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1

Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure...

K. A. Peterson P. Tangyunyong D. L. Barton

1997-01-01

2

Integrated electro-mechanical transmission systems in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are emerging as a practical solution for meeting increasingly more stringent governmental standards for fuel economy and emissions. In order to improve performance, increase efficiency, and reduce costs, there is a trend toward more integrated electro-mechanical transmission systems for advanced hybrid powertrains. This paper primarily focuses on the state-of-the-art electro-mechanical integration of hybrid transmission systems and presents

Yinye Yang; Ali Emadi

2011-01-01

3

Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed for integrated circuit analysis, including optical inspection, scanning laser microscopy (SLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) microscopy, light emission (LE) microscopy, acoustic microscopy and acoustic emission analysis. For example, the FIB was used to microsection microengines that developed poor performance characteristics. Subsequent SEM analysis clearly demonstrated the absence of wear on gear, hub, and pin joint bearing surfaces, contrary to expectations. Another example involved the use of infrared microscopy for thermal analysis of operating microengines. Hot spots were located, which did not involve the gear or hub, but indicated contact between comb structures which drive microengines. Voltage contrast imaging proved useful on static and operating MEMS in both the SEM and the FIB and identified electrostatic clamping as a potentially significant contributor to failure mechanisms in microengines. This work describes MEMS devices, FA techniques, failure modes, and examples of FA of MEMS.

Peterson, K.A.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

1997-10-01

4

Electrical and Mechanical Design of the Ignitor Icrf Antenna System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An antenna array has been designed for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) for the IGNITOR experiment, planned to operate in the 70-140 MHz frequency range. The design is based on the conventional strap antenna element and on a single layer Faraday shield, and in our proposed design each strap is fed by a RF power generator via a coaxial cable and a tuning and matching system. The coupling properties of the antenna are calculated with a slab model of the plasma. For the electrical part of the design an innovative tool has been used. The Virtual Prototyping Laboratory permits to analize the antenna in a realistic geometry and to accurately calculate the antenna parameters. A complete thermal and mechanical analysis of the Faraday shield has been carried out and some possible engineering solutions are reported. The combination between electromagnetic scenario with the thermal scenario, based on a simplified model, shown that the structure is able to withstand these combined loads, without any safety margin. Further implementation of the model could be developed introducing more precise plastic features. Some detailed drawings of the IGNITOR antenna have been realized.

Vecchi, Giuseppe; Gola, Muzio; Maggiora, Riccardo; Berruti, Teresa

2000-10-01

5

Learning Activity Packets for Auto Mechanics II. Section B--Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for the instructional area of electrical systems in the auto mechanics II program. They accompany an instructor's guide available separately. The LAPs outline the study activities and performance tasks for these six units: (1) basic electrical theory, (2) battery service, (3) starting system, (4)…

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

6

Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

7

Diagnostic System of Mechanical and Electric Equipment Technical Condition of an Electric Drive of the Tapped Roller Bed of Hot Rolling Mill 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was proposed to increase the number of diagnostic functions performed by automatic system of current diagnostics from two up to nine ones. Algorithms of diagnostic functions data and generalized algorithm of operation system of diagnosing technical condition of mechanical and electrical equipment of an electric drive of the tapped roller bed of the rolling mill have been elaborated and

D. V. Shwidchenko; R. S. Pishnograev; K. S. Lazarenko

2005-01-01

8

An improved mechanism for capacity payment based on system dynamics modeling for investment planning in competitive electricity environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have experienced restructuring in their electric utilities. This restructuring has presented the power industries with new challenges, the most important of which is long-term investment planning under uncertain conditions. This paper presents an improved mechanism for capacity payment. The mechanism has been investigated based on system dynamic modeling. In our proposed mechanism, generators will recover a part of

Mohsen Assili; Reza Ghazi

2008-01-01

9

Electric turbocompound control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described

Algrain; Marcelo C

2007-01-01

10

Multiscale analysis of liquid lubrication trends from industrial machines to micro-electrical-mechanical systems.  

PubMed

An analytic multiscale expression is derived that yields conditions for effective liquid lubrication of oscillating contacts via surface flow over multiple time and length scales. The expression is a logistics function that depends on two quantities, the fraction of lubricant removed at each contact and a scaling parameter given by the logarithm of the ratio of the contact area to the product of the lubricant diffusion coefficient and the cycle time. For industrial machines the expression confirms the need for an oil mist. For magnetic disk drives, the expression predicts that existing lubricants are sufficient for next-generation data storage. For micro-electrical-mechanical systems, the expression predicts that a bound + mobile lubricant composed of tricresyl phosphate on an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer will be effective only for temperatures greater than approximately 200 K and up to approximately MHz oscillation frequencies. PMID:17661501

Brenner, Donald W; Irving, Douglas L; Kingon, Angus I; Krim, Jacqueline; Padgett, Clifford W

2007-07-28

11

Control systems of melting electric furnaces in metallurgy and mechanical engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and improvement of melting electric furnaces and the attendant technological processes are accompanied by development in the field of creating compatible automatic control systems. The automation of the functioning of equipment can also modify the furnaces that operate several decades and can prolong their life.

Dednev, A. A.; Elizariov, K. A.; Kissel'man, M. A.; Nekhamin, S. M.

2013-06-01

12

Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

2009-01-01

13

Electrical power generating system  

SciTech Connect

An electrical power generating system includes a prime mover having a throttle control for converting a source of input energy into a mechanical output. The system includes an electrical generator having a plurality of output windings and a field winding for exciting the output windings. The generator is mechanically coupled to the mechanical output of the prime mover. Means are provided for sensing a plurality of parameters related to the performance of the system and further means are provided for converting each of the sensed parameters into a digital signal indicative of the magnitude of the sensed parameter. Additional means are provided responsive to the digital signals for developing a plurality of electrical output signals. The electrical output signals are utilized to control either or both the generator and the prime mover to thereby control the output of the power generating system. The system is further provided with circuits for sensing the phase position of the generator output voltage and current and the voltage in a main electrical power conductor. Accordingly, when the generator output is added to the power in the main power conductors, it is done so in phase. Some of the parameters sensed are generator output voltage , current and frequency, generator field winding current and engine throttle position. A digital logic circuit controls the excitation of the generator field winding to thereby control the generator output voltage and current.

Dimitrios, J.T.; Mezera, J.R.; Phillips, G.R.

1982-03-30

14

Mechanism of Electrical Erosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-speed photography, in agreement with experiments on the investigation of erosion as a function of pulse length, has indicated that the ejection of metal from the electrodes during electrical erosion takes place during discharge, no metal being ejecte...

A. S. Zingerman

1965-01-01

15

Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.  

PubMed

Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

2013-01-01

16

Mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lithium lens and transformer system  

SciTech Connect

A lithium-lens focusing device will be used for the collection of 8-GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab Tevatron I Project. The details of the mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lens and its associated toroidal transformer are discussed. The lens, with a radium of 1 cm and length 15 cm, is expected to achieve gradients of 1000 T/m for a focal distance of 0.225 m. The gradient requires a current on the order of 5 x 10/sup 5/A, resulting in large electromagnetic and thermal stresses. The power-supply discharge current and the effect of the inductance of the power leads and connections are minimized by the use of a toroidal matching transformer surrounding the lens itself.

Dugan, G.; Hojvat, C.; Lennox, A.J.; Biallas, G.; Cilyo, F.; Leininger, M.; McCarthy, J.; Sax, W.; Snowdon, S.

1983-03-01

17

Mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lithium lens and transformer system  

SciTech Connect

A lithium lens focusing device will be used for the collection of 8 GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab Tevatron I Project. The details of the mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lens and its associated toroidal transformer are discussed. The lens, with a radius of 1 cm and length 15 cm, is expected to achieve gradients of 1000 T/m for a focal distance of 0.225 m. The gradient requires a current on the order of 5x10/sup 5/A, resulting in large electromagnetic and thermal stresses. The power supply discharge current and the effect of the inductance of the power leads and connections are minimized by the use of a toroidal matching transformer surrounding the lens itself.

Dugan, G.; Biallas, G.; Cilyo, F.; Hojvat, C.; Leininger, M.; Lennox, A.J.; McCarthy, J.; Sax, W.; Snowdon, S.

1983-08-01

18

Modern automatic system for the optimization of the electrical drives for working machines with mechanical branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a consequent adjustable electric drives experience, once with establish of the analysis desiderata's, during of prepares and experimentations time, there are selected some few problems who underlie this work definition. This paper brings some contributions to the optimization of the auxiliary electric drives in the metallurgic industry. This type of drives is presented to the mill stand and to

MIHAIL-FLORIN STAN; MARCEL IONEL; OCTAVIAN-MARCEL IONEL

19

Novacor left ventricular assist system versus heartmate vented electric left ventricular assist system as a long-term mechanical circulatory support device in bridging patients: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Long-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge-to-transplantation procedure and bridge to recovery is of increasing importance. The implantable left ventricular assist devices, Novacor N100 left ventricular assist system (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Berkeley, Calif) and TCI HeartMate vented electric left ventricular assist system (Thermo Cardiosystems Inc, Woburn, Mass), have proved to be efficient devices in bridge-to-transplantation settings and for prolonged

A. El-Banayosy; L. Arusoglu; L. Kizner; G. Tenderich; K. Minami; K. Inoue; R. Körfer

2000-01-01

20

Electric system restructuring and system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the California legislature passed AB 1890, explicitly defining economic benefits and detailing specific mechanisms for initiating a partial restructuring the state's electric system. Critics have since sought re-regulation and proponents have asked for patience as the new institutions and markets take shape. Other states' electric system restructuring activities have been tempered by real and perceived problems in the

Catherine Miller Horiuchi

2001-01-01

21

Electrical\\/mechanical options for variable speed wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of variable speed wind turbines, especially in large-scale utility electricity generating systems, offers a potential improvement in the cost effectiveness of wind energy systems. This paper presents a review of the potential options (including mechanical, electrical\\/mechanical, electrical, and electrical\\/power electronic) open for variable speed wind turbine design and gives some of the advantages and disadvantages of these design

J. F. Manwell; J. G. McGowan; B. H. Bailey

1991-01-01

22

Reliability indices applied to performance-based mechanisms in electric power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system failures are random events and their prevention can be managed by the regulatory agencies through pre-established\\u000a performance targets. Once a standard or target is established for a certain performance index, it is assumed to be the limit\\u000a value that must not be overstepped or it may cause penalties for the utility. Penalty based schemes, although very popular\\u000a among

A. M. Leite da Silva; L. C. Nascimento; A. C. R. Guimarăes; J. C. O. Mello

2010-01-01

23

10 CFR 434.401 - Electrical power and lighting systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Electrical power and lighting systems. 434...Equipment § 434.401 Electrical power and lighting systems. Electrical...for the sale of accessories, clothing, dry goods, electronics...mechanical buildings, electric power buildings, and similar...

2009-01-01

24

10 CFR 434.401 - Electrical power and lighting systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Electrical power and lighting systems. 434...Equipment § 434.401 Electrical power and lighting systems. Electrical...for the sale of accessories, clothing, dry goods, electronics...mechanical buildings, electric power buildings, and similar...

2010-01-01

25

SNAP8 Electrical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief description of the SNAP-8 electrical-system design changes and provides a broad perspective of the overall system changes incorporated early in 1963. These modifications made feasible a modular approach to component and subsystem development, provided greater system development flexibility, and permitted the application of much presently available electrical technology. The rotating speed was changed from 20,000

A. W. Nice; S. L. Bradley

1964-01-01

26

Electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic system improvement study for continuous-miner operations. Volume 1. Technical information and conclusions. Final technical report as of March 30, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal production using continuous mining machines has rarely reached the level of production for which the machines are designed. The lost opportunity for higher coal production is directly related to machine downtime. The specific goals of this program were to identify those mechanical, electrical and hydraulic components and systems directly responsible for the majority of continuous mining machine failures and

W. N. Patterson; F. Orona; L. Travis; R. Murray

1980-01-01

27

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. 236.308...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed...

2009-10-01

28

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. 236.308...Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed...

2010-10-01

29

Preliminary Hazards Assessments for Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion Systems Mechanisms to Quantitatively Ascertain and Address Launch and Operational Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectures are analyzed based on several figures of merit, including mass transported to Mars and samples transported from Mars to Earth, potential to reduce Earth contamination, sites on MArs visited, trip time and potential cost trades.A technological variant of a commercial vehicle for near-Earth missions is used as the nuclear electric propulsion system baseline. Several types of Mars landing and

R. Lenard

2002-01-01

30

NSTX electrical power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was

S. Ramakrishnan; C. Neumeyer; R. Hatcher; E. Baker; H. Schneider; W. Reiersen; A. von Halle

1999-01-01

31

Mechanical Systems: A Compilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutc...

1975-01-01

32

Electric vehicle monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for monitoring one or more electric vehicles which are driven by parallel-connected induction motors controlled by a variable voltage\\/variable frequency inverter, the induction motors being divided into a first group of one or more induction motors and a second group of one or more induction motors, comprising: rotational frequency detecting means for detecting a rotational frequency

S. Kojima; H. Obi

1987-01-01

33

Mechanical Shielding for Electric Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electric primer for cartridge ammunition (e.g., Phalanx 20 mm cartridges) is designed to minimize antenna coupling, capacitive coupling, and aperture coupling of stray electromagnetic radiation there into for avoiding accidental primer detonation with ...

R. J. Goetz

1992-01-01

34

US electric power system reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric energy supply, transmission and distribution systems are investigated in order to determine priorities for legislation. The status and the outlook for electric power reliability are discussed.

35

NSTX Electrical Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems.

A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

1999-12-16

36

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene is an exciting new atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) system of carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice structure. This "wonder material" has been extensively studied in the last few years since it's first isolation in 2004. Its rapid rise to popularity in scientific and technological communities can be attributed to a number of its exceptional properties. In this thesis I will present several topics including fabrication of graphene devices, electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. I will start with a brief introduction of electronic transport in nanosclae system including quantum Hall effect, followed by a discussion of fundamental electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. Next I will describe how graphene devices are produced: from the famous "mechnical exfoliation" to our innovative "scratching exfoliation" method, together with the traditional lithography fabrication for graphene devices. We also developed a lithography-free technique for making electrical contacts to suspended graphene devices. Most of the suspended devices presented in this thesis are fabricated by this technique. Graphene has remarkable electrical properties thanks to its crystal and band structures. In Chapter 3, I will first focus on proximity-induced superconductivity in graphene Josephson transistors. In this section we investigate electronic transport in single layer graphene coupled to superconducting electrodes. We observe significant suppression in the critical current I c and large variation in the product IcR n in comparison to theoretic prediction; both phenomena can be satisfactorily accounted for by premature switching in underdamped Josephson junctions. Another focus of our studies is quantum Hall effect and many body physics in graphene in suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene. We demonstrate that symmetry breaking of the first 3 Landau levels and fractional quantum Hall states are observed in both bilayer and trilayer suspended graphene devices. A surprising finding in these systems is the observation of insulating states in both suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene devices, which arises from electronic interactions. In bilayer graphene, we observe a phase transition between the single-particle metallic state and the interaction-induced insulating state in ultra-clean BLG, which can be tuned by temperature, disorder, charge density n and perpendicular electric field E ?. In trilayer graphene we demonstrate dramatically different transport properties arising from the different stacking orders, and an unexpected spontaneous gap opening in charge neutral ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. One of graphene's unique properties is that it is nature's thinnest elastic membrane with exceptional mechanical properties. In chapter 7 I will describe the first direct observation and controlled creation of one- and two-dimensional periodic ripples in suspended graphene sheets, using both spontaneously and thermally generated strains. We are able to control ripple orientation, wavelength and amplitude by controlling boundary conditions and exploiting graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient, which we measure to be much larger than that of graphite. In addition, we also study the morphological change of suspended graphene sheets by apply gate voltages, which is a simple and direct method to strain and buckle graphene. Our experimental results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electrical and mechanical properties of graphene, and may have important implications for future graphene based applications.

Bao, Wenzhong

37

BIOPHYSICAL INJURY MECHANISMS IN ELECTRICAL SHOCK TRAUMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Electrical shock trauma,tends to produce,a very complex,pattern of in- jury, mainly because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interac- tions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical shocks. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved,the understanding,of the underlying biophysical in- jury mechanisms. Besides

Raphael C. Lee; Dajun Zhang; Jurgen Hannig

2000-01-01

38

Hull Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Standardization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study describes how the Navy is dramatically increasing standardization of hull mechanical and electrical (HM&E) equipment across Navy ships, thereby conserving money, manpower, and time, while improving the operational readiness and availabilit...

2010-01-01

39

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Equipment § 238.225 Electrical system. All passenger equipment shall comply with the following: (a) Conductors. Conductor sizes shall be selected on the basis of current-carrying capacity, mechanical strength,...

2011-10-01

40

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Equipment § 238.225 Electrical system. All passenger equipment shall comply with the following: (a) Conductors. Conductor sizes shall be selected on the basis of current-carrying capacity, mechanical strength,...

2012-10-01

41

Electric system restructuring and system reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1996 the California legislature passed AB 1890, explicitly defining economic benefits and detailing specific mechanisms for initiating a partial restructuring the state's electric system. Critics have since sought re-regulation and proponents have asked for patience as the new institutions and markets take shape. Other states' electric system restructuring activities have been tempered by real and perceived problems in the California model. This study examines the reduced regulatory controls and new constraints introduced in California's limited restructuring model using utility and regulatory agency records from the 1990's to investigate effects of new institutions and practices on system reliability for the state's five largest public and private utilities. Logit and negative binomial regressions indicate negative impact from the California model of restructuring on system reliability as measured by customer interruptions. Time series analysis of outage data could not predict the wholesale power market collapse and the subsequent rolling blackouts in early 2001; inclusion of near-outage reliability disturbances---load shedding and energy emergencies---provided a measure of forewarning. Analysis of system disruptions, generation capacity and demand, and the role of purchased power challenge conventional wisdom on the causality of Californian's power problems. The quantitative analysis was supplemented by a targeted survey of electric system restructuring participants. Findings suggest each utility and the organization controlling the state's electric grid provided protection from power outages comparable to pre-restructuring operations through 2000; however, this reliability has come at an inflated cost, resulting in reduced system purchases and decreased marginal protection. The historic margin of operating safety has fully eroded, increasing mandatory load shedding and emergency declarations for voluntary and mandatory conservation. Proposed remedies focused on state-funded contracts and government-managed power authorities may not help, as the findings suggest pricing models, market uncertainty, interjurisdictional conflict and an inability to respond to market perturbations are more significant contributors to reduced regional generation availability than the particular contract mechanisms and funding sources used for power purchases.

Horiuchi, Catherine Miller

42

Electrical/mechanical options for variable speed wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

The use of variable speed wind turbines, especially in large-scale utility electricity generating systems, offers a potential improvement in the cost effectiveness of wind energy systems. This paper presents a review of the potential options (including mechanical, electrical/mechanical, electrical, and electrical/power electronic) open for variable speed wind turbine design and gives some of the advantages and disadvantages of these design options. As summarized, a major design problem is to build a system that will allow the rotor to turn at a variable speed, while the machine is feeding power of constant frequency to the load. Although many approaches have been suggested for variable speed operation, they can be grouped into two main classes: (i) discretely variable, and (ii) continuously variable. It is concluded that, based on the current state-of-the-art, the systems with the most promise appear to be those incorporating power electronics.

Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (USA)); Bailey, B.H. (Associated Weather Services, Albany, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

43

TOPEX electrical power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

44

Manned spacecraft electrical power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology

W. E. Simon; D. L. Nored

1987-01-01

45

Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates  

DOEpatents

A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

Chen, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

46

Solar Thermal Electric Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program is to develop design parameters for solar thermal electric power systems that can provide lowest cost electric power. Parametric performance and cost models are being developed for subsystems such as the concentrator...

1974-01-01

47

Effect of system parameters on size distribution of 304 stainless steel particles produced by electrical discharge mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrical discharge machine (EDM) can be used to produce Uranium Carbide (UC) microspheres. This material is useful for dispersed nuclear fuel fabrication. To obtain empirical data about the process parameters for UC modeling, 304 stainless steel (304 SS) was used to produce microspheres. Particle size effects were analyzed via three parameters; arc intensity, dielectric medium, and pulse width. Results

Gokul Vasudevamurthy; Travis W. Knight

2007-01-01

48

High density electrical card connector system  

DOEpatents

An electrical circuit board card connection system is disclosed which comprises a wedge-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. An extrusion along the edge of the circuit board mates with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned and the wedge inserted. The disclosed connection system is a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

Haggard, J. Eric (Elgin, IL); Trotter, Garrett R. (Aurora, IL)

2000-01-01

49

Biophysical injury mechanisms in electrical shock trauma.  

PubMed

Electrical shock trauma tends to produce a very complex pattern of injury, mainly because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interactions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical shocks. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved the understanding of the underlying biophysical injury mechanisms. Besides thermal burns secondary to Joule heating, permeabilization of cell membranes and direct electroconformational denaturation of macromolecules such as proteins have also been identified as tissue-damage mechanisms. This review summarizes the physics of tissue injury caused by contact with commercial-frequency power lines, as well as exposure to lightning and radio frequency (RF), microwave, and ionizing radiation. In addition, we describe the anatomic patterns of the resultant tissue injury from these modes of electromagnetic exposures. PMID:11701521

Lee, R C; Zhang, D; Hannig, J

2000-01-01

50

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has enabled large scale fabrication of graphene-based devices [1]. We apply transmission electron microscopy and AFM techniques to identify individual grain boundaries [2]. This further allows the direct investigation of mechanical and electrical properties of polycrystalline graphene in correlation with its grain structure. We used atomic force microscopy in order to induce and

Carlos Ruiz-Vargas; Arend van der Zande; Pinshane Huang; William Whitney; Mark Levendorf; Joshua Kevek; Shivank Garg; Jonathan Alden; David Muller; Paul McEuen; Jiwoong Park

2011-01-01

51

Mechanical vs electric drive: which to choose  

SciTech Connect

In the highly competitive 85 to 120 ton haul truck market, mechanical drive units have become increasingly popular because of their lower initial investment costs. But when total ownership costs over the life of the vehicle are considered, electric drive remains highly competitive.

Smiley, C.H.

1983-03-01

52

Control of electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in size and complexity of interconnected electric power systems, coupled with the industrial commitment to maximize security at a minimum cost, has led to the development of many special control devices. These control devices ensure that the electric power system is able to operate, without instability, under a wide range of system conditions. This article presents a tutorial

Magdi S. Mahmoud; ABdulla Ismail

2003-01-01

53

Research for electric energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical progress in the five investigations which make up the project, Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems, is reported. To support the measurement of ions in the vicinity of dc transmission lines and in biological exposure facilities designed to simulate the line environment, techniques to measure ion mobility were evaluated. In addition, techniques were developed for biological researchers to use to determine the sensitivity of an AM radio to detect partial discharges in a biological exposure facility. A theoretical method was developed to evaluate the consistency among electron collision, transport, and dielectric strength data for binary gas mixtures. In addition, the gas phase hydrolysis rates for SOF2 and SOF4 at room temperature were measured; the corona discharge oxidation mechanisms were identified using prepared samples containing O(-16)2 and H2O(-16) or O(-18)2 and H2O(-18); and the role of SF negative ions on the SOF4 yield was also determined. Progress in the measurement of the electrical behavior at a liquid-solid interface included the optical measurement of the dynamic electrical field distribution as a streamer initiates. Progress in developing measurements for nanosecond dielectrics was made in characterization of the sources of error in the measurement of voltage pulses using E-dot probes, and the identification of the reduction of breakdown voltage in oil as the characteristic time of the voltage pulse is reduced.

Hebner, R. E.

1987-09-01

54

Mechanical and electrical interactions in bone remodeling  

SciTech Connect

The natural remodeling and adaptation of skeletal tissues in response to mechanical loading is a classic example of physical regulation in biology. It is largely because it involves forces that do not seem to fit into the familiar schemes of biochemical controls that bone adaptation mechanisms have intrigued us for at least a century. The effect of electromagnetic fields on organisms is another example of this, and the two have become linked in an attempt to explain bone remodeling (Yasuda`s hypothesis). This paper re-examines the roles of endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields in the response of bone to mechanical forces. A series of experiments is reviewed in which mechanical and electrical stimuli were applied to implants in the medullary canal of rabbit long bones. The results suggest that endogenously generated electrical currents are not required to initiate mechanically stimulated bone formation, but that direct mechanical effects on bone cells is the more likely scenario. Based on this and other evidence from the literature, it is suggested that when exogenous electromagnetic stimuli are applied, bone cells respond by modulating the activity of more primary activators such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical forces. 76 refs., 8 figs.

Spadaro, J.A. [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

1997-05-01

55

Safety Evaluation of Fire Control Systems - Electrical and Electronic Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides safety evaluation test for fire control system electrical and electronic equipment. Covers electrical, electronic, mechanical, and miscellaneous hazards. Includes questionnaires. Not applicable to RF or ionizing radiation testing. Applies to tank...

