Sample records for electrical mechanical system

  1. Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

  2. Gray-Box Modeling of Mechanical Loads for Electric Drive Systems using Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Vélez-Reyes; Roberto Rivera-Sampayo

    Modeling of Electric Motors coupled to complex nonlinear mechanical system is a challenging task. However, high performance control of electric drives systems requires accurate models of mechanical loads. Gray-Box models using neural networks are used here to identify the electrical machine-mechanical load system of an electric drive. The use of this approach for electric drive identification is illustrated with a

  3. Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Peterson; P. Tangyunyong; D. L. Barton

    1997-01-01

    Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed

  4. Electrical and Mechanical Characterizations of Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Fabian, Paul E [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Hooker, M W [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Lizotte, M J [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As HTS wire technology continues to advance, a critical need has emerged for dielectric materials that can be used in superconducting components such as terminations, fault current limiters, transformers, and motors. To address this need, CTD is developing nanocomposite insulations based on epoxy and benzoxazine chemistries. Depending on part geometry, some processing methods are more efficient than others. For this reason, CTD is investigating both fiber-reinforced and filled resin systems for use in these applications. A thorough set of electrical testing including AC breakdown, breakdown as a function of thickness, and flashover shows promising performance characteristics. In addition, mechanical testing (short beam shear and compression) indicate that these new materials to have as good or better performance than G10.

  5. Analogy of hydraulic, mechanical, acoustic and electric systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. SchÖnfeld

    1954-01-01

    Summary  A clearer conception of the analogies is pursued by treatment of hydraulic systems as distinct from mechanical systems, interpretation\\u000a of acoustic as mixed mechanic-hydraulic systems, analysis of the operation of piston mechanisms, and consideration of gyro-elements.

  6. Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.A.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

    1997-10-01

    Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed for integrated circuit analysis, including optical inspection, scanning laser microscopy (SLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) microscopy, light emission (LE) microscopy, acoustic microscopy and acoustic emission analysis. For example, the FIB was used to microsection microengines that developed poor performance characteristics. Subsequent SEM analysis clearly demonstrated the absence of wear on gear, hub, and pin joint bearing surfaces, contrary to expectations. Another example involved the use of infrared microscopy for thermal analysis of operating microengines. Hot spots were located, which did not involve the gear or hub, but indicated contact between comb structures which drive microengines. Voltage contrast imaging proved useful on static and operating MEMS in both the SEM and the FIB and identified electrostatic clamping as a potentially significant contributor to failure mechanisms in microengines. This work describes MEMS devices, FA techniques, failure modes, and examples of FA of MEMS.

  7. Center for Nanoscale Chemical-Electrical-Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Targeted Self-healing

    E-print Network

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    #12;Center for Nanoscale Chemical-Electrical-Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Targeted Self-healing Mechanics, University of Illinois Abstract The property of self-healing in materials is an important new area of research. Self-healing polymers, specifically, are set to be used in applications ranging from

  8. Mechanical-electrical Optoisolator Transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Ciurus?; Mihai Dimian; Adrian Graur

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical-electrical Optoisolator Transducers are Polaroid optocouplers whose main function is to convert a rotational and\\/or a translation movement into electrical signal. These devices combine transducers feature to connect two physical systems operating with signals of different nature, with optocouplers feature of galvanic separation of two different voltage modules. This is achieved by introducing a mechanically controlled system of Polaroid filters

  9. Mixed electrical and mechanical simulations using dynamic systems analysis packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Flinders; S. Senini; W. Oghanna

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe how a structure for the routine simulation of power electronic circuits using dynamic systems analysis software has been successfully developed. This structure can be used to simulate power electronic converters along side electromechanical plant and complex control systems. These techniques in combination with the “SIMULINK” software package provide the design engineer with a powerful simulation tool. Entire

  10. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  11. A Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based Cryogenic Deformable Mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Enya; H. Kataza; P. Bierden

    2009-01-01

    We present our first results on the development and evaluation of a cryogenic deformable mirror (DM) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. A MEMS silicon-based DM chip with 32 channels, in which each channel is N, zooming optics, electric drivers. The surface of the mirror at 95 K deformed in response to the application of a voltage, and

  12. Design of an electro-mechanical portable system using natural human body movements for electricity generation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design of an electro-mechanical portable system using natural human body movements for electricity that uses natural movements of the human body during walking motion, as a means of increasing the autonomy specifically on the use of human body movements. This objective represents a real challenge from the standpoint

  13. Solar electricity storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jensen; C. Perram

    1980-01-01

    Possible methods for the storage of solar-energy-generated electricity are reviewed. Attention is given to mechanical systems, including elevated weights, pumped water, compressed air, springs and flywheels, electric and magnetic field storage in a capacitor, electromagnet or superconducting coil, and chemical storage systems, including the electrolyzer hydrogen fuel cell and secondary electric storage batteries. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of

  14. Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE)

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE) Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering #12;Graduates able to work in both mechanical of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) n Develop essential engineering skills through extensive project work n Enhance

  15. Electrical Power Systems Availability in Buildings Exposed to Seismic Hazard—Part I: Electrical Criteria and Part II: Mechanical Criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Parise; Luigi Martirano; Gary H. Fox

    2011-01-01

    Part I—Earthquakes cause serious problems to the reliability and continuity of the supply of electrical power sys- tems, particularly in sensitive structures such as hospitals. The mechanical and electrical criteria for the design and installation should take building categories (based on occupancy and\\/or ac- tivity importance) into account. Three levels of functional per- formance following an earthquake are identified for

  16. Waves in Nature (3 units). Introductory course in the mathematical foundations for waves and oscillations: Mechanical and electrical systems, electromagnetic waves, physical optics,

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    . Course Outline: Maxwells Equations Simple Harmon Motion Damped Oscillations Driven Oscillations and oscillations: Mechanical and electrical systems, electromagnetic waves, physical optics, quantum mechanics and Resonance Symmetric Coupled Oscillators and Hilbert Space Asymmetric Coupled Oscillators and the Eigenvalue

  17. Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

    2009-01-01

    The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

  18. Promotion of High-Efficiency Electric Motor Systems Under the Clean Development Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Arquit Niederberger; Conrad U. Brunner

    Since EEMODS 05, carbon markets have developed rapidly, in particular under the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This paper will provide an overview of trends, current status and prospects for promotion of high-efficiency motor component technologies and systems under the CDM, addressing the following broad topics: • status of motor technology\\/system promotion under the CDM, including case studies; •

  19. Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical and electrical

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical, the requirements for enterprises have increased with regard to product and service quality. Due to the worldwide growing competition, enterprises are faced with a stronger pressure. The companies' tasks are frequently

  20. Mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lithium lens and transformer system

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, G.; Hojvat, C.; Lennox, A.J.; Biallas, G.; Cilyo, F.; Leininger, M.; McCarthy, J.; Sax, W.; Snowdon, S.

    1983-03-01

    A lithium-lens focusing device will be used for the collection of 8-GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab Tevatron I Project. The details of the mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lens and its associated toroidal transformer are discussed. The lens, with a radium of 1 cm and length 15 cm, is expected to achieve gradients of 1000 T/m for a focal distance of 0.225 m. The gradient requires a current on the order of 5 x 10/sup 5/A, resulting in large electromagnetic and thermal stresses. The power-supply discharge current and the effect of the inductance of the power leads and connections are minimized by the use of a toroidal matching transformer surrounding the lens itself.

  1. Electrical environmental characteristics for automotive electric systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Yamamoto; OSAMU OZEKI; TERUO YAMANAKA; HIROSHI KONDO

    1983-01-01

    The electrical environment is one of the most important factors in the design of high reliability electronic systems mounted on automobiles. Studies were made of the generation mechanisms and characteristics of both transients and high-frequency conducted noise generated in automotive electrical components. The high-frequency conducted noise data were obtained in terms of amplitude-frequency through real-time statistical treatment of the acquired

  2. Electrical Mechanical Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Clara County Superintendent of Schools, San Jose, CA.

    This instructor's guide describes the development of a sixteen-week postsecondary course in electrical mechanical maintenance. Following introductory sections that provide background information and a course summary, the third section describes the instructional model used in the course. Section 4 presents an overview of instructional media used…

  3. Paradoxical behaviour of mechanical and electrical networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel E. Cohen; Paul Horowitz

    1991-01-01

    WE describe here a network of strings and springs in which cutting a string that supports a weight results in a rise of the weight at equilibrium. In an analogous electronic circuit of passive two-terminal devices (resistors and Zener diodes), adding a current-carrying path increases the voltage drop across the circuit. These systems are mechanical and electrical analogues of a

  4. Electrical Power Generation by Mechanically Modulating Electrical Double Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongyun; Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2012-11-01

    Many objects in contact with a liquid acquire some electronic charges on their surfaces. These charges on the surface attract counter ions from the liquid phase. This complex system is called electrical double layer (EDL). Since its geometry and structure is similar to an electric capacitor, it is also called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). In this work we studied two EDLCs formed in a liquid droplet bridge between two parallel solid conducting plates. We found that when the bridge height was mechanically modulated, each EDLC was continuously charged and discharged generating an AC electric current across the plates. The results of this experiment can be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation.

  5. 112. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) AND PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL VISIBLE AT SOUTH END OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110). PAYLOAD CABLE DISTRIBUTION BOX ON LEFT OF PHOTO, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  7. 1644 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization

    E-print Network

    King, William P.

    February 24, 2006; revised April 20, 2006. Subject Ed- itor G. Stemme. J. Lee, T. Beechem, T. L. Wright, B, and Mechanical Characterization of Silicon Microcantilever Heaters Jungchul Lee, Thomas Beechem, Tanya L. Wright, stress, temperature calibration. I. INTRODUCTION THE atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever has become

  8. Advanced silicon rich automotive electrical power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Emadi; Mehrdad Ehsani; John M. Miller

    1999-01-01

    In order to optimize automotive fuel economy, emissions, performance, and reliability, the More Electric Vehicles (MEV) concept emphasizes the utilization of electrical power systems instead of mechanical and hydraulic power systems. The proposed More Electric Systems facilitate high power loads and enable the introduction of power electronics in a silicon rich environment. On the other hand, there is a growing

  9. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  10. Electrical system architecture

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL)

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  11. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits...Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or...

  12. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits...Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or...

  13. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits...Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or...

  14. TOPEX electrical power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. K. Chetty; Lew Roufberg; Ernest Costogue

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The

  15. T & I--Auto Mechanics. Electrical System. Kit No. 48. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto electrical systems are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  16. Electric and mechanical relaxations of LiClO4-propylene carbonate systems in 100 MHz region.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Masashi; Matsuoka, Tatsuro; Koda, Shinobu

    2009-09-01

    The electric and mechanical relaxation spectra of the solutions of lithium perchlorate (LiClO(4)) in propylene carbonate (PC)-based mixed solvents are studied. The frequency-dependent dielectric susceptivity and electric conductivity from 0.05 to 20 GHz are determined with microwave reflectometry, and the shear relaxation from 15 to 95 MHz is measured with quartz-crystal shear impedance spectroscopy. An electric relaxation is observed at several hundreds of megahertz in a PC solution of LiClO(4) at a concentration higher than 0.5 mol dm(-3). The amplitude and frequency of the relaxation become larger and lower, respectively, with an increase in the concentration of salt. With the addition of such less-polar cosolvents as dimethyl carbonate, 1,4-dioxane or benzene at fixed concentrations (0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mol dm(-3)) of the salt, decreases in the amplitude and relaxation time are observed. Shear relaxation is also observed at the corresponding frequency, and the dependence on the concentration of the salts and cosolvents is similar. The zero-frequency conductivity and shear viscosity are discussed in terms of the relaxation. PMID:19670838

  17. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  18. US electric power system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Electric energy supply, transmission and distribution systems are investigated in order to determine priorities for legislation. The status and the outlook for electric power reliability are discussed.

  19. BIOPHYSICAL INJURY MECHANISMS IN ELECTRICAL SHOCK TRAUMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael C. Lee; Dajun Zhang; Jurgen Hannig

    2000-01-01

    ? Abstract Electrical shock trauma,tends to produce,a very complex,pattern of in- jury, mainly because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interac- tions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical shocks. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved,the understanding,of the underlying biophysical in- jury mechanisms. Besides

  20. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  1. Solar Electric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

  2. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Alloys and Isothermal Section of Ternary Cu-In-Sb System at 673 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini?, Duško; Aljilji, Ajka; Kolarevi?, Milan; Manasijevi?, Dragan; Živkovi?, Dragana

    2011-04-01

    Lead-free solders with copper represent possible substitution for standard lead-tin solders. For the complete definition of the properties of the ternary Bi-Cu-In system, there were performed the investigation of micro structures, hardness by Brinel, and electric conductivity of the alloys. In the range of this ternary system, numerous alloys were tested for three vertical sections, with molar ratio Sb : Cu = 1, Cu : In = 1, Sb : In = 1. The micro structures of the alloys were investigated by application of optic microscopy. By application of CALPHAD method, and software package PANDAT 8.1. there were calculated the isothermal cross sections at 298 K and 673 K. The experimentally obtained phase compositions in microstructures are in a good agreement with phases on calculated cross sections.

  3. Trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle. The electric vehicle contains a driving mechanism, a driving operation part and a control device. The driving mechanism includes a power source, an electric motor and a modality for controlling output level from the power supply to the electric motor in response to the driving operation part. The control device includes a microprocessor which receives commands from the driving operation part and supplies a control signal to the driving mechanism in response to a stored drive control program. The trouble shooting system consists of control device storage mechanisms for storing trouble shooting programs for various parts of the vehicle which are executed by the microprocessor. This system also includes a command generating modality responsive to manual operation for supplying a command to the microprocessor to initiate the execution and read out of a selected trouble shooting program and a method by which the microprocessor may display the program being processed.

  4. The future of power electronics in advanced automotive electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Kassakian

    1996-01-01

    It is only recently that manufacturers have begun to appreciate the electrical system's influence on vehicle performance and price. The result has been an increasing interest in replacing mechanical actuators by electrical, improving electrical system efficiency, finding alternatives to the present 12 VDC system, and improving safety and comfort by introducing new functions that are best controlled electrically. In this

  5. Electric system restructuring and system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Catherine Miller

    In 1996 the California legislature passed AB 1890, explicitly defining economic benefits and detailing specific mechanisms for initiating a partial restructuring the state's electric system. Critics have since sought re-regulation and proponents have asked for patience as the new institutions and markets take shape. Other states' electric system restructuring activities have been tempered by real and perceived problems in the California model. This study examines the reduced regulatory controls and new constraints introduced in California's limited restructuring model using utility and regulatory agency records from the 1990's to investigate effects of new institutions and practices on system reliability for the state's five largest public and private utilities. Logit and negative binomial regressions indicate negative impact from the California model of restructuring on system reliability as measured by customer interruptions. Time series analysis of outage data could not predict the wholesale power market collapse and the subsequent rolling blackouts in early 2001; inclusion of near-outage reliability disturbances---load shedding and energy emergencies---provided a measure of forewarning. Analysis of system disruptions, generation capacity and demand, and the role of purchased power challenge conventional wisdom on the causality of Californian's power problems. The quantitative analysis was supplemented by a targeted survey of electric system restructuring participants. Findings suggest each utility and the organization controlling the state's electric grid provided protection from power outages comparable to pre-restructuring operations through 2000; however, this reliability has come at an inflated cost, resulting in reduced system purchases and decreased marginal protection. The historic margin of operating safety has fully eroded, increasing mandatory load shedding and emergency declarations for voluntary and mandatory conservation. Proposed remedies focused on state-funded contracts and government-managed power authorities may not help, as the findings suggest pricing models, market uncertainty, interjurisdictional conflict and an inability to respond to market perturbations are more significant contributors to reduced regional generation availability than the particular contract mechanisms and funding sources used for power purchases.

  6. Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

  7. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  8. Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics Lin Zhang, Qiming, the dielectric will breakdown electrically. The breakdown limits the electrical energy density of the dielectric including high dielectric strength, fast charging rate, and mechanical flexibility and conformability. Soft

  9. Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references.

  10. TOPEX electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  11. Wind Turbines Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Wind Turbines Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Objective · Introduce students to the concept of alternative energy. · Explain the math and scientific principles behind engineering wind turbines. Standards and how it applies to wind energy · About how surface area and shape effects wind turbine efficiency

  12. Mechanical and electrical properties of biodegradable plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Shinyama; S. Fujita

    2005-01-01

    We examined the mechanical and electrical properties as well as physicochemical analysis of PLA and PET copolymer that is biodegradable plastics. The decreasing rate of tensile strength of PET copolymer became a tendency to look like PP, and was more gradual than the decreasing rate of PLA. The rise of ? of PLA according to the rise in heat was

  13. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  14. Mechanical and electrical interactions in bone remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Spadaro, J.A. [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery] [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1997-05-01

    The natural remodeling and adaptation of skeletal tissues in response to mechanical loading is a classic example of physical regulation in biology. It is largely because it involves forces that do not seem to fit into the familiar schemes of biochemical controls that bone adaptation mechanisms have intrigued us for at least a century. The effect of electromagnetic fields on organisms is another example of this, and the two have become linked in an attempt to explain bone remodeling (Yasuda`s hypothesis). This paper re-examines the roles of endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields in the response of bone to mechanical forces. A series of experiments is reviewed in which mechanical and electrical stimuli were applied to implants in the medullary canal of rabbit long bones. The results suggest that endogenously generated electrical currents are not required to initiate mechanically stimulated bone formation, but that direct mechanical effects on bone cells is the more likely scenario. Based on this and other evidence from the literature, it is suggested that when exogenous electromagnetic stimuli are applied, bone cells respond by modulating the activity of more primary activators such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical forces. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Hybrid Mechanical Systems

    E-print Network

    Philipp Treutlein; Claudiu Genes; Klemens Hammerer; Martino Poggio; Peter Rabl

    2015-01-06

    We discuss hybrid systems in which a mechanical oscillator is coupled to another (microscopic) quantum system, such as trapped atoms or ions, solid-state spin qubits, or superconducting devices. We summarize and compare different coupling schemes and describe first experimental implementations. Hybrid mechanical systems enable new approaches to quantum control of mechanical objects, precision sensing, and quantum information processing.

  16. Electric vehicle monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, S.; Obi, H.

    1987-08-11

    A system is described for monitoring one or more electric vehicles which are driven by parallel-connected induction motors controlled by a variable voltage/variable frequency inverter, the induction motors being divided into a first group of one or more induction motors and a second group of one or more induction motors, comprising: rotational frequency detecting means for detecting a rotational frequency of the first group of motors; first current detecting means for detecting a first motor current supplied to the first group of motors; second current detecting means for detecting a second motor current supplied to the second group of motors; and protection circuit means responsive only to outputs of the rotational frequency detecting means and the first and second current detecting means for determining an operational parameter of the second group of motors indicative of a rotational frequency of the second group of motors.

  17. Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems

    E-print Network

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer T¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2

  18. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  19. Electrical energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lemelson

    1981-01-01

    An electric storage battery and a method for monitoring the operation of the battery and automatically replenishing chemicals employed to operate the battery and provide its electrical energy output are described. In one form, a computer or microprocessor receives, processes and automatically analyzes signals received from a plurality of sensors which sense the battery condition and operation. The microprocessor generates

  20. Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding eg@ecs.soton.ac.uk Valentin electric vehicles are expected to place a consid- erable strain on local electricity distribution networks mechanisms are evaluated in depth, using data from a real-world trial of electric vehicles in the UK

  1. Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface. PMID:25489276

  2. Development of modular electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armen Zakarian; Gary J. Rushton

    2001-01-01

    Modular systems provide the ability to achieve product variety through the combination and standardization of components. A methodology that combines system modeling, integration analysis, and optimization techniques for development of modular systems is presented. The approach optimizes integration and interactions of system elements and creates functional and physical modules for the electrical system. The Hatley\\/Pirbhai methodology (1987) is used for

  3. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  4. Darrieus wind turbine electric generating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A wind electric system intended to provide power to a power grid, for use with a wind turbine which has no starting torque. The generator is one which can function as a motor as well. When the wind is too light to permit generation, an overriding clutch mechanically disconnects the generator shaft from the turbine shaft. The clutch has also

  5. TAKING FULL ADVANTAGE OF MODERN MONITORING TECHNOLOGY, IMPROVING MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL MANAGEMENT IN MINE CONTINUOUSLY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WANG Cai-hong; FU Sheng; ZHU Hong

    Monitoring system is applied to mechanical and electrical equipments in coal mine, which is not only an excellent opportunity but also a challenge for the mechanical and electrical management in mine. Application of monitoring technology is reviewed in coal mine equipment management, and application foreground of monitoring technology is prospected in the field. Monitoring system can not only monitor the

  6. Mechanical Systems Signal Processing

    E-print Network

    Ray, Asok

    Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 21 (2007) 866 and analytical models. This paper attempts to address this inadequacy by taking advantage of advanced signal processing and pattern recognition tools. Since a vast majority of structural components that are prone

  7. Hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massoud Pedram; Naehyuck Chang; Younghyun Kim; Yanzhi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Electrical energy is a high quality form of energy that can be easily converted to other forms of energy with high efficiency and, even more importantly, it can be used to control lower grades of energy quality with ease. However, building a cost-effective electrical energy storage (EES) system is a challenging task despite steady advances in the design and manufacturing

  8. Automotive electrical systems circa 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Kassakian; H.-C. Wolf; J. M. Miller; C. J. Hurton

    1996-01-01

    Demands for better fuel economy and more electric power are driving cars to multiple higher voltages. In the next 10 years the electrical systems in some luxury automobiles will be so changed as to be almost unrecognizable. Although they will doubtless employ the old reliable 12 V lead-acid battery, their loads will be driven by a variety of voltages, both

  9. Complete automotive electrical system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Juchem; B. Knorr

    2003-01-01

    The increasing complexity of electrical and electromechanical systems in vehicles has prompted significant new developments in the automotive industry. The design of these systems requires reliable simulation tools with comprehensive component libraries capable of dealing with complex, multi-domain systems. In addition, these systems should be able to integrate with the various stages of the design processes and support easy information

  10. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

  11. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

  12. Development of Electric Propulsion Systems for Light Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuele Bertoluzzo; Giuseppe Buja

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two light electric vehicles (LEVs) with a electric propulsion system developed at an academic labora- tory. One LEV is an electric city scooter powered by a lithium-ion battery pack and propelled bya wheel motor drive.The other LEV is an electric bicycle powered by a fuel cell system with the assis- tance of a supercapacitor bank. Power and

  13. Mechanical and Electrical Systems for the Tallest Building/Man-Made Structure in the World: A Burj Dubai Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Frechette, R.; Leung, L.; Boyer, J.

    2006-01-01

    of the Persian Gulf. Its location coincides with the northern edge of the earth’s equatorial region, an area influenced by so-called trade wind patterns. The climate is classified as arid sub-tropical and is characterized by average diurnal temperature... connected to the ground conductors. PLUMBING SYSTEMS The water available at the site is desalinated sea water from the Persian Gulf. 250,000 Gallons of fresh water is required on peak. Due to the water composition, a selected portion...

