system  

PubMed Central

Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement. PMID:22876934

2012-01-01

271

Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber Support Systems  

E-print Network

Carbon fiber support structures have become common elements of detector designs for high energy physics experiments. Carbon fiber has many mechanical advantages but it is also characterized by high conductivity, particularly at high frequency, with associated design issues. This paper discusses the elements required for sound electrical performance of silicon detectors employing carbon fiber support elements. Tests on carbon fiber structures are presented indicating that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of 10 to 100 MHz. The general principles of grounding configurations involving carbon fiber structures will be discussed. To illustrate the design requirements, measurements performed with a silicon detector on a carbon fiber support structure at small radius are presented. A grounding scheme employing copper-kapton mesh circuits is described and shown to provide adequate and robust detector performance.

W. Cooper; C. Daly; M. Demarteau; J. Fast; K. Hanagaki; M. Johnson; W. Kuykendall; H. Lubatti; M. Matulik; A. Nomerotski; B. Quinn; J. Wang

2005-04-19

272

International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

2005-01-01

273

77 FR 39857 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...electric system reliability...stability analysis as necessary...sufficient information and argument...NERC System Analysis and Modeling...electric system definition...extent the information requested...figure in the information collection...complicated systems or will not...Environmental Analysis 140....

2012-07-05

274

Garrett Electric Boosting Systems (EBS) Program  

SciTech Connect

Turbo diesel engine use in passenger cars in Europe has resulted in 30-50% improvement in fuel economy. Diesel engine application is particularly suitable for US because of vehicle size and duty cycle patterns. Adopting this technology for use in the US presents two issues--emissions and driveability. Emissions reduction technology is being well addressed with advanced turbocharging, fuel injection and catalytic aftertreatment systems One way to address driveability is to eliminate turbo lag and increase low speed torque. Electrically assisted turbocharging concepts incorporated in e-Turbo{trademark} designs do both The purpose of this project is to design and develop an electrically assisted turbocharger, e-Turbo{trademark}, for diesel engine use in the US. In this report, early design and development of electrical assist technology is described together with issues and potential benefits. In this early phase a mathematical model was developed and verified. The model was used in a sensitivity study. The results of the sensitivity study together with the design and test of first generation hardware was fed into second generation designs. In order to fully realize the benefits of electrical assist technology it was necessary to expand the scope of work to include technology on the compressor side as well as electronic controls concepts. The results of the expanded scope of work are also reported here. In the first instance, designs and hardware were developed for a small engine to quantify and demonstrate benefits. The turbo size was such that it could be applied in a bi-turbo configuration to an SUV sized V engine. Mathematical simulation was used to quantify the possible benefits in an SUV application. It is shown that low speed torque can be increased to get the high performance expected in US, automatic transmission vehicles. It is also shown that e-Turbo{trademark} can be used to generate modest amounts of electrical power and supplement the alternator under most load-speed conditions. It is shown that a single (large) e-Turbo{trademark} consumes slightly less electrical power for the same steady state torque shaping than a bi-Turbo configuration. However, the transient response of a bi-Turbo configuration is slightly better. It was shown that in order to make full use of additional capabilities of e-Turbo{trademark} wide compressor flow range is required. Variable geometry compressor (VGC) technology developed under a separate project was evaluated for incorporation into e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was shown that the combination of these two technologies enables very high torque at low engine speeds. Designs and hardware combining VGC and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. There is concern about high power demands (even though momentary) of e-Turbo{trademark}. Reducing the inertia of the turbocharger can reduce power demand and increase battery life. Low inertia turbocharger technology called IBT developed under a separate project was evaluated for synergy with e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was concluded that inertial reduction provided by IBT is very beneficial for e-Turbo{trademark}. Designs and hardware combining IBT and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. e-Turbo{trademark} provides several additional flexibilities including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for emissions reduction with minimum fuel economy penalty and exhaust temperature control for aftertreatment. In integrated multi-parameter control system is needed to realize the full potential of e-Turbo{trademark} performance. Honeywell expertise in process control systems involving hundreds of sensors and actuators was applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of multi-parameter, model based control systems.

Steve Arnold; Craig Balis; Pierre Barthelet; Etienne Poix; Tariq Samad; Greg Hampson; S. M. Shahed

2005-03-31

275

A multicylinder free-piston Stirling engine for application in Stirling-electric drive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study gives a short introduction to Stirling-electric drive systems and their applications. The development of a Stirling-electric drive system concentrates on the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), which will form the most important part of the system. One of the most important ideas behind the design of the FPSE is that a simple, robust, and efficient electric power generator has to be developed which can run on any available liquid for gaseous fuel and which can easily be plugged into a larger system, such as a Stirling-electric drive system. The benefits are found mainly in the silent and environmentally friendly operation of the system, but also in the free positioning of the FPSE and the ease with which a mechanical connection can be made between the electric motor and the load.

de Graaff, Peter J.

276

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

277

Cost effective strategies for industrial electric power management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current use of power management systems for industrial electrical power distribution and utilization systems is examined and their benefits, functionality and costs are presented with examples. The functionality in commercially available systems is mapped against the recommended location of devices within the industrial electrical power system. System architecture considerations and equipment and installation costs are discussed; venture guidance analysis

K. E. Nicholson; R. L. Doughty; L. Mane; G. Miranda; F. D. Pulaski

1998-01-01

278

Classical Mechanics of Nonconservative Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamilton’s principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton’s principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton’s principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment.

Galley, Chad R.

2013-04-01

279

Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

Kelledes, W. L.

1984-01-01

280

Operating health analysis of electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation. A procedure is illustrated to determine the well-being indices of the overall interconnected system. Under normal operating conditions, the system may also be able to carry a limited amount of interruptible load on top of its firm load without violating the operating criterion. An energy based approach is presented to determine the optimum interruptible load carrying capability in both the isolated and interconnected systems. Composite system spinning reserve assessment and composite system well-being are also examined in this research work. The impacts on the composite well-being of operating reserve considerations such as stand-by units, interruptible loads and the physical locations of these resources are illustrated. It is expected that the well-being framework and the concepts developed in this research work will prove extremely useful in the new competitive utility environment.

Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

281

Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

2006-01-01

282

Integration of Electric Propulsion Systems with Spacecraft An Overview  

E-print Network

1 Integration of Electric Propulsion Systems with Spacecraft ­ An Overview Thomas M. Liu1 and Mitchell L. R. Walker2 Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 Electric propulsion systems. Recent high-profile missions that have made use of electric propulsion include NASA's Dawn, ESA's GOCE

Walker, Mitchell

283

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions...trolley circuits, shall be shown on a mine map. Any changes made in a location,...

2010-07-01

284

Maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control of dual mechanical ports electric machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control strategy is proposed for a special machine called dual mechanical ports (DMP) electric machine. In the conventional hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), this machine is replaced to planetary gear box and two electric machines and makes their structures simpler. The proposed MTPA strategy fully utilizes the reluctance torque and maximizes the torque

A. Ghayebloo; A. Radan

2010-01-01

285

AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

Slicker, J. M.

1983-06-01

286

Mechanical Verification of Concurrent Systems with TLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We describe an initial version of a system for mechanically checking the correctness proof of a concurrent system.Input to the system consists of the correctness properties, expressed in TLA (the temporal logic of actions), and their proofs, written in a humanly readable, hierarchically structured form.The system uses a mechanical verifier to check each step of the proof, translating the

Urban Engberg; Peter Grřnning; Leslie Lamport

1992-01-01

287

Space station electrical power system availability study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

1988-01-01

288

High Power, High Voltage Electric Power System for Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the 30 KW, 600 V MRHE power subsystem. Descriptions of the power subsystem elements, the mode of power transfer, and power and mass estimates are presented. A direct-drive architecture for electric propulsion is considered which reduces mass and complexity. Solar arrays with concentrators are used for increased efficiency. Finally, the challenges due to the environment of a hypothetical lunar mission as well as due to the advanced technologies considered are outlined.

Aintablian, Harry; Kirkham, Harold; Timmerman, Paul

2006-01-01

289

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles. Addendum 1: Voltage considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two electric vehicle propulsion systems that best met cost and performance goals were examined to assess the effect of battery pack voltage on system performance and cost. A voltage range of 54 to 540 V was considered for a typical battery pack capacity of 24 k W-hr. The highest battery specific energy (W-hr/kg) and the lowest cost ($/kW-hr) were obtained at the minimum voltage level. The flywheel system traction motor is a dc, mechanically commutated with shunt field control, and due to the flywheel the traction motor and the battery are not subject to extreme peaks of power demand. The basic system uses a permanent-magnet motor with electronic commutation supplied by an ac power control unit. In both systems battery cost were the major factor in system voltage selection, and a battery pack with the minimum voltage of 54 V produced the lowest life-cycle cost. The minimum life-cycle cost for the basic system with lead-acid batteries was $0.057/km and for the flywheel system was $0.037/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1980-01-01

290

Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

2008-01-01

291

Analysis of components, designs, and operation for electric propulsion and integrated electrical system  

SciTech Connect

The surface combatant of the 21st century will be designed to support a myriad of tasks requiring greater flexibility and endurance while keeping construction, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. As a result the design of a surface combatant will depart from today`s standards and philosophies. One option is the use of an electric propulsion system that can be integrated with the other ship`s electrical loads. Electric propulsion operating with an Integrated Electrical System has many advantages that will fulfill the requirements of future surface combatants. This study provides the historical background, the supporting issues, components, and architecture of electric propulsion systems and the Integrated Electrical System. Technical information on various component types and issues that influence the design considerations of an electric propulsion system and Integrated Electrical System to meet the requirements of a surface combatant are addressed. The areas of study are prime movers, generators, frequency converters, motors, ship`s service electrical distribution, auxiliary electrical loads, and system control.