1976-01-01

56

High slot utilization systems for electric machines  

DOEpatents

Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-06-23

57

On the molecular mechanisms of the solar to electric energy conversion by the other photosynthetic system in nature, bacteriorhodopsin  

SciTech Connect

This Account summarizes part of the work done by this research group during the past decade in an attempt to answer several questions regarding phototsynthetic energy conversion by bacteriorhodopsin. The authors address both mechanistic and kinetic factors in this system.

El-Sayed, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1992-07-01

58

Electrical power distribution system (HV270DC), for application in more electric aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new designs of military aircraft and unmanned aircraft there is a clear trend towards increasing demand of electrical power. This fact is mainly due to the replacement of mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic equipments by partially or completely electrical systems. Generally, use of electrical power onboard is continuously increasing within the areas of communications, surveillance and general systems, such

D. Izquierdo; R. Azcona; F. J López del Cerro; C. Fernandez; B. Delicado

2010-01-01

59

Ignitor Electrical Power Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iterative optimization process to reduce the total installed electrical power required for Ignitor has been performed, bringing its value down to about 70% of that estimated originally. Ignitor is planned to be installed within the 400 kV Station of Rondissone (near Turin). The required electrical power (1000 MVA \\/ 320 MVAr, including 480 MVAr locally compensated through static system,

Alberto Coletti; Roberto Coletti; Pietro Costa; Giuseppe Maffia; Giuseppe Ramogida; Massimo Roccella; Maurizio Santinelli; Fabio Starace

2004-01-01

60

Automotive electrical systems circa 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demands for better fuel economy and more electric power are driving cars to multiple higher voltages. In the next 10 years the electrical systems in some luxury automobiles will be so changed as to be almost unrecognizable. Although they will doubtless employ the old reliable 12 V lead-acid battery, their loads will be driven by a variety of voltages, both

J. G. Kassakian; H.-C. Wolf; J. M. Miller; C. J. Hurton

1996-01-01

61

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, achievement of thruster efficiency and specific impulse levels required for missions of interest, and demonstration of adequate engine life at these input power, efficiency, and specific impulse levels. To address these issues we have designed, built, and tested a 100 kW class, radiation-cooled applied-field MPD thruster and a unique dual-beam thrust stand that enables separate measurements of the applied- and self-field thrust components. We have also initiated the development of cathode thermal and plasma sheath models that will eventually be used to guide the experimental program. In conjunction with the cathode modeling, a new cathode test facility is being constructed. This facility will support the study of cathode thermal behavior and erosion mechanisms, the diagnosis of the near-cathode plasma and the development and endurance testing of new, high-current cathode designs. To facilitate understanding of electrode surface phenomenon, we have implemented a telephoto technique to obtain photographs of the electrodes during engine operation. In order to reduce the background vacuum tank pressure during steady-state engine operation in order to obtain high fidelity anode thermal data, we have developed and are evaluating a gas-dynamic diffuser. A review of experience with alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters led to the conclusion that alkali metals, particularly lithium, offer the potential for significant engine performance and lifetime improvements. systems-level issue is the potential for spacecraft contamination. Subsequent experimental and theoretical efforts should be directed toward verifying the performance and lifetime gains and characterizing the thruster flow field to assess its impact on spacecraft surfaces. Consequently, we have begun the design and development of a new facility to study engine operation with alkali metal propellants.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

1992-11-01

62

Electrical Power Generating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power...

F. J. Nola

1981-01-01

63

A strategic review of electricity systems models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity systems models are software tools used to manage electricity demand and the electricity systems, to trade electricity and for generation expansion planning purposes. Various portfolios and scenarios are modelled in order to compare the effects of decision making in policy and on business development plans in electricity systems so as to best advise governments and industry on the least

A. M. Foley; B. P. Ó Gallachóir; J. Hur; R. Baldick; E. J. McKeogh

2010-01-01

64

A new breed of electric machines - basic analysis and applications of dual mechanical port electric machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptually, mechanical port of an electric machine can be doubled and the concept of dual-mechanical-port (DMP) will then give birth to a new breed of electric machines. In this paper, the various possible structures of DMP electric machine are discussed. Basic modeling and analysis issues related to the DMP electric machine are presented. An exemplary design of DMP machine is

Longya Xu

2005-01-01

65

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

Nola, F. J.

1981-03-01

66

Electric propulsion system technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger,

John R. Brophy; Charles E. Garner; Keith D. Goodfellow

1991-01-01

67

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Electrical system. 238.425 Section...Equipment § 238.425 Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection... (2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed...equipment shall not produce electrical noise that interferes...

2010-10-01

68

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Electrical system. 238.225 Section...Equipment § 238.225 Electrical system. All passenger... (2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed...equipment shall not produce electrical noise that affects the...

2009-10-01

69

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Electrical system. 238.225 Section...Equipment § 238.225 Electrical system. All passenger... (2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed...equipment shall not produce electrical noise that affects the...

2010-10-01

70

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Electrical system. 238.425 Section...Equipment § 238.425 Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection... (2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed...equipment shall not produce electrical noise that interferes...

2009-10-01

71

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Electrical system. 238.425 Section...Equipment § 238.425 Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection... (2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed...equipment shall not produce electrical noise that interferes...

2011-10-01

72

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Electrical system. 238.425 Section...Equipment § 238.425 Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection... (2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed...equipment shall not produce electrical noise that interferes...

2012-10-01

73

Manned spacecraft electrical power systems  

SciTech Connect

A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented.

Simon, W.E.; Nored, D.L.

1987-03-01

74

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J.

1983-06-01

75

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2012-10-01

76

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2011-10-01

77

44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

78

Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

Foutes, William

79

Research for electric energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical Energy Systems investigations include: (1) an evaluation and critique of techniques for measuring ambient magnetic fields in support of epidemiological and in vitro studies of biological field effects; (2) development of techniques for detecting the toxic gas S2F10 in SF6 and measuring its production rate from corona discharges in SF6; (3) optical and electrical measurements of prebreakdown partial discharge phenomena in dielectric liquids; and (4) development of improved electro-optical methods for measurement and characterization of fast, transient high voltage impulses.

Vanbrunt, Richard J.

1990-06-01

80

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

NONE

1996-03-04

81

Research for electric energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents the technical progress in the four investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems', Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the production of S2F10 in negative corona in SF6 and the measurement of electron scattering and dissociative electron attachment cross sections for SF6 and its electrical by-products. The third investigation is also concerned with tvo different activities: several liquids that are currently used or have potential for use as high voltage dielectrics are studied using conventional impulse breakdown measurement techniques and high-speed photography and advances in partial discharge measurement techniques are presented. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse.

Anderson, W. E.

1992-06-01

82

Systems of fuzzy equations in structural mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems of linear and nonlinear equations with fuzzy parameters are relevant to many practical problems arising in structure mechanics, electrical engineering, finance, economics and physics. In this paper three methods for solving such equations are discussed: method for outer interval solution of systems of linear equations depending linearly on interval parameters, fuzzy finite element method proposed by Rama Rao and

Iwona Skalna; M. V. Rama Rao; Andrzej Pownuk

2008-01-01

83

More-electric aircraft electrical power system accelerated functional modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of future more-electric aircraft (MEA) is a major trend in modern aircraft electric power system (EPS) engineering that results in a significantly increased number of onboard loads driven by power-electronics. Development of appropriate EPS architectures, ensuring the power system integrity, stability and assessment of overall system quality and performance under possible normal and abnormal scenarios requires extensive simulation

S. V. Bozhko; T. Wu; Y. Tao; G. M. Asher

2010-01-01

84

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ń 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth„s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

85

Mechanism of material removal in electrical discharge diamond grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the mechanism of material removal in electrical discharge diamond grinding, which integrates electrical discharge machining and diamond grinding for machining electrically conducting hard materials. The role of current and wheel speed on the material removal rate, the grinding forces and power is studied to elucidate the issue. The spark discharges thermally soften the work material in the

P. Koshy; V. K. Jain; G. K. Lal

1996-01-01

86

107. OVERHEAD REFRIGERANT PIPING AND ELECTRICAL TERMINALS FOR SYSTEM 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

107. OVERHEAD REFRIGERANT PIPING AND ELECTRICAL TERMINALS FOR SYSTEM 2 CONTROLS IN MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

87

Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors  

SciTech Connect

Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

Hilton, J.W.

2001-07-30

88

Direct Drive Options for Electric Propulsion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficienc...

J. A. Hamley

1995-01-01

89

ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

S. Roy

2004-06-24

90

Power storage system for electric railway  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

Kawamura, T.

1985-06-11

91

Research for Electric Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

Anderson, W.E. (ed.)

1991-06-01

92

The Electrical Coupling Mechanism in the Ionosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the longitudinal conductivity is at least four orders of magnitude higher than the transverse conductivities in the ionosphere, the geomagnetic field lines are ordinarily assumed to be electrical equipotential lines. With this assumption there would...

D. D. Fang

1967-01-01

93

Propulsion systems for Light Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with the development of the propulsion system for two Light Electric Vehicles (LEVs), namely a city scooter and an electric bicycle. The propulsion system of the city scooter consists of a wheel motor for the traction and a lithium-ion battery for the energy storage. The propulsion system of the electric bicycle utilizes a fuel cell assisted

Manuele Bertoluzzo; Giuseppe Buja

2010-01-01

94

Dust removal system using static electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by a dc electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed

M Onozuka; Y Ueda; K Takahashi; Y Seki; S Ueda; I Aoki

1996-01-01

95

Orientational mechanisms in liquid crystalline systems. 1. A reaction field analytical description of the interaction between the electric quadrupole moment of a probe solute and the electric field gradient of a nematic solvent.  

PubMed

In the present paper, the fundamental problem of calculating the electric field gradient (EFG) experienced by a highly idealized solute, represented by a general point quadrupole immersed in an anisotropic uniaxial medium, has been tackled. Following a generalized reaction field approach (based upon the original ideas and the "mean-field philosophy" due to Kirkwood and Onsager) in the linear response approximation, a closed analytical expression of the EFG has been derived (to the best of our knowledge, for the first time). The obtained expression is particularly simple and elegant, also thanks to the oversimplifying approximation that the virtual cavity containing the solute is assumed to be perfectly spherical. This compact and manageable formula, obtained by a rigorous mathematical derivation (unlike other mean-field phenomenological models previously suggested in literature) can be useful to investigate and better understand a likely orientational mechanism, partly responsible for the ordering of small solutes dissolved in nematic mesophases, based on the interaction between the electric quadrupole of the solute and the electric field gradient of the anisotropic uniaxial medium (in the next paper of this issue, the formulation obtained in this work is widely tested on a variety of uniaxial and biaxial solutes dissolved in different nematic solvents). PMID:20017545

Celebre, Giorgio; Ionescu, Andreea

2010-01-14

96

Mimosa pudica: Electrical and mechanical stimulation of plant movements.  

PubMed

Thigmonastic movements in the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica L., associated with fast responses to environmental stimuli, appear to be regulated through electrical and chemical signal transductions. The thigmonastic responses of M. pudica can be considered in three stages: stimulus perception, electrical signal transmission and induction of mechanical, hydrodynamical and biochemical responses. We investigated the mechanical movements of the pinnae and petioles in M. pudica induced by the electrical stimulation of a pulvinus, petiole, secondary pulvinus or pinna by a low electrical voltage and charge. The threshold value was 1.3-1.5 V of applied voltage and 2 to 10 microC of charge for the closing of the pinnules. Both voltage and electrical charge are responsible for the electro-stimulated closing of a leaf. The mechanism behind closing the leaf in M. pudica is discussed. The hydroelastic curvature mechanism closely describes the kinetics of M. pudica leaf movements. PMID:19895396

Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Ashby, Talitha A; Walker, Ronald K; Johnson, Jon A; Markin, Vladislav S

2009-11-04

97

Error analysis in electric power system available transfer capability computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key concept in the restructuring of the electric power industry is the ability to accurately and rapidly quantify the capabilities of the transmission system. Transmission transfer capability is limited by a number of different mechanisms, including thermal, voltage, and stability constraints. This paper discusses the available transfer capability (ATC) definitions and determination guidelines approved by the North American Electric

Peter W Sauer; Santiago Grijalva

1999-01-01

98

Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-06-01

99

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation...locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking...locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

2009-10-01

100

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation...locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking...locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

2010-10-01

101

Electric Locomotive Servicing Work Safety Supervision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through introducing the whole operation of the electric locomotives by system monitoring software, a graphical intuitive understanding developed by configuration software. Communications between software and hardware becomes the core problem of the control system. In the system, choose the configuration software to develop the monitoring software system, which has features of well graphical intuitive. The entire electric locomotive monitoring system

Yang Chenghui; Meng Jianjun; Qi Wenzhe

2009-01-01

102

Electrical system design techniques to improve electrical safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no publication by an accepted standards entity that effectively communicates “electrical safety by design” concepts. The National Fire Protection Association's, (NFPA 70 & NFPA 70E, American National Standards Institute's (ANSI C2), and similar standards by Nationally and Internationally recognized standards developing entities, place minimum requirements on electrical system designers and manufacturers that yield functional, practical and reasonably

L. Bruce McClung; Dennis J. Hill

2010-01-01

103

Introduction to efficient electrical systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of electrical system design has become increasingly important to safety, plant, and project engineers. With the advent of high energy costs, plant and project engineers have needed to become more aware of electrical systems. Both safety and energy efficiency are discussed along with practical application problems for industrial and commercial electrical design.

S. Ayraud; A. Thumann

1985-01-01

104

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

M. Maniyar

2004-06-22

105

Mechanism of electrical conductivity of jet fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and dynamic viscosity of jet fuels has been investigated for commercial jet fuels RT, TS-1, T-1, and T-6, all of which have initial crystallization temperatures below -60 degrees C. The data show that in the range from -35 degrees to +80 degrees C, for the RT, TS-1, and T-1 fuels, this relationship is

A. I. Belousov; E. M. Bushueva

1986-01-01

106

Development of pneumatically automatic mechanical transmission for a pure electric garbage truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pneumatically automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) system has been developed for a pure electric garbage truck. The buildup principle and control framework of the pneumatically AMT is introduced. In order to realize the coordinate control, the CAN (Controller Area Network) bus technology is adopted to realize the communications of AMT electric control unit (ECU) and induction motor controller (MC), and

Guangming Xiong; Junqiang Xi; Yong Zhai; Yuhui Hu; Yang Yu; Huiyan Chen

2010-01-01

107

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

108

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Intercalated Graphite Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to understand the electrical and mechanical property changes which occur when graphite fibers are intercalated, it is essential that a better understanding of the properties of the fibers prior to intercalation be developed. Research aimed at elu...

H. A. Goldberg

1985-01-01

109

Mechanical, chemical, and electrical constraints and hydrodynamic interfacial instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold conditions are derived for the onset of convection in infinite plane and spherical surfaces with chemical, mechanical, and electrical constraints. A linear stability analysis is used and the role of the following factors is discussed: diffusion coefficients, viscosity coefficients, surface chemical processes, the adsorption-desorption step, the surface activity, the surface charge and the surface electric potential, interactions between surface

A. Sanfeld; A. Steinchen; M. Hennenberg; P. Bisch; D. Van Lamsweerde-Gallez; W. Dalle-Vedove

1979-01-01

110

31. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north; 'pins' and electrical connection. Both spans are down and locked. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

111

The neutron electric dipole moment and the Weinberg mechanism  

SciTech Connect

We gave an overview of various mechanism for CP violation paying special attention to their prediction of the neutron electric dipole moment. The implication of the recent developments associated with the color electric dipole moment of gluon in various models of CP-violation are then critically assessed. 25 refs.

Chang, D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

1990-01-01

112

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

113

An Electric Deicing System for Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers an electric ice removal system as applied to a recent experimental airplane. The system is described in detail from the power generators to the ice removal blankets and includes such items as extent of ice protection coverage, construction and installation of ice removal blankets, system electric power requirements, and system control. The paper does not treat the

E. W. Giloy

1949-01-01

114

Orientational mechanisms in liquid crystalline systems. 2. The contribution to solute ordering from the reaction field interaction between the solute electric quadrupole moment and the solvent electric field gradient.  

PubMed

In the previous paper of this issue, [Celebre, G.; Ionescu, A. J. Phys. Chem. B doi: 10.1021/jp907310g], following a generalized reaction field approach in the linear response approximation, we were successful in obtaining an analytical compact expression for the mean-field anisotropic orientational potential U(Q-EFG) theoretically experienced by a highly idealized nonionic and apolar solute, considered as a point quadrupole immersed in a uniaxial polarizable continuum medium (model of a nematic solvent comprised of dipolar mesogenic molecules). The term U(Q-EFG) describes the electrostatic interaction between the electric quadrupole of the solute and the electric field gradient induced at the solute by the surrounding medium polarized by the distribution of electric charges representing the quadrupolar solute itself. In the present paper, the obtained potential has been considered as an additional orientational interaction contributing to the solute ordering, besides the well-recognized and very effective "short-range" (size-and-shape-dictated) mechanisms. Since in our theory the solvent is characterized by its dielectric tensor, the model has been widely tested by taking as references the experimental order parameters of several uniaxial and biaxial different small rigid probe molecules (H(2), N(2), acetylene, allene, propyne, benzene, hexafluorobenzene, 1,4-difluorobenzene, and norbornadiene) dissolved in the nematic solvents ZLI1132 (Deltaepsilon > 0) and EBBA (Deltaepsilon < 0); moreover, the order parameters of the same solutes in the so-called nematic "magic mixture" (45 wt % EBBA + 55 wt % ZLI1132), where the short-range orientational effects are commonly believed to be very dominant, have been conventionally assumed as reference of the absence of electrostatic orientational effects. The experimental order parameters of the treated solutes, obtained in the past by liquid crystal NMR and available from literature, have been then compared with those theoretically predicted by our theoretical approach in order to obtain useful hints about two basic points, (a) the real physical nature of the interactions (other than the "size-and-shape") involved in the orientational mechanisms and (b) the conceptual effectiveness of the suggested mean-field approach in describing this kind of phenomena. Successes and failures of the approach in the predictions are discussed at length, along with their possible reasons and implications. PMID:20017544

Celebre, Giorgio; Ionescu, Andreea

2010-01-14

115

Instrumented hip implants: Electric supply systems.  

PubMed

Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simőes, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

2013-08-24

116

LDEF Mechanical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following LDEF retrieval, a number of studies were made of mechanical hardware and structure flown on the LDEF. The primary objectives are to determine the effects of long term space exposure on (1) mechanisms either used on LDEF or as part of individual ...

W. S. Spear H. W. Dursch

1992-01-01

117

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical

Matthew K. Donnelly; David P. Chassin; Jeffery E. Dagle; Michael Kintner-Meyer; David W. Winiarski; Robert G. Pratt; Anne Marie Boberly-Bartis

2006-01-01

118

Partial Discharge Testing of Aerospace Electrical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern aircraft are using more electrical equipment and are therefore using higher voltages. These higher voltage systems will become increasingly common in the future. The forms of systems that are being used operate under frequencies\\/waveshapes different from those normally used on ground based electrical power systems, and the testing regimes are relatively undeveloped in comparison with the other standardized tests

Faisal Alrumayan; Ian Cotton; Andrew Nelms

2010-01-01

119

Field Emitter Cathodes and Electric Propulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing hollow and filament cathodes with field emitter (FE) cathodes could significantly improve the scalability, power, and performance of some meso- and microscale Electric Propulsion (EP) systems. This article discusses the motivation and challenges of integrating of FE and Electric Propulsion systems. The demands on cathode performance and lifetime and the propulsion system environments are described in this article. The

Colleen M. Marrese; James E. Polk; Juergen Mueller

2000-01-01

120

Integration and system tests of the Ford\\/General Electric ac electric drive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced alternating current electric drive system is being developed by the General Electric Company for Ford Motor Company's ''Advanced Electric Vehicle Powertrain Effort,'' which is a major element of DOE's Single Shaft Electric Propulsion System Program. The integrated transaxle consists of an oil-cooled 50 hp ac induction motor mounted within a 2-speed transaxle. Direct current from the nominal 204

R. D. King; J. N. Park

1985-01-01

121

The effects of titania on selected electrical and mechanical properties of hafnia-rich mixed oxides in the system hafnia-zirconia-titania  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of titania on selected properties of hafnia-rich mixed oxides in the system hafnia-zirconia-titania (HZT) was made in the region 5 to 20 mol% titania. The effects of titania on the properties were studied for the reduced state as well as the oxidized state of the sintered mixed oxides. The grains of all samples were nominally 1{mu}m. Microcracking regions varying from 16 to 3000 {mu}m were also observed in the microstructures. The electrical conductivity increased with temperature to approximately 10{sup {minus}1} mhos/cm at 1700{degrees}C for all compositions. The thermal expansion coefficient decreased with increasing titania as did the monoclinic to tetragonal transformation temperature. The fracture strength of the oxidized bars tended to decrease with the addition of titania owing to the presence of the second-phase titanate. The fracture strengths of the reduced bars exhibited a minimum corresponding to a two-phase region of monoclinic and cubic phases.

Staszak, P.R.

1988-01-01

122

Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photocathode

CARTER COMPTON COLLINS

1970-01-01

123

Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization of Silicon Microcantilever Heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers having integrated solid-state heaters were originally developed for application to data storage, but have since been applied to metrology, thermophysical property measurements, and nanoscale manufacturing. These applications beyond data storage have strict requirements for mechanical characterization and precise temperature calibration of the cantilever. This paper describes detailed mechanical, electrical, and thermal characterization and calibration

Jungchul Lee; Thomas Beechem; Tanya L. Wright; Brent A. Nelson; Samuel Graham; William P. King

2006-01-01

124

Electro-Thermomigration as an Electrical Overstress Failure Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical review of electro-thermomigration as an EOS/ESD failure mechanism is presented. The paper focuses on the physical basis of the failure mechanism, the strength of the driving forces, and the effects of pulse attributes such as polarity on electr...

D. G. Pierce

1985-01-01

125

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Cryo-worked Cu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For manufacturing the magnets of fusion machines pure copper of both high mechanical resistance and electrical conductivity is required. Though high purity copper guarantees high electrical conductivity, its mechanical properties may be not suitable for the applications in tokamaks. In this view, a new procedure developed for obtaining high purity copper with excellent mechanical strength is described in this work. Samples of oxygen free copper (OFC) have been worked by pressing in liquid nitrogen (77 K). It has been verified that the mechanical properties of the worked metal are strongly dependent on the strain rate. Very low strain rates permitted to attain values of tensile yield strength (550 MPa) significantly higher than those obtained by traditional cold-working at room temperature (450 MPa). The electrical conductivity of the cryo-worked Cu decreases with the tensile yield strength even though the hardest samples of tensile yield strength of 550 MPa exhibit still acceptable values of conductivity (about 94 % IACS at room temperature).

Bettinali, Livio; Tosti, Silvano; Pizzuto, Aldo

2013-10-01

126

Effect of Cerium on Mechanical Performance and Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum Rod for Electrical Purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rare earth element Ce on mechanical performance and electrical conductivity of aluminum rod for electrical purpose were studied under industrial production condition. Using optical microscope, SEM, TEM, EDS and X-ray diffractometer, the microstructure and phase composition of aluminum rod were measured and analyzed. The results indicate that the content of rare earth element Ce is between 0.05%

Li Pengfei; Wu Zhigang; Wang Yunli; Gao Xizhu; Wang Zaiyun; Li Zhiqiang

2006-01-01

127

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System for supervisory monitoring and control signals. The system interfaces with all facility support loads such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, office, fire protection, monitoring and control, safeguards and security, and communications subsystems.

S.C. Khamamkar

2000-06-23

128

High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero insertion\\/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit

Baumbaugh

1997-01-01

129

Influence of electric power distribution system design on harmonic propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the design parameters of electric power distribution systems on the propagation of harmonic distortion is investigated. This conceptual study is based on simulations on a generalized distribution system model, and leads to an increased insight in the mechanisms of the generation and propagation of voltage distortion. Moreover, analytical expressions are presented that predict the impact of changing

J. A. Ghijselen; W. A. Ryckaert; J. A. Melkebeek

2004-01-01

130

The influence of electric charge transferred during electro-mechanical reshaping on mechanical behavior of cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage has been suggested as an alternative to the classical surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The method is based on exposure of mechanically deformed cartilaginous tissue to a low level electric field. Electro-chemical reactions within the tissue lead to reduction of internal stress, and establishment of a new equilibrium shape. The same reactions offset the electric charge balance between collagen and proteoglycan matrix and interstitial fluid responsible for maintenance of cartilage mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between the electric charge transferred during EMR and equilibrium elastic modulus. We used a finite element model based on the triphasic theory of cartilage mechanical properties to study how electric charges transferred in the electro-chemical reactions in cartilage can change its mechanical responses to step displacements in unconfined compression. The concentrations of the ions, the strain field and the fluid and ion velocities within the specimen subject to an applied mechanical deformation were estimated and apparent elastic modulus (the ratio of the equilibrium axial stress to the axial strain) was calculated as a function of transferred charge. The results from numerical calculations showed that the apparent elastic modulus decreases with increase in electric charge transfer. To compare numerical model with experimental observation we measured elastic modulus of cartilage as a function of electric charge transferred in electric circuit during EMR. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical data suggests that electric charge disbalance is responsible for alteration of cartilage mechanical properties.