  14. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, achievement of thruster efficiency and specific impulse levels required for missions of interest, and demonstration of adequate engine life at these input power, efficiency, and specific impulse levels. To address these issues we have designed, built, and tested a 100 kW class, radiation-cooled applied-field MPD thruster and a unique dual-beam thrust stand that enables separate measurements of the applied- and self-field thrust components. We have also initiated the development of cathode thermal and plasma sheath models that will eventually be used to guide the experimental program. In conjunction with the cathode modeling, a new cathode test facility is being constructed. This facility will support the study of cathode thermal behavior and erosion mechanisms, the diagnosis of the near-cathode plasma and the development and endurance testing of new, high-current cathode designs. To facilitate understanding of electrode surface phenomenon, we have implemented a telephoto technique to obtain photographs of the electrodes during engine operation. In order to reduce the background vacuum tank pressure during steady-state engine operation in order to obtain high fidelity anode thermal data, we have developed and are evaluating a gas-dynamic diffuser. A review of experience with alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters led to the conclusion that alkali metals, particularly lithium, offer the potential for significant engine performance and lifetime improvements. systems-level issue is the potential for spacecraft contamination. Subsequent experimental and theoretical efforts should be directed toward verifying the performance and lifetime gains and characterizing the thruster flow field to assess its impact on spacecraft surfaces. Consequently, we have begun the design and development of a new facility to study engine operation with alkali metal propellants.

  15. Cholesteric elastomers in external mechanical and electric fields.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M; Brand, Helmut R

    2007-01-01

    In our studies, we focus on the reaction of cholesteric side-chain liquid single-crystal elastomers (SCLSCEs) to static external mechanical and electric fields. By means of linearized continuum theory, different geometries are investigated: The mechanical forces are oriented in a direction either parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the cholesteric helix such that they lead to a compression or dilation of the elastomer. Whereas only a homogeneous deformation of the system is found for the parallel case, perpendicularly applied mechanical forces cause either twisting or untwisting of the cholesteric helix. This predominantly depends on the direction in which the director of the cholesteric phase is anchored at the boundaries of the elastomer, and on the sign of a material parameter that describes how deformations of the elastomer couple to the relative rotations between the elastomer and the director. It is also this material parameter that leads to an anisotropy of the mechanical reaction of the system to compression and dilation, due to the liquid crystalline order. The effect of an external electric field is studied when applied parallel to the helix axis of a perfect electric insulator. Here an instability arises at a threshold value of the field amplitude, where the latter results from a competition between the effects of the external electric field on the one hand and the influences of the boundaries of the system, the cholesteric order, and the coupling between the director and the polymer network on the other hand. The instability is either homogeneous in space in the directions perpendicular to the external electric field and includes homogeneous shearing, or, for certain values of the material parameters, there arise undulations of the elastomer and the director orientation perpendicular to the direction of the external electric field at onset. This describes a qualitatively new phenomenon not observed in cholesteric systems yet, as these undulations are due to the coupling of the director orientation to the deformations of the elastomer. Furthermore, we find that theoretically it should be possible to synthesize cholesteric and nematic SCLSCEs in which the director can be reoriented by an external electric field without macroscopically distorting the sample; the latter applies for one specific set of values for the material parameters involved. We also propose ways of experimental access to the material parameters in the general situation. PMID:17358173

  16. Space station electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear propulsion background; schedule for the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) project; NEP for the Space Exploration Initiative; NEP on-going systems tasks; 20KWe mission/system study; and agenda.

  18. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  19. Automotive electrical systems: architecture and components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Khan

    1999-01-01

    Automotive electrical power systems that address the demands of increased electrical power, improved fuel economy and reduced emissions are discussed. Considerations related to high-efficiency automotive electrical power systems such as the selection of the types of electrical machines and power converters, selection of system voltages, battery voltage equalization, load management, energy management, regenerative braking, centralized and distributed power system architectures,

  20. A simple electrical-mechanical model of the heart applied to the study of electrical-mechanical alternans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Edward A.; Smith, Joseph M.; Cohen, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that a subtle alternation in the surface ECG (electrical alternans) may be correlated with the susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. In the present work, the author presents evidence that a mechanical alternation in the heartbeat (mechanical alternans) generally accompanies electrical alternans. A simple finite-element computer model which emulates both the electrical and the mechanical activity of the heart is presented. A pilot animal study is also reported. The computer model and the animal study both found that (1) there exists a regime of combined electrical-mechanical alternans during the transition from a normal rhythm towards a fibrillatory rhythm, (2) the detected degree of alternation is correlated with the relative instability of the rhythm, and (3) the electrical and mechanical alternans may result from a dispersion in local electrical properties leading to a spatial-temporal alternation in the electrical conduction process.

  1. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-05-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  2. 44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  3. 6.061 / 6.690 Introduction to Electric Power Systems, Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Kirtley, James

    This course is an introductory subject in the field of electric power systems and electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Electric power has become increasingly important as a way of transmitting and transforming energy ...

  4. A mechanical, thermal and electrical packaging design for a prototype power management and control system for the 30 cm mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. R.; Gedeon, L.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. S.; Siegert, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype electric power management and thruster control system for a 30 cm ion thruster is described. The system meets all of the requirements necessary to operate a thruster in a fully automatic mode. Power input to the system can vary over a full two to one dynamic range (200 to 400 V) for the solar array or other power source. The power management and control system is designed to protect the thruster, the flight system and itself from arcs and is fully compatible with standard spacecraft electronics. The system is easily integrated into flight systems which can operate over a thermal environment ranging from 0.3 to 5 AU. The complete power management and control system measures 45.7 cm (18 in.) x 15.2 cm (6 in.) x 114.8 cm (45.2 in.) and weighs 36.2 kg (79.7 lb). At full power the overall efficiency of the system is estimated to be 87.4 percent. Three systems are currently being built and a full schedule of environmental and electrical testing is planned.

  5. A market mechanism for electric power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

    1996-01-01

    As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

  6. Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William

    This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

  7. Research for electric energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbrunt, Richard J.

    1990-06-01

    Electrical Energy Systems investigations include: (1) an evaluation and critique of techniques for measuring ambient magnetic fields in support of epidemiological and in vitro studies of biological field effects; (2) development of techniques for detecting the toxic gas S2F10 in SF6 and measuring its production rate from corona discharges in SF6; (3) optical and electrical measurements of prebreakdown partial discharge phenomena in dielectric liquids; and (4) development of improved electro-optical methods for measurement and characterization of fast, transient high voltage impulses.

  8. Electrical system design of a solar electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Borchers; Jonathan A. Locker

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a team approach to the design and construction of an electrical system for a solar electric vehicle. The design proceeds from the selection of solar cells to the brushless DC motor inverter fed electric drive with solar tracking and optimal battery storage. The vehicle design is being implemented for construction in the 1997 Sunrayce

  9. Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, J.W.

    2001-07-30

    Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

  10. Power electronics in automotive electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iftikhar A. Khan

    1996-01-01

    The role of power electronics as an enabling technology for various automotive applications is illustrated with examples. Automotive electrical power systems that address the demands of increased electrical power, improved fuel economy and reduced emissions are discussed. Considerations related to high-efficiency automotive electrical power systems such as the selection of the types of electrical machines and power converters, selection of

  11. Research for electric energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.

    1992-06-01

    This report documents the technical progress in the four investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems', Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the production of S2F10 in negative corona in SF6 and the measurement of electron scattering and dissociative electron attachment cross sections for SF6 and its electrical by-products. The third investigation is also concerned with tvo different activities: several liquids that are currently used or have potential for use as high voltage dielectrics are studied using conventional impulse breakdown measurement techniques and high-speed photography and advances in partial discharge measurement techniques are presented. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse.

  12. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

  13. Electric bus battery-swapping system based on robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Hui; Wang Xin

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicle which could save energy and protect environment, is an important part of strong smart grid and will be the trend of automotive industry in the future. Nowadays, battery-swapping is the main method of EV charging. In this paper, electric bus battery-swapping system based on robots which includes cartesian robot, stacker and battery charging bay, is introduced considering mechanical

  14. Electrical simulation and analysis of large complex electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Yoon

    1994-01-01

    Circuit modelling and simulations of large, complex electrical systems presents obstacles related to issues such as circuit partitioning, model validation, consistency, speed, and model management. This paper presents the methodology and processes used by a group at Sandia National Laboratories to resolve these issues in their effort to develop a circuit level simulation model for a large-scale electrical system using

  15. Electric vehicle energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  16. Design of Boeing 777 electric system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Andrade; C. Tenning

    1992-01-01

    The electric power system for the Boeing 777 is comprised of two independent electrical systems, the main and the backup. The main electric system includes two engine-driven integrated drive generators, a generator driven by the auxiliary power unit, three generator control units, and a bus power control unit. The backup electric system includes two engine-drive generators and one integrated converter\\/control

  17. Gemini Titan II Booster Electrical System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Sitter

    1966-01-01

    A description of the Gemini Titan II Launch Vehicle's redundant electrical system and differences between the electrical systems of the Titan II and Gemini Titan II Launch Vehicles are presented. Also described are the interfaces with the guidance\\/flight control, malfunction detection, range safety, hydraulic and instrumentation systems, and the interface of the launch vehicle and Gemini spacecraft. Principal electrical component

  18. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  19. Electric energy systems theory: an introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Elgerd, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    This book discusses the automatic closed-loop control of generators, which is the key to the successful operation of modern power plants and power systems. The first edition of this book gained wide readership because of its control topics and its coverage of optimum operation and load flow analysis. Now these topics have been greatly expanded to conform with the state-of-the-art of electric energy systems, and a new and unique emphasis has been placed on emergency control. The mechanism that transforms mechanical power into electrical megawatts in three-phase synchronous machines, and the collective behavior of the many machines that make up a modern power system are presented. A detailed treatment of the Newton-Raphson powerflow algorithm, an overview of system protection, examples in unbalanced fault analysis, a step-by-step example of a building-algorithm, explanations of subharmonic resonance and intermachine oscillations, turbine transfer functions, utilization of the state transition diagram and a chapter on three-phase theory are offered.

  20. Research for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.E. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

  1. 7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  2. 31. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north; 'pins' and electrical connection. Both spans are down and locked. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Phenomena and mechanism of electrical tree in silicone rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. X. Du; Z. L. Ma; Y. Gao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber (SiR) was employed as test sample to investigate the tree aging phenomena and mechanism of silicone rubber under commercial voltage. The structures and growth characteristics of electrical tree in SiR were observed by using a digital camera. A new parameter, the treeing proportion is introduced to describe the electrical tree propagation

  4. Darrieus wind turbine electric generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, E.L.

    1984-08-07

    A wind electric system intended to provide power to a power grid, for use with a wind turbine which has no starting torque. The generator is one which can function as a motor as well. When the wind is too light to permit generation, an overriding clutch mechanically disconnects the generator shaft from the turbine shaft. The clutch has also the capability of locking the generator shaft to the turbine shaft in response to a control signal. When wind speed is great enough to permit generation and the turbine is stopped, a control signal is issued locking the generator shaft to the turbine shaft. Power from the power grid causes the generator to function as a motor and accelerate the turbine to permit it to be rotated by the wind. The clutch is then returned to overriding operation and electrical generation continues until wind speed again becomes too light.

  5. Mechanisms leading to electrically isolated cell

    E-print Network

    , isolated cell area Crack mode: #12;Power loss after mechanical load · Some solar cells with mode A cracks[%] -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 · Initially all cells show micro cracks · Micro cracks in solar cells may reduce · Determine power and detect cracks · Inflict cracks to cells in PV module by mechanical load test (IEC 61215

  6. Load management on the electric power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Long; J. C. Smith

    1979-01-01

    Load management is the systems concept of altering the real or apparent pattern of electricity use in order to conserve resources, both fuel and capital, in the production and distribution of electrical energy. Load management is achieved through controlling the power flow in the electric system at the generating end (supply management) or the customer end (use management). Traditionally, the

  7. Mechanisms of electrical coupling between pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Vigmond, E J; Perez Velazquez, J L; Valiante, T A; Bardakjian, B L; Carlen, P L

    1997-12-01

    Direct electrical coupling between neurons can be the result of both electrotonic current transfer through gap junctions and extracellular fields. Intracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices showed two different types of small-amplitude coupling potentials: short-duration (5 ms) biphasic spikelets, which resembled differentiated action potentials and long-duration (>20 ms) monophasic potentials. A three-dimensional morphological model of a pyramidal cell was employed to determine the extracellular field produced by a neuron and its effect on a nearby neuron resulting from both gap junctional and electric field coupling. Computations were performed with a novel formulation of the boundary element method that employs triangular elements to discretize the soma and cylindrical elements to discretize the dendrites. An analytic formula was derived to aid in computations involving cylindrical elements. Simulation results were compared with biological recordings of intracellular potentials and spikelets. Field effects produced waveforms resembling spikelets although of smaller magnitude than those recorded in vitro. Gap junctional electrotonic connections produced waveforms resembling small-amplitude excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Intracellular electrode measurements were found inadequate for ascertaining membrane events because of externally applied electric fields. The transmembrane voltage induced by the electric field was highly spatially dependent in polarity and wave shape, as well as being an order of magnitude larger than activity measured at the electrode. Membrane voltages because of electrotonic current injection across gap junctions were essentially constant over the cell and were accurately depicted by the electrode. The effects of several parameters were investigated: 1) decreasing the ratio of intra to extracellular conductivity reduced the field effects; 2) the tree structure had a major impact on the intracellular potential; 3) placing the gap junction in the dendrites introduced a time delay in the gap junctional mediated electrotonic potential, as well as deceasing the potential recorded by the somatic electrode; and 4) field effects decayed to one-half of their maximum strength at a cell separation of approximately 20 micron. Results indicate that the in vitro measured spikelets are unlikely to be mediated by gap junctions and that a spikelet produced by the electric field of a single source cell has the same waveshape as the measured spikelet but with a much smaller amplitude. It is hypothesized that spikelets are a manifestation of the simultaneous electric field effects from several local cells whose action potential firing is synchronized. PMID:9405530

  8. Evaluation of a mechanical beam-switching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, P. L.; Sato, T.; Traube, E. C.; Battle, D. S.

    1991-12-01

    An evaluation was conducted of a mechanical beam switching system that may be appropriate for use with high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Subjects rated the adequacy of the beam change time at several rates, compared with an electrical beam changing system. The results indicate that subjects rated the mechanical and electrical systems the same, at the shortest change time for the former. Longer change times elicited poorer ratings for the mechanical system. The change from low to high beam was rated better than the change from high to low beam in the mechanical system. This difference was statistically significant at the two slower rates investigated.

  9. Electrical simulation and analysis of large complex electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.

    1994-11-01

    Circuit modeling and simulation of large, complex electrical systems presents obstacles related to issues such as circuit partitioning, model validation, model consistency, computational speed, and model management. This paper presents the methodology and processes used by a group at Sandia National Laboratories to resolve these issues in their effort to develop a circuit level simulation model for a large-scale electrical system using the PSPICE{trademark} schematics hierarchical-based circuit simulator.

  10. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Cryo-worked Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinali, Livio; Tosti, Silvano; Pizzuto, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    For manufacturing the magnets of fusion machines pure copper of both high mechanical resistance and electrical conductivity is required. Though high purity copper guarantees high electrical conductivity, its mechanical properties may be not suitable for the applications in tokamaks. In this view, a new procedure developed for obtaining high purity copper with excellent mechanical strength is described in this work. Samples of oxygen free copper (OFC) have been worked by pressing in liquid nitrogen (77 K). It has been verified that the mechanical properties of the worked metal are strongly dependent on the strain rate. Very low strain rates permitted to attain values of tensile yield strength (550 MPa) significantly higher than those obtained by traditional cold-working at room temperature (450 MPa). The electrical conductivity of the cryo-worked Cu decreases with the tensile yield strength even though the hardest samples of tensile yield strength of 550 MPa exhibit still acceptable values of conductivity (about 94 % IACS at room temperature).

  11. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  12. The Electrical Response to Injury: Molecular Mechanisms and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2014-02-01

    Significance: Natural, endogenous electric fields (EFs) and currents arise spontaneously after wounding of many tissues, especially epithelia, and are necessary for normal healing. This wound electrical activity is a long-lasting and regulated response. Enhancing or inhibiting this electrical activity increases or decreases wound healing, respectively. Cells that are responsible for wound closure such as corneal epithelial cells or skin keratinocytes migrate directionally in EFs of physiological magnitude. However, the mechanisms of how the wound electrical response is initiated and regulated remain unclear. Recent Advances: Wound EFs and currents appear to arise by ion channel up-regulation and redistribution, which are perhaps triggered by an intracellular calcium wave or cell depolarization. We discuss the possibility of stimulation of wound healing via pharmacological enhancement of the wound electric signal by stimulation of ion pumping. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are a major problem in the elderly and diabetic patient. Any strategy to stimulate wound healing in these patients is desirable. Applying electrical stimulation directly is problematic, but pharmacological enhancement of the wound signal may be a promising strategy. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular regulation of wound electric signals may reveal some fundamental mechanisms in wound healing. Manipulating fluxes of ions and electric currents at wounds might offer new approaches to achieve better wound healing and to heal chronic wounds. PMID:24761358

  13. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

  14. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

  15. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

  16. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

  17. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

  18. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

  19. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  20. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  1. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baumbaugh; Alan E

    1997-01-01

    A zero insertion\\/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit

  2. Power system characteristics for more electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1993-01-01

    It should not be suprising that more electric aircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considereed when today's power distribution systems were being developed. Electric power, no longer a secondary system, will become a critical element of the primary control system. Functional reliability requiirements will be extremely stringent and can only be met by controlling element redundancy within a distributed power system. Existing electrical systems were not developed to have both the power system and the control/sensing elements distributed and yet meet the requirements of lighting tolerance and high intensity radio frequency (HIRF). In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 vdc or 400 Hertz ac power systems. This paper will expand upon the issues and discuss some of the technologies involved in their resolution.

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferg, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

  4. Flow aeroacoustic damping using coupled mechanical–electrical impedance in lined pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yi-Yong; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Bai, Yu-Zhu; Tan, Xiao-Dong

    2015-05-01

    We report a new noise-damping concept which utilizes a coupled mechanical–electrical acoustic impedance to attenuate an aeroacoustic wave propagating in a moving gas confined by a cylindrical pipeline. An electrical damper is incorporated to the mechanical impedance, either through the piezoelectric, electrostatic, or electro-magnetic principles. Our numerical study shows the advantage of the proposed methodology on wave attenuation. With the development of the micro-electro-mechanical system and material engineering, the proposed configuration may be promising for noise reduction. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404405, 91216201, 51205403, and 11302253).

  5. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Khamamkar

    2000-06-23

    The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System for supervisory monitoring and control signals. The system interfaces with all facility support loads such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, office, fire protection, monitoring and control, safeguards and security, and communications subsystems.

  6. Electric field effects in oxide perovskite systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogale, Satishchandra

    2000-03-01

    Recently, the suggested and partly demonstrated existence of stripe phases in oxide perovskite systems, and the suggestion of percolative phase separation as a primary transport mechanism in manganites, have raised interesting questions about the nature of response of such electronically inhomogeneous systems to external perturbations such as strain, defects and applied fields. We have explored the status of such perovskites as a channel in an electric field effect configuration. Our recent data on a modified and improved manganite/PZT based heterostructure show colossal electric field effects, which along with their systematics under applied magnetic field strongly favor an electronically inhomogeneous picture for the manganite channel over the traditional uniform channel picture. In fact the magneto-resistance and electro-resistance are found to exhibit complimentary behavior. It will be argued based on the various length-scale related physical considerations that nanometer scale channels could lead to even more novel features in field induced perturbations. 1. D. M. Newns et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 780 (1998). 2. S. B. Ogale et al. Phys. Rev. Letts. 77, 1159 (1996). 3. Emery, V. J. et al. Phys. Rev. B. 56, 6120 (1997). 4. M. Uehara et al. Nature 399, 560 (1999).

  7. Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems

    E-print Network

    Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems Lecture notes by Anton Bovier 12 Weierstrass-Institut f of statistical mechanics. This is a diÆcult, but in my opinion, important task in many respects. Statistical people in statistical mechanics are interested in come from physics, and they tend to be extremely varied

  8. IEED system: A new kind of Automotive electrical system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Xinfeng; Yang Diange; Lian Xiaomin; Lu liang; Xuewen

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of automotive electrical system is proposed, which named IEED system. It is a completely distributed system with only intelligent electrical & electronic device (IEED) in it. The systempsila features is described and key IEEDs in system are also presented. The system prototype was developed and experimented. Results showed that IEED system is feasible and cost effective.

  9. Electrical safety for an offshore power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Lavie

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical safety for a power system analysis. For an efficient and reliable electrical system, routine and detailed maintenance must be performed. One method of preventive maintenance uses infrared thermography. This technology visually depicts heat differentials in a circuit breakers and transformers that are housed in metal-glad switchgear. Predictive maintenance involves testing equipment for proper operation. This

  10. Electric propulsion power system-overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Hamilton

    1996-01-01

    Electric automobile power system technology has not improved substantially beyond what it was in the 1930s. The 1976 Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Act's research and development efforts have focused on technologies to reduce costs and to improve system performance through programs like the US Automotive Battery Consortium (USABC). Despite renewed interest and increased research and development efforts, the problems of

  11. Mecomtronics Module D: Electrical and Mechanical Principles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module D's Filling Station project focuses on process control and production. Students will learn about power supply, sensors, solenoid valves and interfaces, electronic counters, and a sensor interfaces, and will use this knowledge to: Construct, test and verify the operation of the DC power supply Construct and evaluate the performance of the sensors and control system Assemble a liquid filling station Connect the binary counter and seven-segment converter to the digital display Interconnect the system components and verify operation of the filling station according to specifications Prepare and present a project report The filling station will have the capability to: Sense the presence of a container and its contents Fill it with a pre-determined quantity of liquid Count the number of containers filled Display the result Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College students Self Evaluation Data: Excellent instructional module to support a new or existing Engineering Technology course or program.

  12. Characteristics of primary electric propulsion systems. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of advanced electric propulsion systems is expected to provide cost and performance benefits for future energetic space missions. A methodology to predict the characteristics of advanced electric propulsion systems was developed and programmed for computer calculations to allow evaluation of a broad set of technology and mission assumptions. The impact on overall thrust system characteristics was assessed for variations of propellant type, total accelerating voltage, thruster area, specific impulse, and power system approach. The data may be used both to provide direction to technology emphasis and allow for preliminary estimates of electric propulsion system properties for a wide variety of applications.

