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1

Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

Foutes, William; And Others

2

Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Test Structures: 3-Point Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers a program that calculates strain due to change in length of a beam. Written by Janet Marshall of the Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), this three-point formula program is the result of research on multi-layered microelectronics such as silicon chips. The program is intended for use by MEMS lab workers but would work well as part of a college-level engineering class exercise. Users can choose either a cantilevered or a fixed-fixed beam and then input sample data (a sample data set is provided) into a form to get an output of strain gradient and out-of-plane curvature. A link to a page showing the formulae used is provided.

3

Mecomtronics Module H: Electrical and Mechanical Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module H focuses on electrical and mechanical power systems and process control. Student technicians will construct a conveyor system to transport radio-labeled pharmaceuticals from one side of the plant to the other where the loading bay is located. The transportation of the pharmaceutical must be done within a minimum amount of time in order to preserve the usable lifetime of the drug. In order to determine the exact time of production, the speed of the conveyor system must be precisely maintained. To maintain the precise delivery time, a variable speed motor control circuit will be employed to drive the conveyor belt. Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

2009-11-26

4

Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed for integrated circuit analysis, including optical inspection, scanning laser microscopy (SLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) microscopy, light emission (LE) microscopy, acoustic microscopy and acoustic emission analysis. For example, the FIB was used to microsection microengines that developed poor performance characteristics. Subsequent SEM analysis clearly demonstrated the absence of wear on gear, hub, and pin joint bearing surfaces, contrary to expectations. Another example involved the use of infrared microscopy for thermal analysis of operating microengines. Hot spots were located, which did not involve the gear or hub, but indicated contact between comb structures which drive microengines. Voltage contrast imaging proved useful on static and operating MEMS in both the SEM and the FIB and identified electrostatic clamping as a potentially significant contributor to failure mechanisms in microengines. This work describes MEMS devices, FA techniques, failure modes, and examples of FA of MEMS.

Peterson, K.A.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

1997-10-01

5

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INTERACTION IN GAS TURBINE-GENERATOR SYSTEMS FOR MORE-ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT.  

E-print Network

??Modern 'more-electric' aircraft demand increased levels of electrical power as non-propulsive power systems are replaced with electrical equivalents. This electrical power is provided by electrical… (more)

Feehally, Thomas

2012-01-01

6

Center for Nanoscale Chemical-Electrical-Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Delamination of Thin Films Using Laser  

E-print Network

#12;Center for Nanoscale Chemical-Electrical-Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Delamination of Thin pull, double cantilever, and nanoindentation tests.1 Though these tests are commonly employed, they all size of a few nanometers, new techniques to measure interface adhesion of such thin films are warranted

Sottos, Nancy R.

7

Solar electricity storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible methods for the storage of solar-energy-generated electricity are reviewed. Attention is given to mechanical systems, including elevated weights, pumped water, compressed air, springs and flywheels, electric and magnetic field storage in a capacitor, electromagnet or superconducting coil, and chemical storage systems, including the electrolyzer hydrogen fuel cell and secondary electric storage batteries. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of

J. Jensen; C. Perram

1980-01-01

8

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE)  

E-print Network

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE) Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering #12;Graduates able to work in both mechanical of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) n Develop essential engineering skills through extensive project work n Enhance

Burton, Geoffrey R.

9

Mechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

Davis, Robert E.

2002-01-01

10

Design and Use of Interactive Learning Stations in Construction Education for Building Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, the building codes that govern the design and installation of mechanical and electrical systems for buildings have become increasingly prescriptive in nature, specifying detailed information related to the design and installation of the systems, while offering no reasoning behind their prescriptive measures. Students now read about the design and installation of these systems in textbooks, and using the building codes, have in-class exercises drafting the systems, which in industry are used for fabrication and installation. Therefore, in conjunction with a new curriculum proposed for the construction management department at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo an interactive learning station was developed for student use to enhance student learning. This paper focuses on the design and use of interactive learning stations for building mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems that allow construction students to perform hands-on fit-up exercises and test their performance.

Korman, Thomas; Simonian, Lonny

2009-10-16

11

Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

2009-01-01

12

Electric turbocompound control system  

DOEpatents

Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

Algrain, Marcelo C. (Dunlap, IL)

2007-02-13

13

Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.  

PubMed

Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

2013-01-01

14

Mechanical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, several different control applications for mechanical systems are examined. The first system discussed is\\u000a an autobalancing application. A perfectly balanced rotating object (i.e., the center of geometry and center of mass are coincident)\\u000a will usually not undergo any vibration. However, due to the errors associated with geometric dimensions and the nonhomogeneity\\u000a of the raw material, the construction

Warren E. Dixon; Aman Behal; Darren M. Dawson; Siddharth P. Nagarkatti

15

Electrical Mechanical Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide describes the development of a sixteen-week postsecondary course in electrical mechanical maintenance. Following introductory sections that provide background information and a course summary, the third section describes the instructional model used in the course. Section 4 presents an overview of instructional media used…

Santa Clara County Superintendent of Schools, San Jose, CA.

16

Electrical\\/mechanical options for variable speed wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of variable speed wind turbines, especially in large-scale utility electricity generating systems, offers a potential improvement in the cost effectiveness of wind energy systems. This paper presents a review of the potential options (including mechanical, electrical\\/mechanical, electrical, and electrical\\/power electronic) open for variable speed wind turbine design and gives some of the advantages and disadvantages of these design

J. F. Manwell; J. G. McGowan; B. H. Bailey

1991-01-01

17

Simulation of floating electro-mechanical system (FLEMS) for electrical energy variations as a function of displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of devices in the field of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, have helped scientists to understand the behavior of these devices. One of the major limiting factors in various mechanically powered micro devices, for example micro motors, is friction. This issue significantly reduces the life of MEMS devices. ^ Using the Floating Electro Mechanical Systems (FLEMS) technique the limiting

Umer Khalid

2007-01-01

18

Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-01-03

19

"State of the Art Computational Methods and Software for Computer-Aided Electrical and Mechanical Control Systems"  

E-print Network

, based on that study, will be made for the engineers. Mathematical and computational jargon that seem to be distractive for most engineers and other applied scientists to learn these techniques will be avoided"State of the Art Computational Methods and Software for Computer-Aided Electrical and Mechanical

Rimon, Elon

20

A Merchant Mechanism for Electricity Transmission Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a merchant mechanism to expand electricity transmission based on long-term financial transmission rights (FTRs).\\u000a Due to network loop flows, a change in network capacity might imply negative externalities on existing transmission property\\u000a rights. The system operator thus needs a protocol for awarding incremental FTRs that maximize investors’ preferences, and\\u000a preserves certain currently unallocated FTRs (or proxy awards) so

Tarjei Kristiansen; Juan Rosellón

2006-01-01

21

Diesel Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains eight instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to electrical systems; (2) electrical circuits; (3) electrical indicator circuits; (4) storage batteries; (5) starting systems and circuits; (6) ignition circuits; (7)…

Sprinkle, Tom; Huston, Jane, Ed.

22

Basic Electricity in Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on electricity has been designed especially for teachers to use with freshmen and sophomore vocational agricultural students in Montana. It consists of an outline of the unit and eight lesson plans. The unit outline lists the following components: situation, aims and goals, lesson plans, student activities, teacher…

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

23

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

2011-10-17

24

Solar Electric System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

1987-01-01

25

SMART-1 Electrical propulsion mechanism (EPMEC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SMART-1 Spacecraft is due to launch in 2002 and is being developed as a test bed for various new technologies that will be needed for interplanetary missions. One of these new technologies is the Electric Propulsion system (EPS) which is to be used as the main source of thrust during the mission. Contraves Space AG were selected for the development of a "low budget" Steering Mechanism (EPMEC) for the EPS and for the associated drive electronics (EPMEL). The EPS selected for the SMART-1 mission is the PPS 1350 developed by SNECMA Moteurs in France. Since this thruster configuration is almost identical to that used on the STENTOR mission, the use of this thruster unit have placed certain limitations on the design of the EPMEC. In satisfying the requirements, the design of the EPMEC described in this paper utilised some novel ideas and new technologies in the spacecraft mechanism branch. The EPMEC mechanism has recently successfully completed the qualification test programme for SMART-1 and has been mounted into the spacecraft for system testing. The flight model is currently in manufacture. The results from the Qualification Tests will also be briefly presented in this paper.

Wood, Brian; Buff, Walter; Delouard, Philippe

2001-09-01

26

NSTX Electrical Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems.

A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

1999-12-16

27

Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates  

DOEpatents

A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

Chen, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

28

Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates  

DOEpatents

A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion. 2 figs.

Chen, P.J.

1987-03-02

29

Electric system restructuring and system reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1996 the California legislature passed AB 1890, explicitly defining economic benefits and detailing specific mechanisms for initiating a partial restructuring the state's electric system. Critics have since sought re-regulation and proponents have asked for patience as the new institutions and markets take shape. Other states' electric system restructuring activities have been tempered by real and perceived problems in the California model. This study examines the reduced regulatory controls and new constraints introduced in California's limited restructuring model using utility and regulatory agency records from the 1990's to investigate effects of new institutions and practices on system reliability for the state's five largest public and private utilities. Logit and negative binomial regressions indicate negative impact from the California model of restructuring on system reliability as measured by customer interruptions. Time series analysis of outage data could not predict the wholesale power market collapse and the subsequent rolling blackouts in early 2001; inclusion of near-outage reliability disturbances---load shedding and energy emergencies---provided a measure of forewarning. Analysis of system disruptions, generation capacity and demand, and the role of purchased power challenge conventional wisdom on the causality of Californian's power problems. The quantitative analysis was supplemented by a targeted survey of electric system restructuring participants. Findings suggest each utility and the organization controlling the state's electric grid provided protection from power outages comparable to pre-restructuring operations through 2000; however, this reliability has come at an inflated cost, resulting in reduced system purchases and decreased marginal protection. The historic margin of operating safety has fully eroded, increasing mandatory load shedding and emergency declarations for voluntary and mandatory conservation. Proposed remedies focused on state-funded contracts and government-managed power authorities may not help, as the findings suggest pricing models, market uncertainty, interjurisdictional conflict and an inability to respond to market perturbations are more significant contributors to reduced regional generation availability than the particular contract mechanisms and funding sources used for power purchases.

Horiuchi, Catherine Miller

30

The future of power electronics in advanced automotive electrical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is only recently that manufacturers have begun to appreciate the electrical system's influence on vehicle performance and price. The result has been an increasing interest in replacing mechanical actuators by electrical, improving electrical system efficiency, finding alternatives to the present 12 VDC system, and improving safety and comfort by introducing new functions that are best controlled electrically. In this

John G. Kassakian

1996-01-01

31

TOPEX electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

1991-01-01

32

Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine  

SciTech Connect

Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references.

Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.

1984-01-01

33

Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems  

E-print Network

Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer T¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

34

Wind Turbines Electrical and Mechanical Engineering  

E-print Network

Wind Turbines Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Objective · Introduce students to the concept of alternative energy. · Explain the math and scientific principles behind engineering wind turbines. Standards and how it applies to wind energy · About how surface area and shape effects wind turbine efficiency

Provancher, William

35

Measurement of Dynamic Electrical and Mechanical Properties  

E-print Network

Measurement of Dynamic Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welds Displacement to evaluate the quality of resistance spot welds, no single sensor has found universal application. Some is discussed. Introduction Resistance spot welding (RSW) is one of the cleanest and most efficient welding

Eagar, Thomas W.

36

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity  

E-print Network

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity Alberto E of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. In chemical synapses, presynaptic electrical currents

Rash, John E.

37

Mechanical and electrical interactions in bone remodeling  

SciTech Connect

The natural remodeling and adaptation of skeletal tissues in response to mechanical loading is a classic example of physical regulation in biology. It is largely because it involves forces that do not seem to fit into the familiar schemes of biochemical controls that bone adaptation mechanisms have intrigued us for at least a century. The effect of electromagnetic fields on organisms is another example of this, and the two have become linked in an attempt to explain bone remodeling (Yasuda`s hypothesis). This paper re-examines the roles of endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields in the response of bone to mechanical forces. A series of experiments is reviewed in which mechanical and electrical stimuli were applied to implants in the medullary canal of rabbit long bones. The results suggest that endogenously generated electrical currents are not required to initiate mechanically stimulated bone formation, but that direct mechanical effects on bone cells is the more likely scenario. Based on this and other evidence from the literature, it is suggested that when exogenous electromagnetic stimuli are applied, bone cells respond by modulating the activity of more primary activators such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical forces. 76 refs., 8 figs.

Spadaro, J.A. [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery] [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

1997-05-01

38

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM HEALTH MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most critical systems in any aerospace vehicle is the electrical power system. Comprised of energy generation, energy storage, power distribution, and power management, the electrical power system (EPS) is relied upon by every major subsystem for proper operation. In order to meet the safety requirements of aeronautics and space systems - and provide for their reliability, maintainability,

Robert M. Button; Amy Chicatelli

39

Mechanical switching of ferro-electric rubber  

E-print Network

At the A to C transition, smectic elastomers have recently been observed to undergo $\\sim$35% spontaneous shear strains. We first explicitly describe how strains of up to twice this value could be mechanically or electrically induced in Sm-$C$ elastomers by rotation of the director on a cone around the layer normal at various elastic costs depending on constraints. Secondly, for typical sample geometries, we give the various microstructures in Sm-$C$ akin to those seen in nematic elastomers under distortions with constraints. It is possible to give explicit results for the nature of the textures. Chiral Sm-$C$ elastomers are ferro-electric. We calculate how the polarization could be mechanically reversed by large, hard or soft strains of the rubber, depending upon sample geometry.