Protsenko, Dimitry E.; Lim, Amanda; Wu, Edward C.; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

2011-02-01

131

Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally

John A. Hamley

1995-01-01

132

Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power processing units (PPUs) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally

John A. Hamley

1996-01-01

133

Optimization of Mechanical Systems Parameters  

SciTech Connect

We present a specific mathematical programming problem that allows us to obtain the optimal parameters for mechanical systems' stabilizers. The general approach is described, and the method is applied to optimization of two mechanical systems, namely, a harmonic oscillator and a satellite with gravitational stabilizer.

Seabra, A. [Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Campus Politecnico de Repeses, 3504-510, Viseu (Portugal)

2010-09-30

134

Energy Saving Electrical Motor Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An energy saving system in AC electrical motors which provides optimum control of the rriac control voltage supplied to different motors with which the system is used, despite the different characteristics of such motors is described. A three phase motor,...

T. M. Edge

1982-01-01

135

Energy Conservation in the Electric Power System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities for energy conservation in the Norwegian electric power supply system are analysed. This power system is based exclusively on hydroelectric power and consists of water storage reservoirs, pipes and tunnels for water transport, power plan...

A. Killingtveit K. Tvinnereim

1983-01-01

136

Mecomtronics Module D: Electrical and Mechanical Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module D's Filling Station project focuses on process control and production. Students will learn about power supply, sensors, solenoid valves and interfaces, electronic counters, and a sensor interfaces, and will use this knowledge to: Construct, test and verify the operation of the DC power supply Construct and evaluate the performance of the sensors and control system Assemble a liquid filling station Connect the binary counter and seven-segment converter to the digital display Interconnect the system components and verify operation of the filling station according to specifications Prepare and present a project report The filling station will have the capability to: Sense the presence of a container and its contents Fill it with a pre-determined quantity of liquid Count the number of containers filled Display the result Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College students Self Evaluation Data: Excellent instructional module to support a new or existing Engineering Technology course or program.

2009-11-27

137

Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

Lipinsky, E. S.; Ball, D. A.; Anson, D.

1982-02-01

138

Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

E. S. Lipinsky; D. A. Ball; D. Anson

1982-01-01

139

Adaptive dependable and secure protection systems for electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new philosophy on protection systems in bulk electric power systems. Traditional protection systems are non-adaptive and have been usually applied with bias towards dependability, one of the two considerations on designing electric grid protection systems (the other one is security). The art and science of protection and control of tomorrow drives the power system professionals to

H. Z. Khorashadi; Zuyi Li; Vahid Madani

2008-01-01

140

Reliability analysis of electric utility SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility SCADA systems must be highly reliable given the potential for the SCADA system to directly contribute to load curtailment. This paper presents an analysis of SCADA system reliability in terms of its expected, aggregate contribution to load curtailment on the power system. Expressing this aggregate in system minutes and applying an appropriate damage cost function then provides an

A. G. Bruce

1998-01-01

141

Automotive electric/electronic systems. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

Automotive Electric/Electronic Systems provides comprehensive information on state-of-the-art technical developments of the electrical and electronic engine systems, their design and construction, their status of technical innovation, and the fundamental effects they are having on conventional SI-engine operation. Readers who are interested in automotive electronics technology are provided with detailed descriptions and extensive illustrations and graphs to make complex electronic issues easier to understand. Contents include combustion in the spark-ignition engine, Emissions-control technology, mixture formation, ignition, spark plugs, motronic engine management, vehicle electrical system, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference suppression, starter batteries, alternators, and starting systems.

NONE

1995-12-31

142

Radio Frequency Electrical Transduction of Graphene Mechanical Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report radio frequency (RF) electrical readout of graphene mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion is actuated and detected directly by using a vector network analyzer (VNA), employing a local gate to minimize parasitic capacitance. Resist-free doubly-clamped samples with resonant frequency in MHz range, Q factor ˜10,000 at 77 K and signal-to-background ratio of over 20 dB, are demonstrated. In addition

Changyao Chen; Vikram Deshpande; Yuehang Xu; Frank Direnno; Alexander Gondarenko; David Heinz; Shuaimin Liu; Philip Kim; James Hone

2011-01-01

143

Radio frequency electrical transduction of graphene mechanical resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report radio frequency (rf) electrical readout of graphene mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion is actuated and detected directly by using a vector network analyzer, employing a local gate to minimize parasitic capacitance. A resist-free doubly clamped sample with resonant frequency ~34 MHz, quality factor ~10 000 at 77 K, and signal-to-background ratio of over 20 dB is demonstrated. In

Yuehang Xu; Changyao Chen; Vikram V. Deshpande; Frank A. Direnno; Alexander Gondarenko; David B. Heinz; Shuaimin Liu; Philip Kim; James Hone

2010-01-01

144

Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini.  

PubMed

Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical, and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed. PMID:20855975

Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S

2010-10-01

145

Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini  

PubMed Central

Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed.

Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S

2010-01-01

146

29. View of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. View of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north. Both spans are down and locked. These connections are operated from the interlocking machine in the control house (photo 42). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

147

Minimum Check List for Mechanical and Electrical Plans & Specifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fifth revision of the Minimum Check List since its origin in 1960 by North Carolina's School Planning. The checklist was developed to serve as a means of communication between school agencies and design professionals and has been widely used in the development and review of mechanical and electrical plans and specifications by…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Facility Services.

148

Carbon nanofiller\\/polymer nanocomposites: Diffusion, mechanical and electrical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery two decades ago, fullerene family has drawn remarkable attention because of their unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical and flammable properties. They have been widely used to improve polymer properties. These nanofillers produce huge interfacial areas between the polymer and the fillers. Despite the intensive research on fullerene nanocomposites, understanding of the importance of the filler-polymer interface is

Minfang Mu

2009-01-01

149

113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). QUALITY ASSURANCE ROOM (106A) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO; CABLE TRAYS OVERHEAD AT TOP; STAIRS TO LSB (BLDG. 770) ADDITION (ROOMS 117 THROUGH 120) IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

150

132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB (BLDG. 751), QUALITY CONTROL BOARD ON LEFT. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH, THROUGH OPEN DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

151

Comparison of Mechanical Properties for Several Electrical Spring Contact Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purpose was to determine whether beryllium--nickel alloy 440 (Ni-1.95 Be-0.5 Ti) had mechanical properties which made it suitable as a substitute for the presently used precious metal contact alloys Paliney 7 and Neyoro G, in certain electrical contact ap...

T. V. Nordstrom

1976-01-01

152

The Principle Mechanical and Electrical Features of a Hysteresis Clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hysteresis loss that occurs in magnetic devices subjected to changing magnetic fields usually represents a detrimental condition. One exception, however, is the hysteresis clutch where this loss is utilized to perform a useful function. One particular type1 clutch is described and its chief mechanical and electrical features are summarized. Its utility as a variable speed drive is also illustrated.

Lowell B. Brown

1956-01-01

153

Mechanical stress and electric potential in cymbal piezoceramics by FEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the electric potential and mechanical stress distributions by finite element analysis (FEA) of the cymbal piezocomposites was attempted for both the resonant and the off-resonant modes.The stress concentration has been proved to reduce the performance of the cymbals and is on the origin of the further degradation issues. It is possible to eliminate some part of the

P. Ochoa; J. L. Pons; M. Villegas; J. F. Fernandez

2005-01-01

154

Conservation of Mechanical and Electric Energy: Simple Experimental Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two similar experiments on conservation of energy and transformation of mechanical into electrical energy are presented. Both can be used in classes, as they offer numerous possibilities for discussion with students and are simple to perform. Results are presented and are precise within 20% for the version of the experiment where measured values…

Ponikvar, D.; Planinsic, G.

2009-01-01

155

Cytoskeletal modulation of electrical and mechanical activity in cardiac myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiac myocyte has an intracellular scaffold, the cytoskeleton, which has been implicated in several cardiac pathologies including hypertrophy and failure. In this review we describe the role that the cytoskeleton plays in modulating both the electrical activity (through ion channels and exchangers) and mechanical (or contractile) activity of the adult heart. We focus on the 3 components of the

S. C. Calaghan; J.-Y. Le Guennec; E. White

2004-01-01

156

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

157

Nonholonomic mechanical systems with symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops the geometry and dynamics of mechanical systems with nonholonomic constraints and symmetry from the perspective of Lagrangian mechanics and with a view to control-theoretical applications. The basic methodology is that of geometric mechanics applied to the Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation, generalizing the use of connections and momentum maps associated with a given symmetry group to this case. We begin

Anthony M. Bloch; P. S. Krishnaprasad; Jerrold E. Marsden; Richard M. Murray

1996-01-01

158

Electrical transport in open and closed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical conductance is typically calculated by approaches which view the electrical field as a causative source and the motion of carriers as a response. An alternative viewpoint, which starts from the flux of carriers maintained at the edges of a sample, and then calculates how charges build up and fields develop, has gained acceptance in the treatment of disordered systems,

R. Landauer

1987-01-01

159

Strategic Attack of National Electrical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force has long favored attacking electrical power systems. Electric power has been considered a critical target in every war since World War 11, and will likely be nominated in the future. Despite the frequency of attacks on this tar...

T. E. Griffith

1994-01-01

160

Small Wind Electric Systems Minnesota Consumer's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small wind electric systems can make a significant contribution to our national's energy needs. Although wind turbines large enough to provide a significant portion of the electricity needed by the average U.S. home generally require one acre of property ...

2002-01-01

161

Seismic Performance Analysis of Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study carries out a seismic system performance analysis on Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's electric power system, given inventory data, system configuration and fragility information with or without rehabilitation. The analysis requires the delicate coordination of various technologies involving interpretation and manipulation of sophisticated and voluminous inventory data, utilization of highly specialized computer codes for systems analysis,

Masanobu Shinozuka

162

Electrical power generation and storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for generating and temporarily storing generated electrical power in electro-chemical, chemical and electro-mechanical mediums and for efficiently reconverting the stored energy back to usable ac electrical energy. In one embodiment of the process, alternating current is converted to direct current which is used to power a chlorine-sodium hydroxide electrolysis cell. Process steam, from a steam generating

R. L. Scragg; A. B. Parker

1978-01-01

163

Use of a general-purpose development system in support of a large-scale electrical distribution control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software development and testing system is being used to support the operation and experimental utilization of a large-scale electrical distribution automation system. The testing system provides the mechanisms to simulate the characteristics of both the large-scale control system and the electrical distribution system that is being controlled.

Wetherington, G. R., Jr.; Broadaway, E. R.; Bentz, R. R.

164

Electrical Appliance Energy Consumption Control Methods and Electrical Energy Consumption Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distr...

D. P. Chassin D. W. Winiarski J. E. Dagle M. Kinter-Meyer M. K. Donnelly

2005-01-01

165

High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system  

DOEpatents

A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

Baumbaugh, Alan E. (Aurora, IL)

1997-01-01

166

Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems  

DOEpatents

A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

2013-07-02

167

Design of Aircraft Electric Power Supply Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the possible variations of aircraft electric power systems. It discusses the merits and faults of types of current, generators, equipment, conductors, drives. Numerous circuit diagrams show how to avoid catastrophy in case of failure ...

G. D. Vlasov

1969-01-01

168

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

169

SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side activities of the subsurface facility will be provided at the South Portal by the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the Off-Site Utility System for the receipt of power. The System interfaces with the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control. The System interfaces with MGR Site Layout System for the physical location of equipment and power distribution.

E.P. McCann

1999-04-16

170

Systems of fuzzy equations in structural mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems of linear and nonlinear equations with fuzzy parameters are relevant to many practical problems arising in structure mechanics, electrical engineering, finance, economics and physics. In this paper three methods for solving such equations are discussed: method for outer interval solution of systems of linear equations depending linearly on interval parameters, fuzzy finite element method proposed by Rama Rao and sensitivity analysis method. The performance and advantages of presented methods are described with illustrative examples. Extended version of the present paper can be downloaded from the web page of the UTEP [I. Skalna, M.V. Rama Rao, A. Pownuk, Systems of fuzzy equations in structural mechanics, The University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Mathematical Sciences Research Reports Series, , Texas Research Report No. 2007-01, 2007].

Skalna, Iwona; Rama Rao, M. V.; Pownuk, Andrzej

2008-08-01

171

Intelligent tutoring system for electric circuit exercising  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent tutoring system called Circuit Exerciser is described. The system is designed to help university students learn more about electric circuits. It can formulate drill problems, solve them, and infer mistakes in a student's answer. It can also provide helpful comments to the students on how the mistake was made. The system shows the circuit of the presented problem

Atsushi Yoshikawa; Masafumi Shintani; Yujiro Ohba

1992-01-01

172

Construction LAN System for Electrical Substation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, the authors propose an optical-fiber-type LAN system for electrical substations. This system uses nodes arranged in each line to take field data for protection and control and employs a token-ring transmission system to transmit such data. ...

M. Kurono H. Kameda A. Tsuboi

1988-01-01

173

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must...or conductor grounded. (b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to ground....

2009-10-01

174

46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must...or conductor grounded. (b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to ground....

2009-10-01

175

46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must...or conductor grounded. (b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to ground....

2010-10-01

176

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

2012-10-01

177

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2009-01-01

178

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

179

14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

180

46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral bus or conductor grounded. (b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to...

2011-10-01

181

46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral bus or conductor grounded. (b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to...

2011-10-01

182

46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral bus or conductor grounded. (b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to...

2012-10-01

183

Electrical properties of nickel hydroxide for alkaline cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical behavior of nickel hydroxide/oxyhydroxide electrodes for advanced alkaline cell systems is investigated as a function of oxidation degree which usually changes during practical operation of these systems. The d.c. electrical conductivity. relative dielectric constant and loss factor as a function of oxidation degree, temperature and frequency (a.c. properties) are investigated and discussed. Moreover, the effect of water absorption on the electrical conductivity is investigated. An insulating behavior and ionic mechanism of conduction is pointed out for the uncycled and reduced electrodes, while the oxidized electrode behaves essentially as a semiconductor. Water absorption causes a strong increases in the electrical conductivity of the uncycled and reduced electrodes. Cycling enhances the dielectric losses of the active material.

Motori, Antonio; Sandrolini, Franco; Davolio, Giovanni

1994-03-01

184

The electrical aspects of cogeneration system design  

SciTech Connect

Cogeneration and the reasons that it is a viable industry today are discussed. Both bottoming and topping cycles may be employed for cogeneration; however, the topping cycle is the major focus of current cogeneration projects due to its applicability in large cogeneration power plants. The effect and reasons for the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act removal of many of the disincentives of cogeneration are discussed. The relative efficiencies of conventional and combined-cycle cogeneration power plants are compared in a typical example of a large cogeneration power plant currently under construction. Many considerations face the electrical engineer in the design of a cogeneration power plant. Many applications will be found in industrial plants and will utilize industrial thinking within the plant; however, many decisions will be influenced by conventional electric utility thinking, due to the interface with the electric utility in the switchyard. Basic discussion of the considerations required of the electrical engineer, including electrical system arrangement, integration of the new generation into the plant electrical system, short-circuit matters, one-line diagrams, generator characteristics, excitation systems, step-up transformer ratings and characteristics, auxiliary transformers (station service), distribution systems, and system grounding, is given for preliminary guidance in design.

Hogwood, E.E. Jr.; Rice, D.E.

1987-07-01

185

Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

Hoepner, Ronald

186

The Dynamic Balancer electrical safety systems  

SciTech Connect

The Pantex Plant Dynamic Balancer is used to identify physical imbalance in some weapon systems. This study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Energy/Albuquerque Operations Office (USDOE/AL) Dynamic Balancer Project Team to identify the electrical conditions required for motor over-speed to occur and to discuss the functions of the various electrical protective features associated with the Dynamic Balancer (DB). As is shown through the development of a fault tree, numerous electrical and human failures are required for over-speed conditions to occur. As directed by the Project Team, no effort was made to develop detailed fault trees for all electrical systems, to quantify basic events in the fault tree, or to develop accident scenarios leading to or resulting from over-speed. The Pantex Building 12-60, Bay 2, facility electrical circuits and grounding are described, and potential hazards are discussed. DB motor over-speed is a safety concern, and therefore, the controls that limit this condition are described and discussed in detail. Other safety-significant electrical circuits are discussed as well. These safety systems also are described in the facility Basis for Interim Operation. A potential for a motor over-speed that is not sensed by the standard safety protective systems does exist. This fault pathway is discussed, and recommendations to mitigate its effect are made.

Konkel, H.

1997-12-01

187

Microelectromechanical systems in electrical metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will have an important role in metrology. The essential features of a MEMS are (1) a piece of single crystal silicon forming a spring; (2) metallized surfaces of silicon structures that define an electrode geometry; (3) electrostatic forces between surfaces in a vacuum. With an electrostatic drive and readout such a system will dissipate very little power.

Heikki Seppä; Jukka Kyynäräinen; Aarne Oja

2001-01-01

188

Electrical characterization of DNA in mechanically controlled break-junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical characterization of DNA molecules using the mechanically controlled break-junction technique is presented. The main advantage of the technique is the control over the electrode distance during the measurement. This can be used to stretch the DNA and search for the influence of the conformation on the conduction process. The DNA is characterized in liquid and dry environments. From our data, we conclude that only a small number of molecules are contacted in each measurement.

Kang, N.; Erbe, A.; Scheer, E.

2008-02-01

189

Implantable electrical and mechanical interfaces with nerve and muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past ten years have witnessed the introduction of several new methods for chronic recording of electrical activity in\\u000a peripheral nerves, single nerve fibers and muscles, and for monitoring mechanical events correlated with muscular action.\\u000a Although these methods were developed as research tools in the study of movements of unrestrained, intact animals, such implantable\\u000a interfaces with nerve and muscle also

J. A. Hoffer; G. E. Loeb

1980-01-01

190

Mass transportation mechanism in electric-biased carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The mass transportation mechanism in electric-biased carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated experimentally. Except for the widely accepted electromigration mechanism, we find out the thermal effect can also induce the mass transportation in the form of thermomigration or thermal evaporation. Moreover, the convincing in situ transmission electron microscope experiment results show the thermal gradient force overrides the electromigration force in most conditions, according to specific parameters of the CNTs and "cargos". A full analysis on the thermal gradient force and electromigration force imposed on the cargos is given, thus our experimental results are well explained and understood. PMID:20957981

Zhao, Jiong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Wei, Fei; Zhu, Jing

2010-11-10

191

Advanced technology in satellite communication antennas: Electrical and mechanical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antenna technology for earth stations and satellites is discussed. The fundamentals, including common analysis methods, for antenna technology for satellite communication are reviewed. Details of the analysis method for beam waveguide feeds are shown, and electrical and mechanical designs for earth station antennas are examined. Offset dual-reflector antennas and offset reflector antennas with beam waveguide feed are examined, giving comprehensive descriptions of mechanical techniques. The homology design technique for very large and precise antennas and the holographic measurement method of reflector surface error are discussed. Shaped-beam and multibeam antennas are addressed, as is product assurance.

Kitsuregawa, Takashi

192

The renewable electric plant information system  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

Sinclair, K.

1995-12-01

193

FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The...

C. C. Crafts D. H. Doughty

2006-01-01

194

Electric control system for automobile transmission  

SciTech Connect

An electric control system for an automobile transmission includes an endless transmission member running on a pair of V-shaped pulley units, the mutual distances of the conical sheaves of which are hydraulically adjustable to transmit an output torque of an engine to a driven apparatus. The electric control system is arranged to determine an optimum fluid pressure in relation to the actual output torque of the engine and to determine an optimum transmission ratio for low fuel consumption in relation to the actual output power of the engine. The control system produces a first electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum fluid pressure and the actual fluid pressure in one of actuators for the respective pulley units and produces a second electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum and actual transmission ratios. The pressure of fluid applied to one of the actuators is controlled in response to the first electric control signal, and the flow quantity of fluid applied to the other actuator is controlled in response to the second electric control signal.

Hattori, Y.; Goshima, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Matsui, K.; Takei, T.

1984-08-21

195

Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally greater than 0.9, heat loads are often substantial. This heat must be rejected by thermal control systems which generally have specific masses of 15-30 kg/kW. PPU's also represent a large fraction of the electric propulsion system dry mass. Simplification or elimination of power processing in a propulsion system would reduce the electric propulsion system specific mass and improve the overall reliability and performance. A direct drive system would eliminate all or some of the power supplies required to operate a thruster by directly connecting the various thruster loads to the solar array. The development of concentrator solar arrays has enabled power bus voltages in excess of 300 V which is high enough for direct drive applications for Hall thrusters such as the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). The option of solar array direct drive for SPT's is explored to provide a comparison between conventional and direct drive system mass.

Hamley, John A.

1995-05-01

196

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the key technology of electric vehicle (EV), a battery management system (BMS) is proposed here to settle the critical issues. The system includes several common modules: data acquisition unit, communication unit and battery state estimation model. Two additional management units are developed here, one is thermal management and the other is high voltage management which improve

Jiaxi Qiang; Lin Yang; Guoqiang Ao; Hu Zhong

2006-01-01

197

Electrical simulation of the circulatory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrical model of the arterial part of the human vascular system is proposed. This model is used to investigate the impedance, the shape of the pressure and flow waves, and the static characteristics of the vascular system under normal conditions and in the case of artificial circulation. In order to simulate the ACA pump, the problem of the quasi-one-dimensional

A. K. Tsaturyan

1975-01-01

198

How to transform mechanical work into electrical energy using a capacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance between the electrodes and frequency of conversion. Exemplary time-voltage, time-current and instantaneous electrical power (for determined system work conditions) dependences are described in the paper. A recommended resistor resistance value is given to obtain the maximal system efficiency at the determined condenser capacity and assumed conversion frequency. The method can be used to convert renewable wind energy into electric energy in an ecologically pure manner.

Skumiel, A.

2011-03-01

199

Structuring Mechanisms in Distributed Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews some of the basic structuring mechanisms in distributed systems from the perspective of an wide-accepted reference model (ISO/OSI). The acceptance of the model and its related standards by international bodies (ISO, IEEE, CCITT, IEC etc....

R. Popescu-Zeletin

1985-01-01

200

Voting mechanisms in distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how voting mechanisms can be exploited to improve the reliability of decisions in a distributed system. A model of decision making in which several processors (nodes) are assigned to work independently on various aspects of a problem and each returns a binary answer to a coordinator node is assumed. The coordinator combines the answers, using a voting

A. Kumar; K. Malik

1991-01-01

201

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

2013-07-01

202

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions]...

2013-07-01

203

Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical engineers made impact. Through a basic understanding of the history of MEMS, the background physics and scaling in micromechanical systems, and an introduction to baseline MEMS processes, a mechanical engineer should be well on his way to Alice's wonderland in the ever-exciting playground of MEMS.

Lee, A. P., LLNL

1996-11-18

204

Experimental Validation of Energy Storage System Management Strategies for a Local DC Distribution System of More Electric Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local DC power distribution system of More Electric Aircraft is one of the cores of the electric power transmission. Because the mechanical source (turbine engine) is unidirectional, the system is not totally reversible. Some storage and dissipation systems are necessary to store or\\/and dissipate the returned energy to maintain the dc bus voltage. Different power-management strategies are proposed and

He Zhang; F. Mollet; C. Saudemont; B. Robyns

2010-01-01

205

Mechanical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites.  

SciTech Connect

Effects of Ag particle dispersions on microstructural development and some properties were investigated for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. They were fabricated by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS) Process to achieve finer and densified microstructure. ZnO/Ag nanocomposites with novel microstructure which were prepared by a reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powders were compared with microcomposites prepared by mixing of Ag and ZnO powders. SEM observation indicated that fine Ag particles were homogeneously dispersed within the ZnO matrix grains and at the grain boundaries for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites prepared by the reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powder. Hardness and fracture toughness increased with increasing the Ag volume fraction. Linear resistivity was decreased with increasing Ag volume fraction. However, the mechanical and electrical properties appeared to the significantly different for composites prepared by two different powder processes.

Hayashi, Y.

1998-08-27

206

MEASUREMENT OF SMALL MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF BRAIN TISSUE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY-LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposur...

207

Transforming the U.S. Electricity System  

SciTech Connect

The smart electric power grid of the future will integrate the traditional elements of supply and demand, transmission and distribution with new technologies such as superconductors, energy storage, customer load management, and distributed generation, using information to make them function as a ''society'' of devices in a complex, integrated system. The vision for transforming the nation's electric system ''from central generation down to customer appliances and equipment'' into a collaborative network filled with information and a myriad of market-based opportunities is being put forward by leading thinkers in the U.S Department of Energy, national laboratories, and industry as a major scientific and engineering challenge for the nation and as an important economic value proposition for ratepayers and the electric industry. An overview of this vision and some illustrative examples are the subjects of this paper.