  13. Comparison of mechanical properties for several electrical spring contact alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nordstrom

    1976-01-01

    Work was conducted to determine whether beryllium-nickel alloy 440 had mechanical properties which made it suitable as a substitute for the presently used precious metal contact alloys Paliney 7 and Neyoro G, in certain electrical contact applications. Possible areas of applicability for the alloy were where extremely low contact resistance was not necessary or in components encountering elevated temperatures above

  14. Mechanical and electrical failures and reliability of Micro Scanning Mirrors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gaumont; Alexander Wolter; Harald Schenk; G. Georgelin; M. Schmoger

    2002-01-01

    We present results of failure and reliability investigations on silicon Micro Scanning Mirrors. The electrical insulation resistance, mechanical shock resistance and long-run stability were characterized. By design optimization including a combination of filled and open insulation trenches we achieve an average insulation resistance of more than 10 G? at 20 V. The experimental data from devices with an eigenfrequency between

  15. Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  16. Advanced technology in satellite communication antennas: Electrical and mechanical design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Kitsuregawa

    1990-01-01

    Antenna technology for earth stations and satellites is discussed. The fundamentals, including common analysis methods, for antenna technology for satellite communication are reviewed. Details of the analysis method for beam waveguide feeds are shown, and electrical and mechanical designs for earth station antennas are examined. Offset dual-reflector antennas and offset reflector antennas with beam waveguide feed are examined, giving comprehensive

  17. 132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB (BLDG. 751), QUALITY CONTROL BOARD ON LEFT. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH, THROUGH OPEN DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Conservation of Mechanical and Electric Energy: Simple Experimental Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponikvar, D.; Planinsic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Two similar experiments on conservation of energy and transformation of mechanical into electrical energy are presented. Both can be used in classes, as they offer numerous possibilities for discussion with students and are simple to perform. Results are presented and are precise within 20% for the version of the experiment where measured values…

  19. Optimization of Mechanical Systems Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Seabra, A. [Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Campus Politecnico de Repeses, 3504-510, Viseu (Portugal)

    2010-09-30

    We present a specific mathematical programming problem that allows us to obtain the optimal parameters for mechanical systems' stabilizers. The general approach is described, and the method is applied to optimization of two mechanical systems, namely, a harmonic oscillator and a satellite with gravitational stabilizer.

  20. Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Ball, D. A.; Anson, D.

    1982-02-01

    State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

  1. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between...

  2. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between...

  3. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between...

  4. Enhanced interaction between a mechanical oscillator and two coupled resonant electrical circuits

    E-print Network

    Dmitriev, A V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports result of calculation and experimental realization of an electromechanical system that consists of a high-Q mechanical oscillator parametrically coupled in the manner of a capacitive transducer with a RF circuit, which is in turn inductively coupled with another RF circuit. The system operates in the resolved sideband regime when the mechanical oscillator's frequency is larger than the electrical circuits' bandwidths. Using two coupled RF circuits allowed one to enhance the interaction between them and the mechanical oscillator which is one of flexural vibrational modes of a free-edge circular silicon wafer. Such a coupled electromechanical system can be used as a high-sensitive capacitive vibration sensor.

  5. Electric propulsion and braking system for automotive vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preikschat

    1982-01-01

    An electric propulsion and braking system which includes a plurality of high-speed, dc commutatorless motors each coupled to a wheel of an automotive vehicle through an associated fixedratio mechanical transmission. Each motor includes a field winding, an armature winding, and a commutation circuit for the armature winding. During propulsion, each commutation circuit is enabled and, during braking, each commutation circuit

  6. How Do We Convert Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    In this activity, learners make an electromagnet motor to demonstrate the most basic method of changing electrical energy into mechanical energy. This experiment relates to Nikola Tesla's work in electrical engineering and his invention of the AC (alternating current) induction motor. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning" and write a report about the challenges Tesla faced as an inventor. Use this activity to help learners explore the Law of Conservation of Energy, motors, and electromagnets.

  7. Microwave Circuit Electric Field Imaging Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budka, Thomas Philip

    This thesis reports on the basic theory of operation and the experimental results obtained from an electric field imaging system for planar microwave circuits that employs the method of near-field modulated scattering. The system developed is capable of mapping the normal and tangential electric field intensities and electrical phase delays at each position within 10 ?m above a microwave circuit in the frequency range of 0.5 GHz to 18 GHz with a spatial electric field resolution of better than 100 mum. Two types of probe designs are used: hybrid probes and monolithically integrated probes. The hybrid electric field probes consist of electrically small dipoles or monopoles with high frequency diodes hybrid mounted with the antennas on 125 ?m thick low loss quartz. The monolithically integrated probes consist of Schottky diodes integrated with electrically small dipole and monopole antennas on a 40 mu m thick high resistivity silicon substrate. Both types of probes are used to measure the electric field intensities of the normal and tangential components over microstrip and coplanar waveguide transmission lines. The experimentally measured electric field intensity maps are presented and agree well with theory. Calibration techniques are presented that relate the measured electric field amplitudes and phases at one frequency with another frequency. Electric field intensity and electrical phase delay images are presented for a 50 Omega three turn microstrip meander line, a 10 GHz microstrip coupled line directional coupler and a 12.8 GHz microstrip patch antenna. Finally, a comparison between the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated electric fields using an FDTD approach is presented for a three stage coupled-line bandpass filter in the frequency range of 9 GHz to 12 GHz. The dissertation concludes with proposals for future work.

  8. Movement support system for electric wheelchair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Takahashi; Tooru Nogai

    1998-01-01

    An electric wheelchair can be moved on controlling the motors attached to wheel shaft by operating joystick lever located by the hand. This requires great skill. Therefore we construct a support system which makes electric wheelchair easy to operate and move safely, giving priority to the intentions of the operator even if the operator is heavily handicapped, weak, or incapable

  9. Recommender system for drivers of electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao Ferreira; Pedro Pereira; Porfirio Filipe; Joao Afonso

    2011-01-01

    Being the next big step in automobile industry, electric vehicles continue to have limited autonomy which associated with the long charging times, limited charging stations and undeveloped smart grid infrastructure demands for a hard planning of the daily use of the vehicle. This paper presents an information system that will help the driver in the daily use of his electric

  10. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  11. Mechanical power of ankle plantar flexion and subjective pain by monophasic electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuto Suzuki; Takashi Watanabe; Ryuichi Saura; Hironobu Uchiyama

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical power of the ankle plantar flexion. The investigated power of the ankle plantar flexion would help to improve effectively the FES walking system using the ankle plantar flexion for patients and aged people in slow walking. The subjective pain by electrical stimulation sometimes becomes the burden to use the FES

  12. Reliability research on power MOSFET using coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuyang Li; Guofu Zhai; Shujuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    As an integral component of electronic equipments, power MOSFET with its degenerate performance affects the reliability of the whole system. The modeling of power device based on structural geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions can reduce the repetition test and shorten the failure analysis cycle. In this paper, coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis based on finite element model of TO-247 package power

  13. Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Rijk, G. de [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-01-27

    Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

  14. Survey of aircraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. H.; Brandner, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Areas investigated include: (1) load analysis; (2) power distribution, conversion techniques and generation; (3) design criteria and performance capabilities of hydraulic and pneumatic systems; (4) system control and protection methods; (5) component and heat transfer systems cooling; and (6) electrical system reliability.

  15. Impact of the Contact on Electrical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAROLD N. WAGAR

    1977-01-01

    Many electrical systems, for example, telephone systems or computer systems, use great numbers of contacts. This paper will indicate how such extensive contact usage must in turn influence the architecture of the system as a whole, to a degree that is not commonly realized. One illustration relates especially to the case of electromechanical switching, using relays and connectors; and a

  16. Nonholonomic mechanical systems with symmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Bloch; P. S. Krishnaprasad; Jerrold E. Marsden; Richard M. Murray

    1996-01-01

    This work develops the geometry and dynamics of mechanical systems with nonholonomic constraints and symmetry from the perspective of Lagrangian mechanics and with a view to control-theoretical applications. The basic methodology is that of geometric mechanics applied to the Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation, generalizing the use of connections and momentum maps associated with a given symmetry group to this case. We begin

  17. An optical-mechanical-electrical technology for auto zero returning detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianlan Feng; Haibing Qi

    2010-01-01

    The zero shifts caused by accumulative error of open-loop numerical controlling mechanical equipments need to be manually corrected. An optical-mechanical-electrical integration technology included image analyzer, slit image and MCU are applied to constitute of a system for auto zero shift detection and auto zero returning. Firstly we utilize optoelectronic device to detect the work zero point, then the zero value

  18. Self-Repairing Mechanical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Murata; Eiichi Yoshida; Haruhisa Kurokawa; Kohji Tomita; Shigeru Kokaji

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews several types of self-repairing systems developed in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. We have developed a modular system capable of “self-assembly” and “self-repair.” The former means a set of units can form a given shape of the system without outside help; the latter means the system restores the original shape if an arbitrary part of the system is

  19. Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-02

    A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

  20. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  1. Probabilistic analysis of mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, T.G.; Paez, T.L.; Veers, P.S.

    1993-09-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the comprehensive analysis of complex problems in probabilistic structural mechanics. Tools that can be used to accurately estimate the probabilistic behavior of mechanical systems are discussed, and some of the techniques proposed in the paper are developed and used in the solution of a problem in nonlinear structural dynamics.

  2. Energy efficient electric drying systems for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, B. [South East Queensland Electricity Board, Brisbane (Australia)

    1995-10-01

    Major advances in electric drying system technology have been made in recent times. There is increasing interest in electric drying technologies, however more needs to be done by the Electricity Supply Industry to obtain a significant share of the drying systems energy market for electricity. This paper describes a number of energy efficient electric drying system technologies including heat pump dehumidifiers, heat recovery from heated air driers and microwave assisted drying. Medium temperature (30 C to 55 C) dehumidifier driers can dry a wide range of products using only around 20% of the energy used by a fueled fired drier for the same process. Low temperature (1 C to 5 C) dehumidifier driers have been proposed as a viable alternative to freeze drying with comparable or better product quality and lower capital and operating costs. The advantages to product quality are illustrated by the results of tests carried out in the drying test and demonstration facilities at the South East Queensland Electricity Board`s Customer Technology center and by a number of case studies from industry. The role of Electricity Supply Industry Energy Advisors and Electricity Technology Centers in facilitating adoption of these technologies by industry is discussed.

  3. 46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

  4. 46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.360 Section...16 Individuals on Board § 28.360 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

  6. 46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

  7. 46 CFR 28.360 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.360 Section...16 Individuals on Board § 28.360 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

  9. 46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

  10. 46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section...Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359 ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each...

  12. 46 CFR 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Electrical distribution systems. 28.855 Section 28.855 Shipping...Act Vessels § 28.855 Electrical distribution systems. (a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or...

  13. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-print Network

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid escalation of electricity prices has created an opportunity to re-introduce gas-fired air conditioning systems to the commercial building market. In 1985 Gas Research Institute initiated a program to develop an advanced gas engine...

  14. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  15. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  16. Mechanical and electrical properties of a MWNT\\/epoxy composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Allaoui; S. Bai; H. M. Cheng; J. B. Bai

    2002-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube\\/epoxy resin composites have been fabricated. By choosing an over-aged hardener, relatively soft and ductile matrix, a rubbery epoxy resin, has been obtained. This made possible to evaluate the effect of nanotube addition on the whole stress-strain curve up to high strain level. The mechanical and electrical properties of the composite with different weight percentages of nanotubes have

  17. ENSCI Inc. advanced electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS J. CLOUGH

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the ENSCI advanced electrical energy storage systems, namely next-generation lead-acid batteries, which are superior to nickel cadmium and conventional state-of-the-art lead-acid batteries. Major advances have resulted in the fields of electrically conductive additives and maintenance-free bipolar lead-acid batteries. The bipolar lead-acid battery offers a near-term, high-performance energy storage system that is cost competitive with conventional lead-acid batteries.

  18. SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. McCann

    1999-04-16

    The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side activities of the subsurface facility will be provided at the South Portal by the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the Off-Site Utility System for the receipt of power. The System interfaces with the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control. The System interfaces with MGR Site Layout System for the physical location of equipment and power distribution.

  19. Flight mechanics expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Rowland E.

    1991-01-01

    A method is established which can be used to solve any problem in equation-driven disciplines. This is accomplished by solving all applicable equations of the given discipline for all variables which occur in each of the equations. The system then provides logic tests to determine if enough information is available to calculate a new variable. By recording the order in which the equations are used, the machine can also supply a derivation of the answer to each problem.

  20. Intelligent tutoring system for electric circuit exercising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Yoshikawa; Masafumi Shintani; Yujiro Ohba

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent tutoring system called Circuit Exerciser is described. The system is designed to help university students learn more about electric circuits. It can formulate drill problems, solve them, and infer mistakes in a student's answer. It can also provide helpful comments to the students on how the mistake was made. The system shows the circuit of the presented problem

  1. Specialized battery emulator for automotive electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Baumho?fer; W. Waag; D. U. Sauer

    2010-01-01

    Complexity of the automotive electrical power system is continuously increasing. Greater amount of higher loads is added and active energy management is being introduced. The whole design of such power systems depends on the batteries being used. Since safety-related systems also need power to function, special care has to be taken considering voltage quality. However, there are a lot of

  2. MEASUREMENT OF SMALL MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF BRAIN TISSUE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY-LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposur...

  3. Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

    2002-01-01

    An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

  4. The Dynamic Balancer electrical safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Konkel, H.

    1997-12-01

    The Pantex Plant Dynamic Balancer is used to identify physical imbalance in some weapon systems. This study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Energy/Albuquerque Operations Office (USDOE/AL) Dynamic Balancer Project Team to identify the electrical conditions required for motor over-speed to occur and to discuss the functions of the various electrical protective features associated with the Dynamic Balancer (DB). As is shown through the development of a fault tree, numerous electrical and human failures are required for over-speed conditions to occur. As directed by the Project Team, no effort was made to develop detailed fault trees for all electrical systems, to quantify basic events in the fault tree, or to develop accident scenarios leading to or resulting from over-speed. The Pantex Building 12-60, Bay 2, facility electrical circuits and grounding are described, and potential hazards are discussed. DB motor over-speed is a safety concern, and therefore, the controls that limit this condition are described and discussed in detail. Other safety-significant electrical circuits are discussed as well. These safety systems also are described in the facility Basis for Interim Operation. A potential for a motor over-speed that is not sensed by the standard safety protective systems does exist. This fault pathway is discussed, and recommendations to mitigate its effect are made.

  5. 30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

  6. 30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

  7. 30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical components and systems. 36.32 Section...Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

  8. The renewable electric plant information system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  9. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  10. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  11. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  12. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical engineers made impact. Through a basic understanding of the history of MEMS, the background physics and scaling in micromechanical systems, and an introduction to baseline MEMS processes, a mechanical engineer should be well on his way to Alice's wonderland in the ever-exciting playground of MEMS.

  13. Mechanical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1998-08-27

    Effects of Ag particle dispersions on microstructural development and some properties were investigated for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. They were fabricated by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS) Process to achieve finer and densified microstructure. ZnO/Ag nanocomposites with novel microstructure which were prepared by a reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powders were compared with microcomposites prepared by mixing of Ag and ZnO powders. SEM observation indicated that fine Ag particles were homogeneously dispersed within the ZnO matrix grains and at the grain boundaries for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites prepared by the reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powder. Hardness and fracture toughness increased with increasing the Ag volume fraction. Linear resistivity was decreased with increasing Ag volume fraction. However, the mechanical and electrical properties appeared to the significantly different for composites prepared by two different powder processes.

  14. Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally greater than 0.9, heat loads are often substantial. This heat must be rejected by thermal control systems which generally have specific masses of 15-30 kg/kW. PPU's also represent a large fraction of the electric propulsion system dry mass. Simplification or elimination of power processing in a propulsion system would reduce the electric propulsion system specific mass and improve the overall reliability and performance. A direct drive system would eliminate all or some of the power supplies required to operate a thruster by directly connecting the various thruster loads to the solar array. The development of concentrator solar arrays has enabled power bus voltages in excess of 300 V which is high enough for direct drive applications for Hall thrusters such as the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). The option of solar array direct drive for SPT's is explored to provide a comparison between conventional and direct drive system mass.

  15. MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor

    E-print Network

    Meenen, Jordan N

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

  16. Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems

    E-print Network

    revenue $1.5M FY10, $108M FY13 Strong patents issued #12;Management Team: Silicon Valley Veterans Emily equipment Crane and lift equipment Blowers and fans HVAC systems Packaging equipment * 1-5 hp, 3 phase, non

  17. Electric power steering system for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Y.; Kawai, T.

    1988-03-01

    An electric power steering system for vehicles is described comprising: an input shaft operatively connected to a steering wheel; an output shaft operatively connected to a steered wheel; an electric motor for operatively supplying auxiliary torque to the output shaft; steering torque detection means for detecting steering torque acting on the input shaft; driving control means for feeding the electric motor with a motor drive signal based on an output signal from the steering torque detecting means; steering angle detection means for detecting a steering angle of the steering wheel; and correction means for gradually decreasing the motor drive signal to reduce the auxiliary torque to be developed at the electric motor, when the steering angle of the steering wheel is detected to be exceeding a predetermined angle by the steering angle detection means, the predetermined angle being slightly less than a maximum steering angle of the steering wheel.

  18. Electrically and mechanically tunable electron spins in silicon carbide color centers.

    PubMed

    Falk, Abram L; Klimov, Paul V; Buckley, Bob B; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor A; Calusine, Greg; Koehl, William F; Gali, Adám; Awschalom, David D

    2014-05-01

    The electron spins of semiconductor defects can have complex interactions with their host, particularly in polar materials like SiC where electrical and mechanical variables are intertwined. By combining pulsed spin resonance with ab initio simulations, we show that spin-spin interactions in 4H-SiC neutral divacancies give rise to spin states with a strong Stark effect, sub-10(-6) strain sensitivity, and highly spin-dependent photoluminescence with intensity contrasts of 15%-36%. These results establish SiC color centers as compelling systems for sensing nanoscale electric and strain fields. PMID:24856721

  19. Wavelet-based methods for the prognosis of mechanical and electrical failures in electric motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wesley G. Zanardelli; Elias G. Strangas; Hassan K. Khalil; John M. Miller

    2005-01-01

    The ability to give a prognosis for failure of a system is a valuable tool and can be applied to electric motors. In this paper, three wavelet-based methods have been developed that achieve this goal. Wavelet and filter bank theory, the nearest-neighbour rule, and linear discriminant functions are reviewed. A framework for the development of a fault detection and classification

  20. MSFC Skylab electrical power systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of the Skylab electrical power system are discussed. The electrical systems for the airlock module of the orbital workshop and the Apollo telescope mount are described. Skylab is considered an integral laboratory, however, both cluster and module hardware distinct sections are included. Significant concept and requirement evolution, testing, and modifications resulting from tests are briefly summarized to aid in understanding the launch configuration description and the procedures and performance discussed for in-orbit operation. Specific problems encountered during Skylab orbital missions are analyzed.

  1. Advances in Electric Wheelchair Propulsion Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Iiiigo; K. T. Shafik; F. M. Churillo; J. R. Pence

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe recent research at the University of Virginia Rehabilitation Engineering Center (WA-REC) in the area of propulsion systems for electric wheelchairs. In particular, we report an adaptive closed-loop microcomputer-based speed control system that responds quasi-optimally to speed commands for any user’s weight between zero and 200 Ib. The power amplifier used with this system is also

  2. Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify pressure relief device bellows integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

  3. System Identification and Modelling of Front Wheel Drive Electric Wheelchairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqi Chen; J Geoff Chase; Patrick Wolm; Isaac Anstis; John Oldridge; William Hanbury-Webber; Rodney Elliot; Warren Pettigrew

    A wireless data acquisition and control platform has been developed to model electric powered wheelchairs. The test-bed integrates sensors, embedded controller, and the motorised mechanical system. Real time data acquisition and analysis is performed in dSpace. The motion control is executed via RS232 Bluetooth and Radio-Control receiver. Test procedures have been designed to find parameters of the wheelchairs, including centre

  4. Impacts of electric vehicle loads on power distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayakrishnan R. Pillai; Birgitte Bak-Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system

  5. The future of automotive electrical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Kassakian; Hans-Christoph Wolf; J. M. Miller; C. J. Hurton

    1996-01-01

    In the near future there will be large increases in the electrical power requirements of the conventional automobile. This will be due to both the introduction of new functions, such as active suspension and a catalyst preheater, and the electrification of existing functions, such as power steering and engine valves. A higher voltage system will be required, but compatibility with

  6. Electric drive system with BLDC motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Bai

    2011-01-01

    With the resource supply becoming severe recently, the use of hybrid car or electric car is a necessity that it can reduce the need of oil. This paper presents BLDC motor is the best choice for high-efficiency motor and shows a design of control system for BLDC motor. With the comparison of DC motor, Induction Motor and BLDC motor, Analysis

  7. Emerging Electric Power Systems and Future Grid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sen, P.K.

    This page provides a 2011 presentation on electric power systems and future grid by P.K. Sen, Colorado School of Mines, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  8. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-01-01

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and

  9. Radiant energy to electrical power conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brunson

    1980-01-01

    A radiant energy to electrical power thermionic conversion system is disclosed that uses a transducer structure with very closely spaced cathode and anode elements in a vacuum to minimize space charge buildup and to optimize cross transfer of electrons from cathode to anode. The materials chosen are for a high work function high melt temperature cathode, tungsten for example with

  10. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

  11. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

  12. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

  13. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

  14. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676 Shipping...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50...

  15. Nonlinear electric–mechanical behavior and micromechanics modelling of ferroelectric domain evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lu; D.-N. Fang; C. Q. Li; K.-C. Hwang

    1999-01-01

    Domains exist in ferroelectric ceramics. External loads, such as electric field and stress, can cause domain switching. Domain switching always results in nonlinear ferroelectricity and ferroelasticity of ferroelectric ceramics. In this investigation, nonlinear electric–mechanical behavior related to ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain switching is experimentally and theoretically studied. In the experimental work, the electric–mechanical response of a soft PZT ferroelectric ceramic

  16. Wind systems for electrical power production

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the status of wind power plants as a choice for future new electric generation expansion. The topics of the article include wind power plant architecture and control systems, designs of currently available power plants, designs that are in development, and a look at next-generation turbines that will offer changes in blade design, variable-speed operation, advanced generators, advanced control systems, and aerodynamic controls.

  17. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  18. Electrical applications for air conditioning and refrigeration systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    Electrical troubleshooting is possibly the most neglected area of maintaining air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. This text explains and illustrates methods for troubleshooting the full spectrum of electrical or electronic circuits of these systems. Comprehensive sections offer coverage of electrical fundamentals, single-phase electric motors, three-phase motors, control devices, electrical control circuits, use of schematic diagrams in troubleshooting, ice makers, solid

  19. A transition in mechanisms of size dependent electrical transport at nanoscale metal-oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Jiechang; Nonnenmann, Stephen S.; Qin, Wei; Bonnell, Dawn A., E-mail: bonnell@lrsm.seas.upenn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    As device miniaturization approaches nanoscale dimensions, interfaces begin to dominate electrical properties. Here the system archetype Au/SrTiO{sub 3} is used to examine the origin of size dependent transport properties along metal-oxide interfaces. We demonstrate that a transition between two classes of size dependent electronic transport mechanisms exists, defined by a critical size ?. At sizes larger than ? an edge-related tunneling effect proportional to 1/D (the height of the supported Au nanoparticle) is observed; interfaces with sizes smaller than ? exhibit random fluctuations in current. The ability to distinguish between these mechanisms is important to future developments in nanoscale device design.