Arrington, J.W.

1998-09-01

292

Simultaneous characterization of mechanical and electrical performances of ultraflexible and stretchable organic integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the simultaneous characterization of mechanical and electrical performances of ultraflexible and stretchable organic integrated circuits comprised of high-performance organic semiconductors, carbon nanotube-based elastic conductors, and self-assembled monolayers. By employing a high-precision mechanical stage that combines electrical functional terminals, the electrical performances of ultraflexible or stretchable organic transistors were measured after being bent to a 50 µm bending radius

Tsuyoshi Sekitania; Tomoyuki Yokotaa; Kazunori Kuribaraa; Takao Someyaa

2012-01-01

293

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-06-15

294

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

295

Electric Power Demand and Emerging Technology in Highly-sophisticated Electric Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, the increase of the electric power demand has been remarkable, especially in Asia district. In such trend, the electric power system of Japan has been supplied with high quality, high reliability and highly-stabilized electric power. This is supported by highly-sophisticated electric power system which prides oneself on high voltage and large capacity. In this paper, outlines of these technologies are described. And, newest technology trends such as electric power liberalization, innovation of dispersed power source, effective utilization of natural energy are also explained. In addition, the global standards are important to make the technological level of Japan to be the world one in future.

Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hikita, Masayuki

296

Electrically and mechanically tunable electron spins in silicon carbide color centers  

E-print Network

The electron spins of semiconductor defects can have complex interactions with their host, particularly in polar materials like SiC where electrical and mechanical variables are intertwined. By combining pulsed spin resonance with ab-initio simulations, we show that spin-spin interactions within SiC neutral divacancies give rise to spin states with an enhanced Stark effect, sub-10**-6 strain sensitivity, and highly spin-dependent photoluminescence with intensity contrasts of 15-36%. These results establish SiC color centers as compelling systems for sensing nanoscale fields.

Abram L. Falk; Paul V. Klimov; Bob B. Buckley; Viktor Ivády; Igor A. Abrikosov; Greg Calusine; William F. Koehl; Ádám Gali; David D. Awschalom

2013-11-26

297

Future of public power & electric cooperative systems  

SciTech Connect

Municipals and cooperatives face daunting challenges in the march to retail choice. Despite calls from investor-owned utilities to level the playing field by curtailing the programs that benefit public power, municipals and cooperatives face a steeper slant than do their private-power counterparts. Only keen anticipation and intelligent strategy will win the day for consumer-owned utilities. The future of public power and electric cooperative systems, which presently serve nearly 25 percent of the nation`s consumers, is as complex an issue as the plot twists and interpersonal entanglements of a Shakespearean play - and is just as riveting a spectacle to those of us fortunate enough to be involved. As this article is being written, House and Senate hearings are focusing on whether and how public power fits into the future deregulated environment. No one disputes (at least openly) that there will continue to be a role for public power in a restructured electric industry. That role will vary dramatically, though, depending on the region of the country, structure of the entity, preparedness for customer choice, relevant federal and state enactments, and competitiveness of other players in the industry.

Vince, C.A.; Quirk, S.A.; Fogel, J.C. [Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand, Washington, DC (United States)] [Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-11-01

298

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of

Jirang Cui; Eric Forssberg

2003-01-01

299

Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

300

Dual power, constant speed electric motor system  

DOEpatents

A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

Kirschbaum, Herbert S. (Asheville, NC)

1984-01-01

301

Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus  

DOEpatents

An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

2011-03-22

302

The Tractor Electrical System. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental principles underlying the application of electricity to tractors and farm equipment are presented. An understanding of the material in the basic manual will enable the service man to understand better the service procedures covered in service manuals on electrical equipment. Topics dealt with are fundamentals of electricity,…

American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

303

Wireless data acquisition system for multi-phase electric power equipment  

E-print Network

WIRELESS DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR MULTI-PHASE ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT A Thesis by DOUGLAS ANDREAS GOODSELL Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering WIRELESS DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR MULTI-PHASE ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT A Thesis by DOUGLAS ANDREAS GOODSELL Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Goodsell, Douglas Andreas

2009-05-15

304

Random vibration of mechanical and structural systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book addresses random vibration of mechanical and structural systems commonly encountered in aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Techniques are examined for determining probabilistic characteristics of the response of dynamic systems subjected to random loads or inputs and for calculating probabilities related to system performance or reliability. Emphasis is given to applications.

Soong, T. T.; Grigoriu, Mircea

305

Random vibration of mechanical and structural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses random vibration of mechanical and structural systems commonly encountered in aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Techniques are examined for determining probabilistic characteristics of the response of dynamic systems subjected to random loads or inputs and for calculating probabilities related to system performance or reliability. Emphasis is given to applications.

T. T. Soong; Mircea Grigoriu

1993-01-01

306

HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-01-01

307

Electrical degradation mechanisms of RF power GaAs PHEMTs  

E-print Network

GaAs Pseudomorphic High-Electron Mobility Transistors (PHEMTs) are widely used in RF power applications. Since these devices typically operate at high power levels and under high voltage biasing, their electrical reliability ...

Villanueva, Anita A. (Anita Ariel), 1978-

2007-01-01

308

Mechanisms of muscle gene regulation in the electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus  

PubMed Central

Summary Animals perform a remarkable diversity of movements through the coordinated mechanical contraction of skeletal muscle. This capacity for a wide range of movements is due to the presence of muscle cells with a very plastic phenotype that display many different biochemical, physiological and morphological properties. What factors influence the maintenance and plasticity of differentiated muscle fibers is a fundamental question in muscle biology. We have exploited the remarkable potential of skeletal muscle cells of the gymnotiform electric fish Sternopygus macrurus to trans-differentiate into electrocytes, the non-contractile electrogenic cells of the electric organ (EO), to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the skeletal muscle phenotype. In S. macrurus, mature electrocytes possess a phenotype that is intermediate between muscle and non-muscle cells. How some genes coding for muscle-specific proteins are downregulated while others are maintained, and novel genes are upregulated, is an intriguing problem in the control of skeletal muscle and EO phenotype. To date, the intracellular and extracellular factors that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in muscle and EO have not been defined. Expression studies in S. macrurus have started to shed light on the role that transcriptional and post-transcriptional events play in regulating specific muscle protein systems and the muscle phenotype of the EO. In addition, these findings also represent an important step toward identifying mechanisms that affect the maintenance and plasticity of the muscle cell phenotype for the evolution of highly specialized non-contractile tissues. PMID:23761472

Güth, Robert; Pinch, Matthew; Unguez, Graciela A.

2013-01-01

309

Efferent Control of the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Hair Cells in the Bullfrog's Sacculus  

PubMed Central

Background Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position. Conclusions and Significance The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent. PMID:21048944

Castellano-Muńoz, Manuel; Israel, Samuel H.; Hudspeth, A. J.

2010-01-01

310

Electrical Systems. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, which is part of a series on agricultural and industrial machinery, deals with electrical systems. Special attention is paid to electricity as it is commonly used on mobile machines. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: electricity and how it works (current, voltage, and resistance; types of circuits;…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

311

Information and electrical power transmission system and method for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an information and electrical power transmission system for a vehicle, comprising: a power supply circuit having an ignition keyswitch; a first group of electrical devices connected to the power supply circuit; a first information transmitting device connected to the first group of electrical devices and the power supply circuit. The information transmitting device has an information sending

M. Matsumoto; S. Akita; A. Kuno

1987-01-01

312

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

313

Upgrading Data Centers' Electrical Systems: Selecting the Best Electrical Design Configuration for Existing Data Centers  

E-print Network

, the reliability of their electrical systems are not adequate unless they are upgraded and well maintained. The high cost of power has also increased the need to make data centers’ electrical systems more efficient. In general, before any upgrade is made, data...

Lienou, Richard T.

2012-05-11

314

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

315

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

316

Primary electric propulsion technology study. [for thruster wear-out mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the 30-cm engineering-model-thruster technology with emphasis placed on the development of models for understanding and predicting the operational characteristics and wear-out mechanisms of the thruster as a function of operating or design parameters is presented. The task studies include: (1) the wear mechanisms and wear rates that determine the useful lifetime of the thruster discharge chamber; (2) cathode lifetime as determined by the depletion of barium from the barium-aluminate-impregnated-porous-tungsten insert that serves as a barium reservoir; (3) accelerator-grid-system technology; (4) a verification of the high-voltage propellant-flow-electrical-isolator design developed under NASA contract NAS3-20395 for operation at 10-kV applied voltage and 10-A equivalent propellant flow with mercury and argon propellants. A model was formulated for predicting performance.

Poeschel, R. L.; Beattie, J. R.