J. M. Adams; M. Warner

2008-12-09

40

Mechanical and Electrical Systems for the Tallest Building/Man-Made Structure in the World: A Burj Dubai Case Study  

E-print Network

service will be provided with the condensate recovery to complete the site irrigation water system. The building also features a combined domestic and fire water storage tank. The hot water system includes liquid petroleum gas (LPG) hot water heaters... regulators as may be required to ensure a steady low pressure gas flow to the equipment. FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY SYSTEMS Given the environment and the height of the building, a “defend in place” approach to fire protection in high rise...

Frechette, R.; Leung, L.; Boyer, J.

2006-01-01

41

Dual voltage electrical system  

SciTech Connect

A dual voltage motor vehicle electrical system is described which consists of an alternating current generator having a polyphase output winding, a polyphase full-wave bridge rectifier comprised of groups of positive and negative diodes, the bridge rectifier having AC input terminals connected to the output winding and having positive and negative direct voltage output terminals, first and second storage batteries connected in series and across the direct voltage output terminals of the bridge rectifier, the negative terminal of one battery and the positive terminal of the other battery being connected to a common junction, a first switchable rectifying circuit connected between the junction and the AC input terminals, the first switchable rectifying circuit when biased conductive and one of the groups of diodes supplying charging current to one of the batteries, a second switchable rectifying circuit connected between the junction and the AC input terminals, the second switchable rectifying circuit when biased conductive and the other group of the diodes supplying charging current to the other battery, means for causing the switchable rectifying circuits to be biased alternately conductive, means for sensing the relative magnitudes of the voltages across the batteries, and means responsive to the difference in the voltages across the batteries for controlling the time periods that the switchable rectifying circuits are biased conductive.

Radomski, T.A.

1987-08-11

42

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This model enables one to calculate the flow direction and local density of the charge exchange plasma, and indicates the degree to which this plasma can flow upstream of the thruster exhaust plane. A continuing effort to investigate the most desirable throttling technique for noble gas ion thrusters concentrated this year on experimentally determining the fixed flow rate throttling range of a 30-cm dia. thruster with a two-grid accelerator system. These experiments demonstrated a throttling capability which covers a 2.8 to 1 variation in input power. This throttling range is 55 percent greater than expected, and is due to better accelerator system performance at low net-to-total voltage ratios than indicated in the literature. To facilitate the development of large, higher power ion thrusters several brief studies were performed. These include the development of a technique which simulates ion thruster operation without beam extraction, the development of an optical technique to measure ion thruster grid distortion due to thermal expansion, tests of a capacitance measurement technique to quantify the accelerator system grid separation, and the development of a segmented thruster geometry which enables near term development of ion thrusters at power levels greater than 100 kW. Finally, a paper detailing the benefits of electric propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative was written.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

1991-01-01

43

Ferroelastic domain switching dynamics under electrical and mechanical excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In thin film ferroelectric devices, switching of ferroelastic domains can significantly enhance electromechanical response. Previous studies have shown disagreement regarding the mobility or immobility of ferroelastic domain walls, indicating that switching behaviour strongly depends on specific microstructures in ferroelectric systems. Here we study the switching dynamics of individual ferroelastic domains in thin Pb(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 films under electrical and mechanical excitations by using in situ transmission electron microscopy and phase-field modelling. We find that ferroelastic domains can be effectively and permanently stabilized by dislocations at the substrate interface while similar domains at free surfaces without pinning dislocations can be removed by either electric or stress fields. For both electrical and mechanical switching, ferroelastic switching is found to occur most readily at the highly active needle points in ferroelastic domains. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of polarization switching dynamics as well as the engineering of ferroelectric devices.

Gao, Peng; Britson, Jason; Nelson, Christopher T.; Jokisaari, Jacob R.; Duan, Chen; Trassin, Morgan; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Guo, Hua; Li, Linze; Wang, Yiran; Chu, Ying-Hao; Minor, Andrew M.; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Chen, Long-Qing; Pan, Xiaoqing

2014-05-01

44

Ferroelastic domain switching dynamics under electrical and mechanical excitations.  

PubMed

In thin film ferroelectric devices, switching of ferroelastic domains can significantly enhance electromechanical response. Previous studies have shown disagreement regarding the mobility or immobility of ferroelastic domain walls, indicating that switching behaviour strongly depends on specific microstructures in ferroelectric systems. Here we study the switching dynamics of individual ferroelastic domains in thin Pb(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 films under electrical and mechanical excitations by using in situ transmission electron microscopy and phase-field modelling. We find that ferroelastic domains can be effectively and permanently stabilized by dislocations at the substrate interface while similar domains at free surfaces without pinning dislocations can be removed by either electric or stress fields. For both electrical and mechanical switching, ferroelastic switching is found to occur most readily at the highly active needle points in ferroelastic domains. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of polarization switching dynamics as well as the engineering of ferroelectric devices. PMID:24787035

Gao, Peng; Britson, Jason; Nelson, Christopher T; Jokisaari, Jacob R; Duan, Chen; Trassin, Morgan; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Guo, Hua; Li, Linze; Wang, Yiran; Chu, Ying-Hao; Minor, Andrew M; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Chen, Long-Qing; Pan, Xiaoqing

2014-01-01

45

Electric-Power System Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shows different combinations of generation, storage, and load components: display, video monitor with keyboard input to microprocessor, and video monitor for display of load curves and power generation. Planning tool for electric utilities, regulatory agencies, and laymen in understanding basics of electric-power systems operation.

Caldwell, R. W.; Grumm, R. L.; Biedebach, B. L.

1984-01-01

46

Role a development system plays in electrical distribution automation experiments  

SciTech Connect

A software development and testing system is being used to support the operation and experimental utilization of a large-scale electrical distribution automation system. The testing system provides the mechanisms to simulate the characteristics of both the large-scale control system and the electrical distribution system that is being controlled.

Wetherington, G.R. Jr.; Broadaway, E.R.; Bentz, R.R.

1986-01-01

47

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, achievement of thruster efficiency and specific impulse levels required for missions of interest, and demonstration of adequate engine life at these input power, efficiency, and specific impulse levels. To address these issues we have designed, built, and tested a 100 kW class, radiation-cooled applied-field MPD thruster and a unique dual-beam thrust stand that enables separate measurements of the applied- and self-field thrust components. We have also initiated the development of cathode thermal and plasma sheath models that will eventually be used to guide the experimental program. In conjunction with the cathode modeling, a new cathode test facility is being constructed. This facility will support the study of cathode thermal behavior and erosion mechanisms, the diagnosis of the near-cathode plasma and the development and endurance testing of new, high-current cathode designs. To facilitate understanding of electrode surface phenomenon, we have implemented a telephoto technique to obtain photographs of the electrodes during engine operation. In order to reduce the background vacuum tank pressure during steady-state engine operation in order to obtain high fidelity anode thermal data, we have developed and are evaluating a gas-dynamic diffuser. A review of experience with alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters led to the conclusion that alkali metals, particularly lithium, offer the potential for significant engine performance and lifetime improvements. These propellants are also condensible at room temperature, substantially reducing test facility pumping requirements. The most significant systems-level issue is the potential for spacecraft contamination. Subsequent experimental and theoretical efforts should be directed toward verifying the performance and lifetime gains and characterizing the thruster flow field to assess its impact on spacecraft surfaces. Consequently, we have begun the design and development of a new facility to study engine operation with alkali metal propellants.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

1992-01-01

48

Oscillation control system for electric motor drive  

DOEpatents

A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

1988-01-01

49

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

50

Coupled Magnetic-Electric-Mechanical Model for Alternative Configurations Comparison of Electric Power Plant from Sea Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares alternative generating units for electric power plant development from sea waves. Both cases of permanent magnet linear generator and DC generator configurations have been examined. Appropriate coupled magnetic-electric-mechanical models for the analysis of the machine combined with the converter and the hydraulic system have been developed. The prediction of the system performance by the proposed methodology has

N. M. Kimoulakis; A. G. Kladas; J. A. Tegopoulos

2006-01-01

51

A new breed of electric machines - basic analysis and applications of dual mechanical port electric machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptually, mechanical port of an electric machine can be doubled and the concept of dual-mechanical-port (DMP) will then give birth to a new breed of electric machines. In this paper, the various possible structures of DMP electric machine are discussed. Basic modeling and analysis issues related to the DMP electric machine are presented. An exemplary design of DMP machine is

Longya Xu

2005-01-01

52

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical...340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical... In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and...

2013-10-01

53

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

Nola, F. J.

1981-03-01

54

Nuclear electric propulsion systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear propulsion background; schedule for the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) project; NEP for the Space Exploration Initiative; NEP on-going systems tasks; 20KWe mission/system study; and agenda.

Doherty, Michael P.

1993-01-01

55

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J.

1983-06-01

56

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

57

Electrical power systems for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

Giudici, Robert J.

1986-01-01

58

Electrical power systems for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

Giudici, Robert J.

1986-05-01

59

33 CFR 127.1107 - Electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical systems. 127.1107 Section 127.1107 Navigation...Gas Design and Construction § 127.1107 Electrical systems. Electrical equipment and wiring must be of the kind...

2010-07-01

60

Centralised and distributed electricity systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their high level of integration, centralised energy supply systems are vulnerable to disturbances in the supply chain. In the case of electricity especially, this supply paradigm is losing some of its appeal. Apart from vulnerability, a number of further aggravating factors are reducing its attractiveness. They include the depletion of fossil fuels and their climate change impact, the

François Bouffard; Daniel S. Kirschen

2008-01-01

61

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

NONE

1996-03-04

62

Types of Electric Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As presented by Gerhard Heller of Marshall Space Flight Center's Research Projects Division in 1961, this chart illustrates three basic types of electric propulsion systems then under consideration by NASA. The ion engine (top) utilized cesium atoms ionized by hot tungsten and accelerated by an electrostatic field to produce thrust. The arc engine (middle) achieved propulsion by heating a propellant with an electric arc and then producing an expansion of the hot gas or plasma in a convergent-divergent duct. The electromagnetic, or MFD engine (bottom) manipulated strong magnetic fields to interact with a plasma and produce acceleration.

1961-01-01

63

Introduction to Electric Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine course is offered as a welcome addition to MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative. The materials from this version of "Introduction to Electric Power Systems" are from the iteration taught by Professor James Kirtley in Spring 2011. On the site, visitors can look over the syllabus, the course calendar, readings, assignments, and quizzes. The topics covered here include load flow, power electric motor drives, and polyphase networks. The site also includes a number of problem sets, along with their accompanying solutions. Visitors can look over the readings and provide feedback on the course to the site administrators.

Kirtley, James L.

2011-01-01

64

Research for electric energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents the technical progress in the two investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems,' Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. During 1992, the derivation of equations which predict differences between the average magnetic flux density using circular coil probes and the flux density at the center of the probe, assuming a dipole magnetic field, were completed. The information gained using these equations allows the determination of measurement uncertainty due to probe size when magnetic fields from many electrical appliances are characterized. Consultations with various state and federal organizations and the development of standards related to electric and magnetic field measurements continued. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities related to compressed-gas insulated high voltage systems: the measurement of dissociative electron attachment cross sections and negative ion production in S2F10, S2OF10, and S2O2F10, and Monte-Carlo simulations of ac-generated partial-discharge pulses that can occur in SF6-insulated power systems and can be sources of gas decomposition.

Anderson, W. E.

1993-10-01

65

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity  

E-print Network

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity Alberto E of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding in revised form 16 May 2012 Accepted 23 May 2012 Available online 31 May 2012 Keywords: Electrical synapse

Rash, John E.

66

Developing Business Case for Electrical System Replacement  

E-print Network

equipment that make up a plant electrical system. NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance details typical preventive maintenance Chapter 4 ? Feasibility Study Page 16 of 47 Developing Business Case For Electrical System... data of their electrical system, IEEE 493 contains industry average failure mode data gained by performing industry surveys. The assessor of the system should be knowledgeable of NFPA 70B, IEEE 493, and the type of electrical equipment...

Miller, Carles

2006-05-19

67

Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors  

SciTech Connect

Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

Hilton, J.W.

2001-07-30

68

Electrical impedance controls mechanical sensing in ionic polymer metal composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft electroactive materials that are recently finding extensive application as mechanical sensors and energy harvesters in liquids. In their most fundamental form, IPMCs are composed of a hydrated ionomeric membrane that is sandwiched between two electrochemically deposited metal electrodes. Ionomer swelling, counterion diffusion, and the formation of electric double layers are some of the physical phenomena underpinning energy transduction in IPMCs; however, a thorough understanding of the relative influence of such phenomena is yet to be established. Here, we propose a physics-based modeling framework, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system, to describe IPMC chemoelectrical response to an imposed time-varying flexural deformation. We utilize the method of matched asymptotic expansions to compute a closed-form solution for the electric potential and counterion concentration in the IPMC. The model predicts that IPMC sensing is independent of the time rate of deformation and linearly correlated to the mechanical curvature, with a coefficient of proportionality that is a function of the ionomer thickness and the temperature. Thus, our results demonstrate that the characterization of IPMC electrical impedance suffices to identify all the parameters that are relevant to sensing, in contrast with the current state of knowledge. Theoretical results are validated through experiments on patterned in-house fabricated IPMC samples that are subject to time-varying flexural deformations.

Cha, Youngsu; Cellini, Filippo; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-12-01

69

Electrical impedance controls mechanical sensing in ionic polymer metal composites.  