Pratt, Robert G.

2004-10-25

208

Towards the development of an appropriate regulation mechanism for maintenance scheduling of generating units in electricity market environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining an appropriate maintenance scheduling (MS) for generating units in the electricity market environment is quite different from that in the traditional power industry. The traditional approach for this employed by the system operator through a centralized optimization method does not match with the electricity market operation mechanism, while security and reliability problems could be arisen if

Jian Wang; Fushuan Wen; Rengang Yang; Yixin Ni; F. F. Wu

2004-01-01

209

Electron trapping by electric field reversal and Fermi mechanism  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the existence of electric field reversal in the negative glow of a dc discharge, its location, the width of the well trapping the electrons, the slow electrons scattering time, and the trapping time. Based on a stress-energy tensor analysis we show the inherent instability of the well. We suggest that the Fermi mechanism is a possible process for pumping out electrons from the trough, interrelated with electrostatic plasma instabilities. A power-law distribution function for trapped electrons is also obtained. Analytical expressions are derived which can be used to calculate these characteristics from geometrical dimensions and the operational parameters of the discharge.

Pinheiro, Mario J. [Department of Physics and Centro de Fisica de Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2004-11-01

210

Electron trapping by electric field reversal and Fermi mechanism.  

PubMed

We investigate the existence of electric field reversal in the negative glow of a dc discharge, its location, the width of the well trapping the electrons, the slow electrons scattering time, and the trapping time. Based on a stress-energy tensor analysis we show the inherent instability of the well. We suggest that the Fermi mechanism is a possible process for pumping out electrons from the trough, interrelated with electrostatic plasma instabilities. A power-law distribution function for trapped electrons is also obtained. Analytical expressions are derived which can be used to calculate these characteristics from geometrical dimensions and the operational parameters of the discharge. PMID:15600767

Pinheiro, Mário J

2004-11-19

211

Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and

Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

2007-01-01

212

Electric drive system with BLDC motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the resource supply becoming severe recently, the use of hybrid car or electric car is a necessity that it can reduce the need of oil. This paper presents BLDC motor is the best choice for high-efficiency motor and shows a design of control system for BLDC motor. With the comparison of DC motor, Induction Motor and BLDC motor, Analysis

Lin Bai

2011-01-01

213

Electric Energy Systems Market Research in Korea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was conducted to survey the Korean market for electric energy systems to help U.S. exporters to increase their shares of market and to make inroads into new markets and to encourage U.S. suppliers not presently exporting to pursue sale...

1975-01-01

214

COST OF ELECTRICITY FROM ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an analysis of the cost of electric power from Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), specifically, reservoirs with sub- commercial permeability enhanced by hydraulic stimulation. The parameters in this exercise reflect the conditions encountered at the Desert Peak EGS project in Nevada, but the results should be applicable, at least qualitatively, to any EGS project. Several

Subir K. Sanyal; James W. Morrow; Steven J. Butler

215

Generating electricity along municipal water supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to providing water supply for municipalities, water mains can serve as conduits for small hydro plants. Examples of several such projects illustrate a practical, cost-effective way to meet growing electricity demands. A typical water supply system for a municipality consists of one or more reservoirs of water, a pipeline, and a water treatment plant. As the water flows

E. J. Busse; T. W. Haag; L. D. Coupe

1992-01-01

216

The Belgian Market for Electric Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was conducted to survey the Belgian market for electric energy systems to help U.S. exporters to increase their shares of market and to make inroads into new markets and to encourage U.S. suppliers not presently exporting to pursue sal...

1975-01-01

217

Harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data pertaining to research on harmonics of electric power distribution systems. Harmonic data is presented on RMS and average measurements for determination of harmonics in buildings; fluorescent ballast; variable frequency drive; georator geosine harmonic data; uninterruptible power supply; delta-wye transformer; westinghouse suresine; liebert datawave; and active injection mode filter data.

NONE

1996-03-01

218

The Apollo Spacecraft Electrical Power Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American Aviation, Inc., is designing and building the Apollo Command and Service Modules at its Space and Information Systems Division, Downey, Calif., under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The Apollo Spacecraft Command and Service Module obtains primary electrical energy from fuel cells for flight phases until earth re-entry, and from storage

T. C. Quebedeaux

1964-01-01

219

Effect of Electric Potential and Mechanical Force on Copper Electro-Chemical Mechanical Planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the dependence of Cu electrochemical mechanical planarization (ECMP) rate on electric potential and mechanical force in electrolyte is investigated using potentiodynamic analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In chemical etching, CMP, electropolishing, and ECMP processes, the Cu removal rate is mainly affected by the interplay between electric potential and mechanical force. An equivalent circuit is built by fitting the EIS results to explain the behavior of Cu dissolution and Cu passive film. The Cu dissolution rate increased with decreasing charge-transfer time-delay. The resistance of the Cu passive film (Rp) is proportional to the intensity ratio of Cu2O/[Cu(OH)2+ CuO].

Chen, Sheng-Wen; Kung, Te-Ming; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lung; Wang, Ying-Lang

2012-03-01

220

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

Mancini, T.R.

1997-12-31

221

Method and system for converting solar energy into electricity  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a method and a system for converting solar energy into electricity by means of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The method comprises providing an organic liquid reservoir having an ejector nozzle positioned at the inlet port of a MHD generator, providing a liquid alloy reservoir in fluid communication with said inlet port, and heating said organic liquid to its boiling temperature by means of solar energy absorbers so as to form high pressure vapors of the organic liquid adapted to propel the liquid alloy through said MHD generator, whereby solar heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and said mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy in said generator. The system comprises an organic liquid reservoir having an ejector nozzle positioned at the inlet port of said MHD-generator, a liquid alloy reservoir in fluid communication with said inlet port, a solar energy absorber adapted to heat said organic liquid to a boiling temperature to form vapors adapted to be emitted from said nozzle and to propel the liquid alloy through the MHD-generator wherein solar energy is converted into mechanical energy and mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.

Branover, H.

1980-03-04

222

Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

1992-12-01

223

Electric control device for vehicle suspension system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electric vehicle-level control device is provided for controlling an electrically operated fluid pressure control device for a pneumatic, hydraulic or hydro-pneumatic suspension unit such as a hydro-pneumatic suspension strut of a self-levelling suspension system for an automotive vehicle. The control device comprises a timing or delay circuit adapted to deliver an output signal at a predetermined retarded timing following generation of (1) a signal responsive to a vehicle level higher or lower than a predetermined value, or (2) a signal responsive to shutdown of a power plant such as an internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle.

Sekiguchi; Tomoyoshi (Atsugi, JP); Ishikawa; Hiroya (Zama, JP)

1982-09-14

224

Electric power system with line drop compensation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electric power system having line drop compensation. It comprises a controllable electric power source having an output for supplying voltage to a power bus; a local voltage regulator; a remote voltage regulator for sensing voltage on the power bus; a pulse width to trim bias converter for receiving the pulse width modulated signal and for producing a trim signal having a magnitude representative of the duty cycle of the pulse width modulated signal; and means for combining the control signal with the trim signal to produce a modified control signal for controlling the output voltage of the power source to produce a predetermined voltage at the point of regulation.

Kessler, L.L.

1992-05-26

225

Construction and application of electric energy information acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric energy information acquisition system is an important composition part of strong and smart grid. It concludes the present construction status of electric energy information acquisition system in China and analyzes its demands. The construction mode and technology scheme of electric energy information acquisition system are proposed. Different electric energy information acquisition modes are presented for different power users. The

Zhu Enguo; Liu Xuan

2011-01-01

226

Impacts of electric vehicle loads on power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system

Jayakrishnan R. Pillai; Birgitte Bak-Jensen

2010-01-01

227

Electric Power Demand and Emerging Technology in Highly-sophisticated Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, the increase of the electric power demand has been remarkable, especially in Asia district. In such trend, the electric power system of Japan has been supplied with high quality, high reliability and highly-stabilized electric power. This is supported by highly-sophisticated electric power system which prides oneself on high voltage and large capacity. In this paper,

Satoshi Matsumoto; Masayuki Hikita

2004-01-01

228

Carbon black filled electrospun fiberweb: Electrical and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of flexible and compliant conductive polymer composites with "textile" like characteristics remains an important endeavor in light of the recent activity in polymer/textile based electronics. In the present work, electrospinning is used to prepare a composite fiber containing carbon black (CB) and polyurethane (PU). The effects of introducing CB into the PU-matrix in the form of fiberweb have been investigated in terms of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. A percolation behavior of the CB filled fibers has been investigated using simulation. Theoretical percolation threshold was determined at CB volume fraction of 9.3. The highest conductivity of the fiberweb was experimentally determined to be ˜10-2 S/cm for 8.03 vol% of CB filler content, which is deemed useful for a number of applications including electrodes in polymer actuators. However percolation threshold of the conductivity of the PU-CB electrospun fiberweb was experimentally determined to be between 4.6-5.0 vol% of CB. The discrepancy may be due to the idealized structure assumed in the simulation. The critical exponent of percolation (t) was calculated as 2.165, when the percolation threshold was assumed to be at 4.6 vol%. Electrical and mechanical properties of the fiberwebs have been compared with films with same constituents. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of both spin-cast films and electrospun fiberweb was studied to understand the mechanism of electrical conduction. In both cases, at high absolute values of voltage the current increased linearly, while for low voltages the current values are substantially lower, as a result the behavior resembled like diodes. On subsequent voltage sweeps, lower resistance values were recorded and the relationship became more linear over the whole voltage range. The data suggests alteration of the initial percolation network on application of high voltage. This non-Ohmic behavior is attributed to quantum tunneling conduction mechanism. The results seem to confirm the tunneling-percolation behavior of the CB-PU composite fiberweb investigated in this research. Generally, fiberwebs show better electrical and mechanical properties than the films. Electrical conductivity of the fiberwebs is generally higher than the films. As expected, elastic modulus of fiberwebs is found to be much lower than the films. The increase in bond density and the overall area of the bonds for higher CB content as well as the reinforcement effect of high modulus CB particles are likely to improve the modulus of the fiberweb. Both films and fiberwebs show similar piezoresistive behavior, however gauge factor of fiberwebs are slightly higher than equivalent films. To demonstrate a potential use, the CB-PU nanocomposite fiberweb was applied in the form of flexible electrodes on a circular dielectric elastomer actuator. The maximum mean areal actuation strain of 12.74% was recorded with 5.58 vol% carbon black filled fiberweb as electrodes applied on and VHB-4910 acrylic films.

Hwang, Jee Sang

229

46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

2012-10-01

230

Prognostic and health management for aircraft electrical power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the electrical power supply system analysis, a system of prognostic and health management (PHM) for the electrical power supply system is presented. The PHM system can accomplish the condition assessment of the key characteristics and device in the electrical power supply system without additional test equipment. The condition of rotating rectifier, contact resistance and so on can be

Haiyang Pan; Ensheng Dong; Yilin Jiang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

231

Electric power steering system based on fuzzy PID control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power steering system (EPS) has been developing rapidly and becomes one of the safe-critical systems in modern control system of cars. The tracking performance of control system is an important factor that affects the assistance of electric power steering system. In order to improve the overall performance of electric power steering, fuzzy logic control theory was applied to the

Zhanfeng Gao; Wenjiang Wu; Jianhua Zheng; Zhanpeng Sun

2009-01-01

232

Electrical applications for air conditioning and refrigeration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical troubleshooting is possibly the most neglected area of maintaining air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. This text explains and illustrates methods for troubleshooting the full spectrum of electrical or electronic circuits of these systems. Comprehensive sections offer coverage of electrical fundamentals, single-phase electric motors, three-phase motors, control devices, electrical control circuits, use of schematic diagrams in troubleshooting, ice makers, solid

1999-01-01

233

Mechanical and electrostatic properties of carbon nanotubes under tensile loading and electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled mechanical and electronic behaviours of single walled open carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under applied electric field and tensile loading are investigated by the use of quantum mechanics as well as quantum-molecular dynamics techniques based on the Roothaan-Hall equations and the Newton motion laws. Different failure mechanisms and mechanical properties are found for CNTs subjected to electric fields and that subjected

Yufeng Guo; Wanlin Guo

2003-01-01

234

Carbon nanofiller/polymer nanocomposites: Diffusion, mechanical and electrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery two decades ago, fullerene family has drawn remarkable attention because of their unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical and flammable properties. They have been widely used to improve polymer properties. These nanofillers produce huge interfacial areas between the polymer and the fillers. Despite the intensive research on fullerene nanocomposites, understanding of the importance of the filler-polymer interface is still limited and further investigation of the structure-property relationships is needed. This dissertation probed influence of nanoparticles on polymer tracer diffusion and molecular weight dependence of composite mechanical properties, and developed a coated particle process to obtain composites with high electrical conductivity. Deuterated polystyrene (dPS) diffusion in nanoparticle/polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites was measured by an elastic recoil detection method. We used single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and C60 as nanofillers and found that the nanofillers have a significant influence on polymer tracer diffusion. When the tracer molecules ( Rg) are larger than the fillers ( RCNT), the tracer diffusion coefficient exhibits a minimum as a function of filler concentration. In contrast, the tracer diffusion in nanocomposites is constant when the tracer chains are smaller than the fillers. A trap model simulation was developed to understand the minimum diffusion coefficient. The load transfer mechanism from polymer matrix to fillers were studied by tensile testing and Raman spectroscopy in SWCNT/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite fibers. Without strong filler-polymer interactions, effective load transfer is limited to small strains, and Raman peak shift and stress-strain curve of composite fibers are reversible, suggesting an elastic deformation. Beyond this strain region, the load transfer is nonlinear because of a slippage at the polymer-filler interface. The stress on nanotubes reaches a maximum and then decreases with further increase in the strain. A coated particle process (CPP) method was developed to prepare nanocomposites with a cellular filler structure. The fillers are SWCNTs and PMMA is used as polymer matrix. Compared with the coagulated nanocomposites with well dispersed SWCNTs, the CPP-made nanocomposites have a higher electrical conductivity (2 orders higher), a smaller percolation threshold (50%).

Mu, Minfang

235

Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.  

PubMed

Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

Galley, Chad R

2013-04-22

236

Multiple voltage electrical power distribution system for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of the 20th Century, the automobile electrical system has experienced one architectural change, one significant electrical power plant change and one notable change in the electrical storage component. There is now growing disparity in voltage level requirements between electronic and electrical loads to the point that a single voltage system may no longer be the most efficient

John M. Miller

1996-01-01

237

ALARA system installation at Philadelphia Electric  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corporate health physics department at the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) felt that further controls of radiation dose exposure were required to meet the intent of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) requirements at their Peach Bottom and Limerick Nuclear Power Stations. Following a bid specification development effort, bids were requested and a custom development effort by Systems Coordination Inc. (SCI) was chosen.

J. Fongheiser; R. K. Lawton; D. H. Ruzic

1987-01-01

238

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

239

Power quality issues and interactions in modern electrical distribution systems.  

PubMed

With the increasing rate of electronic equipment installation, there is a greater need for understanding how equipment affects and is affected by the electrical system that serves it. This document addresses these issues as well as principles of electricity magnetism and electrical system construction as they apply to potential problems. The document is geared for those without an electrical engineering background but do have a basic knowledge of electrical systems and terms. PMID:10162570

Moss, T P

1996-12-01

240

Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements  

SciTech Connect

The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

Buss, L.B.

1984-05-01

241

Electrical and mechanical properties of graphene oxide on flexible substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited via the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method to lower the oxygen concentration of graphene sheets for large-scale production. In addition, the direct synthesis of large-scale GO films using transfer processes on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate was conducted. The thickness of the GO films was controlled to adjust the optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The Young's modulus values of films with thicknesses of 100-200 nm were 324-529 GPa. Moreover, the GO films exhibited excellent conductivity, with a sheet resistance of 276-2024 ?/sq at 23-77% transparency. Experiments show that transfer processes for flexible substrates can produce high-quality cost-effective transparent conductive films.

Kang, Shao-Hui; Fang, Te-Hua; Hong, Zheng-Han

2013-12-01

242

Electrical transport and photocurrent mechanisms in silicon nanocrystal multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the lateral electrical transport and photocurrent mechanisms in multilayers of two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), grown on quartz substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of Si and thermal oxidation. At low voltages, electrical conduction was ohmic, whereas at higher voltages, it was space charge limited in the presence of traps. At temperatures higher than 200 K both dark current and photocurrent were determined by thermal activation of carriers across the energy band gap, with an activation energy depending either on the applied voltage or on illumination. At temperatures lower than 200 K, the rate of current variation with temperature was smaller as transport was realized by carrier hopping, via phonons, between trapping states within the energy band gap, located near in energy and around the Fermi level. However, at the same temperature range, photocurrent was independent of temperature, as it was determined by carrier hopping from higher energy states to progressively lower ones. From this analysis, carrier concentration, an effective carrier mobility and trap density were extracted.

Manousiadis, P.; Gardelis, S.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

2013-01-01

243

Automatic navigation system for electric power vehicles with EPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, automatic navigation control system is developed for agricultural electric power vehicles. Electric power steering (EPS) systems have many advantages over traditional hydraulic power steering systems in engine efficiency and space efficiency. So the electric power vehicle for experiment equips EPS system. Navigation control method, fuzzy control steering and path planning are discussed in detail. Navigation control method

Zhou Jianjun; Zhang Man; Cao Min'gang; Li Su; Liu Bin

2008-01-01

244

Stability analysis of large electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions of the world, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Ensuring the reliable operation of the power system requires engineers to study the response of the system to various disturbances. The responses to large disturbances are examined by numerically solving the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations describing the power system. The response to small disturbances is typically studied via eigenanalysis. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently developed the Extended Transient/Mid-term Stability Program (ETMSP) to study large disturbance stability and the Small Signal Stability Program Package (SSSP) to study small signal stability. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were to (1) explore ways of speeding up ETMSP, especially on mid-term voltage stability problems, (2) explore ways of speeding up the Multi-Area Small-Signal Stability program (MASS), one of the codes in SSSP, and (3) explore ways of increasing the size of problem that can be solved by the Cray version of MASS.

Elwood, D.M.

1993-01-01

245

Electricity Storage Systems and the Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power as baseline power or power from renewables requires either a system for storage of electrical energy that can respond quickly to demand or a back-up power source, usually a gas turbine plant that has a quick response time. We have studied six technologies for storing electrical energy from the grid: pumped hydropower, compressed air storage, batteries, flywheels, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and electrochemical capacitors. In addition, the power conversion systems (PCS) that connect storage to the grid are both expensive and critical to the success of a storage technology. Each of these six technologies offers different benefits, is at a different stage of readiness for commercial use, and offers opportunities for research. Advantages and disadvantages for each of the technologies and PCS will be discussed.

Howes, Ruth

2007-04-01

246

Completion report harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Harmonic currents have increased dramatically in electrical distribution systems in the last few years due to the growth in non-linear loads found in most electronic devices. Because electrical systems have been designed for linear voltage and current wav...

L. M. Tolbert

1996-01-01

247

Mine electrical systems evaluation: model coal mine electrical system specifications. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicated a need to physically model a typical a-c\\/d-c coal mine section electrical system. Its purpose would be to permit preliminary evaluations of electrical problem solutions prior to launching full-scale investigations. Such use can result in greater flexibility than that afforded by present computer models. Furthermore, numerous problems, which would be virtually impossible to incorporate in a computer model

L. A. Morley; J. L. Kohler

1974-01-01

248

Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits  

DOEpatents

A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

Jatko, William B. (10601 Rivermist La., Knoxville, TN 37922); McNeilly, David R. (Rte. 12, Box 538, Maryville, TN 37801)

1988-01-01

249

Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits  

DOEpatents

A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

1988-04-12

250

The physics of electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes electric power systems from a physicist's point of view. In contrast to common introductory textbooks on power systems, the emphasis is on the physical design, that is the material selection and the choice of the geometrical shape, of the fundamental components as it follows from the function and serves the main purpose. Why do power system components look the way they look? This is the question addressed in an accessible way. Four fundamental components are needed to make the most elementary power system: overhead transmission lines, transformers, synchronous generators, and circuit breakers. High-voltage overhead lines make efficient long-distance transmission of electric power possible. Transformers step up the power from the generating plant and cascade it down to the final consumption. For their ability to control, independently, real and reactive power, synchronous generators are the most common type of generators. And it is only through the immediate extinction of plasma arcs in circuit breakers that shortcircuit currents can be interrupted and faulty segments of the grid disconnected.

Ohler, C.

2013-06-01

251

FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.  

SciTech Connect

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

2006-08-01

252

Classical Mechanics of Nonconservative Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamilton’s principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton’s principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton’s principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment.

Galley, Chad R.

2013-04-01

253

Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)  

SciTech Connect

The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

2007-12-31

254

Defining safe operating voltages for aerospace electrical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased electrical power demands are being experienced on the new generation of aircraft due to an increased reliance on electrical technology such as air conditioning, de-icing systems and electrical flight control actuation. Sustaining the transmission of hundreds of kilowatts of electrical power at low voltages, typical around 115 V, is not feasible owing to the penalties incurred due to high

I. Cotton; A. Nelms; M. Husband

2007-01-01

255

Pressurizer system for electric penetration assemblies  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for maintaining seal integrity under pressure and monitoring leakage within an electric penetration assembly of the type which extends through a containment wall of a nuclear reactor installation. The manifold passage in the penetration header plate is filled with a dielectric liquid and is pressurized by an apparatus which includes an accumulator containing the dielectric liquid and located inside the penetration header plate to supply the liquid thereto. The liquid in the accumulator is kept under pressure by a diaphragm separating the liquid from an inert gas which is under pressure.

Yue, D. D.

1980-11-25

256

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING T. Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present an electrical characterization methodology targeted at studying the pattern dependent problems of metal dishing and oxide erosion in inlaid metal polishing processes [1]. The method includes electrical test structure design and layout, design of experiment and measurement, physi-cal thickness extraction procedures, and verification with physical measurement. The electrical test struc-ture design and layout is focused

T. Tugbawa; S. Hymes

257

Field and temperature dependence of the small polaron hopping electrical conductivity in 1D disordered systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of the electric field and the temperature on the electrical conductivity of one-dimensional disordered systems due to phonon assisted hopping of small polarons. The microscopic transport mechanism is treated within the framework of the generalized molecular crystal model and the Kubo formula, while percolation theoretical arguments lead to analytical expressions for the macroscopic behavior of the

G. P. Triberis; M. Dimakogianni

2009-01-01

258

All electric controls and accessories for ground vehicle gas turbine propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of electro-mechanical devices as the kinematic portions of a microprocessor based gas turbine control system. Specific applications are: 1. An electric motor driven positive displacement pump, which provides metered high pressure fuel to the distribution manifold. Fuel metering to be provided by varying the motor angular velocity; 2. An electric motor driven lube oil pump;

Powd

1986-01-01

259

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOEpatents

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24

260

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOEpatents

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2009-06-02

261

Note: Mechanical and electrical characterization of nanowires in scanning electron microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note presents two experimental techniques for mechanical and electrical characterization of individual nanowires inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile testing is realized by transferring a nanowire to a microelectromechanical systems device that stretches the nanowire and measures the elongations and tensile forces. The device consists of an electrostatic actuator and two capacitive sensors, capable of acquiring all measurement data (force and displacement) electronically without relying on electron microscopy imaging. For electrical characterization, four-point probe measurement of individual nanowires is performed automatically by controlling four nanomanipulators with SEM visual feedback. A feedforward controller is incorporated into the control system to improve the response time. This work represents advances in nanomaterial testing and automated nanomanipulation.

Ru, Changhai; Sun, Lining

2011-10-01

262

System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed

Thomas W. Kerslake; Jeffrey S. Hojnicki; Robert D. Green; Jeffrey C. Follo

1993-01-01

263

Design and Development of Electric Active Stabilizer Suspension System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric active stabilizer suspension system has been developed as a technology for controlling vehicle roll. The system includes various sensors that detect the vehicle's running state, and active stabilizer actuators that use electric motors and reduction gears to control roll. The electric stabilizer suspension system was compared with hydraulic stabilizer systems, and an investigation demonstrated the superiority of the developed system, which offers outstanding vehicle behavior, improved responsiveness and reduced energy consumption (including energy regeneration).

Buma, Shuuichi; Ookuma, Yasuhiro; Taneda, Akiya; Suzuki, Katsumi; Cho, Jae-Sung; Kobayashi, Masaru

264

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Montana Consumer's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this guide is to provide basic information about small wind electric systems to people looking for affordable and reliable sources of electricity. Depending on the wind resource, a small wind energy system can lower your electricity bill by...