1979-01-01

317

Constant frequency aircraft electric power systems with harmonic reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing number of power electronic converters connected to the aircraft electric power system significantly increases harmonic levels and voltage transients in that system. Stringent limits on harmonic current distortion and perturbation of the aircraft electric power supply demands accurate simulation and development of high performance filters for the mitigation of harmonics and minimization of system transients. This paper presents

A. Eid; H. El-Kishky; M. Abdel-Salam; T. El-Mohandes

2008-01-01

318

Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

1992-01-01

319

System for the co-production of electricity and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Described herein is a system for the co-generation of hydrogen gas and electricity, wherein the proportion of hydrogen to electricity can be adjusted from 0% to 100%. The system integrates fuel cell technology for power generation with fuel-assisted steam-electrolysis. A hydrocarbon fuel, a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, or a partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel can be fed into the system.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Anderson, Brian Lee (Lodi, CA)

2007-10-02

320

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XX, TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS (INTRODUCTION), (2) TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING, (3) THE BATTERY, (4) PERIODIC BATTERY SERVICING, (5) THE DC CHARGING SYSTEM, (6) PERIODIC…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

321

Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

E-print Network

. The model is composed of sub-models for the engine, mechanical brake, electric machine, converter, battery, drive shaft with gears, and road load with wind resistance. The model yields results which are rough approximations of component performance...

Buntin, David Leighton

1994-01-01

322

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

1989-01-01

323

Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development. For China, the most promising options for promoting sustainable development, one of the goals of the Kyoto Protocol, appear to be tied to increasing electrical end-use and generation efficiency, particularly clean coal technology for electricity generation since coal will likely continue to be a dominant primary fuel.

Steenhof, Paul A.

324

Statistical mechanics and disordered systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since computers are able to simulate the equilibrium properties of model systems, they may also prove useful for solving the hard optimization problems that arise in the engineering of complex systems.

Scott Kirkpatrick; Robert H. Swendsen

1985-01-01

325

New controller for functional electrical stimulation systems.  

PubMed

A novel, self-contained controller for functional electrical stimulation systems has been designed. The development was motivated by the need to have a general purpose, easy to use controller capable of stimulating many muscle groups, thus restoring complex motor functions (e.g. standing, walking, reaching, and grasping). The designed controller can regulate the frequency, pulse duration, and charge balance on up to 16 channels, and execute pre-programmed and sensory-driven control operations. The controller supports up to eight analog and six digital sensors, and comprises a memory block for including history of the sensory data (time series). Five independent timers provide the basis for the multi-modal and multi-level control of movement. The PC compatible interface is realised via an IR serial communication channel. The PC based software is user friendly and fully menu driven. This paper also presents a case study where the controller was implemented to restore walking in a paraplegic subject. The assistive system comprised the novel controller, the power and output stages of an eight-channel FES system (IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng, TRE-2 (1994) 234), ankle-foot orthoses, and a rolling walker. Stimulation was applied with surface electrodes positioned over the motoneurons that innervate muscles responsible for the hip and knee flexion and extension. The sensory system included goniometers at knee and hip joints, force-sensing resistors built in the shoe insoles, and digital accelerometers at the hips. A rule-based control algorithm was generated following a two-step procedure: (1) simulation and (2) machine learning as described in earlier studies (IEEE Trans Rehab Eng, TRE-7 (1999) 69). The paraplegic subject walked faster, and with less physiological effort, when automatic control was applied as compared to hand-control. This case study, as well as a previous one for assisting grasping (The design and testing of a new programmable electronic stimulator. N. Fisekovic, MS thesis. University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 2000) indicate that the novel control unit is effectively applicable to FES systems. PMID:11551815

Fisekovic, N; Popovic, D B

2001-07-01

326

Lather (Interior Systems Mechanic). Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis covers tasks performed by a lather, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as drywall and acoustical mechanic; interior systems installer; and interior systems mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

Chapman, Mike; Chapman, Carol; MacLean, Margaret

327

STABLE SYNCHRONIZATION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORKS  

E-print Network

. In this paper we address stabilization of a network of underactuated mechanical systems with unstable dynamics of these and related works, stabilization of coordinated group dynamics is studied in the case of limited, timeSTABLE SYNCHRONIZATION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORKS SUJIT NAIR AND NAOMI EHRICH LEONARD Abstract

Nair, Sujit

328

Minimizing electric bearing currents in ASD systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, an increase in bearing failures has been seen in ASD-fed electric motors, as well as in gearboxes, and other connected machinery, caused by electric current flow through such bearings. The theories presented in this paper focus on bearing currents in ASDs of the voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) type, for use with AC induction motors, although

P. J. Link

1999-01-01

329

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

330

Reserve valuation in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

331

Rationale, mechanisms of efficacy, anatomical targets and future prospects of electrical deep brain stimulation for epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical stimulation of deep brain structures is a promising new technology for the treatment of medically intractable seizures.\\u000a Performed in vitro and on animal models of epilepsy, electrical stimulation has shown to reduce seizure frequency. Preliminary results on humans\\u000a are encouraging. However, such improvements emerge despite a lack of understanding of the precise mechanisms underlying electrical\\u000a stimulation either delivered directly

C. Pollo; Jean-Guy Villemure

332

Comparative analysis of electrical and mechanical fault signatures in induction motors  

E-print Network

of interest. Due to its cost-effective nature and ease of use, electrical sensors are preinstalled at the motor switchgear by manufacturers. However in order to achieve this for mechanical faults, a systematic comparison between the vibration signatures...

Venugopal, Arvind Madabushi

2005-02-17

333

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

334

A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

DelRosario, Ruben

2014-01-01

335

Research on battery management system in electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the bridge of battery and vehicle management system and the drivers, battery management system (BMS) for electric vehicle performance is playing a more and more key role. This article introduces several kinds of battery display methods and displays, and for each display method on the feasibility study, also focuses on the electric car batteries systematic, modular design and the

Cuicui Yin; Yuqun Wang

2012-01-01

336

Research on battery management system for light electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the operation characteristics of light electric vehicle, the paper developed a battery management system of light electric vehicle. The system mainly contains battery protection module, battery equalization module, battery data management module. It could be real-time monitoring the operation parameters of batteries effectively: rotational speed of motor, State of Charge (SOC) of the batteries, voltage and current of

Feng Nenglian; Yong Jiawang; Bin Yang; Peng Jiankun; Tang Yanrong

2011-01-01

337

Electromagnetic interference assessment of an ion drive electric propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electric propulsion thrust system has the capability of providing a high specific impulse for long duration scientific missions in space. The EMI from the elements of an ion engine was characterized. The compatibility of ion drive electric propulsion systems with typical interplanetary spacecraft engineering was predicted.

Whittlesey, A. C.

1981-01-01

338

DC link stabilized field oriented control of electric propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motor based electric propulsion systems can be used in a wide variety of applications including locomotives, hybrid electric vehicles, and ships. Field oriented control of these drives is attractive since it allows the torque to be tightly and nearly instantaneously controlled. However, such systems can be prone to negative impedance instability of the DC link. This paper examines this

S. D. Sudhoff; K. A. Corzine; S. F. Glover; H. J. Hegner

1998-01-01

339

Space Station Freedom, technology applications in vehicle electrical power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers the Space Station Freedom electrical power system (EPS) design and shows how the application of that technology in aircraft (and other vehicles) electrical power distribution systems can reduce weight and volume, and improve reliability and maintainability. The design and development of the Space Station EPS was a major milestone in large-scale space power management and distribution. The

Allan Gregg; George Kaelin

1994-01-01

340

How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

Skumiel, A.

2011-01-01

341

Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

1993-01-01

342

Stopping mechanism for capsule endoscope using electrical stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ingestible capsule, which has the ability to stop at certain locations in the small intestine, was designed and implemented\\u000a to monitor intestinal diseases. The proposed capsule can contract the small intestine by using electrical stimuli; this contraction\\u000a causes the capsule to stop when the maximum static frictional force (MSFF) is larger than the force of natural peristalsis.\\u000a In vitro experiments

Sang Hyo Woo; TaeWan Kim; Jin-Ho Cho

2010-01-01

343

An intelligent battery management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the keys to the acceptance of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the increased longevity of the large battery packs used in the vehicles. The objective of this research is to develop an intelligent battery management system that will lengthen the lifetime of the battery pack. The key to this operation is monitoring and charging of individual batteries

Manoj Maskey; Micheal Parten; Darrell Vines; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

344

Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

] whereas the efficiency of an electric motor can reach 90% or even higher [13], and (ii) the kinetic energy% in the case of heavy city traffic [17]. As the only source of providing energy to the electric motor.g., in Tesla cars, Nissan Leaf, Ford Focus, etc.). The performance of the EES system in an EV is therefore

Pedram, Massoud

345

Systems modeling for electric ship design  

E-print Network

Diesel and gas turbine electric ship propulsion are of current interest for several types of vessels that are important for commercial shipping and for the next generation of war ships. During the design process of a ...

Soultatis, Charalambos

2004-01-01

346

Conic optimization of electric power systems  

E-print Network

The electric power grid is recognized as an essential modern infrastructure that poses numerous canonical design and operational problems. Perhaps most critically, the inherently large scale of the power grid and similar ...

Taylor, Joshua Adam

2011-01-01

347

Aircraft Electric Power-Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ever increasing demand for electric power in aircraft has been felt for some time. The necessity of using an electric storage battery started the practice of accompanying it with a d-c generator, first of low current and voltage capacity, later of 50-ampere 12-volt rating, and for the past few years of 200-ampere 24-volt output. In the largest four-engine aircraft,

J. E. Yarmack

1943-01-01

348

Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy  

DOEpatents

Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

Liu, Yan (Ballston Lake, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

2008-06-24

349

A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application  

SciTech Connect

The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of electrical hazards. The new comprehensive electrical hazard classification system uses a combination of voltage, shock current available, fault current available, power, energy, and waveform to classify all forms of electrical hazards. Based on this electrical hazard classification system, many new tools have been developed, including (a) work controls for these hazards, (b) better selection of PPE for R&D work, (c) improved training, and (d) a new Severity Ranking Tool that is used to rank electrical accidents and incidents with various forms of electrical energy.

Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

350

Modeling Mechanical Subsystems of the Hybrid Electric Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is part of the course âIntro to Mechatronicsâ at Lawrence Technological University and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. In the lab students are introduced to the use of planetary gearsets and their application to hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) transmissions. Students are first familiarized with the planetary gearset equation and then use MAT Lab software to visualize the relationship between input data and the resulting output torque and speed through the gear set. All MAT Lab files are included.

University, Lawrence T.

351

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading for instance to ground state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Aurelien Dantan; Bhagya Nair; Guido Pupillo; Claudiu Genes

2014-06-27

352

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading, for instance, to ground-state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Dantan, Aurélien; Nair, Bhagya; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

2014-09-01

353

Mechanical Diagnostics System Engineering in IMD HUMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goodrich Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics Health and Usage System (IMD-HUMS) mechanical diagnostics functionality is the integration of disparate subsystems. When the aircraft is in the appropriate capture window, the primary processing unit (PPU), commands the vibration processing unit (VPU) to capture vibration data and a tachometer reference. This time domain data is processed by standard and proprietary algorithms to generate

Eric Bechhoefer; Eric Mayhew

2006-01-01

354

A System for Electro-Mechanical Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Stefan Spinner  

E-print Network

analysis (X-ray, Auger and secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and special electrical approaches (thermally and a method that enables automated analysis of mechanical stress impact on microelectromechanical systems-volume manufacturing, electrical testing methods are more attractive than optical or chemical techniques, as the former

Polian, Ilia

355

Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087

Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

356

Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering.  

PubMed

We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087

Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

357

Financial payback on California residential solar electric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost effectiveness for consumers of solar electric systems has been achieved in the California residential market due to Time-of-Use Net Metering, a tiered electric rate structure with high rates, and subsidies by the state government.Three different approaches test and validate this hypothesis for a large fraction of consumers. Solar electricity can generate rates of return of 11–20% exceeding most other

Andrew J. Black

2004-01-01

358

Quantum mechanical aspects of friction and electric resistance in microscopic problems with applications to radiation physics  

E-print Network

Friction incorporates the close connection between classical mechanics in irreversible thermodynamics. The translation to a quantum mechanical foundation is not trivial and requires a generalization of the Lagrange function. A change to electromagnetic circuits appears to more adequate, since the electric analogue (Ohms law) is related to scatter of electrons at lattice vibrations.

Ulmer, W

2015-01-01

359

Transthoracic electrical bioimpedance versus thermodilution technique for cardiac output measurement during mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the possible influence of mechanical ventilation on the accurracy of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEI) in the measurement of cardiac output, we determined cardiac output concurrently by TEI using Kubicek's equation and by thermodilution in 8 acutely ill patients who were mechanically ventilated (assist\\/control mode) but who had no underlying respiratory failure. Cardiac outputs were lower with TEI than

J. C. Preiser; A. Daper; J.-N. Parquier; B. Contempré; J.-L. Vincent

1989-01-01

360

Pricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets  

E-print Network

the price that energy brokers (retailers) need to pay in case their profile TU Delft Erasmus UniversityPricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets Mathijs de Weerdt , Wolfgang Ketter , and John Collins Abstract We consider the problem of designing a pricing mechanism

de Weerdt, Mathijs

361

Quantum mechanics of a constrained electrically charged particle in the presence of electric currents  

E-print Network

We discuss the dynamics of a classical spinless quantum particle carrying electric charge and constrained to move on a non singular static surface in ordinary three dimensional space in the presence of arbitrary configurations of time independent electric currents. Starting from the canonical action in the embedding space we show that a charged particle with charge $q$ couples to a term linear in $qA^3M$, where $A^3$ is the transverse component of the electromagnetic vector potential and $M$ is the mean curvature in the surface. This term cancels exactly a curvature contribution to the orbital magnetic moment of the particle. It is shown that particles, independently of the value of the charge, in addition to the known couplings to the geometry also couple to the mean curvature in the surface when a Neumann type of constraint is applied on the transverse fluctuations of the wave function. In contrast to a Dirrichlet constraint on the transverse fluctuations a Neumann type of constraint on these degrees of freedom will in general make the equations of motion non separable. The exceptions are the equations of motion for electrically neutral particles on surfaces with constant mean curvature. In the presence of electric currents the equation of motion of a charged particle is generally non separable independently of the coupling to the geometry and the boundary constraints.

B. Jensen; R. Dandoloff

2009-11-01

362

Guide to the Electrical Analysis Software System (EASS)  

SciTech Connect

The Electrical Analysis Software System (EASS) was developed to statistically analyze Naval activity electrical consumption. The software utilizes two data sources, the Facilities Systems Office Naval Facility Assets/Master Activity General Information and Control data base and the Defense Energy Information System II data base. The commercial statistical regression package called Biomedical Computer Programs is used in conjunction with EASS. The FORTRAN source code is included in the text.

de Monsabert, S.

1984-06-01

363

Number and propagation of line outages in cascading events in electric power transmission systems  

E-print Network

Number and propagation of line outages in cascading events in electric power transmission systems that progressively weakens the system. Large electric power transmission systems occasionally have cascading failures

Dobson, Ian

364

THERMIONIC CONVERSION IN A NUCLEAR-ELECTRIC SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and experimental performance of the thermionic converter is ; analyzed for use in power conversion in a nuclear-electric space propulsion ; system. Electrical propulsion power requirements are shown to demand a minimum ; ratio of powerplant weight to power in the jet. The elements of a powerplant ; into which the converter must be integrated are discussed, including

J. P. Ditz; T. R. Shukay

1961-01-01

365

The Electric Circuit as a System: A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishIn this new approach to the presentation of the electric circuit, the three fundamental terms current, voltage, and resistance are introduced simultaneously in a qualitative way, using the system aspect of the electric circuit as an integrative base.The starting point to this is the individual knowledge and the conceptional schemes that students bring into the classroom. This approach is in

H. Härtel

1982-01-01

366

Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in purple membranes: membrane as electrostrictive medium.  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present acousto-electrical measurements performed on dry films of purple membranes (PM) of Halobacterium salinarium. The purpose of these measurements is to determine the relation between mechanical and electrical phenomena in bacteriorhodopsin and to define the role of the protein in the proton transfer process. Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in PMs manifests itself as direct and inverse piezoelectric effects. Measurements performed on the samples with different degrees of PM orientation and at various values of the externally applied cross-membrane electric field indicate that piezoelectric phenomena in PMs arise from the electric asymmetry of the membranes, i.e., they originate from electrostriction. Experiments with samples made of oriented PMs allow estimation of the value of the intrinsic cross-membrane electric field, which is approximately 10(8) V/m. A hypothetical model of PM is presented where the electrical-to-mechanical coupling is suggested to be the main driving force for the proton translocation against the Coulomb forces acting in the membrane. PMID:11259278

Kietis, P; Vengris, M; Valkunas, L

2001-01-01

367

PEGASUS: A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A propulsion system (PEGASUS) consisting of an electric thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed for a manned Mars mission. Magnetoplasmadynamic and mercury-ion thrusters are considered, based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Both thrusters are capable of meeting the mission parameters. Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The power for the PEGASUS system is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The power system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning subsystems, and heat rejection subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, leaving 1.5 megawatts available for inflight mission applications.

Coomes, Edmund P.; Cuta, Judith M.; Webb, Brent J.; King, David Q.; Patterson, Mike J.; Berkopec, Frank

1986-01-01

368

Field and temperature dependence of the small polaron hopping electrical conductivity in 1D disordered systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of the electric field and the temperature on the electrical conductivity of one-dimensional disordered systems due to phonon assisted hopping of small polarons. The microscopic transport mechanism is treated within the framework of the generalized molecular crystal model and the Kubo formula, while percolation theoretical arguments lead to analytical expressions for the macroscopic behavior of the electrical conductivity at high (multi-phonon assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon assisted hopping) temperatures under the influence of moderate electric fields. The theoretical results are successfully applied to recent experimental findings for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields. Comparison is made with other theories. PMID:21832371

Triberis, G P; Dimakogianni, M

2009-09-23

369

Mechanical system reliability for long life space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creation of a compendium of mechanical limit states was undertaken in order to provide a reference base for the application of first-order reliability methods to mechanical systems in the context of the development of a system level design methodology. The compendium was conceived as a reference source specific to the problem of developing the noted design methodology, and not an exhaustive or exclusive compilation of mechanical limit states. The compendium is not intended to be a handbook of mechanical limit states for general use. The compendium provides a diverse set of limit-state relationships for use in demonstrating the application of probabilistic reliability methods to mechanical systems. The compendium is to be used in the reliability analysis of moderately complex mechanical systems.

Kowal, Michael T.

1994-01-01

370

G. J. Lee, G. T. Heydt, "An interactive -dynamic mechanism conceptualizing the cost and benefit of electric power quality," Journal of Electric Power Components and Sys-  

E-print Network

of electric power quality," Journal of Electric Power Components and Sys- tems, accepted for publication, 2003. #12;An Interactive - Dynamic Mechanism Conceptualizing the Cost and Benefit of Electric Power Quality power energy market, providing power quality has become a more important concern of both power suppliers

371

Electrical conduction mechanism of an individual polypyrrole nanowire at low temperatures.  