PubMed

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft electroactive materials that are recently finding extensive application as mechanical sensors and energy harvesters in liquids. In their most fundamental form, IPMCs are composed of a hydrated ionomeric membrane that is sandwiched between two electrochemically deposited metal electrodes. Ionomer swelling, counterion diffusion, and the formation of electric double layers are some of the physical phenomena underpinning energy transduction in IPMCs; however, a thorough understanding of the relative influence of such phenomena is yet to be established. Here, we propose a physics-based modeling framework, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system, to describe IPMC chemoelectrical response to an imposed time-varying flexural deformation. We utilize the method of matched asymptotic expansions to compute a closed-form solution for the electric potential and counterion concentration in the IPMC. The model predicts that IPMC sensing is independent of the time rate of deformation and linearly correlated to the mechanical curvature, with a coefficient of proportionality that is a function of the ionomer thickness and the temperature. Thus, our results demonstrate that the characterization of IPMC electrical impedance suffices to identify all the parameters that are relevant to sensing, in contrast with the current state of knowledge. Theoretical results are validated through experiments on patterned in-house fabricated IPMC samples that are subject to time-varying flexural deformations. PMID:24483477

Cha, Youngsu; Cellini, Filippo; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-12-01

70

Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable motion controller. Therefore the use of the term Programmable Electronic Systems (PES) is an encompassing description for a large spectrum of programmable electronic control devices.

Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

71

Electric design of wind-electric water pumping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbine technology has been used to pump water since ancient history. Direct mechanically coupled wind turbines are the most common method for pumping water to croplands and livestock. Many more recent wind turbines are electrically coupled, with the water pump connected to the wind turbine via a motor-generator connection. With electrical coupling, the distance and location of the water

E. Muljadi; L. Flowers; J. Green; M. Bergey

1996-01-01

72

Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

2014-10-01

73

6.061 / 6.690 Introduction to Electric Power Systems, Spring 2007  

E-print Network

This course is an introductory subject in the field of electric power systems and electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Electric power has become increasingly important as a way of transmitting and transforming energy ...

Kirtley, James

74

Manned spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

1987-01-01

75

Power system modeling and analysis of electric ship propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with modeling and characteristic analysis of a large powered electric ship propulsion system. Particularly, electric power system modeling has been accomplished in accordance with the electric power network mainly composed of generators, switchboards, variable frequency devices, electric motors, and etc. In addition, electric power system analysis has been performed via load flow analysis. In particular, abnormal operating

Sanggon Lee; Sanghoon Kim; Yu-seok Jeong; Sang-Yong Jung

2009-01-01

76

Skylab technology electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

1974-01-01

77

ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

S. Roy

2004-06-24

78

Research for Electric Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

Anderson, W.E. (ed.)

1991-06-01

79

Author's personal copy Electric Power Systems Research 96 (2013) 225236  

E-print Network

. A special- purpose test bed has been designed and fabricated for experimental validation of the health and pneumatic mechanisms with electrical configurations. As the complexity of industrial power systems grows, their criti- cal infrastructure increasingly depends on the reliable operation of electrical subsystems

Ray, Asok

80

Electrical system for a motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

1999-01-01

81

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

M. Maniyar

2004-06-22

82

Highly efficient contactless electrical energy transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the vehicle and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the vehicle, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the

H. Ayano; K. Yamamoto; N. Hino; I. Yamato

2002-01-01

83

Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is

Hideki Ayano; Hiroshi Nagase; Hiromi Inaba

2004-01-01

84

SCENARIO ANALYSES OF CALIFORNIA'S ELECTRICITY SYSTEM: PRELIMINARY  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION SCENARIO ANALYSES OF CALIFORNIA'S ELECTRICITY SYSTEM: PRELIMINARY Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION B. B. Blevins Executive Director CHAPTER 2: Retirement and Replacement of Aging Power Plants in California

85

Rotatable electric cable connecting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cable reel assembly is described which is particularly adapted for, but not limited to, a system for providing electrical connection of power and data signals between an orbiter vehicle, such as a space shuttle, and a recovered satellite. The assembly is comprised of two mutually opposing ring type structures having 180 deg relative rotation with one of the structures being held in fixed position while the other structure is rotatable. Motor controlled berthing latches and umbilical cable connectors for the satellite are located on the rim of the rotatable ring structure. The electrical cable assembly is fed in two sections from the orbiter vehicle into the outer rim portion of the fixed ring structure where they are directed inwardly and attached to two concentrically coiled metal bands whose respective ends are secured to inner and outer post members of circular sets of guide pins located on opposing circular plate members, one rotatable and one fixed. The cable sections are fed out as three output cable sections through openings in the central portion of the circular plate of the rotatable ring structure where they are directed to the latches and connectors located on its rim.

Manges, D. R. (inventor)

1985-01-01

86

Dimensional Analysis Applied to Electricity and Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an alternative system of measurement to be used in engineering, which provides theoretical insight and leads to definitions of dual and analogous physical quantities. The system is based on the notion that the dimensional product of three fundamental quantities should be energy. (GA)

Thomas, G.

1979-01-01

87

Motivating mechanical engineers to minor in electrical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative teaching technique consisting of pedagogy and motivation as instruments to gradually enhance the interest of mechanical engineering students for minoring in electrical engineering. A study was conducted comparing the performance of 87 students in four classes majoring in mechanical engineering at Temple University, USA. Confidentially conducted student surveys were statistically

Shahriar Jahanian; James M. Matthews

1999-01-01

88

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Cryo-worked Cu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For manufacturing the magnets of fusion machines pure copper of both high mechanical resistance and electrical conductivity is required. Though high purity copper guarantees high electrical conductivity, its mechanical properties may be not suitable for the applications in tokamaks. In this view, a new procedure developed for obtaining high purity copper with excellent mechanical strength is described in this work. Samples of oxygen free copper (OFC) have been worked by pressing in liquid nitrogen (77 K). It has been verified that the mechanical properties of the worked metal are strongly dependent on the strain rate. Very low strain rates permitted to attain values of tensile yield strength (550 MPa) significantly higher than those obtained by traditional cold-working at room temperature (450 MPa). The electrical conductivity of the cryo-worked Cu decreases with the tensile yield strength even though the hardest samples of tensile yield strength of 550 MPa exhibit still acceptable values of conductivity (about 94 % IACS at room temperature).

Bettinali, Livio; Tosti, Silvano; Pizzuto, Aldo

2014-01-01

89

Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems Lecture notes by Anton Bovier 12 Weierstrass-Institut f of statistical mechanics. This is a diÃ?cult, but in my opinion, important task in many respects. Statistical people in statistical mechanics are interested in come from physics, and they tend to be extremely varied

90

Controllability and diagnosis in electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While modern electric power systems are often operated under stressed conditions, there is an increasing social demand for reliable electricity supplies. The reliable operation of a power system depends on the power system's ability to maintain a normal operating condition following a disturbance. This study focuses on two aspects of power systems: Controllability and diagnosis, both concerned with the power

Mingguo Hong

1998-01-01

91

Integrated mechanical vapor recompression apparatus and process for the cogeneration of electric and water-based power having a recirculation control system for part-load capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for the cogeneration of electric power and fluid-based power to be provided to an electric load and fluid power loads respectively, designed to make use of a maximum amount of generated heat is described comprising: (a) an engine for converting chemical energy stored in fuel to heat energy and shaft work; (b) a cooling jacket for the engine;

F. A. Di Bella; F. E. Becker; J. C. Jr. Balsavich

1988-01-01

92

Ionic mechanisms of intestinal electrical control activity.  

PubMed

The effects of inhibition and stimulation of the electrogenic Na pump and of altering the ionic environment on the electrical control activity (ECA) were studied in rabbit jejunal smooth muscle. Pump inhibition abolished the ECA at a time when the membrane potential was more negative than the peak depolarization of the control potential (CP). Pump stimulation hyperpolarized the membrane and CP's appeared. Their amplitude was initially small and progressively increased as the hyperpolarization subsided. Lowering external Na to 20 mM or Ca withdrawal, but not addition of verapamil, reversibly abolished the ECA. Chloride replacement by propionate, isethionate, or benzene-sulphonate caused a transient augmentation, followed by suppression of the secondary depolarization of the CP's and decreased their frequency. The initial depolarization of the CP was little affected. Nitrate substitution increased CP frequency and spiking activity but had no observable effects on the CP configuration. These results suggest that the intestinal control potential may result from conductance changes initially to Na and later to C1 rather than fron an oscillatory electrogenic pump. PMID:1200148

El-Sharkaway, T Y; Daniel, E E

1975-11-01

93

Instrumented hip implants: electric supply systems.  

PubMed

Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

Soares dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

2013-10-18

94

Effect of Cerium on Mechanical Performance and Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum Rod for Electrical Purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rare earth element Ce on mechanical performance and electrical conductivity of aluminum rod for electrical purpose were studied under industrial production condition. Using optical microscope, SEM, TEM, EDS and X-ray diffractometer, the microstructure and phase composition of aluminum rod were measured and analyzed. The results indicate that the content of rare earth element Ce is between 0.05%

Li Pengfei; Wu Zhigang; Wang Yunli; Gao Xizhu; Wang Zaiyun; Li Zhiqiang

2006-01-01

95

The Electrical Response to Injury: Molecular Mechanisms and Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Significance: Natural, endogenous electric fields (EFs) and currents arise spontaneously after wounding of many tissues, especially epithelia, and are necessary for normal healing. This wound electrical activity is a long-lasting and regulated response. Enhancing or inhibiting this electrical activity increases or decreases wound healing, respectively. Cells that are responsible for wound closure such as corneal epithelial cells or skin keratinocytes migrate directionally in EFs of physiological magnitude. However, the mechanisms of how the wound electrical response is initiated and regulated remain unclear. Recent Advances: Wound EFs and currents appear to arise by ion channel up-regulation and redistribution, which are perhaps triggered by an intracellular calcium wave or cell depolarization. We discuss the possibility of stimulation of wound healing via pharmacological enhancement of the wound electric signal by stimulation of ion pumping. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are a major problem in the elderly and diabetic patient. Any strategy to stimulate wound healing in these patients is desirable. Applying electrical stimulation directly is problematic, but pharmacological enhancement of the wound signal may be a promising strategy. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular regulation of wound electric signals may reveal some fundamental mechanisms in wound healing. Manipulating fluxes of ions and electric currents at wounds might offer new approaches to achieve better wound healing and to heal chronic wounds. PMID:24761358

Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

2014-01-01

96

Optimization of Mechanical Systems Parameters  

SciTech Connect

We present a specific mathematical programming problem that allows us to obtain the optimal parameters for mechanical systems' stabilizers. The general approach is described, and the method is applied to optimization of two mechanical systems, namely, a harmonic oscillator and a satellite with gravitational stabilizer.

Seabra, A. [Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Campus Politecnico de Repeses, 3504-510, Viseu (Portugal)

2010-09-30

97

LDEF mechanical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following LDEF retrieval, a number of studies were made of mechanical hardware and structure flown on the LDEF. The primary objectives are to determine the effects of long term space exposure on (1) mechanisms either used on LDEF or as part of individual experiments; (2) LDEF structural components; and (3) fasteners. Results from examination and testing of LDEF structure, fasteners, LDEF end support beam, environment exposure control canisters, experiment tray clamps, LDEF grapple fixtures, and viscous damper are presented. The most significant finding is the absence of space exposure related cold welding. The instances of seizure or removal difficulties initially attributed to cold welding were shown to have resulted from installation galling damage or improper removal techniques. Widespread difficulties encountered with removal of stainless steel fasteners underscore the need for effective thread lubrication schemes to ensure successful application of proposed orbital replacement units onboard Space Station Freedom.

Spear, W. Steve; Dursch, Harry W.

1992-01-01

98

Computer analysis of mechanical and electrical uterine activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate the study of myometrial activity two algorithms were developed for continuous analysis of both electrical and\\u000a mechanical (intrauterine pressure) activity. A combination of maxima- and level detection was used to define cycles in the\\u000a intrauterine pressure signal, in which frequency, period time, area of the cycle, amplitude, overall- and maximum rate of\\u000a rise were calculated. The electrical signal

J. Ramondt; C. van Kooten; A. Verhoeff; H. C. S. Wallenburg

1986-01-01

99

Mecomtronics Module D: Electrical and Mechanical Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module D's Filling Station project focuses on process control and production. Students will learn about power supply, sensors, solenoid valves and interfaces, electronic counters, and a sensor interfaces, and will use this knowledge to: Construct, test and verify the operation of the DC power supply Construct and evaluate the performance of the sensors and control system Assemble a liquid filling station Connect the binary counter and seven-segment converter to the digital display Interconnect the system components and verify operation of the filling station according to specifications Prepare and present a project report The filling station will have the capability to: Sense the presence of a container and its contents Fill it with a pre-determined quantity of liquid Count the number of containers filled Display the result Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College students Self Evaluation Data: Excellent instructional module to support a new or existing Engineering Technology course or program.

2009-11-27

100

Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

Ray, P. K.

1982-01-01

101

Superconductivity for electric power systems: Program overview  

SciTech Connect

Largely due to government and private industry partnerships, electric power applications based upon high-temperature superconductivity are now being designed and tested only seven years after the discovery of the high-temperature superconductors. These applications offer many benefits to the national electric system including: increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, reduced emissions, increased stability/reliability, deferred expansion, and flexible electricity dispatch/load management. All of these benefits have a common outcome: lower electricity costs and improved environmental quality. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsors research and development through its Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. This program will help develop the technology needed for U.S. industries to commercialize high-temperature superconductive electric power applications. DOE envisions that by 2010 the U.S. electric power systems equipment industry will regain a major share of the global market by offering superconducting products that outperform the competition.

Not Available

1995-02-01

102

Tuning the mechanical behaviour of structural elements by electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on the adoption of electric fields to tune the mechanical behaviour of structural elements. A mechanical characterization procedure, consisting of double lap joint and 3-point bending tests, is conducted on copper-polyimide laminates while applying electric fields of varying intensity. Field dependence and, thus, adaptability of shear strength and bending stiffness are shown as a function of the overlapping length and interfaces number, respectively. Further, the impact of remaining charges is investigated in both testing configurations. The findings herein lay the foundation for the implementation of electro-adaptive components in structural applications.