2004-01-01

265

An Intelligent Diagnostic\\/Prognostic Framework for Automotive Electrical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive systems are becoming increasingly dependent on electrical components, computer control, and sensors. It has become extremely critical to detect faults in the electrical system and predict the remaining useful life of failing components. This paper introduces an integrated methodology for monitoring, modeling, data processing, fault diagnosis, and failure prognosis of critical electrical components such as the battery. The enabling

Manzar Abbas; Aldo A. Ferri; Marcos E. Orchard; George J. Vachtsevanos

2007-01-01

266

Electrical power distribution system operating experience review for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes safety research on electrical distribution systems applicable to fusion facilities. Electrical power has many uses in both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments; it is the most important support system for any fusion experiment. Electricity powers a wide variety of plant equipment, including vacuum pumps, magnets, coolant pumps, air handlers, compressors, and either plasma heating or target implosion

L. C Cadwallader

2002-01-01

267

Electric system training with programmable controllers  

SciTech Connect

A power system simulator (PSS) for training system operators has been opened at the Pacific Gas and Electric Training Center at San Ramon, California. The simulator was designed as an instructional aid and is part of a larger, more comprehensive operating training facility. It has the capability of duplicating both routine and emergency situations for transmission and distribution lines, power plants, and substations. Modeled after nuclear plant simulators, the PSS utilizes state-of-the-art technology and is believed to be on the leading edge of power system simulators. The new operator training facility covers 10,000 ft/sup 2/ and is divided into four classrooms, two labs, three simulated dispatch centers, and various administrative offices. Ten full- and part-time instructors are on staff to train the over 900 system, power plant, agency, and trainee personnel. The simulator is considered the heart of the complex and covers over half of the available floor space. It is divided into two large rooms and further separated by the dispatch centers. The indoor room represents the high-voltage transmission and generating stations, the outdoor room is for both the lower-voltage distribution system and simulated physical equipment. In each room, full-size control boards (equipped with actual relay protection and automatic schemes) are arranged into various stations and lines.

Benson, M.B.

1989-01-01

268

Circuit requirements for MEMS-based mechanical-to-electrical power conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy scavenging is a technology that derives required microwatt level power to drive electronics from ambient heat, light, radio, or vibration, that is otherwise wasted. In this study, we have investigated the circuit optimization strategy for vibration-based piezoelectric energy scavenging systems that supply the electric power to wireless sensors and electronics for ubiquitous sensor networks. In this paper, we assert that not only the mechanical to electrical energy conversion efficiency, but also the speed of energy storage is important in designing and evaluation of energy scavenging system, since the energy scavenging system with higher speed of energy storage has faster start up response to the mechanical input and can supply required power more frequently. Particularly in case of piezoelectric micropower generator, we show that the low reverse leakage current characteristic rather than the low forward voltage drop of the rectifying diodes is much more beneficial to improve conversion efficiency and that the storage capacitor should be as small as possible to reduce the time to store required amount of energy. Experimental and PSPICE results show that, when ultra-low leakage current diodes are adopted for a bridge rectifier, the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is doubled or more in some cases, and the charging speed is increased by 20%, compared to the circuit that adopts Schottky diodes. It is also found that, compared to the circuit with larger storage capacitor, the circuit with smaller storage capacitor requires shorter time to store the same amount of energy and can drive voltage regulator more frequently. This study suggests that low reverse leakage diode and small storage capacitor should be used to build efficient high performance piezoelectric energy scavenging systems for ubiquitous sensor networks.

Kang, Sungmuk; Kim, Hyejoong; Kim, Hoseong; Baek, Changwook

2008-03-01

269

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Systems Assessment Seminar: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimiz...

1984-01-01

270

Weather-Related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High winds, especially when combined with precipitation from seasonal storms, can cause damage to electricity utility systems, resulting in service interruptions to large numbers of electricity customers. While most such power outages are caused by damage...

R. J. Campbell

2012-01-01

271

Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these

J. Sierpowska; J. Töyräs; M. A. Hakulinen; S. Saarakkala; J. S. Jurvelin; R. Lappalainen

2003-01-01

272

Study of the Electrical and Mechanical Activity of the Rectum: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical activity of the rectal detrusor was studied in 13 dogs. 10 electrodes were sutured serially to the rectal and lower sigmoid colon serosa. Electrical activity was recorded for 30 min\\/day for 10 days. Simultaneous electric and mechanical activity (recorded by a 6-French catheter connected to a pressure transducer) was also recorded with and without rectal distension by a

A. Shafik

1994-01-01

273

Multipacting mechanism as the origin of breakdown in high-frequency electrical discharges in gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which gas at low pressure breaks down when subjected to a high-frequency electrical field is considerably different from that of other types of electrical discharge. Provided the pressure is sufficiently low, the breakdown electric field strength is independent of the kind of gas, depending instead on the type, condition and separation of electrode surfaces, and the frequency

G. S. Harmon

1979-01-01

274

AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

Slicker, J. M.

1983-06-01

275

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

276

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-06-15

277

Future of public power & electric cooperative systems  

SciTech Connect

Municipals and cooperatives face daunting challenges in the march to retail choice. Despite calls from investor-owned utilities to level the playing field by curtailing the programs that benefit public power, municipals and cooperatives face a steeper slant than do their private-power counterparts. Only keen anticipation and intelligent strategy will win the day for consumer-owned utilities. The future of public power and electric cooperative systems, which presently serve nearly 25 percent of the nation`s consumers, is as complex an issue as the plot twists and interpersonal entanglements of a Shakespearean play - and is just as riveting a spectacle to those of us fortunate enough to be involved. As this article is being written, House and Senate hearings are focusing on whether and how public power fits into the future deregulated environment. No one disputes (at least openly) that there will continue to be a role for public power in a restructured electric industry. That role will vary dramatically, though, depending on the region of the country, structure of the entity, preparedness for customer choice, relevant federal and state enactments, and competitiveness of other players in the industry.

Vince, C.A.; Quirk, S.A.; Fogel, J.C. [Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-11-01

278

ALARA system installation at Philadelphia Electric  

SciTech Connect

The corporate health physics department at the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) felt that further controls of radiation dose exposure were required to meet the intent of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) requirements at their Peach Bottom and Limerick Nuclear Power Stations. Following a bid specification development effort, bids were requested and a custom development effort by Systems Coordination Inc. (SCI) was chosen. The SCI system, named ADEPT, is a custom-designed application of their CHAMPS application development tool and operates on the corporate IBM mainframe. The ADEPT system monitors and controls radiation work permits (RWPs) and radiation dose information (whole body and airborne) received by workers on these permits. The system provides on-line access to the status and history of open and closed RWPs. As presently configured, all dose information is obtained from direct-reading dosimetry and is not the legal record of personnel dose. The addition of features to utilize the monthly thermoluminescent dose has been anticipated and may be added in the future.

Fongheiser, J.; Lawton, R.K.; Ruzic, D.H.

1987-01-01

279

Rivaroxaban modulates electrical and mechanical characteristics of left atrium  

PubMed Central

Background Rivaroxaban reduces stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Left atrium (LA) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of AF. However, the electromechanical effects of rivaroxaban on LA are not clear. Results Conventional microelectrodes and a whole-cell patch-clamp were used to record the action potentials (APs) and ionic currents in rabbit LA preparations and isolated single LA cardiomyocytes before and after the administration of rivaroxaban. Rivaroxaban (10, 30, 100, and 300 nM) concentration-dependently reduced LA (n?=?7) AP durations at 90% repolarization (APD90) from 76?±?2 to 79?±?3, 67?±?4 (P?electrical and mechanical characteristics with direct ionic current effects.

2013-01-01

280

Random vibration of mechanical and structural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses random vibration of mechanical and structural systems commonly encountered in aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Techniques are examined for determining probabilistic characteristics of the response of dynamic systems subjected to random loads or inputs and for calculating probabilities related to system performance or reliability. Emphasis is given to applications.

T. T. Soong; Mircea Grigoriu

1993-01-01

281

Integration of the Premium Power Supply on Electric Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an inverter-interfaced distributed generation (DG) system that is interconnected with the electric power system (EPS). This system has two main goals such as to serve the customer with reliable electric power and to improve power quality like harmonics and voltage event. This system is interfaced through the series and the shunt inverters because inverters are effective to

Jin-Woo Park; Il-Yop Chung; Kyoung-Nam Kim; Jong-Hun Lee; Seung-Il Moon; Byung-Moon Han

2005-01-01

282

Optimal control of electric power-assisted steering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPS (electric power-assisted steering) system has been used to replace traditional hydronic power steering system in vehicles. In an EPS system, the assisting torque is from an electric motor for steering effort. The performance of an EPS system requires that the high frequency external disturbance in road reaction torque be attenuated so that the driver could feel comfortable - light

Xiang Chen; Xiaoqun Chen; Kemin Zhou

2005-01-01

283

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of

Jirang Cui; Eric Forssberg

2003-01-01

284

Dual power, constant speed electric motor system  

DOEpatents

A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

Kirschbaum, Herbert S. (Asheville, NC)

1984-01-01

285

Electricity and technical progress: The bituminous coal mining industry, mechanization to automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and use of electric mobile machinery facilitated the mechanization of underground bituminous coal mining and has played a lesser but important role in the growth of surface mining. Electricity has been central to the rise of mechanically integrated mining, both underground (after 1950) and on the surface (recently). Increasing labor productivity in coal mining and decreasing total energy use

W. D. Jr

1987-01-01

286

Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

Anderson, Iver

2011-01-14

287

Fracture criterion for conductive cracks in soda-lime glass under combined mechanical and electrical loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture tests of electrically conductive cracks on pre-notched four-point bending soda-lime glass samples were conducted\\u000a under combined mechanical and electrical loading. The experimental results show that the critical stress intensity factor\\u000a at fracture is reduced if an electric field is applied, thereby indicating that the electric field makes contributions to\\u000a the fracture of conductive cracks. Base on the charge-free zone

Dong-Jun Yan; Hai-You Huang; Chi-Wai Cheung; Tong-Yi Zhang

2010-01-01

288

HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-01-01

289

Mechanical Activation of Pharmaceutical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical activation has become a phenomenon of general significance in pharmaceutics. This report describes the extent of activation induced by relevant processes. With the use of the Eyring equation the transformation of structurally stored energy into chemical energy and the implied free enthalpy as well as the excess free enthalpy (activity) were evaluated from the rate of an indicator reaction.

Reinhard Hüttenrauch; Sabine Fricke; Petra Zielke

1985-01-01

290

A macroscopic mechanical resonator driven by mesoscopic electrical back-action.  

PubMed

Systems with coupled mechanical and optical or electrical degrees of freedom have fascinating dynamics that, through macroscopic manifestations of quantum behaviour, provide new insights into the transition between the classical and quantum worlds. Of particular interest is the back-action of electrons and photons on mechanical oscillators, which can lead to cooling and amplification of mechanical motion. Furthermore, feedback, which is naturally associated with back-action, has been predicted to have significant consequences for the noise of a detector coupled to a mechanical oscillator. Recently it has also been demonstrated that such feedback effects lead to strong coupling between single-electron transport and mechanical motion in carbon nanotube nanomechanical resonators. Here we present noise measurements which show that the mesoscopic back-action of electrons tunnelling through a radio-frequency quantum point contact causes driven vibrations of the host crystal. This effect is a remarkable macroscopic manifestation of microscopic quantum behaviour, where the motion of a mechanical oscillator-the host crystal, which consists of on the order of 10(20) atoms-is determined by statistical fluctuations of tunnelling electrons. PMID:20596016

Stettenheim, Joel; Thalakulam, Madhu; Pan, Feng; Bal, Mustafa; Ji, Zhonqing; Xue, Weiwei; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, K W; Blencowe, M P; Rimberg, A J

2010-07-01

291

Electrical Systems. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual, which is part of a series on agricultural and industrial machinery, deals with electrical systems. Special attention is paid to electricity as it is commonly used on mobile machines. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: electricity and how it works (current, voltage, and resistance; types of circuits;…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

292

Electrical stability study of metal\\/dielectric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this research work is to study the fundamental electrical properties of the metal\\/dielectric system subjected to thermal and electrical stresses. Metal ions tend to drift into the dielectric under a sufficiently strong electric field at elevated temperatures. The existence of metal ions can modify the dielectric properties of the surrounding insulator. In this thesis, the metal

Ya Ou

2009-01-01

293

The Study of Electricity Market Monitoring Index System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity market monitoring has become a routine work of power market regulating in some developed countries. Its scientific approach is establishing an electricity market monitoring index system that could reflect the market volatility and preceding a comprehensive evaluation. In this paper, based on the systematic theory of electricity market monitoring, we launch an empirical analysis of the operation of California

ZHAO Huiru; LIANG Chao; QIN Zhiqiang

2008-01-01

294

Aging of defective electrical joints in underground power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical joints can be weak points in an underground distribution supply system. Cyclic loads and the fact that electrical joints are inside premolded rubber cable joints both greatly affect their reliability. Within the framework of a preventive maintenance program, we have studied the life expectancy of underground cable joints with defective electrical joints. Three types of cable joints were subjected

Daniel Fournier

1998-01-01

295

A Simple Aircraft Electrical System Using Changeover Contactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A non-paralleled aircraft electrical power system is described, which, while avoiding the complexity of a paralleled system, does not suffer from supply interruptions of long duration which are liable to occur with conventional non-paralleled systems. The...

R. F. Sims R. L. A. McKenzie

1965-01-01

296

Electricity Consumption Simulation Based on Multi-agent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to simulate impact on electricity of macroeconomic policy and foreign trade, Electricity Consumption Simulation System\\u000a (ECMAS) was established based on multi-agent system. In ECMAS, macroeconomic system was consisted of government agent, resident\\u000a agent, market agent, foreign trade agent and fifteen industry agents who were concluded according to I\\/O table and data of\\u000a electricity consumption. Using ECMAS, impact on

Minjie Xu; Zhaoguang Hu; Baoguo Shan; Xiandong Tan

2009-01-01

297

Generalized statistical mechanics for superstatistical systems.  

PubMed

Mesoscopic systems in a slowly fluctuating environment are often well described by superstatistical models. We develop a generalized statistical mechanics formalism for superstatistical systems, by mapping the superstatistical complex system onto a system of ordinary statistical mechanics with modified energy levels. We also briefly review recent examples of applications of the superstatistics concept for three very different subject areas, namely train delay statistics, turbulent tracer dynamics and cancer survival statistics. PMID:21149383

Beck, Christian

2011-01-28

298

System for the co-production of electricity and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Described herein is a system for the co-generation of hydrogen gas and electricity, wherein the proportion of hydrogen to electricity can be adjusted from 0% to 100%. The system integrates fuel cell technology for power generation with fuel-assisted steam-electrolysis. A hydrocarbon fuel, a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, or a partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel can be fed into the system.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Anderson, Brian Lee (Lodi, CA)

2007-10-02

299

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XX, TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS (INTRODUCTION), (2) TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING, (3) THE BATTERY, (4) PERIODIC BATTERY SERVICING, (5) THE DC CHARGING SYSTEM, (6) PERIODIC…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

300

Representing wind turbine electrical generating systems in fundamental frequency simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of wind turbines are being erected. In the near future, they may start to influence the dynamics of electrical power systems by interacting with conventional generation equipment and with loads. The impact of wind turbines on the dynamics of electrical power systems therefore becomes an important subject, studied by means of power system dynamics simulations. Various types of

J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2003-01-01

301

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XX, TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS (INTRODUCTION), (2) TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING, (3) THE BATTERY, (4) PERIODIC BATTERY SERVICING, (5) THE DC CHARGING SYSTEM, (6) PERIODIC…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

302

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

303

Coordination mechanisms of supply chain systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply chain management (SCM) has become an important management paradigm. As supply chain members are often separate and independent economic entities, a key issue in SCM is to develop mechanisms that can align their objectives and coordinate their activities so as to optimize system performance. In this paper, we provide a review of coordination mechanisms of supply chain systems in

Xiuhui Li; Qinan Wang

2007-01-01

304

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

305

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

306

Efferent Control of the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Hair Cells in the Bullfrog's Sacculus  

PubMed Central

Background Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position. Conclusions and Significance The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent.

Castellano-Munoz, Manuel; Israel, Samuel H.; Hudspeth, A. J.

2010-01-01

307

Electric conduction mechanism in conjugated polymers studied using flicker noise spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy of Stochastic Signals (3S) has been used to study conduction behavior in electrochemically deposited conductive polymers (CP) using as example polyaniline and poly(3-methyl thiophene). Within the 3S approach, the conduction process is considered as a stochastic process in heterogeneous disordered system rather than as some classical conduction mechanisms like Schottky or Poole-Frenkel emission. We have been able to distinguish several modes of the conduction process in conducting polymers using the 3S methodology. Particularly, we have established that the transport of charge carriers in highly doped CPs is much less correlated than in non-doped ones, that is, at low doping levels elementary processes involved in the conduction are more correlated than in highly doped polymer. By increasing applied electric field we also achieve lower correlation in a sequence of elementary events contributing to the conductivity of CP. Apparently, the change in the correlation length corresponds to changing mechanism of the electrical conduction. The lower correlation in highly doped sample can be attributed to various factors including change in CP conformation, enhancement in inter-chain charge transfer and generation of polaron lattice. The obtained results show the high informative potential of the 3S method in studying conduction mechanism in conducting polymers.

Parkhutik, Vitali P.; Patil, Rahul; Harima, Yutaka

2003-05-01

308

Evaluation of epoxy nanocomposites for electrical insulation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy nanocomposites can be used as electrical insulation material in various high voltage applications, due to their improved ductility, fatigue resistance, in combination with enhanced electrical properties, compared to the neat epoxy. In the previous work, the mechanisms leading to these improvements in Al2O3 nanoparticles filled epoxy nanocomposites were investigated [1, 2]. It was shown that a homogenous dispersion of

Su Zhao; Henrik Hillborg; Eva Mćrtensson; Göran Paulsson

2010-01-01

309

Mechanical-electrical triggers and sensors using piezoelectric micowires/nanowires.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a mechanical-electrical trigger using a ZnO piezoelectric fine-wire (PFW) (microwire, nanowire). Once subjected to mechanical impact, a bent PFW creates a voltage drop across its width, with the tensile and compressive surfaces showing positive and negative voltages, respectively. The voltage and current created by the piezoelectric effect could trigger an external electronic system, thus, the impact force/pressure can be detected. The response time of the trigger/sensor is approximately 10 ms. The piezoelectric potential across the PFW has a lifetime of approximately 100 s, which is long enough for effectively "gating" the transport current along the wire; thus a piezoelectric field effect transistor is possible based on the piezotronic effect. PMID:18681485

Zhou, Jun; Fei, Peng; Gao, Yifan; Gu, Yudong; Liu, Jin; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

2008-08-06

310

New controller for functional electrical stimulation systems.  

PubMed

A novel, self-contained controller for functional electrical stimulation systems has been designed. The development was motivated by the need to have a general purpose, easy to use controller capable of stimulating many muscle groups, thus restoring complex motor functions (e.g. standing, walking, reaching, and grasping). The designed controller can regulate the frequency, pulse duration, and charge balance on up to 16 channels, and execute pre-programmed and sensory-driven control operations. The controller supports up to eight analog and six digital sensors, and comprises a memory block for including history of the sensory data (time series). Five independent timers provide the basis for the multi-modal and multi-level control of movement. The PC compatible interface is realised via an IR serial communication channel. The PC based software is user friendly and fully menu driven. This paper also presents a case study where the controller was implemented to restore walking in a paraplegic subject. The assistive system comprised the novel controller, the power and output stages of an eight-channel FES system (IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng, TRE-2 (1994) 234), ankle-foot orthoses, and a rolling walker. Stimulation was applied with surface electrodes positioned over the motoneurons that innervate muscles responsible for the hip and knee flexion and extension. The sensory system included goniometers at knee and hip joints, force-sensing resistors built in the shoe insoles, and digital accelerometers at the hips. A rule-based control algorithm was generated following a two-step procedure: (1) simulation and (2) machine learning as described in earlier studies (IEEE Trans Rehab Eng, TRE-7 (1999) 69). The paraplegic subject walked faster, and with less physiological effort, when automatic control was applied as compared to hand-control. This case study, as well as a previous one for assisting grasping (The design and testing of a new programmable electronic stimulator. N. Fisekovic, MS thesis. University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 2000) indicate that the novel control unit is effectively applicable to FES systems. PMID:11551815

Fisekovic, N; Popovic, D B

2001-07-01

311

Illuminating Systems: Edison and Electrical Incandescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the life and inventions of Thomas A. Edison up to the invention of electrical incandescent lighting in 1881. Focuses on the process that Edison followed in developing incandescent lighting, including financial aspects, other competitors in the field, and the eventual establishment of the Edison Electric Light Companies. (RW)

Sanford, Greg

1989-01-01

312

Minimizing electric bearing currents in ASD systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, an increase in bearing failures has been seen in ASD-fed electric motors, as well as in gearboxes, and other connected machinery, caused by electric current flow through such bearings. The theories presented in this paper focus on bearing currents in ASDs of the voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) type, for use with AC induction motors, although

P. J. Link

1999-01-01

313

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

314

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A VERY FAST LOBSTER MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

The remotor muscle of the second antenna of the American lobster is functionally divided into two parts. One part produces slow, powerful contractions and is used for postural control. The other part produces very brief twitches, can follow frequencies over 100/sec without fusion and is probably used for sound production. This great speed is due, in part, to synchronous arrival of nerve impulses at multiple terminals, a very brief membrane electrical response and electrical continuity throughout large volumes of sarcoplasm. Calculations indicate that the very extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum is probably responsible for the rapid decline of tension in this muscle.

Mendelson, Martin

1969-01-01

315

Concurrent recordings of Electrical Current Emissions and Acoustic Emissions detected from marble specimens subjected to mechanical stress up to fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of electrical signals during the application of mechanical stress on brittle geo-materials (the so called Pressure Stimulated Current - PSC[1,2]), provides significant information regarding the mechanical status of the studied rock sample, since PSCs are originated as a result of the opening of cracks and microfractures[3]. The latter mechanism for the creation of PSCs it is straightforward to associated with the recording of acoustic emissions (AE). To justify the common origin of PSCs and AE due to opening of cracks, a combined study was performed implicating the concurrent recording of electric current emissions and AE on marble samples when they are subjected to linearly increasing mechanical load up to the fracture. The electric signal detected is recorded by an ultra sensitive electrometer (Keithley 6514). The sensor used for detecting the electric current is a pair of gold plated electrodes adapted bilaterally on the sample found under axial mechanical stress[4]. The AE were recorded through the Physical Acoustics PCI-2 Acquisition System. The experimental results prove the strong association of the recorded electrical signals and the corresponding acoustic emissions justifying their common origin due to opening of microfractures. Furthermore, when the applied mechanical load exceeds the yield stress then an increasing of PSCs amplitude along with that of AE rate is observed. Acknowledgments. This work was partly supported by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc. SEISMO FEAR HELLARC".

Stavrakas, I.; Hloupis, G.; Triantis, D.; Vallianatos, F.

2012-04-01

316

Robust control of electric power-assisted steering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPS (electric power-assisted steering) system has been used to replace traditional hydronic power steering system in vehicles. In an EPS system, the assisting torque is from an electric motor for steering effort. The performance of an EPS system requires that the system can take care the road reaction torque so that the driver could feel comfortable-light and less vibration-during the

Xiang Chen; K. Li

2005-01-01

317

Correlation of mechanical and electrical relaxation phenomena in superionic conducting glasses  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of mechanical and electrical relaxation due to fast diffusing ions in glasses is placed in the context of relaxing dipolar and ionic liquids, and observation made at constant temperature are compared with those made at constant frequency. With this background several questions provoked by the apparent relations between mechanical and electrical responses are posed and answered within the limitations of currently available experimental data. Comparisons of average relaxation times, and of widths and shapes of relaxation spectra, are made. Finally, the authors present unifying plots which relate relaxational to vibrational responses for both electrical and mechanical stresses, the latter, they believe, for the first time.

Angell, C.A. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

318

Control system for electric power plant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a power plant. The power plant consists of a generator including means for producing a generator filed, a turbine for converting the flow of a fluid into mechanical power to drive the generator, a control means for regulating the flow of the fluid, a voltage regulator for controlling the generator field to thereby control the voltage produced by the generator, a bus, and a main circuit breaker for selectively connecting the generator to the bus, the control system comprising: nonvolatile memory means for storing configuration data comprising a plurality of configuration parameters for the power plants; input means for producing input data including data indicating a speed of the turbine, a position of the control means, a current and a voltage produced by the generator, a current and a voltage produced by the generator, a current and a voltage on the bus, and a position of the main circuit breaker; multitasking processing means for processing the input data in accordance with the configuration data, to thereby produce control signals including breaker signals for tripping and closing the main circuit breaker, voltage level signals for establishing a voltage setpoint for the voltage regulator, and a control signal for controlling the position of the control means and, edit means for enabling an operator to edit the configuration data, to thereby configure the control system for a particular power plant.