PubMed

Conducting polypyrrole (PPY) nanowires doped with p-toluene sulfonamide (PTSA) were synthesized by a template-free self-assembly method. Electrical transport characteristics, i.e. current-voltage (I-V) behavior, of an individual PPY/PTSA nanowire have been explored in a wide temperature range from 300 down to 40 K. The fitting results of I-V curves indicated that the electrical conduction mechanism can be explained by the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) theory from 300 down to 100 K. In this temperature range, traps play an important role for this non-crystalline system. The corresponding trap energy and trap concentration have also been calculated based on the SCLC theory. Interestingly, there is no trap at 160 K, different from other temperatures. The obtained carrier mobility for the polymer nanowires is 0.964 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on the basis of trap free SCLC theory. In the temperature range of 80-40 K, little current can flow through the nanowire especially at lower voltages, however, the current follows the equation I ? (V/Vt-1)(?) at higher bias, which could be attributed to Coulomb blockade effect. Additionally, the differential conductance dI/dV curves also show some clear Coulomb oscillations. PMID:25557116

Yu, Gui-Feng; Pan, Wei; Yu, Miao; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Long, Yun-Ze

2015-01-30

372

Electrical conduction mechanism of an individual polypyrrole nanowire at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting polypyrrole (PPY) nanowires doped with p-toluene sulfonamide (PTSA) were synthesized by a template-free self-assembly method. Electrical transport characteristics, i.e. current–voltage (I–V) behavior, of an individual PPY/PTSA nanowire have been explored in a wide temperature range from 300 down to 40 K. The fitting results of I–V curves indicated that the electrical conduction mechanism can be explained by the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) theory from 300 down to 100 K. In this temperature range, traps play an important role for this non-crystalline system. The corresponding trap energy and trap concentration have also been calculated based on the SCLC theory. Interestingly, there is no trap at 160 K, different from other temperatures. The obtained carrier mobility for the polymer nanowires is 0.964 cm2 V?1 s?1 on the basis of trap free SCLC theory. In the temperature range of 80–40 K, little current can flow through the nanowire especially at lower voltages, however, the current follows the equation I ? (V/Vt?1)? at higher bias, which could be attributed to Coulomb blockade effect. Additionally, the differential conductance dI/dV curves also show some clear Coulomb oscillations.

Yu, Gui-Feng; Pan, Wei; Yu, Miao; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Long, Yun-Ze

2015-01-01

373

PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies-photovoltaic and solar thermal-is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed.

Raymond Dracker; Pascal De Laquil III

1996-01-01

374

TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system  

SciTech Connect

This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

Singh, G.

1997-05-30

375

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF.

N. Ramirez

2004-12-16

376

Mechanical systems subjected to generalized nonholonomic constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study mechanical systems subject to constraint functions that can be dependent at some points and independent at the rest. Such systems are modelled by means of generalized codistributions. We discuss how the constraint force can transmit an impulse to the motion at the points of dependence and derive an explicit formula to obtain the 'post-impact' momentum in terms of

J. Cort; D. Mart; S. Mart; Sonia Mart ´ őnez

377

Mechanical design of SERT 2 thruster system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical design of the mercury bombardment thruster that was tested on SERT is described. The report shows how the structural, thermal, electrical, material compatibility, and neutral mercury coating considerations affected the design and integration of the subsystems and components. The SERT 2 spacecraft with two thrusters was launched on February 3, 1970. One thruster operated for 3782 hours and the other for 2011 hours. A high voltage short resulting from buildup of loose eroded material was believed to be the cause of failure.

Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.

1972-01-01

378

Precise time and time interval applications to electric power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many applications of precise time and time interval (frequency) in operating modern electric power systems. Many generators and customer loads are operated in parallel. The reliable transfer of electrical power to the consumer partly depends on measuring power system frequency consistently in many locations. The internal oscillators in the widely dispersed frequency measuring units must be syntonized. Elaborate protection and control systems guard the high voltage equipment from short and open circuits. For the highest reliability of electric service, engineers need to study all control system operations. Precise timekeeping networks aid in the analysis of power system operations by synchronizing the clocks on recording instruments. Utility engineers want to reproduce events that caused loss of service to customers. Precise timekeeping networks can synchronize protective relay test-sets. For dependable electrical service, all generators and large motors must remain close to speed synchronism. The stable response of a power system to perturbations is critical to continuity of electrical service. Research shows that measurement of the power system state vector can aid in the monitoring and control of system stability. If power system operators know that a lightning storm is approaching a critical transmission line or transformer, they can modify operating strategies. Knowledge of the location of a short circuit fault can speed the re-energizing of a transmission line. One fault location technique requires clocks synchronized to one microsecond. Current research seeks to find out if one microsecond timekeeping can aid and improve power system control and operation.

Wilson, Robert E.

1992-01-01

379

33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other source. The system must meet the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70. (b) The emergency power source must provide enough power for...used as an emergency power source, it must meet Section 700-12 of NFPA...

2010-07-01

380

Understanding the Heart's Electrical System and EKG Results  

MedlinePLUS

... over and over with each new heartbeat. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works ... activity. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

381

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

382

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Small Wind Electric Systems Consumer's: A Maine Consumer's Guide is to provide consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system will work for them based on their wind resource, the type and size of their sites, and their economics. The cover of this guide contains a wind resource map for the state of Maine and information about state incentives and contacts for more information.

Not Available

2003-06-01

383

Retrofitting a used car with hybrid electric propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design concept of converting a conventional used car to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The existing propulsion system using an internal combustion engine(ICE) was replaced by an electric drive, which is supplied by batteries and an on-board generator. The propulsion system is configured as a series-hybrid concept. The input energy can come either from the on-board

Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2009-01-01

384

Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems  

E-print Network

Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool systèmes de propulsion hybride et électrique: un outil avancé et intégré dans une chaîne complète dédiée à and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool Integrated in a Complete

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

ForPeerReview Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated  

E-print Network

that can predict performance under isometric and dynamic loading conditions for a variety of stimulation the fatigue process is complex and protocol dependent, information on muscle performance must also come from Keywords: muscle stimulation, FES, muscle fatigue, paralyzed muscle, walking systems John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Durfee, William K.

386

Application of digital/electric systems to advanced technology aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential improvements in weight and performance of the digital/electric airplane of the 1990s are investigated, using data based on the Integrated Digital/Electric Airplane (IDEA) study, a nine-month investigation of integrated digital/electric concepts. A baseline configuration was compared to these IDEA configurations in terms of economic performance, fuel efficiency, and significant system and aircraft configuration characteristics. The 1990 baseline configuration represents a six to eight percent performance improvement over current technology; however, the IDEA airplane shows an additional three percent improvement in fuel burn performance. This improvement is due to a reduction of over 3000 pounds in systems weight alone.

Bailey, A. R.

1985-01-01

387

Sweden: a model for a segmented electric-utility system  

SciTech Connect

The current state of the electric-utility industry requires a thorough evaluation of the nation's regulatory practices and procedures with respect to electric energy. One avenue cited for exploration is a possible reduction in regulation where competition is feasible. An important ingredient to any proposal to develop competitive bulk power markets is an adequate and available transportation system; i.e., a transmission grid. This article reports the successful operation of the Swedish electric system in a manner similar to what one might expect under deregulation. 16 references.

Hughes, J.D.; Rosenzweig, M.B.

1982-06-24

388

PEGASUS - A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A propulsion system (The PEGASUS Drive) consisting of a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed as the propulsion system for a manned Mars mission. The propulsion system described is based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The thermal power for the PEGASUS Drive is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning, heat rejection, and MPD thruster subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, 1.5 megawatts is available for spacecraft system operations and inflight mission applications, leaving the balance for power system operation.

Coomes, E. P.; Cuta, J. M.; Webb, B. J.; King, D. Q.

1986-01-01

389

Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown capacities of different cells; such as the EcoEagle that partially receives its power from the electrical energy system. This thesis was conducted as the theory behind the EcoEagles Electrical Energy System.

Hashemi, Iman Ahari

390

Optimal control of underactuated nonholonomic mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use a nonholonomic affine connection formulation to study an optimal control problem for a class of nonholonomic, under-actuated mechanical systems. The class of nonholonomic systems we study in this paper includes, in particular, wheeled-type vehicles, which are important for many robotic locomotion systems. We illustrate our ideas by considering a simple example on a three-dimensional manifold

I. Hussein; A. Bloch

2006-01-01

391

The electron Echo 6 mechanical deployment systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Echo 6 sounding rocket payload was flown on a Terrier boosted Black Brant vehicle on March 30, 1983. The experiment requirements resulted in the new design of a rocket propelled Throw Away Detector System (TADS) with onboard Doppler radar, a free-flyer forward experiment designated the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), and numerous other basic systems. The design, developmental testing, and flight preparations of the payload and the mechanical deployment systems are described.

Meyers, S. C.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.; Winckler, J. R.

1984-01-01

392

Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels  

DOEpatents

A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-04-01

393

14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS...Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS...includes inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection systems...

2014-01-01

394

14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

2011-01-01

395

14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

2014-01-01

396

14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

2010-01-01

397

14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS...Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS...includes inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection systems...

2010-01-01

398

14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

2013-01-01

399

14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

2012-01-01

400

Discrete mechanics, time machines and hybrid systems  

E-print Network

Modifying the discrete mechanics proposed by T.D. Lee, we construct a class of discrete classical Hamiltonian systems, in which time is one of the dynamical variables. This includes a toy model of time machines which can travel forward and backward in time and which differ from models based on closed timelike curves (CTCs). In the continuum limit, we explore the interaction between such time reversing machines and quantum mechanical objects, employing a recent description of quantum-classical hybrids.