Di Lillo, Luigi; Raither, Wolfram; Bergamini, Andrea; Zündel, Manuel; Ermanni, Paolo

2013-06-01

103

Probabilistic analysis of mechanical systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a framework for the comprehensive analysis of complex problems in probabilistic structural mechanics. Tools that can be used to accurately estimate the probabilistic behavior of mechanical systems are discussed, and some of the techniques proposed in the paper are developed and used in the solution of a problem in nonlinear structural dynamics.

Priddy, T.G.; Paez, T.L.; Veers, P.S.

1993-09-01

104

Electrical safety for an offshore power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the electrical safety for a power system analysis. For an efficient and reliable electrical system, routine and detailed maintenance must be performed. One method of preventive maintenance uses infrared thermography. This technology visually depicts heat differentials in a circuit breakers and transformers that are housed in metal-glad switchgear. Predictive maintenance involves testing equipment for proper operation. This

L. M. Lavie

2004-01-01

105

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: An overview of biological effects and mechanisms relevant to EMF exposures from mass transit and electric rail systems. Final report, October 1991-July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. has implemented a national initiative to develop maglev (magnetic levitation) and other high-speed rail (HSR) systems. There are concerns for potential adverse health effects of the Extremely Low Frequency (3-3,000 Hz) electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by these systems. The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs is assisting the Federal Railroad Administration address these concerns; this comprehensive review is part of that effort. It outlines magnetic field exposure measurements of the TR07 German maglev system compared with other HSR and conventional systems.

Goldberg, R.B.; Creasey, W.A.; Foster, K.R.

1993-08-01

106

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

107

Study of electrical and mechanical properties of recycled polymer blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of municipal solid waste plastic is very important. In general, recycled resins have a low values in the world market due to degradation of their properties. In it is necessary to study methods to preserve the properties of the materials and increase the applicability of recycled material. In this work, we studied electrical and mechanical properties of three kinds

J. H. Vilckas; L. G. Albiero; S. A. Cruz; M. M. Ueki; M. Zanin

2005-01-01

108

Mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of selected polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive compilation has been completed on the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of six commercially available polymers. These data are discussed and summarized here as a function of temperature, radiation, and frequency. A brief description and characterization of each polymer is included.

Reed, R. P.; Schramm, R. E.; Clark, A. F.

109

Conservation of Mechanical and Electric Energy: Simple Experimental Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two similar experiments on conservation of energy and transformation of mechanical into electrical energy are presented. Both can be used in classes, as they offer numerous possibilities for discussion with students and are simple to perform. Results are presented and are precise within 20% for the version of the experiment where measured values…

Ponikvar, D.; Planinsic, G.

2009-01-01

110

29. View of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. View of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north. Both spans are down and locked. These connections are operated from the interlocking machine in the control house (photo 42). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

111

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Electrical-Power & Energy Systems Concentration Catalog 2014  

E-print Network

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Electrical- Power & Energy Systems The department requires at least a C in every computer engineering, computer science, electrical engineering

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

112

Integrated mechanical vapor recompression apparatus and process for the cogeneration of electric and water-based power having a recirculation control system for part-load capacity  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for the cogeneration of electric power and fluid-based power to be provided to an electric load and fluid power loads respectively, designed to make use of a maximum amount of generated heat is described comprising: (a) an engine for converting chemical energy stored in fuel to heat energy and shaft work; (b) a cooling jacket for the engine; (c) an electric generator connected to a first end of the main engine shaft; (d) a gearbox connected to a second end of the main engine shaft; (e) a positive displacement and function compressor and expander; (f) separator means connected to the cooling jacket for separating the energy transfer fluid into liquid phase and vapor phase portions; (g) heat exchange means for providing heat exchange between the hot exhaust gas of the engine and the liquid energy transfer fluid; (h) means for conducting liquid energy transfer fluid from the separator means to the heat exchange means; (i) means for conducting the energy transfer fluid from the heat exchange means to a fluid power load; (j) means for conducting the vapor phase of the energy transfer fluid from the separator means to the low pressure port of the dual-function compressor and expander; and (k) means for connecting the high pressure port of the dual-function compressor and expander to a fluid power load.

Di Bella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.; Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

1988-03-29

113

Captured key electrical safety lockout system  

DOEpatents

A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member's second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock.

Darimont, Daniel E. (Aurora, IL)

1995-01-01

114

Captured key electrical safety lockout system  

DOEpatents

A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member`s second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock. 7 figs.

Darimont, D.E.

1995-10-31

115

How Do We Convert Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a compass, powerful magnet, and copper magnet wire to build a special generator known as a dynamo. Learners observe what happens to the compass needle when the magnet passes back and forth through the device. Learners can connect the device to a microampere meter to measure the electrical current. This experiment simulates Tesla's electric coil. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning," take an online interactive tour of Tesla's Niagara Power System, and create a diagram of how a dam generates electricity. Use this lesson to demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Hardesty, Jim; Hardesty, Judy

2013-07-30

116

How Do We Convert Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make an electromagnet motor to demonstrate the most basic method of changing electrical energy into mechanical energy. This experiment relates to Nikola Tesla's work in electrical engineering and his invention of the AC (alternating current) induction motor. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning" and write a report about the challenges Tesla faced as an inventor. Use this activity to help learners explore the Law of Conservation of Energy, motors, and electromagnets.

Hardesty, Jim; Hardesty, Judy

2013-07-30

117

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between...

2011-10-01

118

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340...interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between...

2012-10-01

119

GENERAL CABLE PLANT NOTES ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

noted, connect the indicated wire to flag 'C'. The Cable Installation Schedule indicates the terminalENGDOC# GENERAL CABLE PLANT NOTES SLAC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT ID-236-801-36-RX2 Release granted specific permission of Stanford University. #12;3/14/2013 2 GENERAL CABLE PLANT NOTES ELECTRICAL

Wechsler, Risa H.

120

78 FR 803 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...component of the bulk electric system, irrespective...such elements are material for the reliable...meet the [bulk electric system] criteria, but are not material.'' \\63\\ Holland...facilities lack a material impact to the bulk electric system....

2013-01-04

121

75 FR 72909 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...distribution assets has no material impact on the bulk electric system, it should...facilities from the bulk electric system by the material impact assessment and...included in the bulk electric system. Since the material impact test did...

2010-11-26

122

High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system  

DOEpatents

A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

Baumbaugh, A.E.

1997-05-06

123

Use of a general-purpose development system in support of a large-scale electrical distribution control system  

SciTech Connect

A software development and testing system is being used to support the operation and experimental utilization of a large-scale electrical distribution automation system. The testing system provides the mechanisms to simulate the characteristics of both the large-scale control system and the electrical distribution system that is being controlled.

Wetherington, G.R. Jr.; Broadaway, E.R.; Bentz, R.R.

1985-01-01

124

Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems  

DOEpatents

A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

2013-07-02

125

Mechanical and electrical properties of a MWNT\\/epoxy composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-walled carbon nanotube\\/epoxy resin composites have been fabricated. By choosing an over-aged hardener, relatively soft and ductile matrix, a rubbery epoxy resin, has been obtained. This made possible to evaluate the effect of nanotube addition on the whole stress-strain curve up to high strain level. The mechanical and electrical properties of the composite with different weight percentages of nanotubes have

A. Allaoui; S. Bai; H. M. Cheng; J. B. Bai

2002-01-01

126

72. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONTROL SWITCH CABINET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. LOCK - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - CONTROL SWITCH CABINET - PANEL ARRANGEMENT AND DETAILS (ML-5-29/33-FS), March 1934 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

127

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

128

Chemical Fume Hoods in Higher Education Science Laboratories: Electrical, Mechanical and Human Controls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is predicated on the realization that a chemical hood is only one element of laboratory safety which encompasses a variety of other elements starting with the architectural design and layout of laboratories; through the installation, operation and maintenance of integrated electrical and mechanical systems; to the safety-mindedness of…

Casey, John M.

129

Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

Hoepner, Ronald

130

SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side activities of the subsurface facility will be provided at the South Portal by the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the Off-Site Utility System for the receipt of power. The System interfaces with the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control. The System interfaces with MGR Site Layout System for the physical location of equipment and power distribution.

E.P. McCann

1999-04-16

131

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

132

System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed system performance analyses must be performed for early stages as well as for the fully assembled station up to 15 years after beginning of life. Such analyses were repeatedly performed using the FORTRAN code SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over a 10-year period. SPACE combines orbital mechanics routines, station orientation/pointing routines, PV array and battery performance models, and a distribution system load-flow analysis to predict EPS performance. Time-dependent, performance degradation, low earth orbit environmental interactions, and EPS architecture build-up are incorporated in SPACE. Results from two typical SPACE analytical cases are presented: (1) an electric load driven case and (2) a maximum EPS capability case.

Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Follo, Jeffrey C.

1993-01-01

133

Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Department  

E-print Network

SSIS Engineering Research Center Center for future Energy Systems Center for automation Technologies and Systems;electrical, computer, and systems engineering 4 Engineering and Innovation MODERN ECONOMy in the "To the experiences of Japan, South Korea, India, and Brazil--among others--support this hypothesis. Once an economy

Bystroff, Chris

134

14 CFR 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2011-01-01

135

14 CFR 29.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2012-01-01

136

14 CFR 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2014-01-01

137

14 CFR 29.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2013-01-01

138

14 CFR 29.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2014-01-01

139

14 CFR 29.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2011-01-01

140

14 CFR 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2012-01-01

141

14 CFR 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a...

2013-01-01

142

14 CFR 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system tests. 25.1363 Section 25.1363...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory...

2010-01-01

143

14 CFR 29.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system tests. 29.1363 Section 29.1363...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1363 Electrical system tests. (a) When laboratory...

2010-01-01

144

Microelectromechanical systems in electrical metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will have an important role in metrology. The essential features of a MEMS are (1) a piece of single crystal silicon forming a spring; (2) metallized surfaces of silicon structures that define an electrode geometry; (3) electrostatic forces between surfaces in a vacuum. With an electrostatic drive and readout such a system will dissipate very little power.

Heikki Seppä; Jukka Kyynäräinen; Aarne Oja

2001-01-01

145

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

146

Application of mechanical and electrical equipment in a natural gas processing plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1984 the Northwest Pipeline Corporation purchased and installed equipment for their Ignacio, Colorado, gas processing plant to extract ethane and heavier hydrocarbons from the gas arriving at their pipeline system from various natural gas producing sources. In addition to the basic turbo-expander required to achieve the very low gas temperatures in the process, the equipment includes gas turbine driven compressors, heat recovery steam generators, and a steam turbine driven electric power generator. This paper reviews the process itself, the various mechanical and electrical equipment involved, and some of the control system utilized to tie it all together.

Lang, R.P.; Mc Cullough, B.B.

1987-01-01

147

Real-time analysis of mechanical and electrical resonances with open-source sound card software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an easily reproducible, open-source, sound card based experimental set-up to support transfer function measurement. Our system is able to visualize the signals of mechanical and electrical resonances and their spectra in real time. We give a brief description of the system, and show some examples of electrical and mechanical resonance experiments that are supported by the system. The theoretical background, experimental set-up, component selection and digital signal processing are all discussed, and more detailed information (building instructions, software download) is provided on a dedicated web page (www.noise.inf.u-szeged.hu/edudev/RealTimeAnalysisOfResonances/). The experimental set-up can support the undergraduate and graduate education of students of physics, physics education and engineering by means of experimental demonstrations and laboratory exercises. The very low cost, high efficiency and transparent system provides a scalable experimental environment that can be easily built in several instances.

Makan, G.; Kopasz, K.; Gingl, Z.

2014-01-01

148

Diesel electric propulsion system with PM generator and new combined rectifier and braking chopper topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional diesel electric propulsion system uses a separately-excited synchronous generator to transform the mechanical power of the diesel engine into electrical power. This paper presents an innovative diesel electric propulsion system employing a 2500kW permanent magnet (PM) generator, which has several benefits such as lower weight, higher efficiency and mechanical robustness. Further, a new braking chopper topology is introduced,

G. Amler; O. Koerner; P. Kracht

2010-01-01

149

MEASUREMENT OF SMALL MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF BRAIN TISSUE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY-LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposur...

150

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the key technology of electric vehicle (EV), a battery management system (BMS) is proposed here to settle the critical issues. The system includes several common modules: data acquisition unit, communication unit and battery state estimation model. Two additional management units are developed here, one is thermal management and the other is high voltage management which improve

Jiaxi Qiang; Lin Yang; Guoqiang Ao; Hu Zhong

2006-01-01

151

Dynamic responses of electrically coupled systems  

PubMed Central

An identified pair of electrically coupled neurons in the buccal ganglion of the freshwater snail Helisoma trivolvis is an experimentally accessible model of electrical synaptic transmission. In this investigation, electrical synaptic transmission is characterized using sinusoidal frequency (Bode) responses computed by Laplace transforms and responses to brief stimuli. The frequency response of the injected neuron shows a 20-dB/decade attenuation and a phase shift from 0 degree at low frequencies to -90 degrees at high frequencies. The response of a coupled cell shows a 40-dB/decade attenuation and a phase shift from 0 degrees at low frequencies to -180 degrees at high frequencies. A simple mathematical model of electrical synaptic transmission is described that displays each of these crucial features of the measured frequency responses. Methods are described to estimate the frequency responses of coupled systems based on presynaptic measurements. The responses of the coupled system to brief pulses of current were computed using the principle of superposition. The electrical properties of coupled systems impose a minimum delay in reaching a peak in all postsynaptic responses. The delays in the postsynaptic responses to brief stimuli are related to the electrical and anatomical parameters of coupled networks. PMID:3009685

1986-01-01

152

Statistical Mechanics of Dynamical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical-mechanical formalism of chaos based on the geometry of invariant sets in phase space is discussed to show that chaotic dynamical systems can be treated by a formalism analogous to that of thermodynamic systems if one takes a relevant coarse-grained quantity, but their statistical laws are quite different from those of thermodynamic systems. This is a generalization of statistical mechanics for dealing with dissipative and hamiltonian (i.e., conservative) dynamical systems of a few degrees of freedom. Thus the sum of the local expansion rate of nearby orbits along relevant orbit over a long but finite time has been introduced in order to describe and characterize (1) a drastic change of the structure of a chaotic attractor at a bifurcation and anomalous phenomena associated, (2) a critical scaling of chaos in the neighborhood of a critical point for the bifurcation to a nonexotic state, and a self-similar temporal structure of a critical orbit on the critical 2^? attractor an the critical golden tori without mixing, (3) the critical KAM torus, diffusion and repeated sticking of a chaotic orbit to a critical torus in hamiltonian systems. Here a q-phase transition, analogous to the ferromagnetic phase transition, plays an important role. They are illustrated numerically and theoretically by treating the driven damped pendulum, the driven Duffing equation, the Henon map, and the dissipative and conservative standard maps. This description of chaos breaks the time-reversal symmetry of hamiltonian dynamical laws analogously to statistical mechanics of irreversible processes. The broken time-reversal symmetry is brought about by orbital instability of chaos.