  20. Structure Formation Mechanisms and Electrical Properties of PVD Fluoropolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchnikov, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of forming fluoropolymer coatings on silicon substrates via condensation from an active gas phase using directed flows of accelerated electrons and ions are studied. It is demonstrated that electrical properties of the resulting fluoropolymer films strongly depend on the technological parameters of the deposition process. Their most optimal properties are reported when condensation takes place at the temperatures within ~373-386 K. It is shown that thermal annealing of the films in vacuum at 430-470 K improves their electrophysical parameters by re-evaporating the low-molecular complexes from the structure and decreasing the concentration of defects and spin-radicals, while annealing in air gives rise to formation of additional polar groups.

  1. Searching for Electrical Properties, Phenomena and Mechanisms in the Construction and Function of Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kanev, Ivan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Mizuno, Akira; DeHaai, Kristi; Sanmann, Jennifer; Hess, Michelle; Starr, Lois; Grove, Jennifer; Dave, Bhavana; Sanger, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1) chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2) chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3) chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a) electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b) electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c) mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important. PMID:24688715

  2. Multiple voltage electrical power distribution system for automotive applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Miller

    1996-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th Century, the automobile electrical system has experienced one architectural change, one significant electrical power plant change and one notable change in the electrical storage component. There is now growing disparity in voltage level requirements between electronic and electrical loads to the point that a single voltage system may no longer be the most efficient

  3. Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

  4. Multiple mechanisms switch an electrically coupled, synaptically inhibited neuron between competing rhythmic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Gabrielle J; O'Leary, Timothy; Marder, Eve

    2013-03-01

    Rhythmic oscillations are common features of nervous systems. One of the fundamental questions posed by these rhythms is how individual neurons or groups of neurons are recruited into different network oscillations. We modeled competing fast and slow oscillators connected to a hub neuron with electrical and inhibitory synapses. We explore the patterns of coordination shown in the network as a function of the electrical coupling and inhibitory synapse strengths with the help of a novel visualization method that we call the "parameterscape." The hub neuron can be switched between the fast and slow oscillators by multiple network mechanisms, indicating that a given change in network state can be achieved by degenerate cellular mechanisms. These results have importance for interpreting experiments employing optogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations to understand circuit dynamics. PMID:23473315

  5. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-08-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  6. Aspects of modeling an electric boat propulsion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiago Freire; Duarte M. Sousa; Paulo J. Costa Branco

    2010-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are nowadays one of the most important ways to overcome the modern energy paradigm. Among other systems, electric boats can take advantage of using electric power increasing the efficiency of the propulsion chain and reducing the pollutant gas emissions. This paper presents and discusses global aspects of a boat propulsion system investigated using a low scale system.

  7. Toward Standards for Dynamics in Electric Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Toward Standards for Dynamics in Electric Energy Systems Future Grid Initiative White Paper Power Systems Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;Toward Standards for Dynamics In Electric Energy Systems The Future Grid to Enable Sustainable Energy

  8. Neuroelectric mechanisms applied to low frequency electric and magnetic field exposure guidelines--part I: sinusoidal waveforms.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick

    2002-09-01

    Electric and magnetic field exposure guidelines are developed from established mechanisms of bioelectric interaction. Such mechanisms involve phenomena of electrostimulation-the functional influence of applied electrical forces on nerve and muscle, and, at quasi-static frequencies, on magneto-dynamic mechanisms. The paper develops criteria of human reactions based on theoretical models with parametric values derived from experimental observations. These basic restrictions on electrostimulation effects are referenced to the induced in situ electric fields. Basic limitations are differentiated for induction in the heart, peripheral nerves, the extremities, and the central nervous system. The paper recommends maximum permissible exposure limits which account for (a) adverse reaction criteria, (b) statistical distribution of reaction thresholds, and (c) acceptability factors. From the basic limitations the paper further develops reference levels which apply to environmental electric or magnetic fields. PMID:12199548

  9. Phasor Analysis of Linear Mechanical Systems and Linear Differential Equations

    E-print Network

    Paden, Brad

    Phasor Analysis of Linear Mechanical Systems and Linear Differential Equations ME104, Prof. B equations, the phasor analysis we learned for electric circuits. Recall how we derived the complex impedance, we see that we can jump directly from (1) to (5) by making the substitution j dt d (7) Phasor

  10. Phasor Analysis of Linear Mechanical Systems and Linear Differential Equations

    E-print Network

    Paden, Brad

    Phasor Analysis of Linear Mechanical Systems and Linear Differential Equations ME104, Prof. B equations, the phasor analysis we learned for electric circuits. Recall how we derived the complex impedance see that we can jump directly from (1) to (5) by making the substitution j dt d (7) Phasor Analysis

  11. Climate control system for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.A.; Edwards, T.C. [Solar Car Corp., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recognizing the underlying motivation in electric car design to conserve energy and the necessity for effective climate control, a technical solution to minimize energy requirements for both air conditioning and heating to extend the range of an electric vehicle is needed. Currently available compressor systems are inadequate in efficiency, size and weight. Here, the authors present a solution to this technical problem which optimizes the coefficient of performance of the air conditioning system through a custom-engineered compressor known as the orbital vane compressor, currently being developed. This compressor is a highly efficient anti-friction noncontact sealing rotary vane machine which has fewer moving parts than conventional compressors and operates on a variety of refrigerants, including those that are ozone-safe. 3 refs.

  12. Research of electrical powered wheelchair control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiu Jinhui; Wang Zhongjie; Yang Yang; Yang Lili; Sun Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    A dual-motor-driven rear-wheel four-wheel electrical powered wheelchair is introduced, whose seat can move to facilitate mobility of people on and off. The system is composed of two MCUs, the main control fragment is completed by the MCU I. MCU I is used to detect rocker movement, MCU II is used to detect speed and display the current state of operation

  13. Electrical Stimulation of the Neuromuscular System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique M. Durand; Warren M. Grill; Robert Kirsch

    Patients with paralysis or disease of the nervous system can have severe functional deficits. Although rehabilitation and\\u000a neural regeneration can provide some improvement (Grill and Kirsch, 2000; McDonald and Sadowsky, 2000), there is still a large\\u000a gap to close in order to restore function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of neural tissue can be successfully applied\\u000a to provide additional functional restoration

  14. Electric propulsion and braking system for automotive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Preikschat, F.K.

    1982-12-14

    An electric propulsion and braking system which includes a plurality of high-speed, dc commutatorless motors each coupled to a wheel of an automotive vehicle through an associated fixedratio mechanical transmission. Each motor includes a field winding, an armature winding, and a commutation circuit for the armature winding. During propulsion, each commutation circuit is enabled and, during braking, each commutation circuit is disabled. Control of the amount of propulsion and braking is afforded by varying the dc source voltage across each commutation circuit and by varying the field current in each field winding. The dc source voltage across each commutation circuit is varied by connecting the commutation circuits and a plurality of main electrical energy sources in selected series, series/parallel, and parallel combinations. The field current in each field winding is varied by connecting the field windings with an auxiliary electrical energy source in selected series, series/parallel and parallel combinations, and by duty-cycling the selected combination. The various series, series/parallel and parallel combinations are selected by, and the duty-cycling of the selected field winding combination is controlled by, a microprocessor receiving signals representing the magnitude of electrical energy transfer between the main electrical energy sources and the motors, the position of an acceleration pedal, the position of a brake pedal, the velocity of the vehicle, the dc source voltage across each commutation circuit, and the armature voltage across each armature winding.

  15. Study of reliability and accelerated life test of electric drive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Ying; Kang Jinsong; Zhang Ye; Jing Shiyi; Hu Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reliability is defined as the probability that an item can perform is intended function for a specified interval under stated conditions. This paper researches on the reliability and accelerated life test of electric drive system of Electric Vehicle. It provides three different cases of accelerated life testing, and builds the fault tree through analyzing the construction and failure mechanism of

  16. Hybridized Electric Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hoelscher; A. Skorcz; Yimin Gao; M. Ehsani

    2006-01-01

    Batteries and ultracapacitors have significantly different energy storage and power delivery capabilities. Electrical traction motors in hybrid electric vehicles have characteristic power and energy demands, and a single energy storage technology may not be optimized to meet both the minimum power and energy demands. In this paper, we investigate the effect of combining batteries and ultracapacitors, both actively and passively,

  17. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOEpatents

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

    2009-06-02

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  18. Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.

    PubMed

    Galley, Chad R

    2013-04-26

    Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

  19. Electric power system test and verification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rylicki, Daniel S.; Robinson, Frank, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) electric power system (EPS) hardware and software verification is performed at all levels of integration, from components to assembly and system level tests. Careful planning is essential to ensure the EPS is tested properly on the ground prior to launch. The results of the test performed on breadboard model hardware and analyses completed to date have been evaluated and used to plan for design qualification and flight acceptance test phases. These results and plans indicate the verification program for SSF's 75-kW EPS would have been successful and completed in time to support the scheduled first element launch.

  20. An Embedded Electric Meter Based on Bluetooth Data Acquisition System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Xuange; Xiao Ying

    2010-01-01

    We design an embedded electric meter based on Bluetooth data acquisition system in view of the complicated cables and accident potential in the process of data acquisition of electric meter. Combined wireless Bluetooth communication technology with data acquisition system, we build wireless data acquisition system based on ARM processor LPC2142 and Bluetooth chip Rok101008 in the embedded electric meter which

  1. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Rogers; H. J. Boenig; W. V. Hassenzahl

    1978-01-01

    Energy storage inductors, under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy system are described. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility network are discussed. In the

  2. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Transcranial Electric Stimulation Entrains Cortical Neuronal

    E-print Network

    Koch, Christof

    exposure to electric and magnetic fields in modern environments presents health risks (Adey, 1981; Bawin etBrainandCognitiveEngineering,KoreaUniversity,Seoul136-701,Korea Low intensity electric fields have been suggested to affect the ongoing neuronal activity in vitro and in human studies. However, the physiological mechanism of how weak electrical fields

  3. Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, James B. (inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

  4. Mechanisms and Potential Applications of Intestinal Electrical Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jieyun Yin; Jiande D. Z. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Electrical stimulation of the gut has recently been under intensive investigation and various studies have revealed therapeutic\\u000a potentials of gastrointestinal electrical stimulation for gastrointestinal motility disorders and obesity. While there have\\u000a been a number of reviews on gastric electrical stimulation, there is a lack of systematic reviews on intestinal electrical\\u000a stimulation. The aim of this review is to provide an

  5. Electrosensory Response Mechanisms in Mormyrid Electric Fish1

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Patrick D.

    are quiescent without stimulation and respond to rapid changes in the electric elds across the skin with a sharp Mormyrid electric sh use mormyromastreceptors in their skin to detect distortions in a self detect electric elds in its environment by using electrosensory receptors in its skin

  6. Quantum mechanics in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, Ross Douglas

    This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown. These nodes are spaced far enough from each other to minimized the electronic repulsion of the electrons, while still providing adequate enough attraction so as to bind the excess elections into orbitals. We have found that even with relativistic considerations these species are stably bound within the field. It was also found that performing the dimensional scaling calculations for systems within the confines of laser fields to be a much simpler and more cost-effective method than the supporting D=3 SCF method. The dimensional scaling method is general and can be extended to include relativistic corrections to describe the stability of simple molecular systems in super-intense laser fields. Chapter 3, we delineate the model, and aspects therein, of inelastic electron tunneling and map this model to the protein environment. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is important for understanding a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by an encapsulated agonist. In this note we apply this notion to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using ab initio quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a singular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak that scales in intensity with the known agonist activities. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its isotopologues in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and better in silico prediction of efficacies. Our final chapter, explores methods which may be explored to assist in the early instructio

  7. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1988-04-12

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

  8. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  9. Design analysis mechanisms for carbon auction market through electricity market coupling

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design analysis mechanisms for carbon auction market through electricity market coupling Mireille electricity produc- ers selling their production on an electricity market and buying CO2 emission al- lowances on an auction carbon market. The producers' strategies integrate the cou- pling of the two markets via the cost

  10. Jumping Mechanism for Asteroid Rover with the Use of Resonance and Electrical Stiffness Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yoshiki; Mizuguchi, Kou; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    It is not easy for asteroid rover with wheels to move on the surface of asteroids because such an astral body has two special features. One feature is that there is no air and it induces vacuum metalizing of metal slide components. The other feature is that their quite small gravity induces bad controllability of rover with wheels which requires enough frictional force between ground and wheels. Therefore, it is preferable for rover to use jumping mechanism without metal slide component and with low energy consumption. In this paper, a jumping mechanism is proposed and the mechanism uses a energy which is stored by resonance of flexible part. However, simply giving resonance results in low height of jumping. Therefore, electrical stiffness switching system is implemented to realize a effective jumping. Electrical stiffness switching is realized by piezoelectric element and external capacitor which is connected to them. Two method of stiffness switching are introduced. One is stiffness hardening and the other is stiffness softening which solve the problem of stiffness hardening. To validate the proposed mechanisms, numerical analyses are carried out and feasibilities of application for asteroid rover are studied.

  11. Mechanical and electrical characterisation of a phase transformation in thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shinmi; X. Zhao; P. Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The electrical and mechanical properties of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) yttria stablised zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were determined using impedance spectroscopy and an indentation technique, respectively. Upon thermal exposure, sintering and phase transformation occurs in the YSZ TBCs, leading to changes in both the mechanical and electrical properties of the TBCs. After the thermal treatment, the formation of

  12. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  13. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  14. Monitor System Design for Machine Electric Spindle Based on MCGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Yangang; Wang Han; Luo Xingqi; He Qiang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces some principal parameters, which are required to be monitored, of machine electric spindle, hardware components of the system and main functions of configuration software MCGS(Monitor and Control Generated System) in China. The system is a set of online monitoring and analysis system that is designed for machine electric spindle. The system analyzes real-time information acquired from the

  15. Some aspects of coupled electrical-mechanical effects in dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssedre, Gilbert; Berquez, Laurent; Laurent, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The propensity of electrically insulating materials to generate/store electrical charges leads to a panel of electromechanical phenomena that can be either exploited in applications relevant to electrical engineering, or represent limitations in the performance of insulating materials. The aim of this contribution is to describe various features of these electrical-mechanical coupling phenomena with focus on the field-induced strain measurement of charged polymers, on the charge distribution measurement by pulsed electroacoustic method and on the contribution of electromechanical effects in electrical ageing phenomena. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  16. An Intelligent Diagnostic\\/Prognostic Framework for Automotive Electrical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manzar Abbas; Aldo A. Ferri; Marcos E. Orchard; George J. Vachtsevanos

    2007-01-01

    Automotive systems are becoming increasingly dependent on electrical components, computer control, and sensors. It has become extremely critical to detect faults in the electrical system and predict the remaining useful life of failing components. This paper introduces an integrated methodology for monitoring, modeling, data processing, fault diagnosis, and failure prognosis of critical electrical components such as the battery. The enabling

  17. Spin-controlled mechanics in nanoelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radi?, D.

    2015-03-01

    We consider a dc-electronic tunneling transport through a carbon nanotube suspended between normal-metal source and arbitrarily spin-polarized drain lead in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between electrical current through the nanotube and its mechanical vibrations may lead to an electromechanical instability and give an onset of self-excited mechanical vibrations depending on spin polarization of the drain lead and frequency of vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlation between the occupancy of quantized Zeeman-split electronic states in the nanotube and the direction of velocity of its mechanical motion. It is an effective gating effect by the presence of electron in the spin state which, through the Coulomb blockade, permits tunneling of electron to the drain predominantly only during a particular phase of mechanical vibration thus coherently changing mechanical momentum and leading into instability if mechanical damping is overcome.

  18. Garrett Electric Boosting Systems (EBS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Arnold; Craig Balis; Pierre Barthelet; Etienne Poix; Tariq Samad; Greg Hampson; S. M. Shahed

    2005-03-31

    Turbo diesel engine use in passenger cars in Europe has resulted in 30-50% improvement in fuel economy. Diesel engine application is particularly suitable for US because of vehicle size and duty cycle patterns. Adopting this technology for use in the US presents two issues--emissions and driveability. Emissions reduction technology is being well addressed with advanced turbocharging, fuel injection and catalytic aftertreatment systems One way to address driveability is to eliminate turbo lag and increase low speed torque. Electrically assisted turbocharging concepts incorporated in e-Turbo{trademark} designs do both The purpose of this project is to design and develop an electrically assisted turbocharger, e-Turbo{trademark}, for diesel engine use in the US. In this report, early design and development of electrical assist technology is described together with issues and potential benefits. In this early phase a mathematical model was developed and verified. The model was used in a sensitivity study. The results of the sensitivity study together with the design and test of first generation hardware was fed into second generation designs. In order to fully realize the benefits of electrical assist technology it was necessary to expand the scope of work to include technology on the compressor side as well as electronic controls concepts. The results of the expanded scope of work are also reported here. In the first instance, designs and hardware were developed for a small engine to quantify and demonstrate benefits. The turbo size was such that it could be applied in a bi-turbo configuration to an SUV sized V engine. Mathematical simulation was used to quantify the possible benefits in an SUV application. It is shown that low speed torque can be increased to get the high performance expected in US, automatic transmission vehicles. It is also shown that e-Turbo{trademark} can be used to generate modest amounts of electrical power and supplement the alternator under most load-speed conditions. It is shown that a single (large) e-Turbo{trademark} consumes slightly less electrical power for the same steady state torque shaping than a bi-Turbo configuration. However, the transient response of a bi-Turbo configuration is slightly better. It was shown that in order to make full use of additional capabilities of e-Turbo{trademark} wide compressor flow range is required. Variable geometry compressor (VGC) technology developed under a separate project was evaluated for incorporation into e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was shown that the combination of these two technologies enables very high torque at low engine speeds. Designs and hardware combining VGC and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. There is concern about high power demands (even though momentary) of e-Turbo{trademark}. Reducing the inertia of the turbocharger can reduce power demand and increase battery life. Low inertia turbocharger technology called IBT developed under a separate project was evaluated for synergy with e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was concluded that inertial reduction provided by IBT is very beneficial for e-Turbo{trademark}. Designs and hardware combining IBT and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. e-Turbo{trademark} provides several additional flexibilities including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for emissions reduction with minimum fuel economy penalty and exhaust temperature control for aftertreatment. In integrated multi-parameter control system is needed to realize the full potential of e-Turbo{trademark} performance. Honeywell expertise in process control systems involving hundreds of sensors and actuators was applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of multi-parameter, model based control systems.

  19. Mine electrical systems evaluation: mine power system performance. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Stefanko; L. A. Morley

    1974-01-01

    The report covers a literature review, description of continuous miner research, cable temperature measurements, and traction locomotive research. The literature review considers induction motor performance, motor characteristics, effect of temperature on resistance, voltage regulation, and previous Pennsylvania State mine electrical systems studies. Instrumentation and analysis techniques developed over a three-year period are described. Numerous data from mine measurements are analyzed.

  20. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  1. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaubatz; Donald C

    1990-01-01

    An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to

  2. Advances in electric power systems : robustness, adaptability, and fairness

    E-print Network

    Sun, Xu Andy

    2011-01-01

    The electricity industry has been experiencing fundamental changes over the past decade. Two of the arguably most significant driving forces are the integration of renewable energy resources into the electric power system ...

  3. 30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including...substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley...circuits, shall be shown on a mine map. Any changes made...

  4. 30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including...substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley...circuits, shall be shown on a mine map. Any changes made...

  5. 30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General...apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including...substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley...circuits, shall be shown on a mine map. Any changes made...

  6. 30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

  7. 30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.32 Electrical components and systems. (a) Electrical components on mobile...

  8. Update on Energy Saving Opportunities in Industrial Electrical Power Systems 

    E-print Network

    Frasure, J. W.; Fredericks, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    ---- UPDATE ON ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES ~ INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS by J. W. Frasure and C. J. Fredericks Dow Engineering Company Houston, Texas ABSTRACT High electrical power costs, rlslng at a rate consistently above...

  9. Clues to the electrical switching mechanism of carbazole-containing polyimide thin films.

    PubMed

    Ree, Brian J; Kwon, Wonsang; Kim, Kyungtae; Ko, Yong-Gi; Kim, Young Yong; Lee, Hoyeol; Ree, Moonhor

    2014-12-10

    The mechanism behind electrical memory behavior of carbazole-containing polyimides (PIs) in nanoscale thin films was investigated. For this investigation, a series of poly(3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-biphenylene-co-3,3'-bis(N-ethylenyloxycarbazole)-4,4'-biphenylene hexafluoro-isopropylidenedi-phthalimide)s (6F-HAB-HABCZn PIs) with various compositions was synthesized as a model carbazole-containing polymer system. The thermal properties, band gaps, and molecular orbital levels of the PIs were determined. Furthermore, the chemical compositions, as well as the nanoscale thin film morphologies and electron densities, were analyzed, providing detailed information on the population and positional distribution of carbazole moieties in thin films of the PIs. PI Devices were fabricated with aluminum electrodes and tested electrically. The PI thin film layers in the devices exhibited electrically permanent memory behavior, which was driven by trap-limited space-charge limited conduction and ohmic conduction. The permanent memory characteristics were found to be attributed to the incorporated carbazole moieties rather than from the other chemical components. Furthermore, the memory characteristics depended significantly on the population and positional distribution of carbazole moieties in the PI layer, as well as the film thickness. Considering that the backbone is not conjugated, the present results collectively indicate that the electrical switching behavior of the PI films is driven by the carbazole moieties acting as charge traps and a hopping process using the carbazole charge-trap sites as stepping-stones. PMID:25409277

  10. Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Molzahn, Daniel K.

    2014-10-17

    The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.

  11. Analysis of components, designs, and operation for electric propulsion and integrated electrical system

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, J.W.

    1998-09-01

    The surface combatant of the 21st century will be designed to support a myriad of tasks requiring greater flexibility and endurance while keeping construction, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. As a result the design of a surface combatant will depart from today`s standards and philosophies. One option is the use of an electric propulsion system that can be integrated with the other ship`s electrical loads. Electric propulsion operating with an Integrated Electrical System has many advantages that will fulfill the requirements of future surface combatants. This study provides the historical background, the supporting issues, components, and architecture of electric propulsion systems and the Integrated Electrical System. Technical information on various component types and issues that influence the design considerations of an electric propulsion system and Integrated Electrical System to meet the requirements of a surface combatant are addressed. The areas of study are prime movers, generators, frequency converters, motors, ship`s service electrical distribution, auxiliary electrical loads, and system control.