McManus, K.L.; McManus, P.J.

1988-11-29

319

Integrated mechanically based CAE system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the product development cycle interaction between design and analysis is very intensive. However, currently existing Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) systems substantially limit such interaction since design and analysis are realized in them as two isolated modules. These limitations can be distinguished on two levels: the conceptual level and the technical level. On the conceptual level a gap exists according

Pavel Kagan; Anath Fischer; Pinhas Z. Bar-Yoseph

1999-01-01

320

Bioluminescence mechanism on new systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

New bioluminescence systems in luminous organisms such as mushrooms, a snail, a squid etc. were investigated. The chromophores emitting light were determined. The mushroom, Lampteromyces japonicus, involves a flavin derivative as the light emitting species. Three components were necessary in the chemiluminescence of the homogenate of this mushroom; one of the smallest constituents being L-tyrosine. The chromophore in the luminous

Minoru Isobe; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Ken Usami; Masahiko Hattori; Yoshiko Nishigohri

1994-01-01

321

Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and

Yuan-Yong Hsu; Shao-Yuan Lu

2010-01-01

322

Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

323

Electrical and mechanical characterization of carbon nanotube filled conductive adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic assemblies rely heavily on soldering to attach components to the interconnect wiring on printed circuit boards and other types of substrates. In response to environmental legislation, the lead-tin alloys commonly used for soldering are being replaced with lead-free alloys and electrically conductive adhesives. Isotropic conductive adhesives (ICA) filled with metal particles are an alternative to solder reflow processing. ICA

Jing Li; Janet K. Lumpp

2006-01-01

324

Power flow management strategies for a local DC Distribution System of More Electric Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local DC Power Distribution System of More Electric Aircraft has to be able to sustain bidirectional power flow to and from electromechanical devices. Because the mechanical source (Turbine Engine) is unidirectional, some storage and dissipation systems are necessary to store or\\/and dissipate the returned energy to maintain the DC bus voltage to the reference value. Different power management strategies

He Zhang; Fabien MOLLET; Stefan BREBAN; Christophe SAUDEMONT; Benoît ROBYNS

2010-01-01

325

Electrical Cerebral Stimulation Modifies Inhibitory Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue has been proposed as a method to treat some neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. Epileptic seizures result from excessive, synchronous, abnormal firing patterns of neurons that are located predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Many people with epilepsy continue presenting seizures even though they are under regimens of antiepileptic medications. An alternative therapy for treatment resistant epilepsy is cerebral electrical stimulation. The present study is focused to review the effects of different types of electrical stimulation and specifically changes in amino acids.

Cuéllar-Herrera, M.; Rocha, L.

2003-09-01

326

Design of Electric Power Web System Based on Comet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comet is to describe the Web application model that a Web server pushes the data to a browser using a long-held HTTP request. Electric power Web system is a typical application of this kind. This paper introduced several kinds of technologies to implement comet, and how to carry out the electric power Web system using pushlet framework. Our results from

Quan Zhou; Ruixiang Bian; Yuchun Pan

2009-01-01

327

Fujian electric system analysis and nuclear power planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to conduct a long term electric expansion planning and nuclear power planning for Fujian Province. The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III) is used to optimize the electric system. Probabilistic Simulation is one...

Lin Jianwen Fu Qiang Cheng Ping

1994-01-01

328

A Power Systems Analysis Software Package For Open Electricity Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a power system analysis tool with particular emphasis on its application in open electricity markets. Traditionally, vertically integrated utilities are planned and operated to provide generation to meet load demand in an economical and reliable manner. With the emergence of open electricity market, power systems have become more complex because utilities have to desegregate to promote competition

Joseph N. Y. Cheung

2006-01-01

329

Nonstationary models for PQ monitoring in naval electrical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many fields of electrical applications, the energy management process, is always more becoming one of the main process should be controlled and monitored. Itpsilas necessary to reach the optimum and, in the same time, the cheaper system working conditions. Particularly in the field of naval electrical system, where there are many environmental factors that stress, grater than other ones,

S. De Falco; N. Pasquino

2008-01-01

330

Electrical design guidelines for photovoltaic\\/thermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In photovoltaic\\/thermal (PVT) systems, the performance of cells in a receiver is affected by the thermal design of the system. A significant differential between the inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling fluid will cause electrical performance to be degraded because of the higher average cell temperatures and because of temperature-induced electrical mismatch among the cells. The study reported in

Lambarski

1984-01-01

331

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

332

49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a)...

2012-10-01

333

Electro-thermomigration as an electrical overstress failure mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical review of electrothermomigration as an EOS/ESD failure mechanism is presented. The paper focuses on the physical basis of the failure mechanism, the strength of the driving forces, and the effects of pulse attributes such as polarity on electrothermomigration. Recommendations or experiments to better understand this phenomenon are given.

Pierce, D. G.

1985-07-01

334

State-of-Charge Estimation for Electric Scooters by Using Learning Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its nonlinear discharge characteristics, the residual electric energy of a battery remains an open problem. As a result, the reliability of electric scooters or electric vehicles is lacking. To alleviate this problem and enhance the capabilities of present electric scooters or vehicles, we propose a state-of-charge learning system that can provide more accurate information about the state-of-charge or

Der-Tsai Lee; Shaw-Ji Shiah; Chien-Ming Lee; Ying-Chung Wang

2007-01-01

335

SHEBMS: Small Hydro-Electric Basin Modeling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and use of the Small Hydro-Electric Basis Modeling System (SHEBMS) for simulating the performance of a hydroelectric system by collectively simulating the performance of its interconnecting components are explained in detail. These compone...

1982-01-01

336

DELTA: An Expert System for Diesel Electric Locomotive Repair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, expert systems have become the most visible and the fastest growing branch of Artificial Intelligence. General Electric Company's Corporate Research and Development has applied expert system technology to the problem of troubleshooting an...

P. P. Bonissone H. E. Johnson

1984-01-01

337

Electric Field Measuring and Display System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus is described for monitoring the electric fields of cloud formations within a particular area. It utilizes capacitor plates that are alternately shielded from the clouds for generating an alternating signal corresponding to the intensity of th...

R. J. Wojtasinski D. D. Lovall

1974-01-01

338

Electric Energy Systems: Energy Storage: Program Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) is developing advanced technologies which will provide additional options to utility planners and regulators for securing future electricity supplies. The technologies include options for increasing sup...

1988-01-01

339

Energy Analysis of Geothermal-Electric Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standard energy analysis was applied to 4 types of geothermal-electric technologies: liquid dominated, hot dry rock, geopressure, and vapor dominated. It was found that all are net energy producers. Expected uncertainties are not large enough to threaten ...

R. Plant R. A. Herendeen

1979-01-01

340

Solar Electric Propulsion System Thermal Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the analysis of thermal control concepts for solar electric propulsion are reported. Thermal control technology is analyzed along with the boundary conditions. The evaluation and selection of thermal control concepts are discussed.

L. E. Ruttner

1975-01-01

341

The thermal and electrical properties of nano-silicon dioxide filled epoxy systems for use in high voltage insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy resins have proven to be an excellent insulation system in many application due to their excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This paper details an investigation into micro and nano silicon dioxide (SD and NSD respectively) filled epoxy systems and the resulting thermal and electrical properties of the composite. The effect of addition of the fillers relative to their

Martin Reading; Zhiqiang Xu; Alun S. Vaughan; Paul L. Lewin

2011-01-01

342

Aircraft Electric Power-Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ever increasing demand for electric power in aircraft has been felt for some time. The necessity of using an electric storage battery started the practice of accompanying it with a d-c generator, first of low current and voltage capacity, later of 50-ampere 12-volt rating, and for the past few years of 200-ampere 24-volt output. In the largest four-engine aircraft,

J. E. Yarmack

1943-01-01

343

A molecular mechanism for electrical tuning of cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Cochlear frequency selectivity in lower vertebrates arises in part from electrical tuning intrinsic to the sensory hair cells. The resonant frequency is determined largely by the gating kinetics of calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels encoded by the slo gene. Alternative splicing of slo from chick cochlea generated kinetically distinct BK channels. Combination with accessory beta subunits slowed the gating kinetics of alpha splice variants but preserved relative differences between them. In situ hybridization showed that the beta subunit is preferentially expressed by low-frequency (apical) hair cells in the avian cochlea. Interaction of beta with alpha splice variants could provide the kinetic range needed for electrical tuning of cochlear hair cells. PMID:9880252

Ramanathan, K; Michael, T H; Jiang, G J; Hiel, H; Fuchs, P A

1999-01-01

344

Wind powered system for generating electricity  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wind turbine system for generating electricity. It consists of: a wind turbine rotor; a rotor shaft connected to the hub for rotation with the wind turbine rotor; a step-up transmission having a low speed input connected to the rotor shaft and a high speed output; a rotary pole amplitude modulated induction machine having a rotor that is connected to the output of the transmission, the machine being operable as a generator at a plurality of discreet speeds of rotation; wind speed responsive switch means for changing speed of operation of the induction machine; and within the wind turbine rotor is made-up of an elongated central hub with no twist having rounded edges and a substantially constant thickness between the edges; a pair of fixed pitch essentially straight blades, each blade extending radially outwardly from the hub in a direction diametrically opposite from the other blade; each blade has a mid-section of airfoil cross section positioned radially outwardly of the central hub portion, and a tip section of airfoil cross section positioned radially outwardly of the mid-section; each blade smoothly changing from the substantially constant thickness and rounded edge shape of the central hub portion into an airfoil cross section as it extends radially outwardly from the central hub portion; each blade first changing to first a plus twist and then a zero twist and then a minus twist as it extends radially outwardly; each blade tapering in thickness and chord as it extends radially outwardly from a location in its mid-section through its tip section.

Baskin, J.M.; Miller, G.E.; Wiesner, W.

1986-01-21

345

Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts  

SciTech Connect

Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

2010-08-01

346

Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

Lipinsky, E.S.; Ball, D.A.; Anson, D.

1982-02-01

347

Electrical and Mechanical Activity of Isolated Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPONTANEOUS electrical and mechanical activity of smooth muscle from the portal vein of the rat were recorded simultaneously for the purpose of determining the relationship of membrane potential to tension development.

S. Funaki; DAVID F. BOHR

1964-01-01

348

Dynamic and quantitative exploration on technology evolution mechanism: The case of electrical conducting polymer nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to obtain global overview on electrical conducting polymer nanocomposite development along time horizon as well as to obtain dynamic and quantitative exploration on technology evolution mechanism, a total of 1421 electrical conducting polymer related nanocomposite patents are retrieved from USPTO patent database and patent citation network is generated by combing both patent citation and social network analysis.

Hsin-Ning Su; Pei-Chun Lee

2009-01-01

349

How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

Skumiel, A.

2011-01-01

350

Electrical conduction mechanism in conjugated polymers studied using Flicker noise spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed detailed analysis of the fluctuations of the electrical current in electrochemically deposited conductive polymers (CP) using as example polyaniline and poly(3-methylthiophene). These heterogeneous and disordered materials cannot be analyzed in terms of classical conduction mechanisms (like Schottky or Poole–Frenkel emission). Instead, the electrical transport in CPs is to be considered as a stochastic process with large component

Vitali Parkhutik; Rahul Patil; Yutaka Harima; Eugenia Matveyeva

2006-01-01

351

Mechanical Diagnostics System Engineering in IMD HUMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goodrich Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics Health and Usage System (IMD-HUMS) mechanical diagnostics functionality is the integration of disparate subsystems. When the aircraft is in the appropriate capture window, the primary processing unit (PPU), commands the vibration processing unit (VPU) to capture vibration data and a tachometer reference. This time domain data is processed by standard and proprietary algorithms to generate

Eric Bechhoefer; Eric Mayhew

2006-01-01

352

Using Intelligent System Approaches for Simulation of Electricity Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significances and approaches of applying intelligent systems to artificial electricity market is discussed. In recent years, with the moving into restructuring of electric system in Japan, the deregulation for the electric market is progressing. The most major change of the market is a founding of JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange.) which is expected to help lower power bills through effective use of surplus electricity. The electricity market designates exchange of electric power between electric power suppliers (supplier agents) themselves. In the market, the goal of each supplier agents is to maximize its revenue for the entire trading period, and shows complex behavior, which can model by a multiagent platform. Using the multiagent simulations which have been studied as “artificial market" helps to predict the spot prices, to plan investments, and to discuss the rules of market. Moreover, intelligent system approaches provide for constructing more reasonable policies of each agents. This article, first, makes a brief summary of the electricity market in Japan and the studies of artificial markets. Then, a survey of tipical studies of artificial electricity market is listed. Through these topics, the future vision is presented for the studies.

Hamagami, Tomoki

353

Modelling and numerical simulation of the electrical, mechanical, and thermal coupled behaviour of Multilayer capacitors (MLCs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modelling of non-linear coupled material characteristics has been used for finite element simulations of the integral device behaviour and mechanical and electrical stress distributions of ceramic multilayer capacitors. A two-dimensional finite element model of standard X7R-type capacitors of different sizes soldered on a printed circuit board has been developed to calculate residual, joining as well as mechanical and electrical

Klaus Prume; Klaus Franken; Ulrich Böttger; Rainer Waser; Horst R Maier

2002-01-01

354

A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application  

SciTech Connect

The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of electrical hazards. The new comprehensive electrical hazard classification system uses a combination of voltage, shock current available, fault current available, power, energy, and waveform to classify all forms of electrical hazards. Based on this electrical hazard classification system, many new tools have been developed, including (a) work controls for these hazards, (b) better selection of PPE for R&D work, (c) improved training, and (d) a new Severity Ranking Tool that is used to rank electrical accidents and incidents with various forms of electrical energy.

Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

355

Impact of electric vehicle loads on electric power distribution systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voltages and currents on four distribution sites (FPLsb-1 to FPLsb-4) have been monitored. The load behavior with and without the EV load has been recorded. By performing laboratory tests on the GMC EV1 charger charging a fully discharged battery, the characteristics of the charger have been determined. The harmonic spectrum of the transformer current charging a fully discharged battery has been determined. The snap shots of the current and voltage waveforms have been recorded and studied. Based on the laboratory data a computer model of the charger and the distribution system has been developed. Comparing the simulation results to the laboratory results and the field data the simulation results have been validated. The simulated currents are roughly 4 to 10% away from the field recorded currents, in their magnitude and distortion. Based on the field data, laboratory results and the simulation results the derating of the distribution transformer has been calculated. The two methods suggested for the calculation of derating have been presented and compared. The maximum and minimum limits of derating have been suggested. Using the first method the maximum derating is 20% and the minimum value is 99%. Using the modified method the derating remains close to 99% throughout the charging cycle. (11 must be noted here, that a derating to 20% means that the transformer can safely handle only 20% of its full rated load. Likewise a derating to 99% means that the transformer can handle 99% of its full rated capacity. Thus, a transformer derated to 20% is highly derated and a transformer derated to 99% is slightly derated.) After establishing the reliability of the simulation, by comparing the simulation results with the field data and laboratory results, a charging scenario with shorter charging times (45 minutes and 1.2 hours) has been simulated. The distribution transformer derating corresponding to these short-charging times has been calculated and presented. Furthermore, recommended scope for further research has been suggested which among other things, involves validating the derating formula for distribution transformers.

Buchh, Tariq Aslam

356

Modelling of Electric Power Systems - a Description and Comparison of Ten Power System Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes and compares ten computer models which may be used for analysis of the Swedish electricity system. Eight of the models are technical models and represent the electricity production system with different categories of power plants. Si...

S. Karlsson

1984-01-01

357

Reliability of Mutil-Layer ceramic capacitor and its conduction mechanism under high electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature-dependent DC conduction mechanism in BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors has been discussed in this paper. In the high electric field, BaTiO3- based Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC) showed different DC conduction mechanism in room-temperature, Curie- temperature, and high-temperature regions. The DC conduction mechanisms at room and high temperature are Schottky effect and ionic flow, respectively. However, the mechanism at Curie

Yudong Lu; Yunfei En; Ming Wan; Xin Wang

2011-01-01

358

Analysis of action mechanism of graphite bombs and reaction method of power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short circuit collapse problem of electric power system attacked by graphite bombs was investigated. The harm of graphite bombs and the vulnerability of electrical network were analyzed. Two kinds of failure modes called direct short circuit failure and indirect short circuit failure were presented accordingly. The arc generation mechanism of conductive filaments dispensed from graphite bombs was analyzed and

Wang Fang; Feng Shunshan; Wu Wenxuan; Liao Fuwang

2010-01-01

359

76 FR 16263 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...electric system that allows significant subjectivity in application and thus creates anomalous...have a compelling concern that the subjectivity and lack of ERO and Commission oversight...52\\ As Order No. 743 notes, the subjectivity of the ``local area''...

2011-03-23

360

Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures.

Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

361

An EMC study of an electrical powertrain for transportation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many reasons, why electric drive systems will be used in future more frequently in transportation systems. The electrification allows a flexible use of different energy sources and thus creates a greater independence from fossil energy. However, electric drive systems are a challenge for the manufacturers of transportation systems. The electrical powertrain can not only be exposed to interferences, it may also emit interferences into components and communication cables in the vicinity. This can be a high risk for the drive system and for the passengers. For that reason, an EMC study of an electrical powertrain for transportation systems is presented. There the interference at the unshielded high-voltage cable (HV-cable) is characterized. The analysis of the influence of position variation of the communication cable with respect to the unshielded HV-cables is one main aspect. Different optimizations have been added to the test setup.

Chand, B.; Hähre, K.; Keghie, J.; Dickmann, S.

2012-09-01

362

Financial payback on California residential solar electric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost effectiveness for consumers of solar electric systems has been achieved in the California residential market due to Time-of-Use Net Metering, a tiered electric rate structure with high rates, and subsidies by the state government.Three different approaches test and validate this hypothesis for a large fraction of consumers. Solar electricity can generate rates of return of 11–20% exceeding most other

Andrew J. Black

2004-01-01

363

Directly electrically coupled fuel cell-electrolysis cell system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel cell-electrolysis cell system is described comprised of: (a) at least one fuel cell having an oxidant-containing stream feed line and fuel stream feed line, the fuel cell being D.C. electrically coupled directly to at least one electrolysis cell in such a fashion so that there is no other electrical source supplying electricity to the electrolysis cell and in

Mc Ilhenny

1987-01-01

364

Emergy Based Analysis of Italian Electricity Production System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuously increasing demand for electric power together with the demand of environmental friendly technologies require\\u000a a deep acknowledgement of the directions to give to electric power production in order to satisfy both necessities.\\u000a \\u000a The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability of Italian electric system by using the emergy function, a methodology\\u000a developed in the early80s by

C. Caruso; G. Catenacci; N. Marchettini; I. Principi; E. Tiezzi

2001-01-01

365

Long-term electric system investments to support Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) represent a promising pathway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with the U.S. transportation sector. A large-scale shift from gasoline-powered automobiles to PHEVs would inextricably link the U.S. transportation system with its electric system. We build on [4] to perform a regional emissions analysis of a PHEV use pattern where PHEVs are charged at night

Seth Blumsack; Constantine Samaras; Paul Hines

2008-01-01

366

Developing ''strategic support systems'' for electric utility strategic planning  

SciTech Connect

The continued improvement of strategic planning processes in electric utilities is of utmost importance, given their increasingly complex dynamic markets. Progress will be blocked unless electric utilities begin developing and integrating other organizational systems within their strategic planning processes to create ''strategic support systems.'' This article describes three dimensions for assessing the stage of development, discusses several major support systems, and notes the stage of development in strategic planning recently found within the industry.

McCann, J.E.

1986-01-01

367

Guide to the Electrical Analysis Software System (EASS)  

SciTech Connect

The Electrical Analysis Software System (EASS) was developed to statistically analyze Naval activity electrical consumption. The software utilizes two data sources, the Facilities Systems Office Naval Facility Assets/Master Activity General Information and Control data base and the Defense Energy Information System II data base. The commercial statistical regression package called Biomedical Computer Programs is used in conjunction with EASS. The FORTRAN source code is included in the text.

de Monsabert, S.

1984-06-01

368

Spatial informatics and Geographical Information Systems: Tools to transform Electric Power and Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power and energy systems are the key for the growth of any developing country. Electric power shortage is one of the main culprits that hinder the spread of development across these countries and cause of societal disparity. Innovative spatial informatics and geographical information system techniques have come as the boon to solve many problems in the electric power system

A. Nagaraja Sekhar; K. S. Rajan; Amit Jain

2008-01-01

369

Numerical test concerning bone mass apposition under electrical and mechanical stimulus  

PubMed Central

This article proposes a model of bone remodeling that encompasses mechanical and electrical stimuli. The remodeling formulation proposed by Weinans and collaborators was used as the basis of this research, with a literature review allowing a constitutive model evaluating the permittivity of bone tissue to be developed. This allowed the mass distribution that depends on mechanical and electrical stimuli to be obtained. The remaining constants were established through numerical experimentation. The results demonstrate that mass distribution is altered under electrical stimulation, generally resulting in a greater deposition of mass. In addition, the frequency of application of an electric field can affect the distribution of mass; at a lower frequency there is more mass in the domain. These numerical experiments open up discussion concerning the importance of the electric field in the remodeling process and propose the quantification of their effects.

2012-01-01

370

46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system...Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system...

2009-10-01

371

46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system...Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system...

2010-10-01

372

Electricity Storage Systems and the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power

Ruth Howes

2007-01-01

373

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AVAILABILITY AND IMPROVEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

SNS electrical systems have been operational for 4 years. System availability statistics and improvements are presented for AC electrical systems, DC and pulsed power supplies and klystron modulators.

Cutler, Roy I [ORNL; Peplov, Vladimir V [ORNL; Wezensky, Mark W [ORNL; Norris, Kevin Paul [ORNL; Barnett, William E [ORNL; Hicks, Jim [ORNL; Weaver, Joey T [ORNL; Moss, John [ORNL; Rust, Kenneth R [ORNL; Mize, Jeffery J [ORNL; Anderson, David E [ORNL

2011-01-01

374

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear detonation at high altitudes produces a transient electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of high-intensity electromagnetic fields. A single high-altitude burst can subject most of the continental United States to a strong EMP. These intense fields induce voltage and current transients in electrical conductors. Surges would be induced by EMP in transmission and distribution circuits and in control and communication elements in electric power systems throughout the national grid. Such widespread disturbances could upset the stability of electrical energy systems and result in massive power failures. The extent and nature of EMP-caused damages are not well known for utility electric power systems. Failures are likely to be associated with insulation damage and failures of low-voltage and solid-state components. It is concluded from a review of past studies that EMP may pose a serious threat to the nation's electrical energy supply.

Barnes, P.R.; Vance, E.F.; Askins, H.W. Jr.

1984-04-01

375

Expert tutoring system for teaching mechanical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work undertaken, at the Higher Technical School of Industrial Engineers of Gijón, for the development of computer aided systems, in the line of expert systems, concentrating research, and development in the field of mechanical design. We are using this software as an integrated tool in our work for teaching machine design. Models to develop the software

Ricardo Tucho Navarro; J. M. Sierra; J. E. Fernández; R. Vijande; G. Morís

2003-01-01

376

Development of maintainability index for mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure based on a digraph and matrix method is developed for evaluation of maintainability index of mechanical systems. Features which characterize or ease in maintenance of a system are identified and are called the maintainability attributes. Consideration of these attributes and their interrelations are rudiment in evaluating the index. This is modeled in terms of a Maintainability Attributes Digraph

M. F. Wani; O. P. Gandhi

1999-01-01

377

Electric signaling behavior and the mechanisms of electric organ discharge production in mormyrid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mormyrid fish communicate and navigate using electric organ discharges (EODs). The EOD is highly stereotyped and provides information on sender identity, including species, sex, reproductive condition, and possibly relative status and individual identity. By contrast, the sequence of pulse intervals (SPI) is variable and plays more of a role in signaling behavioral states. Various types of SPI displays may be

Bruce A. Carlson

2002-01-01

378

An integrated electro-mechanical model of motor-gear units—Applications to tooth fault detection by electric measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault diagnosis in geared transmissions is traditionally based on vibration monitoring but, in a number of cases, sensor implementation and signal transfer from rotary to stationary parts can cause problems. This paper presents an original integrated electro-mechanical model aimed at testing the possibility and the interest of tooth fault detection based on electric measurements on the motor stator. The motor is simulated using Kron's transformation while the mechanical transmission is accounted for by a lumped parameter model. Tooth defects are assimilated to distributions of initial separations between the mating flanks whose positions and shapes are controlled. A unique non-linear parametrically excited differential system is obtained, which provides direct access to both the electrical and mechanical variables. A number of results are presented, which illustrate the possibility of tooth fault detection by stator current measurements with regard to the position and dimensions of the defect.

Feki, N.; Clerc, G.; Velex, Ph.