Mori, H.; Hata, H.; Horita, T.; Kobayashi, T.

153

Structured Distribution of Electric Power Systems: The Example of a Roadway Tunnel Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of the electric system “architecture” aims to achieve performances of safety, maintenance, operation, and reliability. This paper discusses the criteria in designing special cases, such as roadway tunnels, that need a structured architecture complying with electrical loads extensively distributed and with installation requirements proper to external stresses hazards such as fire hazard. Recommendations of mechanical and electrical criteria have

Giuseppe Parise; Luigi Martirano

2010-01-01

154

MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary results of the COMPASS MW-class electric propulsion power system study are reported, and discussion is provided on how the analysis might be used to guide future technology investments as NASA moves to more capable high power in-space propulsion systems.

LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

2011-01-01

155

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOEpatents

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2006-03-07

156

Cooling system for electrical machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hydraulic circuit branch of a cooling system in thermal contact with the stator winding of a hydraulic power generator is provided with a feed tube divided into two separate input tube sections. The downstream ends of the input tube sections are connected to respective multiplicities of subsidiary hydraulic circuit branches in the form of winding bars via a pair of semicircular manifolds. The current throughput through the winding bars is monitored by determining the difference between the rates of coolant flow through the approximately identical input tube sections. If the rates of coolant flow or throughputs in the input tube sections differ from one another by an amount which itself differs from a predetermined reference value by more than a preselected threshold, a warning signal is generated indicating that heat removal from the hydraulic power generator is being impaired.

1988-06-28

157

Carbon black filled electrospun fiberweb: Electrical and mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of flexible and compliant conductive polymer composites with "textile" like characteristics remains an important endeavor in light of the recent activity in polymer/textile based electronics. In the present work, electrospinning is used to prepare a composite fiber containing carbon black (CB) and polyurethane (PU). The effects of introducing CB into the PU-matrix in the form of fiberweb have been investigated in terms of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. A percolation behavior of the CB filled fibers has been investigated using simulation. Theoretical percolation threshold was determined at CB volume fraction of 9.3. The highest conductivity of the fiberweb was experimentally determined to be ˜10-2 S/cm for 8.03 vol% of CB filler content, which is deemed useful for a number of applications including electrodes in polymer actuators. However percolation threshold of the conductivity of the PU-CB electrospun fiberweb was experimentally determined to be between 4.6-5.0 vol% of CB. The discrepancy may be due to the idealized structure assumed in the simulation. The critical exponent of percolation (t) was calculated as 2.165, when the percolation threshold was assumed to be at 4.6 vol%. Electrical and mechanical properties of the fiberwebs have been compared with films with same constituents. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of both spin-cast films and electrospun fiberweb was studied to understand the mechanism of electrical conduction. In both cases, at high absolute values of voltage the current increased linearly, while for low voltages the current values are substantially lower, as a result the behavior resembled like diodes. On subsequent voltage sweeps, lower resistance values were recorded and the relationship became more linear over the whole voltage range. The data suggests alteration of the initial percolation network on application of high voltage. This non-Ohmic behavior is attributed to quantum tunneling conduction mechanism. The results seem to confirm the tunneling-percolation behavior of the CB-PU composite fiberweb investigated in this research. Generally, fiberwebs show better electrical and mechanical properties than the films. Electrical conductivity of the fiberwebs is generally higher than the films. As expected, elastic modulus of fiberwebs is found to be much lower than the films. The increase in bond density and the overall area of the bonds for higher CB content as well as the reinforcement effect of high modulus CB particles are likely to improve the modulus of the fiberweb. Both films and fiberwebs show similar piezoresistive behavior, however gauge factor of fiberwebs are slightly higher than equivalent films. To demonstrate a potential use, the CB-PU nanocomposite fiberweb was applied in the form of flexible electrodes on a circular dielectric elastomer actuator. The maximum mean areal actuation strain of 12.74% was recorded with 5.58 vol% carbon black filled fiberweb as electrodes applied on and VHB-4910 acrylic films.

Hwang, Jee Sang

158

Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

1992-01-01

159

MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor  

E-print Network

In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

Meenen, Jordan N

2010-01-01

160

Electrically and mechanically tunable electron spins in silicon carbide color centers.  

PubMed

The electron spins of semiconductor defects can have complex interactions with their host, particularly in polar materials like SiC where electrical and mechanical variables are intertwined. By combining pulsed spin resonance with ab initio simulations, we show that spin-spin interactions in 4H-SiC neutral divacancies give rise to spin states with a strong Stark effect, sub-10(-6) strain sensitivity, and highly spin-dependent photoluminescence with intensity contrasts of 15%-36%. These results establish SiC color centers as compelling systems for sensing nanoscale electric and strain fields. PMID:24856721

Falk, Abram L; Klimov, Paul V; Buckley, Bob B; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor A; Calusine, Greg; Koehl, William F; Gali, Adám; Awschalom, David D

2014-05-01

161

Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.  

PubMed

Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

Galley, Chad R

2013-04-26

162

A battery management system for electric buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a contract funded by the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), the author was given the task of developing an advanced monitoring and control technology (MACT) to manage lead acid batteries used in electric vehicles. Using the latest semiconductor technology, his goal is to develop a battery management system that focuses on maximizing the discharge and recharge efficiency of

B. O'Brien

1994-01-01

163

Tidal energy in electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the uses and advantages of tidal energy in restructured power systems. The paper defines the resources as well as the ways in which tidal energy is converted into electricity. The paper also reviews a few tidal power projects around the world. It also shows the working of hydro tidal power plant. A comparative review of renewable energy

S. Sheth; M. Shahidehpour

2005-01-01

164

Emerging Electric Power Systems and Future Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on electric power systems and future grid by P.K. Sen, Colorado School of Mines, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Sen, P. K.

2013-08-14

165

A Self-Instructional System in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-instructional system is presented designed to teach high school students fundamental concepts of electricity and how they are applied in daily life. In six lessons, the student attends to a self-paced slide and tape presentation and makes written responses in the workbooks. A supplementary application problem, requiring the assembly of some…

Greene, Mark M.; And Others

166

Electric Transmission Line Flashover Prediction System  

E-print Network

a restructuring electric power industry and educating the next generation of power engineers. More information Systems Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research for the support provided by PSERC's industrial members and by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF EEC

167

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers carefully roll into place a platform with a second radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for installation on the Cassini spacecraft. In background at left, the first of three RTGs already has been installed on Cassini. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

168

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying a neutron radiation detector, Fred Sanders (at center), a health physicist with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and other health physics personnel monitor radiation in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility after three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) were installed on the Cassini spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification tests. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

169

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers prepare the installation cart (atop the platform) for removal of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) from the adjacent Cassini spacecraft. This is the second of three RTGs being removed from Cassini after undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The third RTG to be removed is in background at left. The three RTGs will then be temporarily stored before being re-installed for flight. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

170

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers Dan Maynard and John Shuping prepare to install a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). The three RTGs which will provide electrical power to Cassini on its mission to the Saturnian system are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

171

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify pressure relief device bellows integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

172

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), at center, will undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing now that it has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. A handling fixture, at far left, is still attached. Three RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1997-01-01

173

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

174

Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

1991-01-01

175

Mechanical Responses of the Organ of Corti to Acoustic and Electrical Stimulation In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The detection of sound by the cochlea involves a complex mechanical interplay among components of the cochlear partition. An in vitro preparation of the second turn of the jird's cochlea provides an opportunity to measure cochlear responses with subcellular resolution under controlled mechanical, ionic, and electrical conditions that simulate those encountered in vivo. Using photodiode micrometry, laser interferometry, and stroboscopic video microscopy, we have assessed the mechanical responses of the cochlear partition to acoustic and electrical stimuli near the preparation's characteristic frequency. Upon acoustic stimulation, the partition responds principally as a rigid plate pivoting around its insertion along the spiral lamina. The radial motion at the reticular lamina greatly surpasses that of the tectorial membrane, giving rise to shear that deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundles. Electrically evoked mechanical responses are qualitatively dissimilar from their acoustically evoked counterparts and suggest the recruitment of both hair-bundle- and soma-based electromechanical transduction processes. Finally, we observe significant changes in the stiffness of the cochlear partition upon tip-link destruction and tectorial-membrane removal, suggesting that these structures contribute considerably to the system's mechanical impedance and that hair-bundle-based forces can drive active motion of the cochlear partition. PMID:16169985

Chan, Dylan K.; Hudspeth, A. J.

2005-01-01

176

Electrical and mechanical properties of graphene oxide on flexible substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited via the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method to lower the oxygen concentration of graphene sheets for large-scale production. In addition, the direct synthesis of large-scale GO films using transfer processes on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate was conducted. The thickness of the GO films was controlled to adjust the optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The Young's modulus values of films with thicknesses of 100-200 nm were 324-529 GPa. Moreover, the GO films exhibited excellent conductivity, with a sheet resistance of 276-2024 ?/sq at 23-77% transparency. Experiments show that transfer processes for flexible substrates can produce high-quality cost-effective transparent conductive films.

Kang, Shao-Hui; Fang, Te-Hua; Hong, Zheng-Han

2013-12-01

177

Detection of Alkylating Agents using Electrical and Mechanical Means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkylating agents are reactive molecules having at least one polar bond between a carbon atom and a good leaving group. These often simple molecules are frequently used in organic synthesis, as sterilizing agents in agriculture and even as anticancer agents in medicine. Unfortunately, for over a century, some of the highly reactive alkylating agents are also being used as blister chemical warfare agents. Being relatively simple to make, the risk is that these will be applied by terrorists as poor people warfare agents. The detection and identification of such alkylating agents is not a simple task because of their high reactivity and simple structure of the reactive site. Here we report on new approaches to the detection and identification of such alkylating agents using electrical (organic field effect transistors) and mechanical (microcantilevers) means.

Gerchikov, Yulia; Borzin, Elena; Gannot, Yair; Shemesh, Ariel; Meltzman, Shai; Hertzog-Ronen, Carmit; Tal, Shay; Stolyarova, Sara; Nemirovsky, Yael; Tessler, Nir; Eichen, Yoav

2011-08-01

178

PBS: Tesla Teaching Resources - Converting Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a standards-based lab for grades 9-12 that explores how energy is converted in a simple electromagnet, using materials that are readily available at hardware stores. The electromagnet is constructed by wrapping a 4-inch nail with copper magnet wire. The experiment was designed to give students a basis for understanding how an AC source produces currents that flow in one direction and then the other. The lesson includes illustrated instructions for teachers and ideas for assessment. This web page is part of the PBS Online resource collection on the life of Nikola Tesla. SEE RELATED MATERIALS for a link to a closely related lesson on converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Hardesty, Judy; Hardesty, Jim

2010-06-26

179

The Voltage Stability Research of Ship Electric Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ship electric power system is an independent electric power system, and is important in ships. At present, with the increasing tonnage of ships and more and more ships propelled by electric power, the capacity of generator in a marine power station is getting larger and larger. Because of electric propulsion technology applied by modern marines, the control system of voltage

Fanyinhai Zhaomin

2006-01-01

180

Enhanced interaction between a mechanical oscillator and two coupled resonant electrical circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports result of calculation and experimental realization of an electromechanical system that consists of a high-Q mechanical oscillator parametrically coupled in the manner of a capacitive transducer with a radio frequency (RF) circuit, which is in turn inductively coupled with another RF circuit. The system operates in the resolved sideband regime when the mechanical oscillator's frequency is larger than the electrical circuits' bandwidths. Using two coupled RF circuits allowed one to enhance the interaction between them and the mechanical oscillator which is one of flexural vibrational modes of a free-edge circular silicon wafer. Such a coupled electromechanical system can be used as a high-sensitive capacitive vibration sensor.

Dmitriev, A. V.; Mitrofanov, V. P.