  12. The Study of Micro Electrical Energy Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Yubao; Shen Longwu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we design a system, which can store the micro electrical energy(100~200mV, 5~10mA), without external electrical energy. The system respectively uses the super-capacitors and energy storage inductors to conduct two stage intermediate energy storage, then the electrical energy can increase level-wisely. When the strength of the energy which is stored in super-capacitors reaches a certain value, the electrical

  13. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  14. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  15. Mechanical sensitivity reveals evolutionary dynamics of mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P S L; Patek, S N

    2015-04-01

    A classic question in evolutionary biology is how form-function relationships promote or limit diversification. Mechanical metrics, such as kinematic transmission (KT) in linkage systems, are useful tools for examining the evolution of form and function in a comparative context. The convergence of disparate systems on equivalent metric values (mechanical equivalence) has been highlighted as a source of potential morphological diversity under the assumption that morphology can evolve with minimal impact on function. However, this assumption does not account for mechanical sensitivity-the sensitivity of the metric to morphological changes in individual components of a structure. We examined the diversification of a four-bar linkage system in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda), and found evidence for both mechanical equivalence and differential mechanical sensitivity. KT exhibited variable correlations with individual linkage components, highlighting the components that influence KT evolution, and the components that are free to evolve independently from KT and thereby contribute to the observed pattern of mechanical equivalence. Determining the mechanical sensitivity in a system leads to a deeper understanding of both functional convergence and morphological diversification. This study illustrates the importance of multi-level analyses in delineating the factors that limit and promote diversification in form-function systems. PMID:25716791

  16. Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

  17. Modeling of mechanical damage detection in CFRPs via electrical resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Xia; W. A. Curtin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) are inherently multifunctional materials that, in addition to their primary function as a structural material, allow for the sensing and monitoring of in situ damage nucleation and evolution by the measurement of the material electrical resistance. Here an analytic model is developed for the transverse (perpendicular to the fibers) electrical resistance of pristine and

  18. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jirang Cui; Eric Forssberg

    2003-01-01

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of

  19. An incentive mechanism for electricity transmission expansion in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Rosellón

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes an incentive regulatory framework for expanding electricity transmission in Mexico. A two-part pricing model is implemented within a combined merchant-regulatory structure. Three cases are considered. In the first, a monopolist with “postage stamp tariffs” serves the whole country using uniform prices. In the second case, one firm holds a regional monopoly in each of the five electricity

  20. Mechanisms of muscle gene regulation in the electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus

    PubMed Central

    Güth, Robert; Pinch, Matthew; Unguez, Graciela A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Animals perform a remarkable diversity of movements through the coordinated mechanical contraction of skeletal muscle. This capacity for a wide range of movements is due to the presence of muscle cells with a very plastic phenotype that display many different biochemical, physiological and morphological properties. What factors influence the maintenance and plasticity of differentiated muscle fibers is a fundamental question in muscle biology. We have exploited the remarkable potential of skeletal muscle cells of the gymnotiform electric fish Sternopygus macrurus to trans-differentiate into electrocytes, the non-contractile electrogenic cells of the electric organ (EO), to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the skeletal muscle phenotype. In S. macrurus, mature electrocytes possess a phenotype that is intermediate between muscle and non-muscle cells. How some genes coding for muscle-specific proteins are downregulated while others are maintained, and novel genes are upregulated, is an intriguing problem in the control of skeletal muscle and EO phenotype. To date, the intracellular and extracellular factors that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in muscle and EO have not been defined. Expression studies in S. macrurus have started to shed light on the role that transcriptional and post-transcriptional events play in regulating specific muscle protein systems and the muscle phenotype of the EO. In addition, these findings also represent an important step toward identifying mechanisms that affect the maintenance and plasticity of the muscle cell phenotype for the evolution of highly specialized non-contractile tissues. PMID:23761472

  1. Random vibration of mechanical and structural systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Soong; Mircea Grigoriu

    1993-01-01

    This book addresses random vibration of mechanical and structural systems commonly encountered in aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Techniques are examined for determining probabilistic characteristics of the response of dynamic systems subjected to random loads or inputs and for calculating probabilities related to system performance or reliability. Emphasis is given to applications.

  2. Regulation of cell cytoskeleton and membrane mechanics by electric field: role of linker proteins.

    PubMed

    Titushkin, Igor; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cellular mechanics is known to play an important role in the cell homeostasis including proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Significant variation in the mechanical properties between different cell types suggests that control of the cell metabolism is feasible through manipulation of the cell mechanical parameters using external physical stimuli. We investigated the electrocoupling mechanisms of cellular biomechanics modulation by an electrical stimulation in two mechanically distinct cell types--human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts. Application of a 2 V/cm direct current electric field resulted in approximately a twofold decrease in the cell elasticity and depleted intracellular ATP. Reduction in the ATP level led to inhibition of the linker proteins that are known to physically couple the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. The membrane separation from the cytoskeleton was confirmed by up to a twofold increase in the membrane tether length that was extracted from the cell membrane after an electrical stimulation. In comparison to human mesenchymal stem cells, the membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in osteoblasts was much stronger but, in response to the same electrical stimulation, the membrane detachment from the cytoskeleton was found to be more pronounced. The observed effects mediated by an electric field are cell type- and serum-dependent and can potentially be used for electrically assisted cell manipulation. An in-depth understanding and control of the mechanisms to regulate cell mechanics by external physical stimulus (e.g., electric field) may have great implications for stem cell-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:19167316

  3. Regulation of Cell Cytoskeleton and Membrane Mechanics by Electric Field: Role of Linker Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Titushkin, Igor; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cellular mechanics is known to play an important role in the cell homeostasis including proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Significant variation in the mechanical properties between different cell types suggests that control of the cell metabolism is feasible through manipulation of the cell mechanical parameters using external physical stimuli. We investigated the electrocoupling mechanisms of cellular biomechanics modulation by an electrical stimulation in two mechanically distinct cell types—human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts. Application of a 2 V/cm direct current electric field resulted in approximately a twofold decrease in the cell elasticity and depleted intracellular ATP. Reduction in the ATP level led to inhibition of the linker proteins that are known to physically couple the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. The membrane separation from the cytoskeleton was confirmed by up to a twofold increase in the membrane tether length that was extracted from the cell membrane after an electrical stimulation. In comparison to human mesenchymal stem cells, the membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in osteoblasts was much stronger but, in response to the same electrical stimulation, the membrane detachment from the cytoskeleton was found to be more pronounced. The observed effects mediated by an electric field are cell type- and serum-dependent and can potentially be used for electrically assisted cell manipulation. An in-depth understanding and control of the mechanisms to regulate cell mechanics by external physical stimulus (e.g., electric field) may have great implications for stem cell-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:19167316

  4. Electrical degradation mechanisms of RF power GaAs PHEMTs

    E-print Network

    Villanueva, Anita A. (Anita Ariel), 1978-

    2007-01-01

    GaAs Pseudomorphic High-Electron Mobility Transistors (PHEMTs) are widely used in RF power applications. Since these devices typically operate at high power levels and under high voltage biasing, their electrical reliability ...

  5. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development. For China, the most promising options for promoting sustainable development, one of the goals of the Kyoto Protocol, appear to be tied to increasing electrical end-use and generation efficiency, particularly clean coal technology for electricity generation since coal will likely continue to be a dominant primary fuel.

  6. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  7. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S. (Asheville, NC)

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  8. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  9. Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

    This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

  10. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  11. Simulation Analysis for Steering Mechanism of Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Qian; Zheng Zhong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we built a three-dimensional modeling of chassis for Solar-powered electric vehicles using Solid Works software. First, we added constraint relationship to the components of steering mechanism. Then we made kinematics and dynamics simulation to the steering mechanism by the ADAMS simulation software. We Obtained that the steering mechanism has a under steering performance. It was theoretically proved

  12. Charge allocation for hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xie; Yanzhi Wang; Younghyun Kim; Naehyuck Chang; Massoud Pedram

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems, composed of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements with their unique strengths and weaknesses, have been introduced to efficiently store and retrieve electrical energy while attaining performance metrics that are close to their respective best values across their constituent EES elements. This paper is the first paper to formally describe the

  13. Electrical Insulation Systems [ETS] Applications from General Commercial to Automotive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. LaBanca; A. Werner-Morse; M. Muzzey

    2006-01-01

    The electrical industry has utilized the approach to product performance as an electrical insulation system since electricity became commercially available. As the industry grew it became necessary to shift the method of evaluation from actual units to a simpler laboratory model. The focus of this paper is to present the applications of the laboratory approach to today's industrial needs.

  14. Quality management information system in manufacturing electrical machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Muravlyova; O. Muravlyov

    2001-01-01

    Electrical machines quality management includes three constituents, i.e. quality assurance, quality management and quality increase. There is a need to develop a matched information system for practical implementation of these problems during design and manufacturing. The quality of electrical machines is available by manufacturing accuracy to a large extent. The authors have developed accuracy theory of electrical machines which is

  15. Biological Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems Micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) created new

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    to their environments. Their work with electronic deposition of biomolecules and microfluidic steering promises they spread. Soldiers could carry palm-sized bio-weapon detectors into war zones. Consumers could test a ast

  16. Dual conversion steam and electric solar power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    The dual conversion, steam and electric solar power system is aimed at attaining an optimum cost\\/effective balance between arrays of direct electric conversion solar cells, and an indirect steam-to-electric solar power system. The concentration panels for the system consist of the previously disclosed four quadrant, two dimensional type of concentration panel with higher side concave extensions to provide concentration ratios

  17. Bond-Graphs + Genetic Programming: Analysis of an Automatically Synthesized Rotary Mechanical System

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    : Analysis of an Automatically Synthesized Rotary Mechanical System S. A. Kayani1 , M. A. Malik2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences; J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineering]: Engineering. General Terms: Design, Experimentation

  18. Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Buntin, David Leighton

    1994-01-01

    . The model is composed of sub-models for the engine, mechanical brake, electric machine, converter, battery, drive shaft with gears, and road load with wind resistance. The model yields results which are rough approximations of component performance...

  19. Charge replacement in hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xie; Yanzhi Wang; Massoud Pedram; Younghyun Kim; Donghwa Shin; Naehyuck Chang

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems are composed of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements with distinctive properties. Charge replacement in a HEES system (i.e., dynamic assignment of load demands to EES banks) is one of the key operations in the system. This paper formally describes the global charge replacement (GCR) optimization problem and provides an algorithm

  20. Representing wind turbine electrical generating systems in fundamental frequency simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

    2003-01-01

    Increasing numbers of wind turbines are being erected. In the near future, they may start to influence the dynamics of electrical power systems by interacting with conventional generation equipment and with loads. The impact of wind turbines on the dynamics of electrical power systems therefore becomes an important subject, studied by means of power system dynamics simulations. Various types of

  1. OBSERVED HYBRID OSCILLATIONS IN AN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vaibhav Donde

    E-print Network

    OBSERVED HYBRID OSCILLATIONS IN AN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vaibhav Donde Lawrence Berkeley oscillations, with a period of around 15 minutes, were observed in an 11kV electrical distribution system-state behaviour. 1. INTRODUCTION A number of years ago, the voltage of an 11kV distribution system exhibited

  2. 1 5/22/2014 Electrical and Electronics Systems

    E-print Network

    1 5/22/2014 Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division Kenneth Tobin, Director Electro and Safety Operations, EESD David Fowler Yvonne Horton Advanced Power and Electronics and Electric Motors Sensing and Controls Electronics and Embedded Systems Dwight Clayton Power and Energy Systems Aleks

  3. Analysis of the structural interaction of electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Maksimova, N. T.; Baryshnikov, S. S.; Karnakov, V. A.; Marchuk, S. D.; Ezhova, L. I.

    2011-07-01

    Strong electrical forces have been revealed in electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases. It has been established that these forces give rise to gradients of the potential of an internal self-electric field that can provide circulation of electric currents in the systems under investigation. It has been found that, in these systems, there arises a double electric layer that represents a new structuring phase, which is characteristic of electrically active systems only. The mechanism of formation of a double electric layer includes electrocontact interaction between the surfaces of two heterogeneous liquid and solid polar dielectrics.

  4. Fast Simulation of Mechanical Heterogeneity in the Electrically Asynchronous Heart Using the MultiPatch Module

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, John; Arts, Theo; Derval, Nicolas; Bordachar, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert; Ploux, Sylvain; Prinzen, Frits W.; Delhaas, Tammo; Lumens, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac electrical asynchrony occurs as a result of cardiac pacing or conduction disorders such as left bundle-branch block (LBBB). Electrically asynchronous activation causes myocardial contraction heterogeneity that can be detrimental for cardiac function. Computational models provide a tool for understanding pathological consequences of dyssynchronous contraction. Simulations of mechanical dyssynchrony within the heart are typically performed using the finite element method, whose computational intensity may present an obstacle to clinical deployment of patient-specific models. We present an alternative based on the CircAdapt lumped-parameter model of the heart and circulatory system, called the MultiPatch module. Cardiac walls are subdivided into an arbitrary number of patches of homogeneous tissue. Tissue properties and activation time can differ between patches. All patches within a wall share a common wall tension and curvature. Consequently, spatial location within the wall is not required to calculate deformation in a patch. We test the hypothesis that activation time is more important than tissue location for determining mechanical deformation in asynchronous hearts. We perform simulations representing an experimental study of myocardial deformation induced by ventricular pacing, and a patient with LBBB and heart failure using endocardial recordings of electrical activation, wall volumes, and end-diastolic volumes. Direct comparison between simulated and experimental strain patterns shows both qualitative and quantitative agreement between model fibre strain and experimental circumferential strain in terms of shortening and rebound stretch during ejection. Local myofibre strain in the patient simulation shows qualitative agreement with circumferential strain patterns observed in the patient using tagged MRI. We conclude that the MultiPatch module produces realistic regional deformation patterns in the asynchronous heart and that activation time is more important than tissue location within a wall for determining myocardial deformation. The CircAdapt model is therefore capable of fast and realistic simulations of dyssynchronous myocardial deformation embedded within the closed-loop cardiovascular system. PMID:26204520

  5. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Kao; W. S. Morris

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports

  6. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Y. Kao; William S. Morris

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports

  7. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  8. The mechanical control of nervous system development

    E-print Network

    Franze, Kristian

    2013-08-16

    The mechanical control of nervous system development Kristian Franze Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge Correspondence: kf284@cam.ac.uk Key words: mechanics, mechanosensitivity... , mechanotaxis, mechanotransduction, stiffness, force, tension, brain folding Developmental Neuromechanics Summary The development of the nervous system has so far, to a large extent, been considered in the context of biochemistry, molecular biology...

  9. Improved Student Performance In Electricity And Magnetism Following Prior MAPS Instruction In Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Rayyan, Saif

    We examine the performance of a group of students in Introductory Electricity and Magnetism following a ReView course in Introductory Mechanics focusing on problem solving employing the Modeling Applied to Problem Solving ...

  10. Radio frequency electrical transduction of graphene mechanical resonators Yuehang Xu,1,2

    E-print Network

    Kim, Philip

    Radio frequency electrical transduction of graphene mechanical resonators Yuehang Xu,1,2 Changyao 2010; published online 17 December 2010 We report radio frequency rf electrical readout of graphene with resonant frequency 34 MHz, quality factor 10 000 at 77 K, and signal-to-background ratio of over 20 d

  11. How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skumiel, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

  12. The effects of plasticizer on the mechanical and electrical characteristics of PLA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyoshi Shinyama; Shigetaka Fujita

    2008-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA), a biodegradable plastic, has excellent electrical insulation properties. Being a hard resin, however, PLA is difficult to apply to coated cable. In this study, we blended a plasticizer with PLA to soften it, and examined the effects of the plasticizer on the mechanical and electrical characteristics of PLA. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting point

  13. Investigation of Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics for Cracked Conductive Particle in Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive (ACA) Assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Xie; X. Q. Shi; Han Ding

    2008-01-01

    In an anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) assembly, the electrical conduction is usually achieved with the conductive particles between the bumps of integrated circuit (IC) and corresponding conductive tracks on the glass substrate. Fully understanding of the mechanical and electrical characteristics of ACA particles can help to optimize the assembly process and improve the reliability of ACA interconnection. Most conductive particles

  14. Evaluation and identification of electrical and thermal conduction mechanisms in carbon nanotube\\/epoxy composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian H. Gojny; Malte H. G. Wichmann; Bodo Fiedler; Ian A. Kinloch; Wolfgang Bauhofer; Alan H. Windle; Karl Schulte

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructured modification of polymers has opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to realise electrically conductive polymers with improved or retaining mechanical performance. This study focuses on the evaluation of both, the electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoparticulate filled epoxy resins. We discuss the results with regard to the influence of the

  15. Electron-deformation mechanism of photoexcitation of hypersound in semiconductors in a dc electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Chigarev, N V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-09-30

    The effect of a dc electric field on photoexcitation of a hypersonic pulse in a semiconductor via an electron-deformation mechanism is studied. The profiles of acoustic pulses are simulated for different directions of the electric field. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. RF MEMS electrical contact resistance calculation using mechanical contact simulations and analytical models

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RF MEMS electrical contact resistance calculation using mechanical contact simulations cedex 4, France ²NovaMEMS, CNES, DCT/AQ/LE, 18 av E. Belin, 31401 TOULOUSE CEDEX 9 - FRANCE 3 CNES - 18 appropriate electric contact model in diffusive or ballistic electron transport. MEM test structures with gold

  17. Nonlinear electric-mechanical behavior of a soft PZT51 ferroelectric ceramic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daining Fang; Changqing Li

    1999-01-01

    In this investigation, the electric-mechanical response of a PZT ferroelectric ceramic subjected to the combined electric-mechanical loads was experimentally observed. The effect of different compressive stress levels on the electromechanical response was examined. The stress-strain relationship was also measured. The ceramic sample was isolated from the test frame and the high voltage arcing were prevented effectively in the setup which

  18. Correlations between mechanical stress, electrical conductivity and nanostructure in Al films on a polymer substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bautista; F. Avilés; A. I. Oliva; O. Ceh; J. E. Corona

    2010-01-01

    The relation between mechanical stress, electrical resistivity and film nanostructure is investigated here for 100nm thick aluminum films deposited on micrometer-thick polysulfone. It is observed that film electrical resistivity increases significantly before mechanical failure occurs, because of the formation of micro-cracks on the film surface. The applied tensile stress also influences the film nanostructure in an irreversible manner, causing plastic

  19. Study on Mechanical, Thermal and Electrical Characterizations of Nano-SiC\\/Epoxy Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianle Zhou; Xin Wang; Mingyuan Gu; Dangsheng Xiong

    2009-01-01

    This report covers the results of a study on evaluating the effect of nano-SiC particles on mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of epoxy by lap shear, TGA, DSC and electrical tests. Epoxy composites filled with micro-SiC particles were also studied for comparison. The mechanisms of performance improvement were discussed in detail. The results showed that with identical loading, silane treated

  20. Automating a spacecraft electrical power system using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    Since Skylab, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recognized the need for large electrical power systems (EPS's) in upcoming Spacecraft. The operation of the spacecraft depends on the EPS. Therefore, it must be efficient, safe, and reliable. In 1978, as a consequence of having to supply a large number of EPS personnel to monitor and control Skylab, the Electrical power Branch of MSFC began the autonomously managed power system (AMPS) project. This project resulted in the assembly of a 25-kW high-voltage dc test facility and provided the means of getting man out of the loop as much as possible. AMPS includes several embedded controllers which allow a significant level of autonomous operation. More recently, the Electrical Division at MSFC has developed the space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard to investigate managing and distributing power in the Space Station Freedom habitation and laboratory modules. Again, the requirement for a high level of autonomy for the efficient operation over the lifetime of the station and for the benefits of enhanced safety has been demonstrated. This paper describes the two breadboards and the hierarchical approach to automation which was developed through these projects.

  1. Gross plastic fretting mechanical deterioration of silver coated electrical contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åsa Kassman Rudolphi; Staffan Jacobson

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out to describe the particular fretting situation of power connectors, with emphasis on deformation mechanisms, contact resistance, friction forces and tendencies to cold welding. In power applications, silver coated copper contacts are subjected to very high contact forces (typically 10–100 N) and thus inevitably deform plastically when mated under stationary conditions.Under such conditions the fretting mechanisms deviate

  2. Stability assessment of electric power systems for ‘more electric’ aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Griffo; Jiabin Wang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of small-signal stability for a ldquomore-electricrdquo aircraft power system consisting of a synchronous variable-frequency generator which supplies several power electronic controlled loads via an 18-pulse autotransformer rectifier unit (ATRU) for AC-DC conversion. Functional models for key power system components and loads are derived. Numerical tools employed for the automatic calculation of linearized equations and

  3. Analysis and simulation of a system connecting batteries of an electric vehicle to the electric grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duarte M. Sousa; Antonio Roque; Claudio Casimiro

    2011-01-01

    The development of electric chains of plug-in vehicles can be carried out considering several and distinct aspects, resulting in many different solutions. One approach is to study the battery-power converter-electric machine chain for different types of batteries and electric machines, and therefore, adapt the power converter to the performance and dynamics required for those systems. In addition, these types of

  4. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  5. Minimizing electric bearing currents in ASD systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Link

    1999-01-01

    During recent years, an increase in bearing failures has been seen in ASD-fed electric motors, as well as in gearboxes, and other connected machinery, caused by electric current flow through such bearings. The theories presented in this paper focus on bearing currents in ASDs of the voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) type, for use with AC induction motors, although

  6. Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool Integrated in a Complete systèmes de propulsion hybride et électrique: un outil avancé et intégré dans une chaîne complète dédiée à

  7. A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

  8. Space Station Freedom, technology applications in vehicle electrical power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Gregg; George Kaelin

    1994-01-01

    This paper covers the Space Station Freedom electrical power system (EPS) design and shows how the application of that technology in aircraft (and other vehicles) electrical power distribution systems can reduce weight and volume, and improve reliability and maintainability. The design and development of the Space Station EPS was a major milestone in large-scale space power management and distribution. The

  9. Research on battery management system in electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuicui Yin; Yuqun Wang

    2012-01-01

    As the bridge of battery and vehicle management system and the drivers, battery management system (BMS) for electric vehicle performance is playing a more and more key role. This article introduces several kinds of battery display methods and displays, and for each display method on the feasibility study, also focuses on the electric car batteries systematic, modular design and the

  10. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  11. Research on Adjust Speed Control System of Mine Electric Locomotive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shufang Wang; Baozhen Lei; Changqing Liu

    2010-01-01

    As the primary traffic tool in coalmine, electric locomotive plays an important role to improve efficiency. On the basis of the analysis of several adjust speed control methods, direct torque control is adopted to adjust speed control of mine electric locomotive. The theoretic study has been deeply discussed on variable-frequency adjustable-speed system of asynchronous motor. Moreover, adjust speed system simulation

  12. Prediction of mechanical properties of human trabecular bone by electrical measurements.

    PubMed

    Sierpowska, J; Hakulinen, M A; Töyräs, J; Day, J S; Weinans, H; Jurvelin, J S; Lappalainen, R

    2005-04-01

    In trabecular bone, the interrelationships of electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics are poorly known. Information on these relations is crucial for evaluation of the diagnostic potential of impedance techniques. In this study, electrical and dielectric properties, i.e. permittivity, conductivity, phase angle, loss factor, specific impedance and dissipation factor of human trabecular bone samples (n=26, harvested from the distal femur and proximal tibia) were characterized in a wide frequency range (50 Hz-5 MHz). Mechanical properties, i.e. Young's modulus, ultimate strength, yield stress, yield strain and resilience of the samples (n=20) were determined by using destructive compressive testing. Subsequently, measurements of electrical and dielectric properties were repeated after mechanical testing. The measurements were also repeated for the control samples (n=6) that were not mechanically tested. Electrical, dielectric or mechanical properties showed no significant differences between the intact femoral and tibial samples. The electrical and dielectric parameters as well as the linear correlations between the dielectric and electrical parameters with mechanical parameters were strongly frequency dependent. At the frequency of 1.2 MHz, the relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with the Young's modulus (r=0.71, p<0.01, n=20) and ultimate strength (r=0.73, p<0.01, n=20). Permittivity and dissipation factor showed statistically significant changes after mechanical testing. Our results suggest that the measurements of low frequency electrical and dielectric properties may provide information on the mechanical status of trabecular bone and, possibly, may even help to diagnose bone microdamage. In the future, these measurement techniques may be further developed for use during open surgery, such as bone grafting or total hip replacement surgery. PMID:15798225

  13. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  14. ADVANCED WIRELESS CHARGING SYSTEM FOR PORTABLE ELECTRIC DEVICES

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jianyang

    2012-04-19

    This paper presents a wireless charging system for portable electric devices. The important impacts of wireless charging systems on the global environment are first examined, and the two basic methods for wireless charging are then explained...