2012-05-01

379

Supermarket refrigeration assessment for the New England Electric System  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to assess the impact of energy efficient supermarket refrigeration on the electric capacity requirements of the New England Electric System (NEES) service territories. The leading supermarket chains in the NEES service territories were contacted and the number of supermarkets and the types of refrigeration systems employed were established. Estimates were then made of the potential demand and energy savings that NEES and the supermarkets could realize if energy efficient refrigeration systems were employed. On the basis of this analysis, possible incentives to accelerate the implementation of energy efficient refrigeration equipment in NEES service territories were recommended. 4 refs., 10 figs., 27 tabs.

Tsaros, T.L.; Walker, D.H. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1991-07-01

380

Summary of the Plant Electrical Systems (PES) Study  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories' efforts in assessing nuclear power plant electrical system performance. Initial scoping study results, including an Licensee Event Report (LER) search and a survey of Plant Electrical Systems (PES) analysis techniques, are discussed. Descriptions of the limits of the proposed analysis and tasks, broken down by activities, are given. A number of large network codes were evaluated, and a summary of the characteristics and suitability of each code is presented. Results of test runs made on two of the codes (EMTP and SCEPTRE) are discussed. Recommendations for additional study of nuclear power plant electrical systems are presented.

Wyant, F.J.; Cropp, L.O.; Aronson, E.A.; Maxwell, R.L.

1982-12-01

381

Rural electrics urged to work with public systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint action between rural electric systems and municipal electric utilities makes it economically possible to expand generating capacity and keep pace with growing demand. Large-scale coal and nuclear projects can be financed through joint participation that retains local control over planning and operation. A variety of arrangements can be made among the participants according to area needs and resources. Besides

Hamil

1978-01-01

382

The Electric Circuit as a System: A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishIn this new approach to the presentation of the electric circuit, the three fundamental terms current, voltage, and resistance are introduced simultaneously in a qualitative way, using the system aspect of the electric circuit as an integrative base.The starting point to this is the individual knowledge and the conceptional schemes that students bring into the classroom. This approach is in

H. Härtel

1982-01-01

383

The future's smart delivery system [electric power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digital revolution of the past few decades has increased the demand for electric power with higher reliability and quality than is typically delivered via the conventional centralized power system. As modern economies move into the 21st century, this requirement for high security, quality, reliability, and availability (SQRA) of an electric power supply will increase as more manufacturing processes and

C. W. Gellings; M. Samotyj; B. Howe

2004-01-01

384

THERMIONIC CONVERSION IN A NUCLEAR-ELECTRIC SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and experimental performance of the thermionic converter is ; analyzed for use in power conversion in a nuclear-electric space propulsion ; system. Electrical propulsion power requirements are shown to demand a minimum ; ratio of powerplant weight to power in the jet. The elements of a powerplant ; into which the converter must be integrated are discussed, including

J. P. Ditz; T. R. Shukay

1961-01-01

385

Small Wind Electric Systems. An Iowa Consumer's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small wind electric systems can make a significant contribution to our nation's energy needs. Although wind turbines large enough to provide a significant portion of the electricity needed by the average U.S. home generally require one acre of property or...

2002-01-01

386

Analysis of the reliability of submersible centrifugal electric pumping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern submersible centrifugal electric pumping system (SCEPS) for oil production consists of a submersible part which includes a centrifugal pump, an electric motor, a hydroprotection arrangement, a cable line, and an aboveground part that includes a control station and a transformer. The author discusses the mean service life of the submersible part of the SCEPS as the most important

V. A. Shilyaev; G. G. Solodovnikov; R. G. Vikhman; V. A. Koshelev; G. S. Zhitina; N. I. Chirkova

1987-01-01

387

WattBot: a residential electricity monitoring and feedback system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity production emits carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere, adversely influences global climate change, depletes limited natural resources, and negatively impacts the lives of those who live near power plants. We designed a residential electricity monitoring and feedback system called WattBot, that allows users to track their home energy usage and encourages them to reduce consumption. Our solution

Dane Petersen; Jay Steele; Joe Wilkerson

2009-01-01

388

An exploratory analysis of the Dutch electricity system in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent contextual developments constitute a backdrop of change for the Dutch electricity system. Institutional change driven by liberalization, changing economic competitiveness of the dominant fuels, new technologies, and changing end-user preferences regarding electricity supply are some examples of these developments. This paper explores plausible transition trajectories in the face of these developments given technological uncertainty about investment and operating costs,

Jan H. Kwakkel; Gonenc Yucel

2011-01-01

389

Optimization of a photovoltaic system connected to electric power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect related to the photovoltaic system connected to the electric grid is that it can exercise the double function of active power generator and reactive power compensator. Since it is a type of random generation, dependent on environmental conditions, it can supply reactive power to the electrical grid when there is little or no solar radiation. These are

F. L. Albuquerque; A. J. Moraes; G. C. Guimaraes; S. M. R. Sanhueza; A. R. Vaz

2004-01-01

390

Mechanical modulation of the transverse tubular system of ventricular cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

In most mammalian cardiomyocytes, the transverse tubular system (t-system) is a major site for electrical signaling and excitation-contraction coupling. The t-system consists of membrane invaginations, which are decorated with various proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and mechano-electric feedback. Remodeling of the t-system has been reported for cells in culture and various types of heart disease. In this paper, we provide insights into effects of mechanical strain on the t-system in rabbit left ventricular myocytes. Based on fluorescent labeling, three-dimensional scanning confocal microscopy, and digital image analysis, we studied living and fixed isolated cells in different strain conditions. We extracted geometric features of transverse tubules (t-tubules) and characterized their arrangement with respect to the Z-disk. In addition, we studied the t-system in cells from hearts fixed either at zero left ventricular pressure (slack), at 30 mmHg (volume overload), or during lithium-induced contracture, using transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional image analysis was used to extract features of t-tubule cross-sections. Our analyses of confocal microscopic images showed that contracture at the cellular level causes deformation of the t-system, increasing the length and volume of t-tubules, and altering their cross-sectional shape. TEM data reconfirmed the presence of mechanically induced changes in t-tubular cross sections. In summary, our studies suggest that passive longitudinal stretching and active contraction of ventricular cardiomyocytes affect the geometry of t-tubules. This confirms that mechanical changes at cellular levels could promote alterations in partial volumes that would support a convection-assisted mode of exchange between the t-system content and extracellular space. PMID:22884710

McNary, Thomas G; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Holloway, Hilary; Bridge, John H B; Kohl, Peter; Sachse, Frank B

2012-08-01

391

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-09-01

392

Modeling and Simulation of the Electric Power Steering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power steering system (EPS) is a new power steering technology for vehicles. It has been used to replace traditional hydraulic power steering system (HPS). In this paper, an optimal control modeling and simulation design is presented for the column assist type EPS system with a brushed motor based on Matlab. Assisted characteristic chart of the system and block diagram

Zeng Qun; Huang Juhua

2009-01-01

393

Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

2003-03-01

394

Piezo-electrically driven mechanical stimulation of sensory neurons.  

PubMed

Mechanotransduction, the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into a biological response, constitutes the basis of a variety of physiological functions such as the senses of touch, balance, proprioception, blood pressure, and hearing. In vertebrates, mechanosensation is mediated by mechanosensory neurons, whose cell bodies are located in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Here, we describe an in vitro model of mechanotransduction that provides an opportunity to explore the properties of mechanosensitive channels in mammalian sensory neurons. The mechano-clamp method allows applying local force on plasma membrane of whole-cell patch-clamped sensory neurons. This technique uses a mechanical probe driven by a computer-assisted piezoelectric microstage to repeatedly stimulate sensory neurons with accurate control of stimulus strength, duration, and speed. PMID:23529428

Hao, Jizhe; Ruel, Jérôme; Coste, Bertrand; Roudaut, Yann; Crest, Marcel; Delmas, Patrick

2013-01-01

395

Mechanism of electrical breakdown in SiO2 films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakdown field associated with impact ionization and avalanche is estimated, using simple energy-momentum balance equations, for low-gap semiconductors and for high-gap insulators. Reasonable agreement is obtained in the former case, but estimated fields in the latter case turn out to be nearly an order of magnitude higher than those observed. This suggests that mechanisms other than avalanche are responsible

B. K. Ridley

1975-01-01

396

Influence of background electrically neutral argon admixture on mechanical strength of silicon crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of local elastic stresses on the mechanical characteristics of silicon crystals, which determines the reliability of silicon devices operating under severe mechanical conditions, is determined directly by comparing the effect of changing the resistance of uniaxially compressed crystals. Two batches of specimens were made from two Si ingots doped with electrically active phosphorous. One of the ingots was

V. V. Kolomoyets; Y. V. Simonenko; A. V. Fedosov

1985-01-01

397

Environmental aging effects on thermal and mechanical properties of electrically conductive adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates environmental aging effects on thermal and mechanical properties of three model electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs). A combination of several experimental techniques including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), water uptake measurements, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and stress-strain dogbone testing has been utilized throughout this study. Samples were aged at 85°C and 100% RH for periods of up to 50 days,

Shuangyan Xu; David A. Dillard

2003-01-01

398

Critical mechanical and electrical transition behavior of BaTiO3: The observation of mechanical double loop behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain response of polycrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3) was investigated under high unipolar electric field (0 to 4 kV/mm) and compressive stress (0 to 400 MPa) in the temperature range from 25 to 160 °C. In the vicinity of the Curie point (TC), nonlinear and hysteretic strain-electric field and strain-stress constitutive behaviors were observed, persisting above TC where they correspond to the well-known electric field induced double loop polarization behavior. Analogous to the electrical double loops, the mechanical (strain-stress) hysteretic behavior above TC is caused by a stress induced phase transition from the paraelectric/paraelastic to ferroelectric/ferroelastic phase; the electro-elastic (strain-electric field) hysteresis is similarly caused by an electric field induced phase transition. The stress and electric field at which transitions occur increase linearly with increasing temperature, exhibiting critical behavior typical for the first order phase transitions. The temperature limit for the induced phase transition extends up to 12 °C over TC. Results are discussed in relation to the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire free energy expansion.

Picht, Gunnar; Webber, Kyle G.; Zhang, Yining; Kungl, Hans; Damjanovic, Dragan; Hoffmann, Michael J.

2012-12-01

399

Statistical mechanics of polymer systems. Final  

SciTech Connect

Work on computer simulation of polymer dynamics and the statistical mechanics of quenched systems carried out over seven years with the support of this grant is reviewed. The computer simulation work has focused on elucidation the roles of the excluded volume and the nearest-neighbor attractive interactions in the dynamics of polymers. To study quenched systems we have applied the formalism suggested long ago by Mazo to two model systems and found qualitative agreement with the properties of real glasses.

Kovac, J.

1993-06-01

400

Study on an optoelectronic type of electric-current transducer system: for measuring primary electric current in a power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the basic principle and the key technique of an optoelectronic type of electric current transducer system are discussed. The system is used to measure the primary current in a high-voltage and large-capacity power system.It has many advantages such as wide current range, high precision, simple insulation structure and high price- performance ratio. The signals of electric current

Fuying Li; Xiaochun Liang; Xianwei Dai; Lingxue Kong; Zhonghua Wang; Changyin Wang

1996-01-01

401

Research on simulation of ship electric propulsion system with flywheel energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flywheel energy storage has been widely used to improve the ground electric power quality. This paper designed a flywheel\\u000a energy storage device to improve ship electric propulsion system power grid quality. The practical mathematical models of\\u000a flywheel energy storage and ship electric propulsion system were established. Simulation research on the effect of ship electric\\u000a propulsion system power quality, made by

Chunling Xie; Conghui Zhang; Jen-Yuan James Chang

2011-01-01

402

Gas and steam electrical power generating system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electrical power generation plant has a gas turbine subsystem free of a compressor. A compressor subsystem remote from the gas turbine subsystem has an inlet receiving air and an outlet furnishing compressed air. A compressed air line interlinks the outlets and gas turbine subsystem. An aspect or the invention includes combusting sufficient fuel having sulphur content with sufficient limestone to establish a ratio of Ca/S greater than 3.4.

Humphries, Jr.; James J. (Wellesley Hills, MA)

1997-04-22

403

PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies-photovoltaic and solar thermal-is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed.

Raymond Dracker; Pascal De Laquil III

1996-01-01

404

Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10⁻⁎ to 10⁻³\\/s) and

Robert Douglas Hardy; David R. Bronowski; Moo Yul Lee; John H. Hofer

2005-01-01

405

Mechanical Modulation of the Transverse Tubular System of Ventricular Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

In most mammalian cardiomyocytes, the transverse tubular system (t-system) is a major site for electrical signaling and excitation-contraction coupling. T-tubules consist of membrane invaginations, which are decorated with various proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and mechano-electric feedback. Remodeling of the t-system has been reported for cells in culture and various types of heart disease. In this paper, we provide insights into effects of mechanical strain on the t-system in rabbit left ventricular myocytes. Based on fluorescent labeling, three-dimensional scanning confocal microscopy, and digital image analysis, we studied living and fixed isolated cells in different strain conditions. We extracted geometric features of t-tubules and characterized their arrangement with respect to the Z-disk. In addition, we studied the t-system in cells from hearts fixed either at zero left ventricular pressure (slack), at 30 mmHg (volume overload), or during lithium-induced contracture, using transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional image analysis was used to extract features of t-tubule cross-sections. Our analyses of confocal microscopic images showed that contracture at the cellular level causes deformation of the t-system, increasing the length and volume of t-tubules, and altering their cross-sectional shape. TEM data reconfirmed the presence of mechanically induced changes in T-tubular cross sections. In summary, our studies suggest that passive longitudinal stretching and active contraction of ventricular cardiomyocytes affect the geometry of t-tubules. This confirms that mechanical changes at cellular levels could promote alterations in partial volumes that would support a convection-assisted mode of exchange between the t-system content and extracellular space.

McNary, T. G.; Spitzer, K. W.; Holloway, H.; Bridge, J. H. B.; Kohl, P.; Sachse, F. B.

2012-01-01

406

Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in purple membranes: membrane as electrostrictive medium.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present acousto-electrical measurements performed on dry films of purple membranes (PM) of Halobacterium salinarium. The purpose of these measurements is to determine the relation between mechanical and electrical phenomena in bacteriorhodopsin and to define the role of the protein in the proton transfer process. Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in PMs manifests itself as direct and inverse piezoelectric effects. Measurements performed on the samples with different degrees of PM orientation and at various values of the externally applied cross-membrane electric field indicate that piezoelectric phenomena in PMs arise from the electric asymmetry of the membranes, i.e., they originate from electrostriction. Experiments with samples made of oriented PMs allow estimation of the value of the intrinsic cross-membrane electric field, which is approximately 10(8) V/m. A hypothetical model of PM is presented where the electrical-to-mechanical coupling is suggested to be the main driving force for the proton translocation against the Coulomb forces acting in the membrane. PMID:11259278

Kietis, P; Vengris, M; Valkunas, L

2001-04-01

407

Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in purple membranes: membrane as electrostrictive medium.  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present acousto-electrical measurements performed on dry films of purple membranes (PM) of Halobacterium salinarium. The purpose of these measurements is to determine the relation between mechanical and electrical phenomena in bacteriorhodopsin and to define the role of the protein in the proton transfer process. Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in PMs manifests itself as direct and inverse piezoelectric effects. Measurements performed on the samples with different degrees of PM orientation and at various values of the externally applied cross-membrane electric field indicate that piezoelectric phenomena in PMs arise from the electric asymmetry of the membranes, i.e., they originate from electrostriction. Experiments with samples made of oriented PMs allow estimation of the value of the intrinsic cross-membrane electric field, which is approximately 10(8) V/m. A hypothetical model of PM is presented where the electrical-to-mechanical coupling is suggested to be the main driving force for the proton translocation against the Coulomb forces acting in the membrane.

Kietis, P; Vengris, M; Valkunas, L

2001-01-01

408

A bidirectional vibration powered electric energy generator based on electrostatic transduction using In-Plane Overlap Plate (IPOP) mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design, fabrication and initial characterization results of a bidirectional, vibration powered, bulk silicon-based electric energy generator are addressed. The converter is based on an In-Plane Overlap Plate (IPOP) configuration. Its mechanical design is inspired from 2D gyroscope. In most of real systems, the axis of the external vibrations is not known and if we assume that

Ayyaz Mahmood Paracha; Philippe Basset; Dimitri Galayko; Frederic Marty; Tarik Bourouina

2009-01-01

409

Galvanically Isolated Power Converter Module for DC Zonal Electric Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Navy is currently in a state of transition from mechanical to electric propulsion. Future warships, such as the new destroyer class, will contain an Integrated Power System (IPS) that provides power to all propulsion and ship service loa...

S. F. Sarar

2006-01-01

410

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF.

N. Ramirez

2004-12-16

411

117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

412

View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; operators console switchboard #1 is at lower right of photograph - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

413

Development of an Electrically-Activated Artificial Muscle System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrically-activated artificial muscle system is described which uses weakly acidic contractile polymers sensitive to pH changes. pH changes are produced through electrodialysis of a solution compartment containing the muscle membrane. Mathematical e...

A. Fragala A. LaConti J. Boyack J. Enos

1970-01-01

414

49. Detail of floor system and electrical equipment, probably in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Detail of floor system and electrical equipment, probably in the Sullivan Machinery Company, Machine and Erecting Shops. - Sullivan Machinery Company, Main Street between Pearl & Water Streets, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

415

49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. Sheet H-4, December 12, 1939. File no. SA 342/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

416

CVD facility electrical system captor/dapper study  

SciTech Connect

Project W-441, CVD Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses.

SINGH, G.

1999-10-28

417

National Science Foundation Division Plan: Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Division of Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems (ECCS) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses fundamental research issues underlying device and component technologies, power and energy, controls, computation, networks, communicati...

U. Varshney

2008-01-01

418

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: World Electricity Model  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) World Electricity Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

2011-09-29

419

Bi-Directional Optical Transmission System for RF Electrical Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bi-directional optical transmission system for radio frequency electrical energy includes first and second transmitter/receiver stations which transmit and receive light signals along an optical path there between. Each station includes a laser transmit...

P. T. Bryant J. F. Weller L. Goldberg

1990-01-01

420

Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspection (EDSFI) Data Base Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document describes the organization, installation procedures, and operating instructions for the database computer program containing inspection findings from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Electrical Distribution System Functional I...

A. S. Gautam

1993-01-01

421

Application of Mathematical Programming to Electric Power System Expansion Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes the results of a research project aimed at developing mathematical programming methods that could be used by electric power system planners, with emphasis on transmission network expansion planning. The work was carried out at the De...

D. Sjelvgren

1976-01-01

422

Research for electric energy systems. Annual report, December 1985  

SciTech Connect

Five subtasks are reported on: ac electric and magnetic fields, dc fields and ion measurements, gaseous dielectrics research (SF/sub 6/ mixtures), interfacial phenomena in liquids, and nanosecond breakdown in power system dielectrics. (DLC)

Hebner, R.E. (ed.)

1986-03-01

423

Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the ma...

A. F. Burke G. H. Cole

1990-01-01

424

Electrical applications for air conditioning and refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect

Electrical troubleshooting is possibly the most neglected area of maintaining air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. This text explains and illustrates methods for troubleshooting the full spectrum of electrical or electronic circuits of these systems. Comprehensive sections offer coverage of electrical fundamentals, single-phase electric motors, three-phase motors, control devices, electrical control circuits, use of schematic diagrams in troubleshooting, ice makers, solid state electronics, and basic electronic controls. The author`s clear, concise coverage of controls enables one to quickly understand both how a specific type of control works, and how it is used in the system. The reader will find a wealth of useful instructions for making operational checks and troubleshooting for proper operation. The book is conveniently divided into application-specific units, making it easy to quickly find information specific to a particular job at hand.

Langley, B.C.

1999-09-01

425

Electrical microfluidic pressure gauge for elastomer microelectromechanical systems  

PubMed Central

We report on an electrical microfluidic pressure gauge. A polydimethylsiloxane microvalve closes at a characteristic applied pressure determined by the material’s properties and the valve’s dimensions. Hence, when the same pressure is applied to all valves of a heterogeneous valve array, some valves close while others remain open. The state of the array is combined with knowledge of the respective characteristic closing pressures of the individual valves to yield an estimate of the applied pressure. The state of each valve is obtained by electrical measurements, since the electrical resistance of the respective underlying fluid-filled channel increases by at least two orders of magnitude as the valve closes and its insulating elastomer material interrupts the electrical circuit. The overall system functions as a pressure gauge with electrical readout. This device would be a critical component in active pressure-regulation loops in future integrated microfluidic systems.

Kartalov, Emil P.; Maltezos, George; Anderson, W. French; Taylor, Clive R.; Scherer, Axel

2009-01-01

426

Field and temperature dependence of the small polaron hopping electrical conductivity in 1D disordered systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of the electric field and the temperature on the electrical conductivity of one-dimensional disordered systems due to phonon assisted hopping of small polarons. The microscopic transport mechanism is treated within the framework of the generalized molecular crystal model and the Kubo formula, while percolation theoretical arguments lead to analytical expressions for the macroscopic behavior of the electrical conductivity at high (multi-phonon assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon assisted hopping) temperatures under the influence of moderate electric fields. The theoretical results are successfully applied to recent experimental findings for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields. Comparison is made with other theories. PMID:21832371

Triberis, G P; Dimakogianni, M

2009-08-27

427

Mechanical and electrical response of carbon nanotube-based fabric composites to Hopkinson bar loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerous structural applications of composites, coupled with their complex, rate-dependent mechanical behavior necessitate research into their mechanical response under dynamic loading scenarios. While the damage mechanisms of composites under dynamic compression loading are well-understood, measuring the occurrence of damage in a non-invasive manner is challenging. Toward this end, we investigate the electrical response of an embedded percolating carbon nanotube

Amanda S. Lim; Qi An; Tsu-Wei Chou; Erik T. Thostenson

2011-01-01

428

High Temperature Electrical Behaviour and Failure Mechanisms of Glass-Ceramic Dielectrics in Thick Film Multilayers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass-ceramics are polycrystalline materials obtained from glasses after an appropriate thermal treatment. They are of importance because they offer combinations of physical properties not available with other classes of materials. Recently, their technological importance has also been recognized in the field of microelectronics. Since the end of the eighties great effort has been spent in the development of glass-ceramics suitable as dielectrics in thick film multilayer systems. The construction of complex thick film multilayers can be seriously obstructed by the occurrence of failures during production at high temperatures, and therefore a reliable dielectric is needed. The most important high temperature failures in thick film multilayers are shorting and blistering of the dielectric in between two metal layers. The basic physico-chemical processes causing these failures are unsufficiently understood. In particular, the correlation between electrical properties of the glass -ceramic material and the occurrence of these failures is not clear. The temperature region of interest in the study of these failures ranges from room temperature up to 850 ^circC, which complicates the observation of the governing material properties. While other studies concerning these phenomena often concentrate on off-line results, here the study is mainly based on in-situ observation of the high temperature electrical behaviour of the given materials. Since ionic migration is believed to occur during failure formation, electrical conductivity is an interesting property for closer observation. In order to study the required property a new measurement method has been developed, termed as the in-situ leakage current measurement technique with voltage polarity switching. With this technique it has been possible to determine the conductivity in more detail and with less error. The submission of the obtained conductivity results to an Arrhenius analysis and the identification of the charge carriers with various analytical techniques have led to improved insights concerning the occurring conduction mechanisms. Appropriate test structures have been prepared for a set of eight different dielectric materials. Some of these materials are known to have an excellent failure resistance, while other rapidly fail. The various dielectrics are presented along with their microstructural properties obtained with several analytical techniques. The available variety of dielectric materials allows a systematic study of the corresponding high temperature electrical properties and the eventual relation with their predisposition to failure formation. Also the influence of the electrode material on the electrical properties and the occurrence of failures has been investigated. In this work two other techniques, impedance spectroscopy and e.m.f.'s-measurements, have been added to the available in-situ electrical measurement techniques. The in-situ impedance spectroscopy measurements have been performed in the first place to validate the results obtained with the leakage current measurement technique, but moreover deliver information about conduction mechanisms and interface reactions. The scope of the in-situ e.m.f.-measurements has been to investigate the existence of the 'battery effect' by measuring the eventual formation of galvanic effects in mixed metallurgy multilayers as postulated by Gilles et al in 1989. Related to these measurements some new experiments will be described which have led to a dispell of the fallacies concerning the true nature of the studied failure mechanisms.

Manca, Jean Vittorio

429

Self-Organized Pacemakers in a Coupled Reaction-Diffusion-Mechanics System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a computational model of a coupled reaction-diffusion-mechanics system, we find that mechanical deformation can induce automatic pacemaking activity. Pacemaking is shown to occur after a single electrical or mechanical stimulus in an otherwise nonoscillatory medium. We study the mechanisms underpinning this effect and conditions for its existence. We show that self-organized pacemakers drift throughout the medium to approach attractors with locations that depend on the size of the medium, and on the location of the initial stimulus.

Panfilov, A. V.; Keldermann, R. H.; Nash, M. P.