2014-08-01

181

Electric charge balance mechanism of extended soluble proteins  

PubMed Central

Extended proteins such as calmodulin and troponin C have two globular terminal domains linked by a central region that is exposed to water and often acts as a function-regulating element. The mechanisms that stabilize the tertiary structure of extended proteins appear to differ greatly from those of globular proteins. Identifying such differences in physical properties of amino acid sequences between extended proteins and globular proteins can provide clues useful for identification of extended proteins from complete genomes including orphan sequences. In the present study, we examined the structure and amino acid sequence of extended proteins. We found that extended proteins have a large net electric charge, high charge density, and an even balance of charge between the terminal domains, indicating that electrostatic interaction is a dominant factor in stabilization of extended proteins. Additionally, the central domain exposed to water contained many amphiphilic residues. Extended proteins can be identified from these physical properties of the tertiary structure, which can be deduced from the amino acid sequence. Analysis of physical properties of amino acid sequences can provide clues to the mechanism of protein folding. Also, structural changes in extended proteins may be caused by formation of molecular complexes. Long-range effects of electrostatic interactions also appear to play important roles in structural changes of extended proteins. PMID:15576568

Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Shun-Ya; Ke, Runcong; Sonoyama, Masashi; Mitaku, Shigeki

2005-01-01

182

Classical Mechanics of Nonconservative Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamilton’s principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton’s principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton’s principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment.

Galley, Chad R.

2013-04-01

183

Fatigue Response of a PZT Multilayer Actuator under High-Field Electric Cycling with Mechanical Preload  

SciTech Connect

An electric fatigue test system has been developed for piezoelectric actuator with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator (MLA) with a plate-through electrode configuration have been studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of a coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 1.0x10^9 cycles were carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under a high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized by using FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation). It has been observed that both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients underwent a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86x10^8 cycles under the relevant preload, and then fluctuated to a certain extent. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also exhibited the fluctuations after a certain amount of drop but at different levels relative to the pre-fatigue. And finally, the results were discussed with respect to domain wall mobility, microcracking, and other pre-existing anomalies.

Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

2009-01-01

184

Multiple advanced battery systems for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Eagle-Picher Industries (EPI) has adopted a broad-based approach to the electric vehicle (EV) market by the parallel development of multiple battery systems. Nickel-iron (NiFe), nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being manufactured for a variety of applications, including EVs. Silver-zinc (AgZn) batteries are being produced for both military\\/aerospace applications and for high performance

D. Coates; C. Fox

1994-01-01

185

High voltage spacecraft electrical systems design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors which must be considered when designing the best and the most cost-effective high-voltage electrical system for a spacecraft are discussed with particular attention given to the EMC considerations, high-voltage power bus, and harnesses. It is emphasized that the use of serial data buses and lines greatly simplify the harness design and weight. Careful attention to the grounding concept and the EMC requirements is necessary for insuring a 'quiet' spacecraft.

Stone, R. E.

1993-01-01

186

Multiple mechanisms switch an electrically coupled, synaptically inhibited neuron between competing rhythmic oscillators.  

PubMed

Rhythmic oscillations are common features of nervous systems. One of the fundamental questions posed by these rhythms is how individual neurons or groups of neurons are recruited into different network oscillations. We modeled competing fast and slow oscillators connected to a hub neuron with electrical and inhibitory synapses. We explore the patterns of coordination shown in the network as a function of the electrical coupling and inhibitory synapse strengths with the help of a novel visualization method that we call the "parameterscape." The hub neuron can be switched between the fast and slow oscillators by multiple network mechanisms, indicating that a given change in network state can be achieved by degenerate cellular mechanisms. These results have importance for interpreting experiments employing optogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations to understand circuit dynamics. PMID:23473315

Gutierrez, Gabrielle J; O'Leary, Timothy; Marder, Eve

2013-03-01

187

Analysis of a dynamic speaker in mobile phones by considering mechanical, electrical, and magnetic coupling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of 3G mobile phones, a combined laptop personal computer and mobile phone can be realized that enables multimedia data communication such as TV streaming, web searching, music play, etc. A dynamic speaker is an essential part to generate high quality sound in the next generation mobile phones. Noting that characteristics of a dynamic speaker are a coupled phenomenon of mechanical, electrical, and magnetic system, a systematic analysis must be implemented to fully consider the coupling effects for an improved design. This paper presents a complete analysis of a dynamic speaker by considering mechanical, electrical and magnetic coupling effects. Results of the analysis are confirmed by the experiments. An improved design of a dynamic speaker is also proposed with enhanced performance.

Hwang, G. Y.; Kim, K. T.; Chung, S. U.; Hwang, S. M.; Kang, B. S.; Hwang, I. C.

2002-05-01

188

Multiple Mechanisms Switch an Electrically Coupled, Synaptically Inhibited Neuron between Competing Rhythmic Oscillators  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Rhythmic oscillations are common features of nervous systems. One of the fundamental questions posed by these rhythms is how individual neurons or groups of neurons are recruited into different network oscillations. We modeled competing fast and slow oscillators connected to a hub neuron with electrical and inhibitory synapses. We explore the patterns of coordination shown in the network as a function of the electrical coupling and inhibitory synapse strengths with the help of a novel visualization method that we call the “parameterscape.” The hub neuron can be switched between the fast and slow oscillators by multiple network mechanisms, indicating that a given change in network state can be achieved by degenerate cellular mechanisms. These results have importance for interpreting experiments employing optogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations to understand circuit dynamics. PMID:23473315

Gutierrez, Gabrielle J.; O'Leary, Timothy; Marder, Eve

2013-01-01

189

Using Intelligent System Approaches for Simulation of Electricity Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significances and approaches of applying intelligent systems to artificial electricity market is discussed. In recent years, with the moving into restructuring of electric system in Japan, the deregulation for the electric market is progressing. The most major change of the market is a founding of JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange.) which is expected to help lower power bills through effective

Tomoki Hamagami

2006-01-01

190

76 FR 16263 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...743, the NPCC material impact assessment...part of the bulk electric system and thus...part of the bulk electric system unless exempted...disagrees with the characterization that its suggested...approach, the bulk electric system definition...from ineffective material impact...

2011-03-23

191

Interaction of mechanical and electrical oscillations and sensitivity in a model of sensory hair cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensory hair cells are the first stage in conveying the mechanical stimuli into the electrical signals in auditory and vestibular organs of vertebrates. Experiments showed that hair cells rely on active processes in hair bundles to achieve high selective sensitivity, e.g. due to myosin molecular motors inside stereocilia. In lower vertebrates these active processes result in spontaneous oscillations of hair bundles which can be accompanied by oscillations of the cells' membrane potentials. We use modeling to study how the dynamics of both the membrane potential and the hair bundle interact to produce coherent self-sustained oscillations and how this interaction contributes to the cell's sensitivity to external mechanical perturbations. The model incorporates a mechanical stochastic hair bundle system coupled to a Hodgkin-Huxley type system for the membrane potential. We show that oscillatory regimes result in enhanced sensitivity and selectivity to harmonic stimuli.

Amro, Rami M.; Neiman, Alexander B.

2013-03-01

192

The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

Geppert, S.

1981-01-01

193

Electric power system test and verification program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) electric power system (EPS) hardware and software verification is performed at all levels of integration, from components to assembly and system level tests. Careful planning is essential to ensure the EPS is tested properly on the ground prior to launch. The results of the test performed on breadboard model hardware and analyses completed to date have been evaluated and used to plan for design qualification and flight acceptance test phases. These results and plans indicate the verification program for SSF's 75-kW EPS would have been successful and completed in time to support the scheduled first element launch.

Rylicki, Daniel S.; Robinson, Frank, Jr.

1994-01-01

194

Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

1990-01-01

195

Electric propulsion and braking system for automotive vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An electric propulsion and braking system which includes a plurality of high-speed, dc commutatorless motors each coupled to a wheel of an automotive vehicle through an associated fixedratio mechanical transmission. Each motor includes a field winding, an armature winding, and a commutation circuit for the armature winding. During propulsion, each commutation circuit is enabled and, during braking, each commutation circuit is disabled. Control of the amount of propulsion and braking is afforded by varying the dc source voltage across each commutation circuit and by varying the field current in each field winding. The dc source voltage across each commutation circuit is varied by connecting the commutation circuits and a plurality of main electrical energy sources in selected series, series/parallel, and parallel combinations. The field current in each field winding is varied by connecting the field windings with an auxiliary electrical energy source in selected series, series/parallel and parallel combinations, and by duty-cycling the selected combination. The various series, series/parallel and parallel combinations are selected by, and the duty-cycling of the selected field winding combination is controlled by, a microprocessor receiving signals representing the magnitude of electrical energy transfer between the main electrical energy sources and the motors, the position of an acceleration pedal, the position of a brake pedal, the velocity of the vehicle, the dc source voltage across each commutation circuit, and the armature voltage across each armature winding.

Preikschat, F.K.

1982-12-14

196

Aerodynamics of electrically driven freight pipeline system  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the aerodynamic characteristics of a freight pipeline system in which freight capsules are individually propelled by electrical motors. The fundamental difference between this system and the more extensively studied pneumatic capsule pipeline is the different role played by aerodynamic forces. In a driven system the propelled capsules are resisted by aerodynamic forces and, in reaction, pump air through the tube. In contrast, in a pneumatically propelled system external blowers pump air through the tubes, and this provides the thrust for the capsules. An incompressible transient analysis is developed to study the aerodynamics of multiple capsules in a cross-linked two-bore pipeline. An aerodynamic friction coefficient is used as a cost parameter to compare the effects of capsule blockage and headway and to assess the merits of adits and vents. The authors conclude that optimum efficiency for off-design operation is obtained with long platoons of capsules in vented or adit connected tubes.

Lundgren, T.S.; Zhao, Y.

2000-06-01

197

SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

1971-01-01

198

Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

Ray, P. K.

1982-01-01

199

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers examine the interface surface on the Cassini spacecraft prior to installation of the third radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The other two RTGs, at left, already are installed on Cassini. The three RTGs will be used to power Cassini on its mission to the Saturnian system. They are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

200

FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.  

SciTech Connect

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

2006-08-01

201

Reorganization of the electric transmission system in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argentine electric system was developed from isolated local services, and, as the years went by, it became a well-integrated grid. Except for some services in the southernmost region, the national interconnected system supplies electric power to final users throughout the country. The paper discusses: Argentine interconnected system; private companies and public service; electric power sector transformation; transmission network privatization;

L. V. Sbertoli

1994-01-01

202

77 FR 39857 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...entity applies the bulk electric system definition to...element, contrary to its characterization based on the definition...as part of the bulk electric system, the entity...well understood in the electric utility industry...comment on NERC's characterization and whether the...

2012-07-05

203

ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

Geppert, S.

1980-01-01

204

Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)  

SciTech Connect

The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

2007-12-31

205

Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system  

PubMed Central

Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement. PMID:22876934

2012-01-01

206

Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber Support Systems  

E-print Network

Carbon fiber support structures have become common elements of detector designs for high energy physics experiments. Carbon fiber has many mechanical advantages but it is also characterized by high conductivity, particularly at high frequency, with associated design issues. This paper discusses the elements required for sound electrical performance of silicon detectors employing carbon fiber support elements. Tests on carbon fiber structures are presented indicating that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of 10 to 100 MHz. The general principles of grounding configurations involving carbon fiber structures will be discussed. To illustrate the design requirements, measurements performed with a silicon detector on a carbon fiber support structure at small radius are presented. A grounding scheme employing copper-kapton mesh circuits is described and shown to provide adequate and robust detector performance.

Cooper, W; Demarteau, M; Fast, J; Hanagaki, K; Johnson, M; Kuykendall, W; Lubatti, H; Matulik, M; Nomerotski, A; Quinn, B; Wang, J

2005-01-01

207

Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber Support Systems  

E-print Network

Carbon fiber support structures have become common elements of detector designs for high energy physics experiments. Carbon fiber has many mechanical advantages but it is also characterized by high conductivity, particularly at high frequency, with associated design issues. This paper discusses the elements required for sound electrical performance of silicon detectors employing carbon fiber support elements. Tests on carbon fiber structures are presented indicating that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of 10 to 100 MHz. The general principles of grounding configurations involving carbon fiber structures will be discussed. To illustrate the design requirements, measurements performed with a silicon detector on a carbon fiber support structure at small radius are presented. A grounding scheme employing copper-kapton mesh circuits is described and shown to provide adequate and robust detector performance.