Hans-Thomas Elze

2013-10-10

401

Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

2007-03-01

402

ELEC-2914 - Electric Vehicle Data Acquisition, Sensors and Control Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College emphasizes the architecture of automotive electronics with attention to electric vehicles and is a required course for MCC’s Electric Vehicle Development Technology Certificate. Topics included are review of electrical and electronics theory, vehicle network theory, vehicle controllers, automotive bus systems, On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems, controller area nework (CAN), sensors, actuators, and selected topics in power control. Using simulators, students will gain a broad knowledge of the networks used in an automotive system. Included educational materials for this course are classroom exercises, manuals, PowerPoint presentations, system specific guides, and syllabus. Homework assignments and exams are not included. The course outline is as follows: electrical and electronic systems in a vehicle, networking principles, vehicle network, bus systems, electronics systems architecture, electronic components in vehicles, control unit, automotive sensors, sensor measuring principles, sensor types, actuators, vehicle electrical systems, vehicle controllers, vehicle On-Board Diagnostics (OBD), and hybrid drives.

403

Optical phase modulation beam steering using silicon micromachined and hybrid integrated Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are integrated micrometer-sized devices or systems that combine electrical and mechanical components. Integrated circuit (IC) technology is used for batch fabrication of mechanical and electrical devices in the from micrometer to millimeter. The research and development of optical beam steering devices using MEMS is presented in this thesis. Phase modulation beam steering techniques including phased array and

Adisorn Tuantranont

2001-01-01

404

Payment systems and technology in electrical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payment systems are known to play an important part in the regulation of production. The introduction of new technology may provide opportunities for new developments in payment systems and one of the chief links between technology and pay is likely to be change in the design of jobs. A series of case studies of innovations in payment systems in the

M White; A Ghobadian

1984-01-01

405

Nontrivial systems and the necessity of the scalar quantum mechanics axioms  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the necessity of the axioms of scalar quantum mechanics introduced by Paschke and clearly demonstrate their geometric and/or physical meaning. We show that reasonable nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is exactly specified by the axioms. A system describing the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect is presented. It illustrates the topological obstructions for the existence of a Hamiltonian.

Kotulek, Jan [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University at Opava, Na Rybnicku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)

2009-06-15

406

Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

2012-01-01

407

46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section...and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a) Each...

2014-10-01

408

46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section...and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

409

46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section...and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a) Each...

2013-10-01

410

Application of the Galileo System for a Better Synchronization of Electrical Power Systems  

E-print Network

present two generic strategies to upgrade existing electrical power transmission networks with GNSS responses from transmission system operators. Two generic strategies to upgrade existing electrical power transmission networks with functionalities, as well as major steps to upgrade underlying infrastructures

Wehenkel, Louis

411

Electric fields and dominant carrier transport mechanisms in CdTe Schottky detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe Schottky diodes for X- and ?-ray detection exhibit excellent spectroscopic performance, even though these are not stable under operative voltages. Improvements require the comprehension of the main carrier transport mechanisms, presently unclear. We address this issue by correlating the internal electric field and the flowing current. Depending on the temperature and applied voltage, different mechanisms become dominant where the deep levels always play a central role. Indeed, the partial ionization of deep levels directly controls the electric field distribution. Transient measurements show how, under high voltages, the field at the contacts controls the current flowing through the detector.

Cola, Adriano; Farella, Isabella

2013-03-01

412

Mechanical pulley for automotive cruise control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for actuating the throttle of a motor vehicle as part of, for example, an automatic speed control system. It comprises: a mechanical pulley connected to a means for rotating the pulley; a cable means attached to both the throttle of the motor vehicle and the mechanical pulley in such manner that rotation of the mechanical pulley in a direction which retracts the cable means results in motion of the vehicle's throttle in a direction which tends to increase the vehicle's speed; a spring means connected to the mechanical pulley at one end and immovably fixed at the other end, oriented so as to cause the mechanical pulley to rotate in a direction which lessens the tension in the cable means attaching the mechanical pulley to the vehicle's throttle; and a mechanical stop means which stops the rotation of the mechanical pulley due to the torque produced by the spring means at a point at which the vehicle's throttle is in an appropriate idling position.

Burney, C.F.

1990-06-12

413

Electrical characterization of non-Fickian transport in groundwater and hyporheic systems  

E-print Network

Electrical characterization of non-Fickian transport in groundwater and hyporheic systems Kamini be quantified by combining electrical geophysical methods and electrically conductive tracers. Whereas direct geochemical measurements of solute preferentially sample the mobile domain, electrical geophysical methods

Singha, Kamini

414

Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

5th Grade Electricity Try this Using Electricity Activity. Don't forget to follow the directions! Use this to learn more about electricity: Blobz Guide to Electricity Follow the directions closely! Learn more about Electricity with Electricity Tech-Topics. ...

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-02-23

415

Electric Power Systems: Transmission and Distribution and Electric and Magnetic Fields Effects  

SciTech Connect

Electric Power Systems: Transmission and Distribution and Electric and Magnetic Fields Effects (EPS) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on electric power transmission and distribution and health effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission, distribution, and use. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in EPS and other citations to information on electric power dating from 1974 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

1996-02-01

416

AUTO-2920 - Introduction to Electric Vehicle Propulsion Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four credit course offered by Macomb Community College provides practical training in the theory and basic design aspects of electric vehicle propulsion systems and is a required course for MCC’s Electric Vehicle Development Technology Certificate. Primary subjects covered include rationale for electric vehicles (EVs), safety, battery technologies, basic battery testing, electric machine (motor) types, electric machine operation, power management, power inverters, DC to DC converters, accessory systems, and potential future technologies. Educational materials included are the first day handout, detailed course outcomes, homework (no solutions), labs, pre/post assessments, presentations, sample quizzes/exams, syllabus, and more. If you’re an instructor and need access to homework solutions or complete exams/quizzes, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of nine modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or can be taught together as a complete course. These modules are The Need for EVs, EV Safety, Introduction to Battery Chemistry, Battery Pack Integration with Vehicle Systems, Electric Machines (DC Motors, AD Induction Asynchronous Motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, and Switched Reluctance Motors), Power Inverter/Electronic Motor Controls, DC to DC Converters, Vehicle Accessory Systems, and Introduction to Advancing Technology (Fuel Cells, Ultra Capacitors, and Hydraulic Propulsion)

417

Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

1994-08-08

418

An antenna electrometer system for atmospheric electrical measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ±300 V dynamic range, battery-powered, and inexpensive electrometer system is described that has been used with passive horizontal wire antennas to measure the atmospheric electric potential at 1 and 2 m above the earth's surface. Input currents drawn by the electrometer circuit are of order femtoamperes, and a guard drive output is provided to minimize leakage. The implementation of the passive wire antenna is described, using rigorous insulation and signal guarding, together with results obtained in fair weather conditions. Linearity of the portable electrometer over the input range is demonstrated to be comparable with a commercial laboratory electrometer, and the antenna potential can be determined to within a few volts in the fair weather electric field. Several such portable systems can be cheaply combined, sharing a common high tension supply, to measure the profile of the atmospheric electrical potential above the surface, at a remote site. Damage to the electrometer sustained in electrical storms can be cheaply repaired.

Harrison, R. G.

1997-03-01

419

Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

1998-01-01

420

Mechanical flexible and electric fatigue resistant behavior of relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniaxial tension and polarization evolution under cyclic electric field are investigated for poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer films prepared by different annealing conditions. The stress-strain behavior of the terpolymer film exhibits that of polymeric elastomers, with its fracture strain reaching 680%. Structure analysis demonstrates that the polymer chains undergo reorientation, and conformational change from nonpolar to polar phase takes place during uniaxial tension. Under cyclic electric field, the terpolymer film exhibits a narrow polarization loop typical of a ferroelectric relaxor. Conformational change from nonpolar to polar phase also occurs upon the electric field, and it reverses to the nonpolar phase when the field is removed. As the cycle number accumulates, the terpolymer film demonstrates excellent resistance to electric fatigue. Compared to the film annealed at 115 °C, the terpolymer film annealed at 100 °C has a larger volume fraction of crystallite/amorphous interfaces and shows better mechanical flexibility as well as electric fatigue resistance. The mechanical flexible and electric fatigue resistant terpolymer films hold promises for many applications, ranging from embedded sensors and actuators to flexible memory devices.

Fang, Fei; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wen

2009-08-01

421

A publication presented by the Electrical Safety Foundation International A guide to understanding and maintaining your home's electrical system  

E-print Network

A publication presented by the Electrical Safety Foundation International A guide to understanding and maintaining your home's electrical system #12;Should You Do-It-Yourself? Is a Permit or Inspection Required? How Much Energy Does My Home Use? How Does My Electrical System Work? What's Inside My Service Panel

Quigg, Chris

422

Mechanical Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course in mechanical devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

423

Simple mechanical control systems with constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply some recently developed control theoretic techniques to the analysis of a class of mechanical systems with constraints. Certain simple aspects of the theory of affine connections play an important part in our presentation. The necessary background is presented in order to illustrate how the methods may be applied. The bulk of this paper is devoted to a detailed

Andrew D. Lewis

2000-01-01

424

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use fully 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data

S. G. Kaufmann; R. H. Wilson; R. E. Jones; T. L. Calton; A. L. Ames

1996-01-01

425

Department of Mechanics, Materials and Systems,  

E-print Network

is a study of the duality between the statics of a variety of structures and the kinematics of mechanisms that exists between these two representations. Then the duality between a static pillar system and a planar in a straightforward manner. DOI: 10.1115/1.2120827 Keywords: statics, kinematics, duality, graph representations

Shai, Offer

426

Department of Mechanics, Materials and Systems,  

E-print Network

, IN 47907 A Study of the Duality Between Planar Kinematics and Statics This paper provides geometric insight into the correlation between basic concepts under- lying the kinematics of planar mechanisms and the statics of simple 12 illustrates the duality between the statics of a variety of systems and the kinematics of planar

Shai, Offer

427

Electrical and mechanical properties of the crustacean stretch receptor during sinusoidal length changes.  