  15. Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domeniconi, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage are presented. Topics covered include: system requirements evolution; Space Station Freedom timeline; development of technologies selection criteria; and candidate technologies.

  16. ADVANCED WIRELESS CHARGING SYSTEM FOR PORTABLE ELECTRIC DEVICES 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jianyang

    2012-04-19

    This paper presents a wireless charging system for portable electric devices. The important impacts of wireless charging systems on the global environment are first examined, and the two basic methods for wireless charging are then explained...

  17. Numerical test concerning bone mass apposition under electrical and mechanical stimulus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a model of bone remodeling that encompasses mechanical and electrical stimuli. The remodeling formulation proposed by Weinans and collaborators was used as the basis of this research, with a literature review allowing a constitutive model evaluating the permittivity of bone tissue to be developed. This allowed the mass distribution that depends on mechanical and electrical stimuli to be obtained. The remaining constants were established through numerical experimentation. The results demonstrate that mass distribution is altered under electrical stimulation, generally resulting in a greater deposition of mass. In addition, the frequency of application of an electric field can affect the distribution of mass; at a lower frequency there is more mass in the domain. These numerical experiments open up discussion concerning the importance of the electric field in the remodeling process and propose the quantification of their effects. PMID:22578031

  18. Mechanical systems in the quantum regime

    E-print Network

    Menno Poot; Herre S. J. van der Zant

    2011-10-12

    Mechanical systems are ideal candidates for studying quantumbehavior of macroscopic objects. To this end, a mechanical resonator has to be cooled to its ground state and its position has to be measured with great accuracy. Currently, various routes to reach these goals are being explored. In this review, we discuss different techniques for sensitive position detection and we give an overview of the cooling techniques that are being employed. The latter include sideband cooling and active feedback cooling. The basic concepts that are important when measuring on mechanical systems with high accuracy and/or at very low temperatures, such as thermal and quantum noise, linear response theory, and backaction, are explained. From this, the quantum limit on linear position detection is obtained and the sensitivities that have been achieved in recent opto and nanoelectromechanical experiments are compared to this limit. The mechanical resonators that are used in the experiments range from meter-sized gravitational wave detectors to nanomechanical systems that can only be read out using mesoscopic devices such as single-electron transistors or superconducting quantum interference devices. A special class of nanomechanical systems are bottom-up fabricated carbon-based devices, which have very high frequencies and yet a large zero-point motion, making them ideal for reaching the quantum regime. The mechanics of some of the different mechanical systems at the nanoscale is studied. We conclude this review with an outlook of how state-of-the-art mechanical resonators can be improved to study quantum {\\it mechanics}.

  19. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  20. Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Ball, D.A.; Anson, D.

    1982-02-01

    State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

  1. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Srivastav; Asok Ray; Shalabh Gupta

    This paper presents information-theoretic analysis of time-series data to detect slowly evolving anomalies (i.e., deviations from a nominal operating condition) in dynamical systems. A measure for anomaly detection is formulated based on the concepts derived from information theory and statistical thermodynamics. The underlying algorithm is first tested on a low-dimensional complex dynamical system with a known structure—the Duffing oscillator with

  2. Electrical Cerebral Stimulation Modifies Inhibitory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuéllar-Herrera, M.; Rocha, L.

    2003-09-01

    Electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue has been proposed as a method to treat some neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. Epileptic seizures result from excessive, synchronous, abnormal firing patterns of neurons that are located predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Many people with epilepsy continue presenting seizures even though they are under regimens of antiepileptic medications. An alternative therapy for treatment resistant epilepsy is cerebral electrical stimulation. The present study is focused to review the effects of different types of electrical stimulation and specifically changes in amino acids.

  3. Pricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets

    E-print Network

    de Weerdt, Mathijs

    the price that energy brokers (retailers) need to pay in case their profile TU Delft Erasmus UniversityPricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets Mathijs de Weerdt , Wolfgang Ketter , and John Collins Abstract We consider the problem of designing a pricing mechanism

  4. An experimental power pick-up mechanism for an electrically driven UAV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. Jones

    2007-01-01

    An actively controlled mechanism for picking up electrical power from the conductors of an overhead line on a distribution network is described. The mechanism is part of a novel concept for inspecting power lines from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The background to the application is explained and an outline given of a small, ducted-fan rotorcraft which draws its power

  5. Effects of surfactant treatment on mechanical and electrical properties of CNT\\/epoxy nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Geng; Ming Yang Liu; Jing Li; Xiao Mei Shi; Jang Kyo Kim

    2008-01-01

    Surfactant has been successfully applied to enhance the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymer and the properties of nanocomposite. CNTs were treated with a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, and its effects on dispersion state, surface chemistry, structure and morphology of CNTs, as well as on the thermomechanical, mechanical and electrical properties of CNT\\/epoxy nanocomposites were evaluated. The mechanical properties

  6. Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantan, Aurélien; Nair, Bhagya; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading, for instance, to ground-state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

  7. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of electrical hazards. The new comprehensive electrical hazard classification system uses a combination of voltage, shock current available, fault current available, power, energy, and waveform to classify all forms of electrical hazards. Based on this electrical hazard classification system, many new tools have been developed, including (a) work controls for these hazards, (b) better selection of PPE for R&D work, (c) improved training, and (d) a new Severity Ranking Tool that is used to rank electrical accidents and incidents with various forms of electrical energy.

  8. Mechanical Diagnostics System Engineering in IMD HUMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bechhoefer; Eric Mayhew

    2006-01-01

    The Goodrich Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics Health and Usage System (IMD-HUMS) mechanical diagnostics functionality is the integration of disparate subsystems. When the aircraft is in the appropriate capture window, the primary processing unit (PPU), commands the vibration processing unit (VPU) to capture vibration data and a tachometer reference. This time domain data is processed by standard and proprietary algorithms to generate

  9. 78 FR 803 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ...38. B. The Core Definition of Bulk Electric System...2. We believe that the proposed ``core'' definition, together with the more...better understand the application of the ``core'' definition, as well as the...

  10. 78 FR 29209 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...Procedure, which create an exception process to add elements to, or remove elements from, the bulk electric system on a case-by-case...NERC's case- by-case exception process to add elements to, and remove elements from, the...

  11. Mechanisms for Electric Field Control of Single Spin Relaxation in Double Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa, V.; Nowack, K. C.; Shafiei, M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Taylor, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    We theoretically investigate electrically-tunable spin-flip transitions for a single electron confined within a double quantum dot. In the presence of spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, the rate at which phonon-induced spin relaxation occurs depends non-monotonically on the detuning between the dots. We analyze this detuning dependence for both direct decay to the ground state and indirect decay via an intermediate excited state of the double dot. A description in terms of a simple toy model captures characteristic features of the relaxation rate recently measured for GaAs double quantum dots. Our results suggest that spin-orbit mediated relaxation via phonons serves as the dominant mechanism through which the electron spin-flip rate in these systems varies with detuning. We theoretically investigate electrically-tunable spin-flip transitions for a single electron confined within a double quantum dot. In the presence of spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, the rate at which phonon-induced spin relaxation occurs depends non-monotonically on the detuning between the dots. We analyze this detuning dependence for both direct decay to the ground state and indirect decay via an intermediate excited state of the double dot. A description in terms of a simple toy model captures characteristic features of the relaxation rate recently measured for GaAs double quantum dots. Our results suggest that spin-orbit mediated relaxation via phonons serves as the dominant mechanism through which the electron spin-flip rate in these systems varies with detuning. Support from DARPA MTO and IARPA is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Insulating materials and large high voltage electric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1990-09-01

    The traveler attended the 33rd Session of CIGRE (The International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems) as a U.S. technical expert advisor. Over 200 papers were discussed, contributed from over 45 countries at the conference on all aspects of electric power generation and transmission. Of special interest was a panel session on superconducting technology for electric power systems and the participation on a new task force on the electrical insulation at cryogenic temperatures. Significant insight was gained into the development of superconducting power technologies in Europe and Japan. CIGRE has set up a committee to follow the development in research on the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields. The traveler also visited the Centre for Electric Power Engineering at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland and discussed research on degradation of polymeric cable insulation and gas insulated equipment.

  13. Bioluminescence mechanism on new systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Isobe; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Ken Usami; Masahiko Hattori; Yoshiko Nishigohri

    1994-01-01

    New bioluminescence systems in luminous organisms such as mushrooms, a snail, a squid etc. were investigated. The chromophores emitting light were determined. The mushroom, Lampteromyces japonicus, involves a flavin derivative as the light emitting species. Three components were necessary in the chemiluminescence of the homogenate of this mushroom; one of the smallest constituents being L-tyrosine. The chromophore in the luminous

  14. Electro-mechanical vibratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, Mario

    1988-01-01

    The problem of predicting the phase angle of two self-synchronized rotors starting from rest is presented. It is shown that with insufficient power the rotors may not reach the final operating speed of the motors and stay locked at one of the lower natural frequencies of the vibrating system, thus producing large amplitude and failure of the equipment.

  15. Some Electrical and Mechanical Devices to Illustrate Biological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, L. M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Describes the use of metal construction toys (erector sets) to build laboratory equipment (to compare rates of decay, record small mammal activity, stir solutions, and function as a kymograph) and to build analogue models of skeletal joints, and feedback mechanisms responding to external stimuli. (AL)

  16. Energy efficiency and reliability improvement strategies in industrial electric motor-driven systems (EMDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OEK Onwunta; MTE Kahn

    2011-01-01

    Electric motor has remained a major prime mover of most industrial driven systems. Global estimates are that 40% of industrial electricity is consumed by electric motor systems, and South African estimates are around 60%.Therefore improving energy efficiency of EMDS (Electric Motor-Driven Systems) will ensure the supply of more consumers using the same electricity production capacity; and slow down the electricity

  17. Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in purple membranes: membrane as electrostrictive medium.

    PubMed Central

    Kietis, P; Vengris, M; Valkunas, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present acousto-electrical measurements performed on dry films of purple membranes (PM) of Halobacterium salinarium. The purpose of these measurements is to determine the relation between mechanical and electrical phenomena in bacteriorhodopsin and to define the role of the protein in the proton transfer process. Electrical-to-mechanical coupling in PMs manifests itself as direct and inverse piezoelectric effects. Measurements performed on the samples with different degrees of PM orientation and at various values of the externally applied cross-membrane electric field indicate that piezoelectric phenomena in PMs arise from the electric asymmetry of the membranes, i.e., they originate from electrostriction. Experiments with samples made of oriented PMs allow estimation of the value of the intrinsic cross-membrane electric field, which is approximately 10(8) V/m. A hypothetical model of PM is presented where the electrical-to-mechanical coupling is suggested to be the main driving force for the proton translocation against the Coulomb forces acting in the membrane. PMID:11259278

  18. Study of electrical, dynamic mechanical and surface properties of silicone-EPDM blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ehsani; H. Borsi; E. Gockenbach; G. R. Bakhshandeh; J. Morshedian; N. Abedi

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports about the results of a study of mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical and electrical properties of polymeric insulators. Silicone rubber, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and alloys of silicon-EPDM are known polymers for use as high voltage insulators. The result of dynamical mechanical measurement shows that the storage of blends enhanced with increase EPDM in formulation. It can be

  19. An investigation of dynamic mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of housing materials for outdoor polymeric insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ehsani; H. Borsi; E. Gockenbach; J. Morshedian; G. R. Bakhshandeh

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports the results about a study of mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical and electrical properties of housing (weather shed) materials for outdoor polymeric insulators. Silicone rubber, ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM) and alloys of silicon–EPDM are known polymers for use as housing in high voltage insulators. The result of dynamical mechanical measurement shows that the storage modulus of blends enhances

  20. Financial payback on California residential solar electric systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Black

    2004-01-01

    Cost effectiveness for consumers of solar electric systems has been achieved in the California residential market due to Time-of-Use Net Metering, a tiered electric rate structure with high rates, and subsidies by the state government.Three different approaches test and validate this hypothesis for a large fraction of consumers. Solar electricity can generate rates of return of 11–20% exceeding most other

  1. Electric signaling behavior and the mechanisms of electric organ discharge production in mormyrid fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Carlson

    2002-01-01

    Mormyrid fish communicate and navigate using electric organ discharges (EODs). The EOD is highly stereotyped and provides information on sender identity, including species, sex, reproductive condition, and possibly relative status and individual identity. By contrast, the sequence of pulse intervals (SPI) is variable and plays more of a role in signaling behavioral states. Various types of SPI displays may be

  2. Deployment Mechanism for Thermal Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koski, Kraig

    2014-01-01

    The Deployment Mechanism for the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is responsible for bringing the Thermal Pointing System (TPS) from its stowed, launch locked position to the on-orbit deployed, operational position. The Deployment Mechanism also provides structural support for the TSIS optical bench and two-axis gimbal. An engineering model of the Deployment Mechanism has been environmentally qualified and life tested. This paper will give an overview of the TSIS mission and then describe the development, design, and testing of the Deployment Mechanism.

  3. Spatial informatics and Geographical Information Systems: Tools to transform Electric Power and Energy Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nagaraja Sekhar; K. S. Rajan; Amit Jain

    2008-01-01

    Electric power and energy systems are the key for the growth of any developing country. Electric power shortage is one of the main culprits that hinder the spread of development across these countries and cause of societal disparity. Innovative spatial informatics and geographical information system techniques have come as the boon to solve many problems in the electric power system

  4. Field and temperature dependence of the small polaron hopping electrical conductivity in 1D disordered systems.

    PubMed

    Triberis, G P; Dimakogianni, M

    2009-09-23

    We investigate the effect of the electric field and the temperature on the electrical conductivity of one-dimensional disordered systems due to phonon assisted hopping of small polarons. The microscopic transport mechanism is treated within the framework of the generalized molecular crystal model and the Kubo formula, while percolation theoretical arguments lead to analytical expressions for the macroscopic behavior of the electrical conductivity at high (multi-phonon assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon assisted hopping) temperatures under the influence of moderate electric fields. The theoretical results are successfully applied to recent experimental findings for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields. Comparison is made with other theories. PMID:21832371

  5. Networked architecture for hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younghyun Kim; Sangyoung Park; Naehyuck Chang; Qing Xie; Yanzhi Wang; Massoud Pedram

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) system that consists of multiple, heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements is a promising solution to achieve a cost-effective EES system because no storage element has ideal characteristics. The state-of-the-art HEES systems are based on a shared-bus charge transfer interconnect (CTI) architecture. Consequently, they are quite limited in scalability which is a function of

  6. An integrated optical 3D electric field sensing system based on time-division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wan-jun; Chen, Fu-shen; Zhang, Jia-hong

    2013-07-01

    A new integrated optical three-dimensional (3D) electric field (E-field) sensing system is shown in this paper. In the system, the method of tuning laser's wavelength is used for controlling the working point of the integrated optical E-field sensor to keep it always in linear working area. The sensing system contains three independent E-field sensors, and the tuning of their working points and the sensing of electric signal are completed by adopting time-division multiplexing (TDM) technique. Then, the theoretical analysis and simulation of the working mechanism of the E-field sensing system are done in this paper. The results show that the bandwidth of electric signal is directly related with the tuning time of working point, and also determines the working rate of the controlling system.

  7. Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Vance, E.F.; Askins, H.W. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    A nuclear detonation at high altitudes produces a transient electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of high-intensity electromagnetic fields. A single high-altitude burst can subject most of the continental United States to a strong EMP. These intense fields induce voltage and current transients in electrical conductors. Surges would be induced by EMP in transmission and distribution circuits and in control and communication elements in electric power systems throughout the national grid. Such widespread disturbances could upset the stability of electrical energy systems and result in massive power failures. The extent and nature of EMP-caused damages are not well known for utility electric power systems. Failures are likely to be associated with insulation damage and failures of low-voltage and solid-state components. It is concluded from a review of past studies that EMP may pose a serious threat to the nation's electrical energy supply.

  8. Electrical and mechanical testing of wire insulation for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Linda A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of tests comparing M81381/7 versus Gore HSCR wire insulation on corona inception and extinction, time and current to smoke, wire fusing time, abrasion, flex life, and dynamic cut-through are presented in view-graph format. Results show that Gore is not comparable to M81381 in performance at elevated temperatures, that mechanical properties of M81381 are superior, and that corona and wire fusing times are equivalent.

  9. Basics of a Solar Electric System: Better Buildings Series Solar Electric Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Today's solar technologies are more efficient and versatile than ever before, adding to the appeal of an already desirable energy source. This fact sheet provides information on the basics of a solar electric system, including components of a system, how to choose solar modules, and how to choose a solar system.

  10. Dynamic model of a complex system including PV cells, electric battery, electrical motor and water pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viorel Badescu

    2003-01-01

    The time dependent operation of several components of a PV pumping system (i.e. the PV cell, the PV array, the battery and the assembly electric motor—centrifugal pump) is modelled in this paper. The system has two main operating modes, which depend on the level of the incident solar global irradiance. The mathematical model consists of systems of seven or four

  11. Electrical conduction mechanism of an individual polypyrrole nanowire at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui-Feng; Pan, Wei; Yu, Miao; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-01-30

    Conducting polypyrrole (PPY) nanowires doped with p-toluene sulfonamide (PTSA) were synthesized by a template-free self-assembly method. Electrical transport characteristics, i.e. current-voltage (I-V) behavior, of an individual PPY/PTSA nanowire have been explored in a wide temperature range from 300 down to 40 K. The fitting results of I-V curves indicated that the electrical conduction mechanism can be explained by the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) theory from 300 down to 100 K. In this temperature range, traps play an important role for this non-crystalline system. The corresponding trap energy and trap concentration have also been calculated based on the SCLC theory. Interestingly, there is no trap at 160 K, different from other temperatures. The obtained carrier mobility for the polymer nanowires is 0.964 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on the basis of trap free SCLC theory. In the temperature range of 80-40 K, little current can flow through the nanowire especially at lower voltages, however, the current follows the equation I ? (V/Vt-1)(?) at higher bias, which could be attributed to Coulomb blockade effect. Additionally, the differential conductance dI/dV curves also show some clear Coulomb oscillations. PMID:25557116

  12. The Electric Circuit as a System: A New Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Härtel

    1982-01-01

    EnglishIn this new approach to the presentation of the electric circuit, the three fundamental terms current, voltage, and resistance are introduced simultaneously in a qualitative way, using the system aspect of the electric circuit as an integrative base.The starting point to this is the individual knowledge and the conceptional schemes that students bring into the classroom. This approach is in

  13. Interconnection of electrical energy storage systems for power quality improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brenna; G. C. Lazaroiu; R. Rotaru; E. Tironi

    2009-01-01

    Energy storage is playing an increasingly important role in the electrical power system thanks to the development and advance in various energy storage and power electronics technologies in recent years. The paper inquires into energy storage examining electrical energy storage devices, especially supercapacitors. Relative on these energy storage concerns, different dc\\/dc converters were analyzed using the EMTP\\/ATPDraw program to observe

  14. Electric Utility Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. OSMAN

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of energy storage systems used by the electric utilities for peak shaving is discussed. The underlying concepts for the operation of the most important available schemes have been described. Whenever applicable the economics of the energy storage schemes as well as the cost expressed in §\\/Kw of electric capacity have been provided. In addition, the

  15. Modeling and Simulation about an Electric Car's Regenerative Braking System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuowu Ding; Dongbiao Zhao; Jianmin Zuo

    2007-01-01

    A kind of regenerative braking system of an electric car is studied in the paper. The car's speed, acceleration, the hydraulic accumulator's pressure and volume are simulated with Matlab while the electric car is braking or accelerating from stop. The hydraulic accumulator can absorb all of the braking energy when braking and the energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator can

  16. Effects of temperature and electric field on the transport mechanisms in the porous microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseoglu, K.; Karaduman, I.; Demir, M.; Ozer, M.; Acar, S.; Salamov, B. G.

    2015-05-01

    The electrical characterizations of nanoporous zeolite and transport mechanisms were studied for the first time in a wide operating temperature range (28-800 K) and electric field strength (60-200 kV/cm) at room temperature. The influence of temperature, electric field and cell types on the dc conductivity was described. The resistivity decreased from 2.34 × 1010 to 2.17 × 108 ? m whiles the temperature increased from 28 to 800 K which is associated with the ionic mobility. The existence of water in the channels and pores is the decisive parameter in the ionic transport and it depends strongly on the electric field. When a high voltage was applied to gas discharge gap and porous structure, ionization phenomena increased. In this stage, electronic conduction also contributed to zeolite dc conduction. Therefore, the ionic and electronic transport mechanisms and their interactions are essential in enhancing applications in microdischarge devices with nanoporous zeolite cathodes.

  17. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  18. Low temperature solar-to-electric power conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, N.G.

    1993-07-20

    An electric power generating apparatus is described, including: a solar collector; a primary thermal loop including primary thermal fluid; a cavity receiver to receive reflected solar energy from the solar reflector, convert the solar energy into thermal energy, and transmit the thermal energy to the primary thermal fluid by heating the primary thermal fluid not to exceed a given temperature, the given temperature being substantially equal to 700 F; a Stirling engine receiving the primary thermal fluid heated by the cavity receiver, including means to generate mechanical power and means to generate electrical power from the means to generate mechanical power.