W. Cooper; C. Daly; M. Demarteau; J. Fast; K. Hanagaki; M. Johnson; W. Kuykendall; H. Lubatti; M. Matulik; A. Nomerotski; B. Quinn; J. Wang

2005-04-19

208

Optimal management of batteries in electric systems  

DOEpatents

An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

2002-01-01

209

Prime mover for hybrid electric propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the current trends in power electronics in transportation is towards a mechatronically-controlled, hybrid electric, drive-by-wire, all-wheel driveable propulsion system, incorporating a prime mover called the Fijalkowski engine-a novel reciprocating, five-stroke cycle, twin-opposed-piston, internal combustion engine with a `two-in-one' silent drive-shaft generator\\/motor-a macroelectronically-commutated, magnetoelectrically-excited, brushless AC-DC\\/DC-AC macrocommutator composite-flydisc-rotor generator\\/motor, and six or eight steerable, motorized and\\/or generatorized wheels with

Bogdan T. Fijalkowski

1998-01-01

210

Development of battery management system for nickel–metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of

Do Yang Jung; Baek Haeng Lee; Sun Wook Kim

2002-01-01

211

International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

2005-01-01

212

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Modified Graphene Devices  

E-print Network

Graphene sheets were extracted from bulk graphite using standard mechanical exfoliationgraphene) preparation, localization and identification To isolate graphene flakes from bulk graphite, we used mechanical exfoliation

ZHANG, HANG

2012-01-01

213

Garrett Electric Boosting Systems (EBS) Program  

SciTech Connect

Turbo diesel engine use in passenger cars in Europe has resulted in 30-50% improvement in fuel economy. Diesel engine application is particularly suitable for US because of vehicle size and duty cycle patterns. Adopting this technology for use in the US presents two issues--emissions and driveability. Emissions reduction technology is being well addressed with advanced turbocharging, fuel injection and catalytic aftertreatment systems One way to address driveability is to eliminate turbo lag and increase low speed torque. Electrically assisted turbocharging concepts incorporated in e-Turbo{trademark} designs do both The purpose of this project is to design and develop an electrically assisted turbocharger, e-Turbo{trademark}, for diesel engine use in the US. In this report, early design and development of electrical assist technology is described together with issues and potential benefits. In this early phase a mathematical model was developed and verified. The model was used in a sensitivity study. The results of the sensitivity study together with the design and test of first generation hardware was fed into second generation designs. In order to fully realize the benefits of electrical assist technology it was necessary to expand the scope of work to include technology on the compressor side as well as electronic controls concepts. The results of the expanded scope of work are also reported here. In the first instance, designs and hardware were developed for a small engine to quantify and demonstrate benefits. The turbo size was such that it could be applied in a bi-turbo configuration to an SUV sized V engine. Mathematical simulation was used to quantify the possible benefits in an SUV application. It is shown that low speed torque can be increased to get the high performance expected in US, automatic transmission vehicles. It is also shown that e-Turbo{trademark} can be used to generate modest amounts of electrical power and supplement the alternator under most load-speed conditions. It is shown that a single (large) e-Turbo{trademark} consumes slightly less electrical power for the same steady state torque shaping than a bi-Turbo configuration. However, the transient response of a bi-Turbo configuration is slightly better. It was shown that in order to make full use of additional capabilities of e-Turbo{trademark} wide compressor flow range is required. Variable geometry compressor (VGC) technology developed under a separate project was evaluated for incorporation into e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was shown that the combination of these two technologies enables very high torque at low engine speeds. Designs and hardware combining VGC and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. There is concern about high power demands (even though momentary) of e-Turbo{trademark}. Reducing the inertia of the turbocharger can reduce power demand and increase battery life. Low inertia turbocharger technology called IBT developed under a separate project was evaluated for synergy with e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was concluded that inertial reduction provided by IBT is very beneficial for e-Turbo{trademark}. Designs and hardware combining IBT and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. e-Turbo{trademark} provides several additional flexibilities including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for emissions reduction with minimum fuel economy penalty and exhaust temperature control for aftertreatment. In integrated multi-parameter control system is needed to realize the full potential of e-Turbo{trademark} performance. Honeywell expertise in process control systems involving hundreds of sensors and actuators was applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of multi-parameter, model based control systems.

Steve Arnold; Craig Balis; Pierre Barthelet; Etienne Poix; Tariq Samad; Greg Hampson; S. M. Shahed

2005-03-31

214

Effects of dc Electric Field on Mechanical Properties of Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dc electric field on mechanical properties such as hardness, fracture toughness, flexural strength and flexural fatigue strength of piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. Hardness and fracture toughness were not influenced by the dc electric field, where as the flexural strength and the fatigue strength degraded with the absolute value of the electric field. The degradation of the flexural

Hiroaki Makino; Nobuo Kamiya

1994-01-01

215

Mechanically alloyed metal hydride systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanosynthesis of metal hydrides is a new field in which important progress has been reported. In this paper, we present recent developments in mechanosynthesis of magnesium-based hydrides for storage applications. The effect of intense milling on magnesium and magnesium hydrides is presented. The influence of various additives on hydrogen-sorption properties is discussed with special emphasis on nanocomposite MgH2+5 at.%V, where hydrogen-storage characteristics, cycling properties and the mechanism of hydrogen desorption are presented. The production of novel nanocrystalline porous structures by mechanical alloying followed by a leaching technique is discussed. Hot ball-milling, as a new method for rapid synthesis of alloys, is also presented. Finally, two other methods of production of metal hydrides are discussed. One is reactive milling where metal hydrides are synthesized by mechanical alloying under hydrogen pressure, while the other is milling elemental hydrides to produce complex hydrides.

Huot, J.; Liang, G.; Schulz, R.

2001-04-01

216

Mechanical and electrical properties of low density polyethylene filled with carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reveal outstanding electrical and mechanical properties in addition to nanometer scale diameter and high aspect ratio, consequently, making it an ideal reinforcing agent for high strength polymer composites. Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/CNT composites were prepared via melt compounding. Mechanical and electrical properties of (LDPE)/CNT composites with different CNT contents were studied in this research.

Sabet, Maziyar; Soleimani, Hassan

2014-08-01

217

Combined electrical and mechanical properties of titanium nitride thin films as metallization materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium nitride (TiNx) thin films, ~100 nm thick, were deposited on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The effects of the substrate bias voltage and deposition temperature on their optical, electrical, and mechanical properties have been studied. It was found a strong correlation between the electrical and mechanical properties of the films which are significantly improved with increasing the

P. Patsalas; C. Charitidis; S. Logothetidis; C. A. Dimitriadis; O. Valassiades

1999-01-01

218

Control of cardiac alternans by mechanical and electrical feedback.  

PubMed

A persistent alternation in the cardiac action potential duration has been linked to the onset of ventricular arrhythmia, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. A coupling between these cardiac alternans and the intracellular calcium dynamics has also been identified in previous studies. In this paper, the system of PDEs describing the small amplitude of alternans and the alternation of peak intracellular Ca(2+) are stabilized by optimal boundary and spatially distributed actuation. A simulation study demonstrating the successful annihilation of both alternans on a one-dimensional cable of cardiac cells by utilizing the full-state feedback controller is presented. Complimentary to these studies, a three variable Nash-Panfilov model is used to investigate alternans annihilation via mechanical (or stretch) perturbations. The coupled model includes the active stress which defines the mechanical properties of the tissue and is utilized in the feedback algorithm as an independent input from the pacing based controller realization in alternans annihilation. Simulation studies of both control methods demonstrate that the proposed methods can successfully annihilate alternans in cables that are significantly longer than 1 cm, thus overcoming the limitations of earlier control efforts. PMID:25122334

Yapari, Felicia; Deshpande, Dipen; Belhamadia, Youssef; Dubljevic, Stevan

2014-07-01

219

Control of cardiac alternans by mechanical and electrical feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A persistent alternation in the cardiac action potential duration has been linked to the onset of ventricular arrhythmia, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. A coupling between these cardiac alternans and the intracellular calcium dynamics has also been identified in previous studies. In this paper, the system of PDEs describing the small amplitude of alternans and the alternation of peak intracellular Ca2+ are stabilized by optimal boundary and spatially distributed actuation. A simulation study demonstrating the successful annihilation of both alternans on a one-dimensional cable of cardiac cells by utilizing the full-state feedback controller is presented. Complimentary to these studies, a three variable Nash-Panfilov model is used to investigate alternans annihilation via mechanical (or stretch) perturbations. The coupled model includes the active stress which defines the mechanical properties of the tissue and is utilized in the feedback algorithm as an independent input from the pacing based controller realization in alternans annihilation. Simulation studies of both control methods demonstrate that the proposed methods can successfully annihilate alternans in cables that are significantly longer than 1 cm, thus overcoming the limitations of earlier control efforts.

Yapari, Felicia; Deshpande, Dipen; Belhamadia, Youssef; Dubljevic, Stevan

2014-07-01

220

Statistical mechanics and disordered systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since computers are able to simulate the equilibrium properties of model systems, they may also prove useful for solving the hard optimization problems that arise in the engineering of complex systems.

Scott Kirkpatrick; Robert H. Swendsen

1985-01-01

221

Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

2006-01-01

222

Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

Kelledes, W. L.

1984-01-01

223

Influence of temperature on the electrical signal parameters under pulsed mechanical excitation of heterogeneous construction materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the temperature of cement-sand samples on the electrical signal parameters when the sample is excited by a pulsed mechanical action is studied. A relation between the elastic and electrical characteristics of the samples and the electrical signal parameters is established in the temperature range from 30 to -40°C. Test results serve as a basis for developing an algorithm for nondestructive mechanoelectrical control of the structural and mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous materials with different temperatures and moisture percentages.

Fursa, T. V.; Osipov, K. Yu.

2013-10-01

224

Probability methods applied to electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

The roots of understanding probabilistic phenomena go back to antiquity. We have been willing to bet our money on the roll of dice or similar events for centuries. Yet, when it comes to betting our lives or livelihood, we have been slow to adapt probabilistic methods to describe uncertainty. As a matter of fact, we are loath to admit a probability of failure when it comes to such structures as bridges, buildings or airplanes. Electric utility engineers the world over realize that reliability of structures and systems can be improved and money can be saved if we use a more enlightened approach to uncertainty. The technology and analytical power that is now being made available to the working engineer make that possible. It is for this reason, the International Council on Probability Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS) was formed in 1985. It is important that engineers have a forum for exchange of knowledge and ideas on subjects related to describing and coping with uncertainty. As the world becomes more complex and demands increase, it is the engineers lot to make the most efficient use possible of scarce resources. The papers contained within this document cover the design and analysis of transmission components, systems analysis and reliability assessment, testing of power components, systems operations planning and probabilistic analysis, power distribution systems, cost, and mathematical modeling. The individual papers have been individually cataloged and indexed.

Not Available

1989-11-01

225

Space station electrical power system availability study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

1988-01-01

226

California's Electricity System of the Future: Scenario Analysis in Support  

E-print Network

California's Electricity System of the Future: Scenario Analysis in Support of Public in this report. #12;Preface The U.S. Electricity Grid Today The U.S. electric power system is in the midst of a fundamental transition from a centrally planned and utility-controlled structure to one that will depend

227

LFT REPRESENTATIONS FOR NONLINEAR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

LFT REPRESENTATIONS FOR NONLINEAR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Jihao Luo Panagiotis Tsiotras ,1 Maxtor for constructing LFT representations for general mechanical systems derived via Lagrange's equations. The LFT-dependent. Sufficient conditions that ensure well-posedness of the LFT interconnection are given. Using such LFT

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

228

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION...a) Electrical components on mobile diesel-powered transportation... (b) Electrical systems on mobile diesel-powered...

2013-07-01

229

30 CFR 36.32 - Electrical components and systems.  

...APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT ...(a) Electrical components on mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment... (b) Electrical systems on mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment...

2014-07-01

230

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

...2014-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical...

2014-07-01

231

Electrical degradation mechanisms of RF power GaAs PHEMTs  

E-print Network

GaAs Pseudomorphic High-Electron Mobility Transistors (PHEMTs) are widely used in RF power applications. Since these devices typically operate at high power levels and under high voltage biasing, their electrical reliability ...

Villanueva, Anita A. (Anita Ariel), 1978-

2007-01-01

232

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

233

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-06-15

234

Applying reliability analysis to design electric power systems for More-electric aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) is a type of aircraft that replaces conventional hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrically powered components. These changes have significantly challenged the aircraft electric power system design. This thesis investigates how reliability analysis can be applied to automatically generate system topologies for the MEA electric power system. We first use a traditional method of reliability block diagrams to analyze the reliability level on different system topologies. We next propose a new methodology in which system topologies, constrained by a set reliability level, are automatically generated. The path-set method is used for analysis. Finally, we interface these sets of system topologies with control synthesis tools to automatically create correct-by-construction control logic for the electric power system.

Zhang, Baozhu

235

Space reactor electric systems: system integration studies, Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed by Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group (ESG). The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. The purpose of the studies was to provide timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities. The preliminary system studies were performed by assembling the five different subsystems that are used in a system: the reactor, the shielding, the primary heat transport, the power conversion-processing, and the heat rejection subsystems. The subsystem data in this report were largely based on Rockwell's recently prepared Subsystem Technology Assessment Report. Nine generic types of reactor subsystems were used in these system studies. Several levels of technology were used for each type of reactor subsystem. Seven generic types of power conversion-processing subsystems were used, and several levels of technology were again used for each type. In addition, various types and levels of technology were used for the shielding, primary heat transport, and heat rejection subsystems. A total of 60 systems were studied.

Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.; Katz, B.; Keshishian, V.; Lillie, A.F.; Thomson, W.B.

1983-03-29

236

Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

237

Dual power, constant speed electric motor system  

DOEpatents

A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

Kirschbaum, H.S.

1984-07-31

238

Major incidents on the French electric system: potentiality and curative measures studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric systems security improvement considerations will motivate the grid designer to take the major failure risks into account. Electricite de France has therefore adopted a methodology based upon the study of possible degradation mechanisms and then, upon the verification of their plausibility, by simulating the system dynamic behavior. Only this approach can fit with the complexity of great meshed systems.