PubMed

Isolated slowly adapting stretch receptors of the crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis) were exposed to sinusoidal length changes. The mechanical force, the receptor current and the receptor potential were analysed in terms of frequency response (Bode plots) and input/output functions. Within the frequency range investigated (0.3 to 80 Hz) the mechanical force was found to be only slightly dependent on the frequency of the sinusoidal stimuli, the slope of the gain function in the Bode plot being close to zero. Dynamic length-force curves exhibited a characteristic hysteresis. In potential clamp experiments, the receptor current induced by sinusoidal length changes was dependent on the clamp potential attaining maximal amplitude at a membrane potential of about -20 to -30 mV for 80 Hz mechanical stimulation. The membrane potential at which the receptor current changed sign (the reversal potential) increased with increasing frequency. In Bode plots of the receptor current the gain was represented by a straight line, having a slope of about 1.2 dB/octave. The phase shift was positive at low frequencies. Bode plots of the receptor potential gain exhibited a characteristic peak in the region of 15 Hz. Below this peak the gain increased with about 1.2 dB/oct, above the peak the gain decreased with about 4.8 dB/oct. There was a small positive phase shift at low frequencies; at high frequencies the phase shift became negative. The impedance of the cell, as calculated from the receptor potentials and the current responses at resting membrane potential, gave Bode plots comparable to a simple resistive-capacitive filter compatible with the electrical properties of the receptor cell membrane. The cut-off frequency of this low pass filter decreased with decreasing stretch amplitude. One physiological significance of this finding, is that the performance of the receptor is improved at low levels of stimulation by reducing the bandwidth of the system. PMID:6869030

Johansson, B; Rydqvist, B

1983-02-01

428

MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR INTEGRATED HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE DYNAMIC STABILITY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expanded an existing full car dynamic model (HVOSM.VD2) to enable simulation of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles with integrated vehicle stability systems. A prototype range extending series hybrid vehicle was constructed with independent front wheel drives. A hybrid vehicle stability assist (VSA) algorithm was developed to perform proportional control of yaw rate through left\\/right distribution of

Joel R. Anstrom

2003-01-01

429

Effects of geomagnetic disturbances on electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the effects of solar storm geomagnetically induced current (SS-GIC) and nuclear detonation induced currents (MHD-EMP-GIC) on the power system is presented. The earth surface electric field of the MHD electromagnetic pulse is given to be on the order of 100 V\\/km, with a duration up to several minutes; and the electric field of the solar storms

A. P. S. Meliopoulos; E. N. Glytsis; G. J. Cokkinides

1991-01-01

430

Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

2013-01-08

431

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2006-04-01

432

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

433

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a regional wind resource map and a list of incentives and contacts for more information.

Not Available

2009-08-01

434

Underground electric-power transmission-system environmental impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Division of Electric Energy Systems, has undertaken to identify the environmental issues and potential impacts associated with the installation of underground electric power transmission systems. This study reports the results of investigations into the advanced cable technologies being considered for future underground applications, as part of the development oriented research program of the Division of Electric Energy Systems. While the technology involves a high level of sophistication, there are relatively few impacts to the environment that are potentially significant, and of these none are inherently non-mitigable. Route planning, system design, and methods of construction and accident response can be pursued in order to minimize impacts where strict constraints are appropriate.

Not Available

1982-03-01

435

Underground electric power transmission system environmental impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Division of Electric Energy Systems, has undertaken to identify the environmental issues and potential impacts associated with the installation of underground electric power transmission systems. This study reports the results of investigations into the advanced cable technologies being considered for future underground applications, as part of the development oriented research program of the Division of Electric Energy Systems. While the technology involves a high level of sophistication, there are relatively few impacts to the environment that are potentially significant, and of these none are inherently non-mitigable. Route planning, system design, and methods of construction and accident response can be pursued in order to minimize impacts where strict constraints are appropriate.

Not Available

1982-02-01

436

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Virginia Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Virginia Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-01-01

437

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Vermont Consumer's Guide for Small Wind Electric Systems provides consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include: how to make your home more energy efficient, how to choose the right size turbine, the parts of a wind electric system, determining if there is enough wind resource on your site, choosing the best site for your turbine, connecting your system to the utility grid, and if it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a state wind resource map and a list of state incentives and state contacts for more information.

O'Dell, K.

2001-10-01

438

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

439

Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

440

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Alaska Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Alaska Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

441

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Colorado Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Colorado Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2006-12-01

442

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

443

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

444

Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

445

Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

446

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Michigan Consumer's Guide (revised)  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Michigan Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-01-01

447

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

448

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide provides Utah consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

449

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

450

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oregon Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oregon Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

451

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Hawaii Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Hawaii Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

452

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Minnesota Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Minnesota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

453

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Ohio Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Ohio Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

454

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-01-01

455

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Washington Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Washington Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

456

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Kansas Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Kansas Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

457

Improvement and evaluation of thermal, electrical, sealing and mechanical contacts, and their interface materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material contacts, including thermal, electrical, seating (fluid sealing and electromagnetic sealing) and mechanical (pressure) contacts, together with their interface materials, were, evaluated, and in some cases, improved beyond the state of the art. The evaluation involved the use of thermal, electrical and mechanical methods. For thermal contacts, this work evaluated and improved the heat transfer efficiency between two contacting components by developing various thermal interface pastes. Sodium silicate based thermal pastes (with boron nitride particles as the thermally conductive filler) as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) based thermal pastes were developed and evaluated. The optimum volume fractions of BN in sodium silicate based pastes and PEG based pastes were 16% and 18% respectively. The contribution of Li+ ions to the thermal contact conductance in the PEG-based paste was confirmed. For electrical contacts, the relationship between the mechanical reliability and electrical reliability of solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints was addressed. Mechanical pull-out testing was conducted on solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints, while the contact electrical resistivity was measured. Cleansing of the copper surface was more effective for the reliability of silver-epoxy/copper joint than that of solder/copper joint. For sealing contacts, this work evaluated flexible graphite as an electromagnetic shielding gasket material. Flexible graphite was found to be at least comparable to conductive filled silicone (the state of the art) in terms of the shielding effectiveness. The conformability of flexible graphite with its mating metal surface under repeated compression was characterized by monitoring the contact electrical resistance, as the conformability is important to both electromagnetic scaling and fluid waling using flexible graphite. For mechanical contacts, this work focused on the correlation of the interface structure (such as elastic/plastic deformation, oxidation, strain hardening, passive layer damage, fracture, etc.) with the electrical contact resistance, which was measured in real time for contacts under dynamic compression, thus allowing both reversible and irreversible changes to be observed. The materials studied included metals (carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum and copper), carbon fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composite (nylon-6), ceramic (mortar) and graphite, due to their relevance to fastening, concrete structures, electric brushes and electrical pressure contacts.

Luo, Xiangcheng

458

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility can be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2011-10-01

459

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility can be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2012-10-01

460

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2013-10-01

461

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2012-10-01

462

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2011-10-01

463

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility can be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2013-10-01

464

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2010-10-01

465

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical...equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility can be achieved...changes to the operating environment. (2) The...

2010-10-01

466

Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with combined effect of electrical nonlinearities and mechanical impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an advanced study including the design, characterization and theoretical analysis of a capacitive vibration energy harvester. Although based on a resonant electromechanical device, it is intended for operation in a wide frequency band due to the combination of stop-end effects and a strong biasing electrical field. The electrostatic transducer has an interdigited comb geometry with in-plane motion, and is obtained through a simple batch process using two masks. A continuous conditioning circuit is used for the characterization of the transducer. A nonlinear model of the coupled system ‘transduce-conditioning circuit’ is presented and analyzed employing two different semi-analytical techniques together with precise numerical modelling. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained from numerical modelling. With the 1 g amplitude of harmonic external acceleration at atmospheric pressure, the system transducer-conditioning circuit has a half-power bandwidth of more than 30% and converts more than 2 µW of the power of input mechanical vibrations over the range of 140 and 160 Hz. The harvester has also been characterized under stochastic noise-like input vibrations.

Basset, P.; Galayko, D.; Cottone, F.; Guillemet, R.; Blokhina, E.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.

2014-03-01

467

California's Electricity System of the Future: Scenario Analysis in Support  

E-print Network

California's Electricity System of the Future: Scenario Analysis in Support of Public-Interest Transmission System R&D Planning CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CONSULTANTREPORT OCTOBER 2003 P500-03-084F Gray Davis, Governor #12;2 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Prepared By: CERTS Program Office Lawrence Berkeley

468

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems  

DOEpatents

It is an object of the present invention to provide superconducting magnetic energy storage for a plurality of asynchronous electrical systems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide load leveling and stability improvement in a plurality of independent ac systems using a single superconducting magnetic energy storage coil.