2005-12-01

430

System Level Modeling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,,,This paper presents a broad survey of the literature regarding the design of hybrid electric vehicle powertrains using system level modeling,techniques. I t begins with a discussion,of the major subsystems,comprising the HEV drivetrain and the primary architectural configurations that are employed. A n exploration of system,level modeling,methodologies,and techniques and their application to the design of hybrid electric vehicle powertrains

Pukha Lenee-Bluhm

2008-01-01

431

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Rhode Island Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Small Wind Electric Systems Consumer's: A Rhode Island Consumer's Guide is to provide consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system will work for them based on their wind resource, the type and size of their sites, and their economics. The cover of this guide contains a Rhode Island wind resource map and information about state incentives and contacts for more information.

Not Available

2003-06-01

432

Completion report harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmonic currents have increased dramatically in electrical distribution systems in the last few years due to the growth in non-linear loads found in most electronic devices. Because electrical systems have been designed for linear voltage and current waveforms; (i.e. nearly sinusoidal), non-linear loads can cause serious problems such as overheating conductors or transformers, capacitor failures, inadvertent circuit breaker tripping, or

Tolbert

1996-01-01

433

Power quality investigations of VSCF aircraft electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the advanced aircraft electric power system is developed and studied under variable-speed constant-frequency (VSCF) operation. The frequency of the generator's output voltage is varied from 400-Hz to 800-Hz for different loading case-studies. Non-linear DC loads in addition to the different passive and dynamic AC loads are included in the simulation of the VSCF aircraft electric power system.

A. Eid; H. El-Kishky; M. Abdel-Salam; T. El-Mohandes

2010-01-01

434

Embedded Systems: The Migration from ICE Vehicles to Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Future generations of electric vehicles (EVs) will require a new level of convergence between computer and automotive architectures,\\u000a with the electric power train being a mechatronic system that includes a multitude of plug and play devices, embedded power\\u000a and signal processing hardware, software and high level algorithms. This paper discusses the current advances in the computing\\u000a devices, communication systems and

Marco Ottella; Pietro Perlo; Ovidiu Vermesan; Reiner John; Kees Gehrels; Harald Gall; Jordi Aubert

435

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

436

A Cochlear Partition Model Incorporating Realistic Electrical and Mechanical Parameters for Outer Hair Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organ of Corti (OC) is believed to optimize the force transmission from the outer hair cell (OHC) to the basilar membrane and inner hair cell. Recent studies showed that the OC has complex modes of deformation. In an effort to understand the consequence of the OC deformation, we developed a fully deformable 3D finite element model of the OC. It incorporates hair bundle's mechano-transduction and the OHC electrical circuit. Geometric information was taken from the gerbil cochlea at locations with 18 and 0.7 kHz characteristic frequencies. Cochlear partitions of several hundred micrometers long were simulated. The model describes the signature 3D structural arrangement in the OC, especially the tilt of OHC and Deiters cell process. Transduction channel kinetics contributed to the system's mechanics through the hair bundle. The OHC electrical model incorporated the transduction channel conductance, nonlinear capacitance and piezoelectric properties. It also incorporated recent data on the voltage-dependent potassium conductance and membrane time constant. With the model we simulated (1) the limiting frequencies of mechano-transduction and OHC somatic motility and (2) OC transient response to impulse stimuli.

Nam, Jong-Hoon; Fettiplace, Robert

2011-11-01

437

Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspection (EDSFI) data base program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the organization, installation procedures, and operating instructions for the database computer program containing inspection findings from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspections (EDSFIs). The program enables the user to search and sort findings, ascertain trends, and obtain printed reports of the findings. The findings include observations, unresolved issues, or possible deficiencies in the design and implementation of electrical distribution systems in nuclear plants. This database will assist those preparing for electrical inspections, searching for deficiencies in a plant, and determining the corrective actions previously taken for similar deficiencies. This database will be updated as new EDSFIs are completed.

Gautam, A.

1993-01-01

438

Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspection (EDSFI) data base program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the organization, installation procedures, and operating instructions for the database computer program containing inspection findings from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspections (EDSFIs). The program enables the user to search and sort findings, ascertain trends, and obtain printed reports of the findings. The findings include observations, unresolved issues, or possible deficiencies in the design and implementation of electrical distribution systems in nuclear plants. This database will assist those preparing for electrical inspections, searching for deficiencies in a plant, and determining the corrective actions previously taken for similar deficiencies. This database will be updated as new EDSFIs are completed.

Gautam, A.

1993-01-01

439

PEGASUS: A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system  

SciTech Connect

A propulsion system (The PEGASUS Drive) consisting of a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed as the propulsion system for a manned Mars mission. The propulsion system described is based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The thermal power for the PEGASUS Drive is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning, heat rejection, and MPD thruster subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8,5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, 1.5 megawatts is available for spacecraft system operations and inflight mission applications, leaving the balance for power system operation.

Coomes, E.P.; King, D.Q.; Cuta, J.M.; Webb, B.J.

1986-01-01

440

Features of Pulsed Electrical Breakdown of Suspensions. Breakdown Polarization Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The breakdown voltage of suspensions was measured in systems in which the liquid phases were transformer oil, tap water, and H2O. The dispersed phases were quartz sand and sulfide ore with a particle size smaller than 0.074 micrometers and glass spheres w...

M. P. Tonkonogov S. V. Kim V. Y. Ushakov

1972-01-01

441

Automation of the Athens (Tennessee) electric power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to provide electricity at a minimum cost, the electric utility industry continues to examine methods to operate generating plants, transmission lines, distribution equipment, and customer appliances more efficiently. The Athens Automation and Control Experiment (AACE) was conceived and implemented to address these needs. Located on the Athens Utilities Board system in Athens, Tennessee, the AACE is a highly instrumented system serving a closely surveyed group of 2000 consumers. AACE was designed as a test for distribution automation and control experiments. Observation of the results from the experiments will help to show which controls are worthwhile, what data and instrumentation are needed, and which monitoring and control functions for distribution systems are justified. Testing of the new automated system began in the fall of 1985, and the results may have a dramatic impact on the way electric power systems will be designed and operated in the future. Results from volt/var, system reconfiguration, and load control experiments are described.

Gnadt, P.A.

1987-01-01

442

Introduction to HVDC Technology for Reliable Electrical Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission system is becoming ever more complex. Furthermore, demand for reliable supply of electricity is growing, increasing the need for a higher level of system reliability. A solution might be to incorporate controllable power components within the system. One such component is the HVDC link. However, in the domain of reliability models for HVDC and the component's impact on

Lina Bertling

2008-01-01

443

A sensorless torque and speed monitoring system for electrical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the torque and speed monitoring system used in industrial process or electrical machine testing requires dedicated torque and speed sensors, which are expensive and difficult to install. To overcome these problems, a sensorless torque and speed monitoring system is developed and presented in this paper. The proposed system detects the input voltage and current of the induction motor,

Kidchop Waiyasusri; Somboon Sangwongwanich

2002-01-01

444

Systems of electrical energy generation with better input power factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system generating electrical energy built on the base of voltage inverters is presented in this article. The input inverter provides sine form of the consumed current, the output - a constant frequency and acting voltage in load. The control system is offered to be done in a two-dimensional revolving system of coordinate that allows to adjust the factor of

S. A. Kharitonov; N. I. Borodin; M. A. Maslov; M. A. Petrov; V. A. Klan; D. V. Korobkov

2004-01-01

445

Performance analysis and visualization of electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of system performance evaluation for electric power network. The basic element that plays a crucial role here is the fragility information for transmission system equipment. The method utilizes the fragility information for evaluation of system performance degradation of LADWP's (Los Angeles Department of Water and Power\\

Xuejiang Dong; Masanobu Shinozuka

2003-01-01

446

Assessment of distributed photovoltaic electric-power systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for assessing the potential impacts of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems on electric utility systems, including subtransmission and distribution networks, and to apply that methodology to several illustrative examples. The investigations focused upon five specific utilities. Three were actual planned future systems for Northeast Utilities Service Company, Alabama Power Company, and

R. W. Neal; P. F. DeDuck; R. N. Marshall

1982-01-01

447

Assessment of distributed photovoltaic electric-power systems. Summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for assessing the potential impacts of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems on electric utility systems, including subtransmission and distribution networks, and to apply that methodology to several illustrative examples. The investigations focused upon five specific utilities. Three were actual planned future systems for Northeast Utilities Service Company, Alabama Power Company, and

R. W. Neal; P. F. DeDuck; R. N. Marshall

1982-01-01

448

14 CFR 25.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning protection...Equipment General § 25.1316 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that...

2013-01-01

449

14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

2013-01-01

450

14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning protection...Equipment General § 29.1316 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that...

2013-01-01

451

14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning protection...Equipment General § 27.1316 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that...

2013-01-01

452

14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning protection...Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that...

2013-01-01

453

Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism for electric-field-induced segregation of additives, containing a polar group, in a host liquid crystal is proposed. It is shown that the polarity of an applied dc electric field, or the frequency of an ac electric field, strongly influences the segregation of reactive monomers containing an ester group. An explanation of this result is offered based on the association of dissolved ions with polar groups of the reactive monomers. This association is considered to cause these types of additives to drift to the cell surface in the presence of an external electric field. The described mechanism can be applied to the segregation of a broad range of additives in a liquid-crystal host.

Lu, Lu; Sergan, Vassili; Bos, Philip J.

2012-11-01

454

78 FR 29209 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...inclusion I4 regarding the collector system language is consistent...dispersed generators and their collector systems in approving the modification...an electrical string of the collector array that operates at voltages...generation (e.g., wind and solar resources).\\83\\ The...

2013-05-17

455

Validation of electrical power system using Electrical Test Bed of GEO satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical test bed (ETB) integrates the test environment, which is required for acceptance tests of system level, prior to FM testing. This ETB is composed of engineering version units of spacecraft BUS, which are laid on the laboratory table. It uses for the validation of system level functions and interface between each subsystem. The ETB also supports early functional

Jae-Dong Choi; Ja-Chun Koo; Cheol-Hae Koo; Eui-Chan Kim

2007-01-01

456

Electric Vehicles and their impact to the electric grid in isolated systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy systems are frequently based on imported fossil fuels, and this is a problem in different dimensions including, the environmental, the economic and the security of supply, the latter being particularly relevant for any isolated system, like Islands. Renewable energy is regarded as a solution to this problem, particularly considering its transformation in electricity but this does not include the

Petr Kadurek; Christos Ioakimidis; Paulo Ferrăo

2009-01-01

457

Modeling and simulation of chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of pH-electric-sensitive hydrogel.  

PubMed

A chemo-electro-mechanical multi-field model, termed the multi-effect-coupling pH-electric-stimuli (MECpHe) model, has been developed to simulate the response behavior of smart hydrogels subject to pH and electric voltage coupled stimuli when the hydrogels are immersed in a pH buffer solution subject to an externally applied electric field. The MECpHe model developed considers multiphysics effects and formulates the fixed charge density with the coupled buffer solution pH and electric voltage effects, expressed by a set of nonlinear partial differential governing equations. The model can be used to predict the hydrogel displacement and the distributive profiles of the concentrations of diffusive ionic species and the electric potential and the fixed charge density in both the hydrogels and surrounding solution. After validation of the model by comparison of current numerical results with experiment data extracted from the literature, one-dimensional steady-state simulations were carried out for equilibrium of the smart hydrogels subject to pH and electric coupled stimuli. The effects of several important physical conditions, including the externally applied electric voltage, on the distributions of the concentrations of diffusive ionic species, the electric potential, the fixed charge density, and the displacement of the hydrogel strip were studied in detail. The effects of the ionic strength on the bending deformation of the hydrogels under the solution pH and electric voltage coupled stimuli are also discussed. PMID:17643229

Luo, Rongmo; Li, Hua; Lam, Khin Yong

2007-07-21

458

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2010-10-01

459

Payment systems and technology in electrical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payment systems are known to play an important part in the regulation of production. The introduction of new technology may provide opportunities for new developments in payment systems and one of the chief links between technology and pay is likely to be change in the design of jobs. A series of case studies of innovations in payment systems in the

M White; A Ghobadian

1984-01-01

460

ELEC-2914 - Electric Vehicle Data Acquisition, Sensors and Control Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College emphasizes the architecture of automotive electronics with attention to electric vehicles and is a required course for MCCâs Electric Vehicle Development Technology Certificate. Topics included are review of electrical and electronics theory, vehicle network theory, vehicle controllers, automotive bus systems, On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems, controller area nework (CAN), sensors, actuators, and selected topics in power control. Using simulators, students will gain a broad knowledge of the networks used in an automotive system. Included educational materials for this course are classroom exercises, manuals, PowerPoint presentations, system specific guides, and syllabus. Homework assignments and exams are not included. The course outline is as follows: electrical and electronic systems in a vehicle, networking principles, vehicle network, bus systems, electronics systems architecture, electronic components in vehicles, control unit, automotive sensors, sensor measuring principles, sensor types, actuators, vehicle electrical systems, vehicle controllers, vehicle On-Board Diagnostics (OBD), and hybrid drives.

461

Toyota Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Technical System Overview and Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains two short courses created by Toyota Motors for training technicians on the operation and diagnosis of their HEVs. Of the two included courses, one is focused on the overview of HEV systems and the second is on HEV diagnosis. Each course is composed of individual modules that can also be taught separately with each containing lab activities and additional supplemental materials that can be used for presentations or student handouts. The first course is titled âHEV Overviewâ and includes the following modules: (1) Hybrid System Overview, (2) Hybrid System Operation, (3) High-Voltage Battery, (4) Engine, (5) Chassis, and (6) Body Electrical. The course is titled âHEV Diagnosisâ and includes the following modules: (1) Principals of Operations, (2)Engine Control System, (3) Fuel and EVAP System, (4) Hybrid Vehicle Control System, (5) High-Voltage Battery Control System, (6) Brake System, (7) Electric Power System, and (8) Other Systems.

Autoshop 101

462

Electric and hybrid vehicle systems assessment seminar: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimization considerations, (6) alkaline battery technology, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) nickel-iron batteries, (9) zinc-chloride batteries, (10) zinc-bromine batteries, (11) sodium-sulfur batteries, (12) system/battery design interaction for a lithium-method sulfide van battery, (13) iorn-air batteries, (14) aluminium-air cells, (15) fuel cell overview, (16) variable-reluctance motor drives, (17) electric vehicle design, (18) advanced electric vehicle powertrain program, (19) Eaton ac drivetrains, and (20) JET Propulsion Laboratory ac power system. (MOW)

Not Available

1984-03-15

463

Mechanical behavior and electrical property of CFRC-strengthened RC beams under fatigue and monotonic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces a new CFRC-strengthened RC beam model which can both strengthen and monitor the large-scale RC element used in concrete infrastructures. An experiment of testing four-point bending beams is proceeded in order to analyze mechanical behavior and electrical property of the designed beam under monotonic loading as well as the relationship between electrical property and fatigue damage under

Wei Wang; Hongzhe Dai; Sigang Wu

2008-01-01

464

Combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on fracture of the PZT5 ferroelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on fracture of the PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramics in silicon oil has been investigated using single-edge notched specimens. The results show that the fracture toughness and the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed fracture in silicon oil, i.e., stress corrosion cracking, decreases linearly with increasing the applied electric field, either positive or negative.

Y. J Su; Y Wang; W. Y Chu; K. W Gao; L. J Qiao

2004-01-01

465

Electric conductance of metal nanowires at mechanically controllable break junctions under electrochemical potential control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the mechanically controllable break junction setup with an electrochemical cell (EC–MCBJ) to measure the electric conductance of metal nanowires under electrochemical potential control. The electric conductance of Au nanowires was investigated in 0.1M Na2SO4 solution using EC–MCBJ. The conductance of the Au nanowires was quantized in units of G0 (=2e2\\/h), showing clear features in the conductance histogram.

Manabu Kiguchi; Nobuo Sekiguchi; Kei Murakoshi

2007-01-01

466

Combined Mechanical and Electrical Analysis of a Microelectromechanical Switch for RF Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined mechanical and electrical model is used to investigate the non-linear behavior of a high switching rate capacitive microelectromechanical switch for RF and microwave application. The damped spring model is employed to simulate the movement of the switch movable contact, while an ad-hoc solver based on a modified Runge-Kutta method is exploited to solve the electrical circuit at microwave

F. De Flaviis; R. Coccioli

1999-01-01

467

Electrical analysis of mechanical stress induced by STI in short MOSFETs using externally applied stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an electrical analysis of mechanical stress induced by shallow trench isolation (STI) on MOSFETs of advanced 0.13 ?m bulk and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technologies. By applying external calibrated stress, we present piezoresistive coefficients measurements on these technologies, and we compare small and long transistors electrical responses, evidencing the strong effect of source drain resistance Rsd. Then, using the

C. Gallon; G. Reimbold; Gérard Ghibaudo; R. A. Bianchi; R. Gwoziecki; S. Orain; E. Robilliart; C. Raynaud; H. Dansas

2004-01-01

468

Some neural and behavioural aspects of electrical and mechanical stunning in ostriches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different electrical and mechanical stunning procedures were studied in ostriches to determine the effectiveness of the method. Fifty-eight South-African Black ostriches were equipped with EEG electrodes and stunned with three different electrical head-only methods and with a new captive needle pistol, using air pressure. The first stunning procedure consists of two trials. In the first trial a total of 45

E. Lambooij; C. Pieterse; C. M. Potgieter; J. D. Snyman; G. L. Nortjé

1999-01-01

469

Electrical transport through a mechanically gated molecular wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surface-adsorbed molecule is contacted with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at a predefined atom. On tip retraction, the molecule is peeled off the surface. During this experiment, a two-dimensional differential conductance map is measured on the plane spanned by the bias voltage and the tip-surface distance. The conductance map demonstrates that tip retraction leads to mechanical gating of the molecular wire in the STM junction. The experiments are compared with a detailed ab initio simulation. We find that density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA) describes the tip-molecule contact formation and the geometry of the molecular junction throughout the peeling process with predictive power. However, a DFT-LDA-based transport simulation following the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism fails to describe the behavior of the differential conductance as found in experiment. Further analysis reveals that this failure is due to the mean-field description of electron correlation in the local density approximation. The results presented here are expected to be of general validity and show that, for a wide range of common wire configurations, simulations which go beyond the mean-field level are required to accurately describe current conduction through molecules. Finally, the results of the present study illustrate that well-controlled experiments and concurrent ab initio transport simulations that systematically sample a large configuration space of molecule-electrode couplings allow the unambiguous identification of correlation signatures in experiment.

Toher, C.; Temirov, R.; Greuling, A.; Pump, F.; Kaczmarski, M.; Cuniberti, G.; Rohlfing, M.; Tautz, F. S.

2011-04-01

470

Electrical impedance tomography system based on active electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can image the distribution of ventilated lung tissue, and is thus a promising technology to help monitor patient breathing to help selection of mechanical ventilation parameters. Two key difficulties in EIT instrumentation make such monitoring difficult: (1) EIT data quality depends on good electrode contact and is sensitive to changes in contact quality, and (2) EIT electrodes are difficult and time consuming to place on patients. This paper presents the design and initial tests of an active electrode-based system to address these difficulties. Our active electrode EIT system incorporates an active electrode belt, a central voltage-driven current source, central analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters, a central FPGA-based demodulator and controller. The electrode belt is designed incorporating 32 active electrodes, each of which contains the electronic amplifiers, switches and associated logic. Tests show stable device performance with a convenient ease of use and good imaging ability in volunteer tests. PMID:22531225

Gaggero, Pascal Olivier; Adler, Andy; Brunner, Josef; Seitz, Peter

2012-04-24

471

Information & Control System Technology for Ensuring Secure Electric Power Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVERVIEW: The information & control system currently used in electric power systems is a client-server-type distributed system connected by networks. It offers remarkably operational improvement compared to conventional systems. Sophisticated supervisory control technologies are applied using enhanced-performance hardware. The information & control functions of individual servers enable analysis and assessment of on-line data from a range of perspectives. The system

Shigeru Tamura; Ichiro Toum; Takeshi Terunuma; Masamichi Hirose

472

Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

473

Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

NONE

1997-09-01

474

Video streaming systems with cooperative caching mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate mechanisms for the video streaming system where proxies cooperate to provide users with low-latency and high-quality services under heterogeneous and mobile environment where hosts have different capabilities and dynamically change their locations. The proxy is capable of adapting incoming or cached video data to user's demand by means of transcoders and filters. With such proxies,

Naoki Wakamiya; Masayuki Murata; Hideo Miyahara

2002-01-01

475

Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

476

Electric System-wide Measurements: North American Directions  

SciTech Connect

The western interconnected electric system of North America pioneered the concept of system-wide measurements, particularly applied to system dynamic issues. This involved the development and deployment of synchronized, sub-second measurement units and their associated data collection networks. More recently, the United States Department of Energy has collaborated with the North American Electric Reliability Council, electric utilities, reliability coordinators, equipment and software suppliers, and researchers to advance the use phasors in the eastern interconnection of North America. This paper provides an overview of the status of system-wide monitoring in North America, the directions emerging for application of this data to situational awareness and system operations, as well as the institutional changes underway to organize the relevant parties and establish a viable infrastructure to support the information exchange required to fulfill each party’s role.

Widergren, Steven E.; Huang, Zhenyu; Dagle, Jeffery E.

2007-01-03

477

A microfluidic device for simultaneous electrical and mechanical measurements on single cells  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a microfluidic device for simultaneous mechanical and electrical characterization of single cells. The device performs two types of cellular characterization (impedance spectroscopy and micropipette aspiration) on a single chip to enable cell electrical and mechanical characterization. To investigate the performance of the device design, electrical and mechanical properties of MC-3T3 osteoblast cells were measured. Based on electrical models, membrane capacitance of MC-3T3 cells was determined to be 3.39±1.23 and 2.99±0.82 pF at the aspiration pressure of 50 and 100 Pa, respectively. Cytoplasm resistance values were 110.1±37.7 k? (50 Pa) and 145.2±44.3 k? (100 Pa). Aspiration length of cells was found to be 0.813±0.351 ?m at 50 Pa and 1.771±0.623 ?m at 100 Pa. Quantified Young’s modulus values were 377±189 Pa at 50 Pa and 344±156 Pa at 100 Pa. Experimental results demonstrate the device’s capability for characterizing both electrical and mechanical properties of single cells.

Chen, Jian; Zheng, Yi; Tan, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yan Liang; Li, Jason; Geddie, William R.; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Sun, Yu

2011-01-01

478

An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications.  

PubMed

Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm(-1). On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ?90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ?10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems. PMID:23142944

Tee, Benjamin C-K; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

2012-11-11

479

An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm-1. On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ~90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ~10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

2012-12-01

480

Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

Song, Wang-Cheol

481

AUTO-2920 - Introduction to Electric Vehicle Propulsion Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four credit course offered by Macomb Community College provides practical training in the theory and basic design aspects of electric vehicle propulsion systems and is a required course for MCCâs Electric Vehicle Development Technology Certificate. Primary subjects covered include rationale for electric vehicles (EVs), safety, battery technologies, basic battery testing, electric machine (motor) types, electric machine operation, power management, power inverters, DC to DC converters, accessory systems, and potential future technologies. Educational materials included are the first day handout, detailed course outcomes, homework (no solutions), labs, pre/post assessments, presentations, sample quizzes/exams, syllabus, and more. If youâre an instructor and need access to homework solutions or complete exams/quizzes, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of nine modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or can be taught together as a complete course. These modules are The Need for EVs, EV Safety, Introduction to Battery Chemistry, Battery Pack Integration with Vehicle Systems, Electric Machines (DC Motors, AD Induction Asynchronous Motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, and Switched Reluctance Motors), Power Inverter/Electronic Motor Controls, DC to DC Converters, Vehicle Accessory Systems, and Introduction to Advancing Technology (Fuel Cells, Ultra Capacitors, and Hydraulic Propulsion)

482

Statistical Mechanics of a Discrete Nonlinear System  

SciTech Connect

Statistical mechanics of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation is studied by means of analytical and numerical techniques. The lower bound of the Hamiltonian permits the construction of standard Gibbsian equilibrium measures for positive temperatures. Beyond the line of T={infinity} , we identify a phase transition through a discontinuity in the partition function. The phase transition is demonstrated to manifest itself in the creation of breatherlike localized excitations. Interrelation between the statistical mechanics and the nonlinear dynamics of the system is explored numerically in both regimes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Cretegny, T.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Groenbech-Jensen, Niels

2000-04-24

483

Statistical mechanics of a discrete nonlinear system  

SciTech Connect

Statistical mechanics of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation is studied by means of analytical and numerical techniques. The lower bound of the Hamiltonian permits the construction of standard Gibbsian equilibrium measures for positive temperatures. Beyond the line of T=infinity, we identify a phase transition, through a discontinuity in the partition function. The phase transition is demonstrated to manifest itself in the creation of breather-like localized excitations. Interrelation between the statistical mechanics and the nonlinear dynamics of the system is explored numerically in both regimes.

Rasmussen, K.O.; Cretegny, T.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

1999-09-01