  19. An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Tee, Benjamin C-K; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-12-01

    Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm(-1). On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ?90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ?10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems. PMID:23142944

  20. Effect of electric field orientation on the mechanical and electrical properties of water ices: an ab-initio study.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A Marco

    2014-11-01

    We present a first-principles study of the properties of ordinary hexagonal ice (phase I(h)) and of its proton-ordered version (phase XI) under the action of static electric fields. We compute the mechanical response to the field in addition to the ionic current-voltage diagrams; we also analyze several other microscopic aspects of the proton transfer mechanism, with particular emphasis on the role played by the oxygen sublattice in driving molecular dissociation. We further study the topological aspects of the mechanical and electrical responses by orienting the external field along two different crystalline directions in both ice samples. At variance with ice Ih, ice XI displays an anisotropic behavior in the range of explored field intensities. In fact, when the direction of the field coincides with the ferroelectric axis, sustained molecular dissociation and proton transfer events are both observed just beyond a given field intensity; instead, the two processes exhibit different activation thresholds when the field is oriented along another symmetry axis. The underlying mechanism of molecular dissociation appears to be the same in solid and liquid water independently of the direction of the field. PMID:25265517

  1. Investigation of electrical and mechanical properties of 3YSZ\\/8YSZ composite electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghatee; M. H. Shariat; J. T. S. Irvine

    2009-01-01

    The effects of addition of 3YSZ (3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia) on electrical and mechanical properties of 8YSZ (8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia) has been investigated. Three different composites of 3YSZ\\/8YSZ with compositions of 10 wt.%, 25 wt.% and 35 wt.% of 3YSZ were prepared by conventional solid oxide mixing followed by sintering. Microstructures were characterized by XRD and SEM. The electrical properties were studied

  2. Some neural and behavioural aspects of electrical and mechanical stunning in ostriches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lambooij; C. Pieterse; C. M. Potgieter; J. D. Snyman; G. L. Nortjé

    1999-01-01

    Different electrical and mechanical stunning procedures were studied in ostriches to determine the effectiveness of the method. Fifty-eight South-African Black ostriches were equipped with EEG electrodes and stunned with three different electrical head-only methods and with a new captive needle pistol, using air pressure. The first stunning procedure consists of two trials. In the first trial a total of 45

  3. Electron radiation effects on the electrical and mechanical properties of polypropylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Hammoud; J. R. Laghari; B. Krishnakumar

    1987-01-01

    Capacitor-grade polypropylene film was irradiated in air with a 1 MeV electron beam to different doses up to 10⁸ rads and the post-irradiation effects on the electrical and mechanical properties of the film were evaluated. The electrical properties included the 60 Hz a.c. breakdown voltage, dielectric constant and dissipation factor. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor were obtained at five

  4. Research on simulation of ship electric propulsion system with flywheel energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunling Xie; Conghui Zhang; Jen-Yuan James Chang

    2011-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage has been widely used to improve the ground electric power quality. This paper designed a flywheel\\u000a energy storage device to improve ship electric propulsion system power grid quality. The practical mathematical models of\\u000a flywheel energy storage and ship electric propulsion system were established. Simulation research on the effect of ship electric\\u000a propulsion system power quality, made by

  5. Mechanical Engineering Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Candea, George

    's operation consists of two succeeding cycles, heat-pump and thermal- engine which represents the chargingSchool of Mechanical Engineering Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory Study of the Integration of District Heating and Cooling with an Electro-Thermal Energy Storage System Master Thesis ANURAG KUMAR

  6. An intrinsically safe electrical tomography system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor A. YORK; Quinton SMIT; John L. Davidson; Bruce D. GRIEVE

    2003-01-01

    In recent years industrial tomography has emerged as a valuable tool for interrogating the internals of a variety of process vessels. A popular approach is to inject electrical current and then from measurements of the resulting boundary voltages to reconstruct a cross-sectional image representing the distribution of materials in the vessel. In many cases the process takes place in a

  7. Electricity Storage Systems and the Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Howes

    2007-01-01

    Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power

  8. Tissue heterogeneity as a mechanism for localized neural stimulation by applied electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. C.; Correia, L.; Salvador, R.; Basser, P. J.

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the heterogeneity of electrical conductivity as a new mechanism to stimulate excitable tissues via applied electric fields. In particular, we show that stimulation of axons crossing internal boundaries can occur at boundaries where the electric conductivity of the volume conductor changes abruptly. The effectiveness of this and other stimulation mechanisms was compared by means of models and computer simulations in the context of transcranial magnetic stimulation. While, for a given stimulation intensity, the largest membrane depolarization occurred where an axon terminates or bends sharply in a high electric field region, a slightly smaller membrane depolarization, still sufficient to generate action potentials, also occurred at an internal boundary where the conductivity jumped from 0.143 S m-1 to 0.333 S m-1, simulating a white-matter-grey-matter interface. Tissue heterogeneity can also give rise to local electric field gradients that are considerably stronger and more focal than those impressed by the stimulation coil and that can affect the membrane potential, albeit to a lesser extent than the two mechanisms mentioned above. Tissue heterogeneity may play an important role in electric and magnetic 'far-field' stimulation.

  9. Project examples Install new HVAC, electrical, fire protection,

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Project examples Install new HVAC, electrical, fire protection, and plumbing systems in Mechanical. · Totransformthisspaceandincreaseaccessibility, anelevatorisrequired.Currently,Blakelydoesnot haveone. Replace HVAC and electrical system

  10. 78 FR 64216 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “System for Locating People Using Electricity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...System for Locating People Using Electricity Dependent Medical Equipment During Public...System for Locating People Using Electricity Dependent Medical Equipment During Public...System for Locating People Using Electricity Dependent Medical Equipment During...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

  12. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

  14. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

  15. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection....

  16. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407 Section 108...407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located...

  17. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407 Section 108...407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located...

  18. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407 Section 108...407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located...

  19. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407 Section 108...407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located...

  20. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407 Section 108...407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located...

  1. A microfluidic device for simultaneous electrical and mechanical measurements on single cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Zheng, Yi; Tan, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yan Liang; Li, Jason; Geddie, William R.; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Sun, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device for simultaneous mechanical and electrical characterization of single cells. The device performs two types of cellular characterization (impedance spectroscopy and micropipette aspiration) on a single chip to enable cell electrical and mechanical characterization. To investigate the performance of the device design, electrical and mechanical properties of MC-3T3 osteoblast cells were measured. Based on electrical models, membrane capacitance of MC-3T3 cells was determined to be 3.39±1.23 and 2.99±0.82 pF at the aspiration pressure of 50 and 100 Pa, respectively. Cytoplasm resistance values were 110.1±37.7 k? (50 Pa) and 145.2±44.3 k? (100 Pa). Aspiration length of cells was found to be 0.813±0.351 ?m at 50 Pa and 1.771±0.623 ?m at 100 Pa. Quantified Young’s modulus values were 377±189 Pa at 50 Pa and 344±156 Pa at 100 Pa. Experimental results demonstrate the device’s capability for characterizing both electrical and mechanical properties of single cells. PMID:21523251

  2. A review of electric propulsion systems and mission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondra, R.; Nock, K.; Jones, R.

    1984-01-01

    The satisfaction of growing demands for access to space resources will require new developments related to advanced propulsion and power technologies. A key technology in this context is concerned with the utilization of electric propulsion. A brief review of the current state of development of electric propulsion systems on an international basis is provided, taking into account advances in the USSR, the U.S., Japan, West Germany, China and Brazil. The present investigation, however, is mainly concerned with the U.S. program. The three basic types of electric thrusters are considered along with the intrinsic differences between chemical and electric propulsion, the resistojet, the augmented hydrazine thruster, the arcjet, the ion auxiliary propulsion system flight test, the pulsed plasma thruster, magnetoplasmadynamic propulsion, a pulsed inductive thruster, and rail accelerators. Attention is also given to the applications of electric propulsion.

  3. 49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. Sheet H-4, December 12, 1939. File no. SA 342/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; operators console switchboard #1 is at lower right of photograph - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. CVD facility electrical system captor/dapper study

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    1999-10-28

    Project W-441, CVD Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses.

  6. Electrical Equipment Replacement: Energy Efficiency versus System Compatibility 

    E-print Network

    Massey, G. W.

    2005-01-01

    that are compatible with existing system components and loads is critical. The purpose of this paper is to discuss fundamental electrical design principles often overlooked when replacing existing equipment with energy efficient models. NOTE: The views expressed...

  7. Host defence mechanisms of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, J

    2000-06-01

    From the moment of the first breath at the time of birth, the respiratory system must be protected from numerous insults from the environment. The way in which the airways are prepared for these insults is by an extraordinarily effective defence system. This defence system includes mechanical as well as biochemical processes that work in an integrated way to safeguard the lungs. The airways have an efficient, highly vigilant, non-inflammatory anti-microbial defence system, capable of dealing with a wide spectrum of microbes, and provide lifelong protection of these vital mucosal surfaces. The different aspects of this defence system of the airways are discussed. The effectiveness of the system must be improved, especially in children prone to frequent respiratory infections like cystic fibrosis. Future research must be focused on restoring the defect in the defence mechanism, but also in a more appropriate shield against pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:12531105

  8. Mechanical analysis of photo-electricity measure equipment shafting in mobile-platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Hu, Hongyi; Tan, Yi; Liu, Ruzhen

    2015-02-01

    Along with the development of technology, photo-electricity measure equipment has been from ground-fixed to mobile-platform borne, So it is need to mechanical analysis of shafting for adapt movement environment of mobile-platform. First listed three kinds of shafting form, then analysis mechanical station of the foremost component bearing in vertical load, radial load, swing load station, last work out the formulas, which was the theory for the shafting design in mobile-platforms photo-electricity equipment.

  9. Superconducting energy storage development for electric utility systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Turner; H. J. Boenig; W. V. Hassenzahl

    1977-01-01

    High load factors are desirable goals for all electric utilities to reduce the total power generation cost. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology has progressed to the point where it shows promise as an alternate energy-storage method to pumped hydrostorage for improving electric-utility load factors. Experiments indicate that a SMES system responds quickly (i.e., in milliseconds) to power-system demand and

  10. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the Small Wind Electric Systems Consumer's: A Maine Consumer's Guide is to provide consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system will work for them based on their wind resource, the type and size of their sites, and their economics. The cover of this guide contains a wind resource map for the state of Maine and information about state incentives and contacts for more information.

  11. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Rhode Island Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the Small Wind Electric Systems Consumer's: A Rhode Island Consumer's Guide is to provide consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system will work for them based on their wind resource, the type and size of their sites, and their economics. The cover of this guide contains a Rhode Island wind resource map and information about state incentives and contacts for more information.

  12. Discrete mechanics, time machines and hybrid systems

    E-print Network

    Hans-Thomas Elze

    2013-10-10

    Modifying the discrete mechanics proposed by T.D. Lee, we construct a class of discrete classical Hamiltonian systems, in which time is one of the dynamical variables. This includes a toy model of time machines which can travel forward and backward in time and which differ from models based on closed timelike curves (CTCs). In the continuum limit, we explore the interaction between such time reversing machines and quantum mechanical objects, employing a recent description of quantum-classical hybrids.

  13. Electrical characterization of non-Fickian transport in groundwater and hyporheic systems

    E-print Network

    Singha, Kamini

    Electrical characterization of non-Fickian transport in groundwater and hyporheic systems Kamini be quantified by combining electrical geophysical methods and electrically conductive tracers. Whereas direct geochemical measurements of solute preferentially sample the mobile domain, electrical geophysical methods

  14. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  15. Electrical conduction mechanism in bulk ceramic insulators at high voltages until dielectric breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neusel, C.; Jelitto, H.; Schneider, G. A.

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop and verify a dielectric breakdown model for bulk insulators thicker than 100 ?m, the knowledge of the dominating conduction mechanism at high electric fields, or respectively voltages, is necessary. The dielectric breakdown is the electrical failure of an insulator. In some existing breakdown models, ohmic conduction is assumed as dominating conduction mechanism. For verification, the dominating dc conduction mechanism of bulk insulators at room temperature was investigated by applying high voltages up to 70 kV to the insulator until dielectric breakdown occurs. Four conduction models, namely, ohmic, space charge limited, Schottky, and Poole-Frenkel conduction, were employed to identify the dominating conduction mechanism. Comparing the calculated permittivities from the Schottky and Poole-Frenkel coefficients with experimentally measured permittivity, Schottky and Poole-Frenkel conduction can be excluded as dominating conduction mechanism. Based on the current density voltage characteristics (J-V-curve) and the thickness-dependence of the current density, space charge limited conduction (SCLC) was identified to be the dominating conduction mechanism at high voltages leading to dielectric breakdown. As a consequence, breakdown models based on ohmic conduction are not appropriate to explain the breakdown of the investigated bulk insulators. Furthermore, the electrical failure of the examined bulk insulators can only be described correctly by a breakdown model which includes SCLC as conduction mechanism.

  16. Optimal Electric Energy Production scheduling for Thermal-Hydro Electric Power Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Jiekang

    2009-01-01

    A method for optimal electric energy production of thermal-hydro power systems is presented in this paper. The electric energy produced by hydroelectric plants and coal-fired plants is divided into 4 components: potential energy, kinetic energy, water-deep pressure energy and reservoir energy. A new and important concept, reservoir energy, is proposed, based on which is divided into a number of water

  17. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown capacities of different cells; such as the EcoEagle that partially receives its power from the electrical energy system. This thesis was conducted as the theory behind the EcoEagles Electrical Energy System.

  18. PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Dracker; Pascal De Laquil III

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies-photovoltaic and solar thermal-is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed.

  19. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-05-30

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

  20. PEGASUS: A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; King, D.Q.; Cuta, J.M.; Webb, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system (The PEGASUS Drive) consisting of a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed as the propulsion system for a manned Mars mission. The propulsion system described is based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The thermal power for the PEGASUS Drive is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning, heat rejection, and MPD thruster subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8,5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, 1.5 megawatts is available for spacecraft system operations and inflight mission applications, leaving the balance for power system operation.

  1. PEGASUS - A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coomes, E. P.; Cuta, J. M.; Webb, B. J.; King, D. Q.

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system (The PEGASUS Drive) consisting of a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed as the propulsion system for a manned Mars mission. The propulsion system described is based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The thermal power for the PEGASUS Drive is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning, heat rejection, and MPD thruster subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, 1.5 megawatts is available for spacecraft system operations and inflight mission applications, leaving the balance for power system operation.

  2. 49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...sizes shall be selected on the basis of current-carrying capacity, mechanical strength, temperature, flexibility...requirements, and maximum allowable voltage drop. Current-carrying capacity shall be derated for grouping and for operating...

  3. Track treeing mechanism and its application in electrical insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Li Boyang [Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Based on electrostriction and fracture mechanics, experiment observation and data-processing, two models (restriction among tree tracks and induction of tree track onto stress concentrated points) and factors (restriction and induction) are proposed; the existence of four types of plastic zone (spot-block pz, single crack isolate pz, transition from isolate to block pz and crack-block pz) are pointed out; the development depth regularities of Gp (Depth of plastic zone), G (diameter of tree track), S (tree track density) and total area of tree track (SG{sup 2}) in two basic experiments (H = H+dH, H = Hc H-field strength) are described by using four basic formulae (dG{sub p}/dH = CK{sub p}{sup p}, dG/dT = d(SG{sup 2})/dN = CK{sup p},S{sub 1}-spot density, K{sub p},K{sub s},K-Stress intensity factors). A series of turning points (G{sub pT},G{sub T},H{sub T},S{sub T},T{sub TS},T{sub TG},T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}) are discovered. The physical meaning of the turning points, the essence of break-down during electrochemical etching and water tree, the fatigue and relation between stress and strain of metal material and the effect of loading mode on crack development are briefly discussed.

  4. The effects of alternating electric fields in glioblastoma: current evidence on therapeutic mechanisms and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Azeem A; Elmore, Kevin B; Mattei, Tobias A

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma is both the most common and most lethal primary CNS malignancy in adults, accounting for 45.6% of all malignant CNS tumors, with a 5-year survival rate of only 5.0%, despite the utilization of multimodal therapy including resection, chemotherapy, and radiation. Currently available treatment options for glioblastoma often remain limited, offering brief periods of improved survival, but with substantial side effects. As such, improvements in current treatment strategies or, more likely, the implementation of novel strategies altogether are warranted. In this topic review, the authors provide a comprehensive review on the potential of alternating electric fields (AEFs) in the treatment of glioblastoma. Alternating electric fields-also known as tumor-treating fields (TTFs)-represent an entirely original therapeutic modality with preliminary studies suggesting comparable, and at times improved, efficacy to standard chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. A recent multicenter, Phase III, randomized clinical trial comparing NovoTTF-100A monotherapy to physician's best choice chemotherapy in patients with recurrent glioblastoma revealed that AEFs have similar efficacy to standard chemotherapeutic agents with a more favorable side-effects profile and improved quality of life. In particular, AEFs were shown to have limited systemic adverse effects, with the most common side effect being contact dermatitis on the scalp at the sites of transducer placement. This study prompted FDA approval of the NovoTTF-100A system in April 2011 as a standalone therapy for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma refractory to surgical and radiation treatment. In addition to discussing the available clinical evidence regarding the utilization of AEFs in glioblastoma, this article provides essential information regarding the supposed therapeutic mechanism as well as modes of potential tumor resistance to such novel therapy, delineating future perspectives regarding basic science research on the issue. PMID:25727223

  5. A demand responsive bidding mechanism with price elasticity matrix in wholesale electricity pools

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jiankang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In the past several decades, many demand-side participation features have been applied in the electricity power systems. These features, such as distributed generation, on-site storage and demand response, add uncertainties ...

  6. An atomic force microcopy study of the mechanical and electrical properties of monolayer films of molecules with aromatic end groups

    E-print Network

    Fang, Liang; Park, J.Y.; Ma, H.; Jen, A.K.-Y.; Salmeron, M.

    2008-01-01

    semiconductors Molecules with good conductive (a) Forcemolecules containing aromatic groups was studied using atomic forceforce microcopy study of the mechanical and electrical properties of monolayer films of molecules

  7. Electrical power system for the U. S. space station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Nored; G. J. Hallinan

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Electrical Power System presents many interesting challenges. It will be much larger than previous space power systems, and it must be designed for on-orbit maintenance and replacement, along with having a growth capability. The power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystems comprise the primary elements of the overall system. Each was analyzed by

  8. Minimization of the cost of an electric transmission line system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Shing Chang; C. D. Zinn

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the design parameters for an electric transmission line system. A mathematical model is formulated using regression analysis to relate system costs and requirements to the system design parameters. In general, this mathematical model is both nonlinear and nonconvex. Solutions obtained for a specific problem using a nonlinear programming computer code are presented. Although

  9. Electrical Characteristic Study of a Hybrid PEMFC and Ultracapacitor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junbo Jia; Gucheng Wang; Yew Thean Cham; Youyi Wang; Ming Han

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic study of a clean hybrid power supply system combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main power source and ultracapacitor (UC) as the energy storage unit. Unlike the conventional fuel-cell hybrid system with power conditioning unit, the study investigated the electrical characteristic of the PEMFC and UC hybrid system without dc\\/dc converter. As

  10. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  11. An Ultra-High-Speed, 500000 rpm, 1 kW Electrical Drive System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Zwyssig; M. Duerr; D. Hassler; J. W. Kolar

    2007-01-01

    New emerging micro gas turbine generator sets and turbocompressor systems push the speed limits of rotating machinery. To directly connect to these applications, ultra-high-speed electrical drive systems are needed. Therefore a 1 kW, 500000 rpm machine and the according power and control electronics are designed and built. This paper includes design considerations for the mechanical and electromagnetic machine design. Furthermore,

  12. Electric and hybrid vehicle systems assessment seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-15

    The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimization considerations, (6) alkaline battery technology, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) nickel-iron batteries, (9) zinc-chloride batteries, (10) zinc-bromine batteries, (11) sodium-sulfur batteries, (12) system/battery design interaction for a lithium-method sulfide van battery, (13) iorn-air batteries, (14) aluminium-air cells, (15) fuel cell overview, (16) variable-reluctance motor drives, (17) electric vehicle design, (18) advanced electric vehicle powertrain program, (19) Eaton ac drivetrains, and (20) JET Propulsion Laboratory ac power system. (MOW)

  13. Type SMGB hydrocyclone separators for mechanical impurities in immersed electrical centrifugal pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Govberg; V. A. Terpunov; K. K. Suvorov; A. A. Shumilin

    2009-01-01

    A brief description is given of the design of a new hydrocyclone mechanical-impurity separator of type SMGB built by the Borets\\u000a Company, which serves to increase the working life of an immersed electric pump in a borehole where the working media have\\u000a elevated contents of mechanical impurities. The main characteristics are given from test-bed data for separators of SMGB type.

  14. Precise timing in electric power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Martin

    1993-01-01

    Precise timing offers a new approach to system-wide controls. It enables measuring the system-wide AC phase as well as timing events and synchronizing controls. the Global Positioning System (GPS) is the first system to provide timing with enough precision to make this approach practical. GPS also provides the wide area of coverage, continuous availability, and high reliability required for power

  15. Electricity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2010-02-23

    5th Grade Electricity Try this Using Electricity Activity. Don't forget to follow the directions! Use this to learn more about electricity: Blobz Guide to Electricity Follow the directions closely! Learn more about Electricity with Electricity Tech-Topics. ...

  16. Multi-mode electro-mechanical vibrations of a microtubule: In silico demonstration of electric pulse moving along a microtubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havelka, Daniel; Cifra, Michal; Ku?era, Ond?ej

    2014-06-01

    Microtubules are known to be involved in intracellular signaling. Here, we show in silico that electrically polar collective vibration modes of microtubules form electric oscillating potential which is quasi-periodic both in space and in time. While single mode microtubule vibration excites an electric field with spatially stationary local minima and maxima of the electric field, the multimode excitation causes the formation of an electric pulse and many transient local electric field minima. The biophysical mechanism we describe lends support to the view that microtubules may comprise a substrate for ultra-fast electrical signaling in neurons or other living cells.

  17. Biomedical | Chemical & Biomolecular | Civil & Environmental | Electrical & Computer | Industrial | Mechanical | Petroleum Careers in Electrical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    , electromagnetic wave propagation, analog and digital control systems and communication networks. Current Constitutions and Politics.............3 Total 18 Second Year Fall Semester ECE 2300 Circuit Analysis....................

  18. A review of nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Nock, K. T.

    1990-01-01

    The last 25-30 years of system concepts and design philosophies for spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) are reviewed. NEP spacecraft-system design constraints and criteria are identified, including radiation exposure of humans and electronics, thermal control requirements, effluent contamination of spacecraft surfaces, surface erosion, launch-vehicle integration, operations and safety requirements, attitude control, EM interference, and power control and distribution. The impact on spacecraft design philosophy of these constraints and criteria is explored. Several NEP spacecraft are characterized and discussed with respect to the propulsion system used. The electric propulsion system catagories are electrothermal (arcjet), EM (magnetoplasmadynamic and pulsed-inductive thruster) and electrostatic (ion engine). A brief summary of the mission, nuclear power source, electric propulsion system, and spacecraft configuration are provided for each NEP spacecraft concept.