Boenig, H.J.

1984-05-16

469

Contactless charging and communication system for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system to charge batteries in electric vehicles is proposed. The contactless charging plug (CCP) is the key component of the system. Energy transmission and information transmission with one robust unit is possible by employing the CCP. A three-phase rectifier with power factor improvement and only one active switch is used to control the charging process and to reduce the

Albert Esser

1993-01-01

470

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOEpatents

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

471

Management information system of charging station for electric vehicle (EV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual problems and requirements of charging station, especially for electric vehicle, are analyzed. This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully digital smart management information system of charging station for EV, which has been already installed in Xihuangzhuang bus-station of Beijing. The collected data show that the system can be easily applied to shift the charger to

Yunyan Wang; Jingxin Li; Jiuchun Jiang; Liyong Niu

2005-01-01

472

Probabilistic wind energy modeling in electric generation system reliability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power grid reliability impacts could be significant when a large amount of variable wind generation is integrated with the electric power system. The widely used deterministic reliability assessment method is invalid when modeling intermittency of wind energy sources. The energy based probabilistic reliability assessment models are required in system reliability impact assessment in order to consider the stochastic characteristic

Yi Zhang; A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

2010-01-01

473

Probabilistic Wind Energy Modeling in Electric Generation System Reliability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power grid reliability impacts could be significant when a large amount of variable wind generation is integrated with the electric power system. The widely used determinis- tic reliability assessment method is invalid when modeling the intermittency of wind energy sources. The energy-based proba- bilistic reliability assessment models are required in system re- liability impact assessment in order to consider the

Yi Zhang; A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

2011-01-01

474

Probabilistic wind energy modeling for electric generation system reliability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power grid reliability impacts could be significant when a large amount of variable wind generation is integrated with the electric power system. The widely used deterministic reliability assessment method is invalid when modeling intermittency of wind energy sources. The energy based probabilistic reliability assessment models are required in system reliability impact assessment in order to consider the stochastic characteristic

D. O. Koval; Yi Zhang; A. A. Chowdhury

2010-01-01

475

Emergency Communication for Electric Power System Based on Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems facing the communication for electric power system safety were recently highlighted by ice disaster in southern China and Wenchuan earthquake. The existing communication systems in the Yunnan power grid are far from adequate. Terrestrial networks are disabled by serious natural disaster. Satellite communication network is deficient in bandwidth, and has high propagation delay, which cannot satisfy the demand

Ming Huang; Jiang Yu; Jinsong Hu; Ling Zhao; Rong Zong

2009-01-01

476

Lunar Module Electrical Power System Design Considerations and Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the design and redesign considerations of the Apollo lunar module electrical power system. Included in the work are graphics showing the lunar module power system. It describes the in-flight failures, and the lessons learned from these failures.

Interbartolo, Michael

2009-01-01

477

Identifying and Investigating Difficult Concepts in Engineering Mechanics and Electric Circuits. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends ongoing work to identify difficult concepts in thermal and transport science and measure students' understanding of those concepts via a concept inventory. Two research questions provided the focal point: "What important concepts in electric circuits and engineering mechanics do students find difficult to learn?"…

Streveler, Ruth; Geist, Monica; Ammerman, Ravel; Sulzbach, Candace; Miller, Ronald; Olds, Barbara; Nelson, Mary

2007-01-01

478

Environmental\\/dynamic mechanical equipment qualification and dynamic electrical equipment qualification program (EDQP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment qualification research is being conducted to investigate acceptable criteria, requirements, and methodologies for the dynamic (including seismic) and environmental qualification of mechanical equipment and for the dynamic (including seismic) qualification of electrical equipment. The program is organized into three elements: (1) General Research, (2) Environmental Research, and (3) Dynamic Research. This paper presents the highlights of the results to

1984-01-01

479

Mechanically robust, electrically conductive and stimuli-responsive binary network hydrogels enabled by superelastic graphene aerogels.  

PubMed

The architecture of the nanofiller phase in polymer nanocomposites matters! Polymer hydrogels that can combine stimuli-responsiveness with excellent electrically conductivity and mechanical strength can be fabricated by incorporation of the polymer into an ultralight and superelastic graphene aerogel to form a binary network. PMID:24634392

Qiu, Ling; Liu, Diyan; Wang, Yufei; Cheng, Chi; Zhou, Kun; Ding, Jie; Truong, Van-Tan; Li, Dan

2014-05-28

480

Spike initiating dynamics of the neuron with different adaptation mechanisms to extracellular electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we address how adaptation mediated by different biophysical mechanisms modulates neuronal spike initiating dynamics to extracellular electric fields. We incorporate two adaptation currents, i.e., voltage-sensitive potassium current (IM) and calcium-sensitive potassium current (IAHP), into a reduced two-compartment neuron model, and extensively investigate the modeling behavior to a range of electric fields. With phase plane analysis, it is shown whether neuron continues to spike depends on whether adaptation currents could be sufficiently activated to stabilize membrane potential at subthreshold voltages. With stability and bifurcation analysis, we find the steady-state spiking in the neuron with IM occurs through a Hopf bifurcation, whereas it is generated through a saddle-node on invariant circle (SNIC) bifurcation in the cases of IAHP or no adaptation. By identifying the biophysical basis for these dynamics, we observe that IM could alter the competitive outcomes between kinetically mismatched opposite currents to result in a Hopf bifurcation, while IAHP cannot alter these competitive outcomes. From this, we conclude that different modulations of spike initiating dynamics derive from the biophysical mechanism responsible for distinct adaptation currents. Our study suggests that the adaptation mediated by different mechanisms indeed has different effects on neuronal dynamics to electric field stimulus. It could contribute to uncover the underlying mechanism of how neuron encodes electric field signals.

Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

2015-05-01

481

Accepted Manuscript Mechanical and electrical properties of cross-linked carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

-6223(07)00660-4 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2007.12.023 Reference: CARBON 4745 To appear in: Carbon Received Date: 4 JulyAccepted Manuscript Mechanical and electrical properties of cross-linked carbon nanotubes Seung I 2007 Revised Date: 14 November 2007 Accepted Date: 13 December 2007 Please cite this article as: Cha, S

Hong, Soon Hyung

482

Mechanical and electrical evaluation of parylene-C encapsulated carbon nanotube networks on a flexible substrate  

E-print Network

.1063/1.2976633 Carbon nanotube CNT networks are excellent candi- dates for flexible electronic devices and sensors dueMechanical and electrical evaluation of parylene-C encapsulated carbon nanotube networks, Massachusetts 02115, USA Received 18 June 2008; accepted 7 August 2008; published online 4 September 2008 Carbon

Dokmeci, Mehmet

483

Modelling Molecular Transformations in Ferroelectric Polymers Induced by Mechanical and Electrical Means  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new approach to model the dynamical structural modifications of ferroelectric polymer molecules induced by uniaxial stretching and by the application of electric fields of various strengths and orientations. Our approach combines a self-consistent quantum mechanical method with molecular dynamics, removing the need to use inter-atomic potentials in the dynamic calculations. Here we present results obtained for individual

H. M. G. Correia; M. M. D. Ramos

2006-01-01

484

Reproducibility of regional lung ventilation distribution determined by electrical impedance tomography during mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to become a new tool for bedside monitoring of regional lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility of regional lung ventilation distribution determined by EIT during mechanical ventilation under identical ventilator settings. The experiments were performed on 10 anaesthetized supine pigs ventilated in a volume-controlled mode. EIT measurements

I Frerichs; G Schmitz; S Pulletz; G Zick; J Scholz; N Weiler

2007-01-01

485

Nonlinear Circuits and Systems Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Circuits and Systems Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Mission.miller@wmich.edu Electrical and Computer Engineering nonlinear circuits and systems, neural systems, artificial neural unpredictable. The Nonlinear Circuits and Systems Laboratory investigates novel chaotic systems

Miller, Damon A.

486

Electrical transmission system with variable frequency through long length cable  

SciTech Connect

In the face of its oil reserves characteristics, deep and ultra-deep exploitation have become a vital issue for Brazil. In those cases where the oil field does not have enough pressure to ensure natural oil flow from the bottom of the sea to the platform, the process will require the use of variable speed inverter-fed subsea electrical motors placed far away from the electrical energy source. This implies a new operational condition for the electric system, which is electrical energy transmission with variable frequency, through long length cable, in the subsea environment. The behavior of such systems has not yet been extensively studied, and in the face of the costs involved, careful analysis is mandatory. The paper presents a powerful simulation tool developed for the analysis of such electrical systems. The analysis is carried out in time domain. Harmonics components of voltages and currents and their effects on the system operation are analyzed. Comparison of simulated and measured results for an actual working installation is shown. Simulation results for a long length cable transmission system are discussed.

Oliveira, J.C.; Andrade, D.A.; Araujo, S.C.N. [Univ. Federal de Uberlandia (Brazil); Paulsen, R.J.; Amaral, M.A. [Petrobras A/S, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1996-12-31

487

Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

2014-03-01

488

Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

William J. Beaty, an Electrical Engineer at the University of Washington, has posted this website about electricity. He offers a simple answer to the question, What Is "Electricity?," identifies twenty misconceptions he has found to be barriers to understanding electricity, and then proceeds to explain various aspects of electricity. Beaty's debunking articles address common misconceptions about circuitry, doorknob sparks, voltage, and more.

Beaty, William J.