  19. Learning the Cardiac Cycle: Simultaneous Observations of Electrical and Mechanical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Richard Alec; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method for integrating electrical and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle by measuring systolic time intervals, which involves simultaneous recording of the ECG, a phonocardiogram, and the contour of the carotid pulse. Both resting and stress change data are provided as bases for class discussion. (CS)

  20. Wear mechanism of metal bond diamond wheels trued by wire electrical discharge machining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian K. Rhoney; Albert J. Shih; Ronald O. Scattergood; Ronald Ott; Samuel B. McSpaddenc

    2002-01-01

    The stereographic scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging was used to investigate the wear mechanism in wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) truing of metal bond diamond wheels for ceramic grinding. A piece of the grinding wheel was removed after truing and grinding to enable the examination of wheel surface and measurement of diamond protrusion heights using a SEM and stereographic imaging

  1. Cells exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses exhibit biomarkers of mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Moen, Erick K.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2015-03-01

    Exposure of cells to very short (<1 ?s) electric pulses in the megavolt/meter range have been shown to cause disruption of the plasma membrane. This disruption is often characterized by the formation of numerous small pores (<2 nm in diameter) in the plasma membrane that last for several minutes, allowing the flow of ions into the cell. These small pores are called nanopores and the resulting damage to the plasma membrane is referred to as nanoporation. Nanosecond electrical pulse (nsEP) exposure can impart many different stressors on a cell, including electrical, electro-chemical, and mechanical stress. Thus, nsEP exposure is not a "clean" insult, making determination of the mechanism of nanoporation quite difficult. We hypothesize that nsEP exposure creates acoustic shock waves capable of causing nanoporation. Microarray analysis of primary adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) exposed to nsEP, indicated several genes associated with mechanical stress were selectively upregulated 4 h post exposure. The idea that nanoporation is caused by external mechanical force from acoustic shock waves has, to our knowledge, not been investigated. This work will critically challenge the existing paradigm that nanoporation is caused solely by an electric-field driven event and could provide the basis for a plausible explanation for electroporation.

  2. Electrical signals in prayer plants (marantaceae)? Insights into the trigger mechanism of the explosive style movement.

    PubMed

    Jerominek, Markus; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2015-01-01

    The explosive pollination mechanism of the prayer plants (Marantaceae) is unique among plants. After a tactile stimulus by a pollinator, the style curls up rapidly and mediates pollen exchange. It is still under discussion whether this explosive movement is released electrophysiologically, i.e. by a change in the membrane potential (as in Venus flytrap), or purely mechanically. In the present study, electrophysiological experiments are conducted to clarify the mechanism. Artificial release experiments (chemical and electrical) and electrophysiological measurements were conducted with two phylogenetically distant species, Goeppertia bachemiana (E. Morren) Borchs. & S. Suárez and Donax canniformis (G. Forst.) K. Schum. Electric responses recorded after style release by extracellular measurements are characterised as variation potentials due to their long repolarization phase and lack of self-perpetuation. In both species, chemical and electric stimulations do not release the style movement. It is concluded that the style movement in Marantaceae is released mechanically by relieving the tissue pressure. Accordingly, the variation potential is an effect of the movement and not its cause. The study exemplarily shows that fast movements in plants are not necessarily initiated by electric changes of the membrane as known from the Venus flytrap. PMID:25997015

  3. The influence of adhesive composition on mechanical and electrical properties of joints between SMDs and PCBs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryszard Kisiel

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to establish how conductive adhesive composition will influence the electrical and mechanical properties of joints between SMDs and PCBs. Eight conductive adhesive compositions were investigated. The design of experiments methodology based on Taguchi orthogonal array was applied to compose the best adhesive properties for SMT. Two types of polymer matrix were applied. Two

  4. Nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith J. Williams

    1994-01-01

    Measurements and simulations to determine the contributing nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields are presented. An important component of the nonlinear behavior is attributed to absorption in undepleted material adjacent to the depletion region, limiting the attainable device linearity. With as little as 10 nm of undepleted absorbing material, the second harmonic of a

  5. Mechanical stress in a dielectric solid from a uniform electric field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Anderson

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical stress in a dielectric solid from application of a uniform electric field is usually assumed to be described by ''Maxwell stress,'' proportional to the first power of the relative dielectric constant, kappa. Significant corrections are found from energy minimization when the dependence of permittivity on strain is included. Electrostriction coefficients are evaluated by the use of a model dielectric

  6. Mechanical stress in a dielectric solid from a uniform electric field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Anderson

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical stress in a dielectric solid from application of a uniform electric field is usually assumed to be described by ``Maxwell stress,'' proportional to the first power of the relative dielectric constant, kappa. Significant corrections are found from energy minimization when the dependence of permittivity on strain is included. Electrostriction coefficients are evaluated by the use of a model dielectric

  7. Mechanical and electrical performance analysis of high power subsea transmission cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Chien; E. H. Yap; H. G. A. Martindale; R. W. G. Bucknall

    2004-01-01

    Some of the increasing demand for electricity is expected to be met offshore either by using renewable sources or by exploiting hydrocarbon reserves in stranded gas fields. This paper presents results from an investigation into transmission cable analysis for a floating offshore power station. Mechanical stresses experienced by high power cable in dynamic application are assessed with a view to

  8. Acute passive stretching in a previously fatigued muscle: Electrical and mechanical response during tetanic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Esposito; Emiliano Cè; Susanna Rampichini; Arsenio Veicsteinas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute passive stretching on the electrical and mechanical response of a previously fatigued muscle. Eleven participants underwent maximal tetanic stimulations (50 Hz) of the medial gastrocnemius, before and after a fatiguing protocol and after a bout of passive stretching of the fatigued muscle. During contraction, surface electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG),

  9. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  10. Control system design for mechanical systems using contraction theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winfried Lohmiller; Jean-Jacques E. Slotine

    2000-01-01

    Contraction theory is a control system tool based on an exact differential analysis of convergence. After establishing new combination properties of contracting systems, the paper derives new controller and observer designs for mechanical systems such as aircraft and underwater vehicles. The classical nonlinear strap down algorithm is also shown to be marginally contracting. The relative simplicity of the approach stems

  11. Electrical and mechanical properties in CaF{sub 2}/SiC-whisker composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Atsumu; Miyayama, Masaru; Yanagida, Hiroaki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Electrical and mechanical properties in ceramic composites were investigated in order to examine fracture prediction techniques and fatigue detection in ceramics. Composites were fabricated with calcium fluoride as the insulating matrix and silicon carbide whiskers as the conducting additive. Electrical conduction paths were formed by adding more than 3 vol% of silicon carbide whiskers. Additions of silicon carbide whiskers did not improve the fracture strength, especially of the composites with a conduction path. By applying a bending load to the composites, the electrical resistance increased up to fracture. When the load was applied repeatedly below the fracture limit, a gradual increase of electrical resistance was observed before fracture. These results suggested the possibility of predicting fracture and detecting fatigue in ceramic composites. A pull out behavior of silicon carbide whiskers which disconnect the conduction paths of the composites was confirmed from scanning electron microscopy observation.

  12. Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems

    E-print Network

    G. Van Hooydonk

    2005-12-03

    A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.

  13. Towards Electrical, Integrated Implementations of SIMPL Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    manuscript, published in "Information Security Theory and Practices. Security and Privacy of Pervasive security tool termed SIMPL system, which was introduced in [1]. SIMPL systems are a public key version systems have practicality and security advantages over PUFs, Certificates of Authenticity (COAs

  14. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

  15. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  16. Levitated Quantum Nano-Magneto-Mechanical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Cirio; Jason Twamley; Gavin K. Brennen; Gerard J. Milburn

    2011-01-01

    Quantum nanomechanical sysems have attracted much attention as they provide new macroscopic platforms for the study of quantum mechanics but may also have applications in ultra-sensitive sensing, high precision measurements and in quantum computing. In this work we study the control and cooling of a quantum nanomechanical system which is magnetically levitated via the Meissner effect. Supercurrents in nano-sized superconducting

  17. Nonlinear Circuits and Systems Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    E-print Network

    Miller, Damon A.

    .miller@wmich.edu Electrical and Computer Engineering nonlinear circuits and systems, neural systems, artificial neuralNonlinear Circuits and Systems Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Mission unpredictable. The Nonlinear Circuits and Systems Laboratory investigates novel chaotic systems

  18. ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION PRODUCTS FROM ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEMS WITH MECHANICAL ANTIFOULING DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of corrosion products from steam-electric power plant once-through cooling systems equipped with mechanical antifouling devices. (About 67% of the currently operating plants in the U.S. use once-through cooling systems. Various cleaning m...

  19. 78 FR 57855 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “System for Locating People Using Electricity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...System for Locating People Using Electricity Dependent Medical Equipment During Public...System for Locating People Using Electricity Dependent Medical Equipment During Public...many people who were dependent on electricity and battery-powered DME--such...

  20. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

  1. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

  2. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

  3. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

  4. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

  5. ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLE FILLED EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Polizos, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tuncer, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sauers, I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); James, D. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ellis, A. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); More, K. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution. They were dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix (commercially available under the trade name Araldite 5808) using a planetary mixer. Nanocomposite materials were prepared with several weight loadings of nanoparticles In this work we Investigate the effects of the particle agglomeration on the mechanical and electrical properties of the composites. The structure of the composites was probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For investigating the mechanical properties, a dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) was employed. The dielectric breakdown strength and the impedance response were also measured in order to characterize the insulating properties of the nanocomposites and their potential use in high voltage applications.

  6. Magneto-Electric response functions for simple atomic systems

    E-print Network

    Babington, James

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple atomic two-body bound state system that is overall charge neutral and placed in a static electric and magnetic field, and calculate the magneto-electric response function as a function of frequency. This is done from first principles using a two-particle Hamiltonian for both an harmonic oscillator and Coulomb binding potential. In the high frequency limit, the response function falls off as 1/\\omega^2 whilst at low frequencies it tends to a constant value.

  7. Magneto-electric response functions for simple atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babington, J.; van Tiggelen, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    We consider a simple atomic two-body bound state system that is overall charge neutral and placed in a static electric and magnetic field, and calculate the magneto-electric response function as a function of frequency. This is done from first principles using a two-particle Hamiltonian for both an harmonic oscillator and Coulomb binding potential. In the high frequency limit, the response function falls off as 1/ ? 2 whilst at low frequencies it tends to a constant value.

  8. Fault diagnosis of the ELVE Intelligent Electrical Control System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhongnian; Zhou Jiaqi; He Chao

    2007-01-01

    AHDI (automotive high-energy dry ignition-coil) discussed in this paper is a new type production of modern automotive electrical equipment. The process of epoxy-resin liquid vacuum encapsulation is the important link of AHDI's manufacturing and shaping. Therefore, fault diagnosis setting based on BP-NN (back propagation-neural networks) is used in the intelligent pouring electrical control system in order to ensure processing quality.

  9. Conceptual design of underground compressed air storage electric power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Giramonti; R. D. Lessard; M. J. Hobson

    1977-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been conducted to identify Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems which are potentially attractive for future electric utility load-leveling applications. The CAES concept consists of compressing air during off-peak periods, underground storage, followed by heating and expansion through turbines to generate power. By using off-peak electricity for compression and stored air for peak-load generation, the resulting

  10. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  11. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a regional wind resource map and a list of incentives and contacts for more information.

  12. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  13. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  14. Nanomachining with a mechanical manipulation system.

    PubMed

    Chang, M; Deka, J R; Lin, C H

    2008-12-01

    This study describes about the development of a mechanical manipulation system that can perform three-dimensional nano-machining inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experiments are carried out by constructing a precise machining platform integrated with pico-motors, linear stages and monolithic-silicon-based tips which is generally used in atomic-force microscope (AFM). This integrated system can easily manipulate the atoms in a workpiece inside an SEM. The platform consists of three translational stages along XYZ axis direction and one rotational stage, with a resolution of 30 nm. The system can be utilized to produce nanopattern such as nanolines, nanoscale characters on silicon substrate coated with gold (Au) and aluminum (Al). Molecular dynamics simulation model is used to analyze the machining mechanism from various machining parameters. The same AFM tip can be utilized to scratch away the unwanted material from the workpiece surface. PMID:19205193

  15. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOEpatents

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  16. Electrical transmission system with variable frequency through long length cable

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J.C.; Andrade, D.A.; Araujo, S.C.N. [Univ. Federal de Uberlandia (Brazil); Paulsen, R.J.; Amaral, M.A. [Petrobras A/S, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    In the face of its oil reserves characteristics, deep and ultra-deep exploitation have become a vital issue for Brazil. In those cases where the oil field does not have enough pressure to ensure natural oil flow from the bottom of the sea to the platform, the process will require the use of variable speed inverter-fed subsea electrical motors placed far away from the electrical energy source. This implies a new operational condition for the electric system, which is electrical energy transmission with variable frequency, through long length cable, in the subsea environment. The behavior of such systems has not yet been extensively studied, and in the face of the costs involved, careful analysis is mandatory. The paper presents a powerful simulation tool developed for the analysis of such electrical systems. The analysis is carried out in time domain. Harmonics components of voltages and currents and their effects on the system operation are analyzed. Comparison of simulated and measured results for an actual working installation is shown. Simulation results for a long length cable transmission system are discussed.

  17. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  18. Mirror fusion test facility electrical systems, status and plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTR), a single cell, large scale mirror machine has been under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) sine October 1977 and was due to be completed October 1981. New machine has been designed to make maximum use of the systems constructed for MFTR with minimum modification. The electrical systems required for MFTF included; magnet

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    SciTech Connect

    BRISBIN, S.A.

    1999-06-17

    This document provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This document also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  20. Optimal Generation Expansion Planning with Electric Energy Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yasuda; K. Nishiya; J. Hasegawa; R. Yokoyama

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents fficient method which provides the optimal generation mix and the optimal (development) pr for not only generators o for electric e storage systems. The approximations method, in which the dynamic programming and the gradient method are combined, is developed to determine the optimal generation mix with energy storage systems. The dynamic p ges are time periods and

  1. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Swaminathan; R. K. Sen

    1997-01-01

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning

  2. Optimal Design of a Hybrid Electric Powertrain System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Krishnamachari; P. Y. Papalambros

    1997-01-01

    Optimal design of an electric hybrid powertrain system using a decomposition-based approach is presented. In this approach, a general system design problem is first formulated without specifying objectives. The mathematical model is analyzed using partitioning techniques, and an optimal design problem that can be readily decomposed and solved using an appropriate coordination strategy is derived. Basic concepts for hybrid powertrains

  3. A 32-electrode data collection system for electrical impedance tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos S. Koukourlis; George A. Kyriacou; John N. Sahalos

    1995-01-01

    A 32-electrode data collection system for electrical impedance tomography (ETT) is presented. In this system, the demodulator is a multiplexed sample and hold (S&H) circuit followed by a voltage difference stage. This configuration provides high CMRR due to the low (almost DC) operating frequency of the signals the difference stage is required to process.

  4. Electrical system design for a solar powered vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean J Patterson

    1990-01-01

    Two separate electrical system designs for a solar-powered vehicle built for a race across Australia in November 1987 are described. A third system for a second race in November 1990 is also described. The design of motors, motor controllers, DC-DC power converters, and maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) under a specialized set of criteria is discussed

  5. Reliability impacts from cyber attack on electric power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stamp; A. McIntyre; B. Richardson

    2009-01-01

    The level of risk from cyber attack against control systems used in the electrical grid is uncertain. At various times, the likelihood of attack, the availability of opportunity in the form of cyber vulnerabilities, the impact to the power system, and the consequences have all been debated at length. This research addresses the issue of grid impacts from cyber attack.

  6. Multiobjective optimization for pricing system security in electricity markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Milano; Claudio A. Cañizares; Marco Invernizzi

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique for representing system security in the operations of decentralized electricity markets, with special emphasis on voltage stability. An interior point method is used to solve the optimal power flow problem with a multiobjective function for maximizing both social benefit and the distance to maximum loading conditions. A six-bus system with both supply and demand-side

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  8. Lunar Module Electrical Power System Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and redesign considerations of the Apollo lunar module electrical power system. Included in the work are graphics showing the lunar module power system. It describes the in-flight failures, and the lessons learned from these failures.

  9. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering

    E-print Network

    Radke, Rich

    . (Laptops should not be used for web surfing or instant messaging during class time.) PROFESSOR: RichardRensselaer Polytechnic Institute Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Fall be able to see when you log in to that system. Again, you should check this page often to post questions

  10. A new IPT magnetic coupler for electric vehicle charging systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickel Budhia; Grant Covic; John Boys

    2010-01-01

    Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) is a practical method for recharging Electric Vehicles (EVs) because is it safe, efficient and convenient. Couplers or Power Pads are the power transmitters and receivers used with such contactless charging systems. Due to improvements in power electronic components, the performance and efficiency of an IPT system is largely determined by the coupling or flux linkage

  11. Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

  12. Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    -varying parametricuncertaintiesboundedbyapolytope.Inthispaper, we provide a systematic procedure based on the mean value theorem in conjunction for Time-Varying Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Modeled by a Particular Class of Linear Differential Inclusion for Time-Varying Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Modeled by a Particular Class of Linear Differential Inclusion

  13. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  14. Studying Some of Electrical and Mechanical Properties for Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafeeq, Sewench N.; Hussein, Samah M.

    2011-12-01

    As ordinary known the ability of synthesizing electrical conducting polymer composites is possible but with poor mechanical properties, for the solution of this problem, we carried out this study in order to obtain that both properties. Three methods were applied for preparing the conductive polyaniline (PANI) composites using Kevlar fiber fabric as substrate for the deposition of the PANI at one time and the prepared composite (EP/Kevlar fiber) at others. The chemical oxidative method was adopted for polymerization of the aniline and simultaneously protonated of PANI with a hydrochloric acid at concentration (1M). Two kinds of oxidation agents (FeCl3.6H2O) and ((NH4)2S2O8) were used. The electrical measurements indicate the effect of each preparation method, kind of oxidant agent and the kind of mat erial which PANI deposited on the electrical results. The conductivity results showed that the prepared composites lie within semiconductors region. Temperature—dependence of electric conductivity results showed semiconductors and conductors behavior of this material within the applied temperature ranges. The mechan ical property (tensile strength) was studied. X-ray diffraction study showed the crystalline structure for EP/Kevlar fiber/PANI composites prepared by the three methods. These results gave optimism to the synthesis of conductive polymer composites with excellent mechanical properties..

  15. Influence of argon gas flow on mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered titanium nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khojier, Kaykhosrow; Savaloni, Hadi; Shokrai, Ebrahim; Dehghani, Zohreh; Dehnavi, Naser Zare

    2013-07-01

    Titanium nitrides have good mechanical, tribological, electrical, biomedical, and optical properties; therefore, they are used to harden and protect cutting and sliding surfaces, as semiconductor devices, and as a nontoxic exterior for biomedical applications. The dependence of the mechanical and electrical properties of titanium nitride thin films deposited on silicon substrates by direct-current reactive magnetron sputtering technique on argon gas flow (in the range of 8 to 20 sccm) was investigated. The crystallographic structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and electrical properties of these films were investigated by nanoindentation test and a four-point probe instrument, respectively. The XRD patterns showed titanium nitride (TiN) formation with a face-centered cubic structure for all samples. It was also observed that (111) crystallographic direction was the preferred orientation for TiN thin films which became more pronounced with increasing argon gas flow. The AFM images showed a granular structure for TiN layers. The hardness, crystallite/grain size (obtained from XRD and AFM), and surface roughness increased with the flow of argon gas, while elastic modulus and dislocation density in the films decreased. The study on electrical properties showed that the dependence of voltage with current for all samples was linear, and film resistivity was increased with argon gas flow.

  16. A hybrid electric propulsion system for a forest vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Carlini, M. [Univ. della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Abenavoli, R.I. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Kormanski, H.; Rudzinska, K. [Technical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Typical caterpillar tractors, applied to wood gathering in forests, are powered by internal combustion (IC) engines, which are sized to meet the full drive train load. However, the maximum power is required only in a part of the total operation time during work cycles of logging tractors. For this reason the hybrid electric propulsion system, installed instead of IC engine-hydrostatic transmission system, may considerably improve vehicle performance indices such as fuel consumption, pollutant emission and noise level. In this paper the authors present a series hybrid electric power train configuration for a small (2,100 kg of mass) crawler tractor used for logging in forests. The drive train is composed of a thermal engine, an electric generator, a group of lead-acid batteries and electric drive motors with controllers. To calculate energy balance of the designed vehicle a special forest cycle was elaborated and discussed in the paper. The cycle was created on the basis of experimental data, measured in the actual tractor work. Since average power required during the forest cycle is much lower than the maximum one, the hybrid electric system needs a smaller IC engine than one in the conventional vehicle. This engine, coupled with electric generator, works in operation conditions yielding better fuel economy. The electric drive motors are fed both by the generator and the batteries in the full load cycle phase. The batteries are recharged during vehicle down-hill moving and standing phases. The proposed hybrid electric propulsion is also an attractive approach to improve crawler tractors for agriculture applications.

  17. Stamp transferred suspended graphene mechanical resonators for radio frequency electrical readout.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuefeng; Oksanen, Mika; Sillanpää, Mika A; Craighead, H G; Parpia, J M; Hakonen, Pertti J

    2012-01-11

    We present a simple micromanipulation technique to transfer suspended graphene flakes onto any substrate and to assemble them with small localized gates into mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion of the graphene is detected using an electrical, radio frequency (RF) reflection readout scheme where the time-varying graphene capacitor reflects a RF carrier at f = 5-6 GHz producing modulation sidebands at f ± f(m). A mechanical resonance frequency up to f(m) = 178 MHz is demonstrated. We find both hardening/softening Duffing effects on different samples and obtain a critical amplitude of ~40 pm for the onset of nonlinearity in graphene mechanical resonators. Measurements of the quality factor of the mechanical resonance as a function of dc bias voltage V(dc) indicates that dissipation due to motion-induced displacement currents in graphene electrode is important at high frequencies and large V(dc). PMID:22141577

  18. Evaluation of changes in microstructure and mechanical performance of metals via electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omari, Mohammad Ahmad

    This work focuses on experimental study of cross-property connections that link up effective linear elastic and electrical conductive properties of heterogeneous materials. Such connections are especially useful when one property (electrical conductivity) is easier to measure than the other (elastic constants). Also, take advantages from the easy of measure electrical resistance to study the microstructural changes, and then compare results with different methods like microscopy and other published methods. Mechanical and electrical properties of different specimens under both fatigue and quasi-static loading were investigated, combined with the analysis of microstructural changes produced by such loading. Two different types of metals (stainless steel 304 and Titanium CP-2) have been cut from sheets and then subjected to two different type of loading: cyclic loading (up to 80000 cycles) at several values of maximal stress sigmamax and then quasi-static loading. At low values of sigmamax as well as at the low number of cycles no significant changes in mechanical properties and mild decrease in electrical conductivity (approximately uniform over the specimen) have been observed. The latter can be explained by generation cluster of new dislocations that can be seen in photo images in the form of black dots. As the number of cycles and sigmamax grow up, reduction in Young's modulus and in ultimate strength of the specimens take place. This reduction is accompanied by local decrease in electrical conductivity due to formation of the microcracks. Changes in Young's modulus and electrical conductivity at high values of sigma max. (higher than the yield limit) follow the theoretically predicted cross-property connection for microcracked materials. Qualitative correlation between strength reduction and maximum value of local resistivity across the specimen has been observed at qualitative level.

  19. Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    1 Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework systematic reliability analysis tools to address planning and operation challenges of future electric power and the introduction of new sources of uncertainty in systems already inherently complex. Current reliability analysis

  20. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.