C. Counan; M. Trotignon; E. Corradi; G. Bortoni; M. Stubbe; J. Deuse

1993-01-01

239

Optimal Control of Underactuated Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use an affine connection formulation to study an optimal control problem for a class of nonholonomic, underactuated mechanical systems. In particular, we aim to minimize the norm-squared of the control input to move the system from an initial to a terminal state. We consider systems evolving on general manifolds. The class of nonholonomic systems we study

Islam I. Hussein; Anthony M. Bloch

2008-01-01

240

Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

Anderson, Iver

2011-01-14

241

Therapeutic Application of Electric Fields in the Injured Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Significance: Nervous system injuries, both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system are a major cause for pain, loss-of-function, and impairment of daily life. As nervous system injuries commonly heal slowly or incompletely, new therapeutic approaches may be required. Recent Advances: The observation that cultured neurons are able to respond to exogenous electric fields (EFs) by sprouting more neurites and directing growth along the field, along with the presence of endogenous EFs in the developing vertebrate nervous system have led to the suggestion of the use of EFs in a regenerative therapeutic setting. This review discusses the effects of EFs on nervous cells, and their use in the treatment of nervous injuries in the eye, limb nerves, and the spinal cord. Exogenous EFs have been shown to be neuroprotective in various injury models of the eye, including traumatic injury, congenital degenerative retinopathy, and glaucoma. In the PNS, EFs are able to stimulate regrowth and functional recovery in damaged limb nerves. In the spinal cord, axonal regeneration and improved quality of life may be achieved using EF stimulation. Critical Issues: The optimal paradigm for electrical stimulation has not been determined, and the mechanisms behind the effect of EF are still largely unknown. Future Directions: Although the therapeutic use of EFs in the nervous system is still in its infancy, it is a promising therapeutic avenue for otherwise hard to treat injuries. The cellular/molecular mechanisms of such regulation need to be fully investigated, and the efficiency of applied EFs during wound healing needs to be optimized in a systematic approach in both animal models and future clinical trials. PMID:24761356

Haan, Niels; Song, Bing

2014-01-01

242

A safety system for intelligent portable hybrid electric bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance riding safety and comfort, it is necessary to monitor the bike's status. This paper attempted to develop a safety system for intelligent portable hybrid electric bicycle. The safety system includes two functions: (1). Anti-crash warning system, (2). Balanced tire pressure monitoring system. Those are combined ultrasonic ranging technology and sensor technology for electric bicycles. All of

Ming-Yi Dai; Hsin-Tsung Ho; Chih-Ching Hsiao

2010-01-01

243

ARGOS laser system mechanical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

2014-07-01

244

The Tractor Electrical System. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental principles underlying the application of electricity to tractors and farm equipment are presented. An understanding of the material in the basic manual will enable the service man to understand better the service procedures covered in service manuals on electrical equipment. Topics dealt with are fundamentals of electricity,…

American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

245

Mechanisms of muscle gene regulation in the electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus  

PubMed Central

Summary Animals perform a remarkable diversity of movements through the coordinated mechanical contraction of skeletal muscle. This capacity for a wide range of movements is due to the presence of muscle cells with a very plastic phenotype that display many different biochemical, physiological and morphological properties. What factors influence the maintenance and plasticity of differentiated muscle fibers is a fundamental question in muscle biology. We have exploited the remarkable potential of skeletal muscle cells of the gymnotiform electric fish Sternopygus macrurus to trans-differentiate into electrocytes, the non-contractile electrogenic cells of the electric organ (EO), to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the skeletal muscle phenotype. In S. macrurus, mature electrocytes possess a phenotype that is intermediate between muscle and non-muscle cells. How some genes coding for muscle-specific proteins are downregulated while others are maintained, and novel genes are upregulated, is an intriguing problem in the control of skeletal muscle and EO phenotype. To date, the intracellular and extracellular factors that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in muscle and EO have not been defined. Expression studies in S. macrurus have started to shed light on the role that transcriptional and post-transcriptional events play in regulating specific muscle protein systems and the muscle phenotype of the EO. In addition, these findings also represent an important step toward identifying mechanisms that affect the maintenance and plasticity of the muscle cell phenotype for the evolution of highly specialized non-contractile tissues. PMID:23761472

Guth, Robert; Pinch, Matthew; Unguez, Graciela A.

2013-01-01

246

Damage-mitigating control of mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage-Mitigating Control is a field of research involving the integration of two distinct disciplines: Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. This dissertation presents a feedback control architecture for mechanical systems to achieve a tradeoff between dynamic performance and structural durability of critical plant components. The proposed damage-mitigating control system has a two-tier structure: (i) A lower-level linear output feedback controller

Michael S. Holmes

1997-01-01

247

Mechanisms of electromagnetic interference between electrical networks and neighboring metallic utilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the mechanisms of electromagnetic interference between a power line and a neighboring pipeline. An electromagnetic field theory approach is used to carry out the study. First, the field theory approach is used to model the complete conductor network under consideration as is. The inductive, capacitive and conductive interference effects between all the elements in the network are simultaneously taken into account in one single step. The computed results are then used to develop a network model whereby the inductive, capacitive and conductive interference effects can be separated. This approach allows one to better understand the effects of each individual component and compare the field-theory (inductive) based results with those obtained from a circuit model approach. The effects of a typical mitigation system on the interference levels are also studied. The results presented in this paper clearly illustrate the mechanisms of electromagnetic interference and mitigation between electrical networks and neighboring metallic utilities.

Dawalibi, F.P.; Ma, J.; Li, Y. [Safe Engineering Services and Technologies Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1999-11-01

248

Statistical mechanics of program systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the collective behaviour of a set of operators and variables that constitute a program and the emergence of meaningful computational properties in the language of statistical mechanics. This is done by appropriately modifying available Monte Carlo methods to deal with hierarchical structures. The study suggests, in analogy with simulated annealing, a method to automatically design programs. Reasonable solutions can be found, at low temperatures, when the method is applied to simple toy problems such as finding an algorithm that determines the roots of a function or one that makes a nonlinear regression. Peaks in the specific heat are interpreted as signalling phase transitions which separate regions where different algorithmic strategies are used to solve the problem.

Neirotti, Juan P.; Caticha, Nestor

2006-08-01

249

Alignment mechanisms of diblock copolymers in electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise control of the orientation of block copolymer domains is of interest for the production of self-assembling nanoporous media. Electric fields are effective in orienting copolymer domains normal to a surface. In thin films of poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate), a threshold electric field strength Et was found, which for film thicknesses greater than 10 ?m, was independent of film thickness and could be described by the difference in interfacial energies of the diblock components with the substrate. Neutron reflectivity, small angle neutron and x-ray scattering and off-specular scattering suggest that interfacial fluctuations are amplified by the electric field that leads to orientation of the cylinders along the field lines. In the case of poly(styrene-block-isoprene), a material with a smaller difference in dielectric constants, the microdomain orientation occurs at higher field strengths. Also the reorientation process is more rapid than in poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate).

Derouchey, Jason; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Tom; Satija, Sushil

2000-03-01

250

Concurrent recordings of Electrical Current Emissions and Acoustic Emissions detected from marble specimens subjected to mechanical stress up to fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of electrical signals during the application of mechanical stress on brittle geo-materials (the so called Pressure Stimulated Current - PSC[1,2]), provides significant information regarding the mechanical status of the studied rock sample, since PSCs are originated as a result of the opening of cracks and microfractures[3]. The latter mechanism for the creation of PSCs it is straightforward to associated with the recording of acoustic emissions (AE). To justify the common origin of PSCs and AE due to opening of cracks, a combined study was performed implicating the concurrent recording of electric current emissions and AE on marble samples when they are subjected to linearly increasing mechanical load up to the fracture. The electric signal detected is recorded by an ultra sensitive electrometer (Keithley 6514). The sensor used for detecting the electric current is a pair of gold plated electrodes adapted bilaterally on the sample found under axial mechanical stress[4]. The AE were recorded through the Physical Acoustics PCI-2 Acquisition System. The experimental results prove the strong association of the recorded electrical signals and the corresponding acoustic emissions justifying their common origin due to opening of microfractures. Furthermore, when the applied mechanical load exceeds the yield stress then an increasing of PSCs amplitude along with that of AE rate is observed. Acknowledgments. This work was partly supported by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc. SEISMO FEAR HELLARC".

Stavrakas, I.; Hloupis, G.; Triantis, D.; Vallianatos, F.

2012-04-01

251

HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-01-01

252

Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

253

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading, for instance, to ground-state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Dantan, Aurélien; Nair, Bhagya; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

2014-09-01

254

Electrical Systems. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, which is part of a series on agricultural and industrial machinery, deals with electrical systems. Special attention is paid to electricity as it is commonly used on mobile machines. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: electricity and how it works (current, voltage, and resistance; types of circuits;…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

255

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

256

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

257

Reliability Mechanisms for Very Large Storage Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and availability are increasingly important in large-scale storage systems built from thousands of indi- vidual storage devices. Large systems must survive the fail- ure of individual components; in systems with thousands of disks, even infrequent failures are likely in some device. We focus on two types of errors: nonrecoverable read er- rors and drive failures. We discuss mechanisms for

Qin Xin; Ethan L. Miller; Thomas J. E. Schwarz; Darrell D. E. Long; Scott A. Brandt; Witold Litwin

2003-01-01

258

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XX, TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS (INTRODUCTION), (2) TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING, (3) THE BATTERY, (4) PERIODIC BATTERY SERVICING, (5) THE DC CHARGING SYSTEM, (6) PERIODIC…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

259

Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

1992-01-01

260

Representing wind turbine electrical generating systems in fundamental frequency simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of wind turbines are being erected. In the near future, they may start to influence the dynamics of electrical power systems by interacting with conventional generation equipment and with loads. The impact of wind turbines on the dynamics of electrical power systems therefore becomes an important subject, studied by means of power system dynamics simulations. Various types of

J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2003-01-01

261

78 FR 29209 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are part of the bulk electric system. In Order No...Commission concluded that a material impact or functional...743 did not reject all material impact assessments but...general problems with the material impact tests used to...the extent of the bulk electric system. Order...

2013-05-17

262

Automating a spacecraft electrical power system using expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since Skylab, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recognized the need for large electrical power systems (EPS's) in upcoming Spacecraft. The operation of the spacecraft depends on the EPS. Therefore, it must be efficient, safe, and reliable. In 1978, as a consequence of having to supply a large number of EPS personnel to monitor and control Skylab, the Electrical power Branch of MSFC began the autonomously managed power system (AMPS) project. This project resulted in the assembly of a 25-kW high-voltage dc test facility and provided the means of getting man out of the loop as much as possible. AMPS includes several embedded controllers which allow a significant level of autonomous operation. More recently, the Electrical Division at MSFC has developed the space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard to investigate managing and distributing power in the Space Station Freedom habitation and laboratory modules. Again, the requirement for a high level of autonomy for the efficient operation over the lifetime of the station and for the benefits of enhanced safety has been demonstrated. This paper describes the two breadboards and the hierarchical approach to automation which was developed through these projects.

Lollar, L. F.

1991-01-01

263

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

1989-01-01

264

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

1989-01-01

265

Electrical conductivity of individual molten rare-earth element chlorides: III. Structure of the melts and electricity transport mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported data are analyzed, and the structure of individual molten rare earth metal chlorides is found to represent a loose ionic network with a local octahedral configuration of every cation. Electricity in such melts is carried by both Ln3+ cations and Cl- anions. Electrotransport occurs via the following two main mechanisms: translational motion of individual ions and translational transfer in

A. M. Potapov

2010-01-01

266

Atomic and molecular ions of natural atmosphere as electric system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculations of ions electric interaction with various Earth's atmosphere aerosols as well as ion induced nucleation suppose ions electric structure. The electrostatic parameters of the atomic and molecular atmosphere ions have been determined on the basis of the simplest quantum-mechanical approach. The ion geometric dimension identifies with a radius of the most remote sphere with maximum probability of electron

V. V. Klingo

2000-01-01

267

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Transcranial Electric Stimulation Entrains Cortical Neuronal  

E-print Network

activity in vitro and in human studies. However, the physiological mechanism of how weak electrical fields exposure to electric and magnetic fields in modern environments presents health risks (Adey, 1981; Bawin et brain. The pulsed magnetic field can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas and can even produce

Koch, Christof

268

Electrically reversible depassivation/passivation mechanism in polycrystalline silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrically reversible depassivation/passivation phenomenon has been found for hydrogen passivated polysilicon. This reversible effect is seen in both ECR and rf hydrogen passivated n-channel thin films transistors (TFTs) but is not seen in the corresponding hydrogen passivated p-channel TFTs, nor is it seen in either n- or p-channel TFTs before hydrogenation. This phenomenon was observed while room temperature bias stressing n- and p-channel TFTs fabricated on the same solid phase crystallized polysilicon films on quartz substrates. A model involving hydrogen release or capture at defects and positively charged hydrogen motion in device electric field is proposed. This phenomenon has significant implications for polysilicon TFT design and operation.

Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi; Fonash, Stephen J.

1996-03-01

269

Comparative analysis of electrical and mechanical fault signatures in induction motors  

E-print Network

of interest. Due to its cost-effective nature and ease of use, electrical sensors are preinstalled at the motor switchgear by manufacturers. However in order to achieve this for mechanical faults, a systematic comparison between the vibration signatures...

Venugopal, Arvind Madabushi

2005-02-17

270

Improved Student Performance In Electricity And Magnetism Following Prior MAPS Instruction In Mechanics  

E-print Network

We examine the performance of a group of students in Introductory Electricity and Magnetism following a ReView course in Introductory Mechanics focusing on problem solving employing the Modeling Applied to Problem Solving ...

Rayyan, Saif

271

Electricity/Electronics Systems. Laboratory Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This electricity/electronics guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 35 modules on the following topics: electrical

Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

272

Electric and Magnetic Manipulation of Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New types of biological cell manipulation systems, a micropost matrix, a microelectromagnet matrix, and a microcoil array, were developed. The micropost matrix consists of post-shaped electrodes embedded in an insulating layer. With a separate ac voltage applied to each electrode, the micropost matrix generates dielectrophoretic force to trap and move individual biological cells. The microelectromagnet matrix consists of two arrays of straight wires aligned perpendicular to each other, that are covered with insulating layers. By independently controlling the current in each wire, the microelectromagnet matrix creates versatile magnetic fields to manipulate individual biological cells attached to magnetic beads. The microcoil array is a set of coils implemented in a foundry using a standard silicon fabrication technology. Current sources to the coils, and control circuits are integrated on a single chip, making the device self-contained. Versatile manipulation of biological cells was demonstrated using these devices by generating optimized electric or magnetic field patterns. A single yeast cell was trapped and positioned with microscopic resolution, and multiple yeast cells were trapped and independently moved along the separate paths for cell-sorting.

Lee, H.; Hunt, T. P.; Liu, Y.; Ham, D.; Westervelt, R. M.

2005-06-01

273

Electron-deformation mechanism of photoexcitation of hypersound in semiconductors in a dc electric field  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a dc electric field on photoexcitation of a hypersonic pulse in a semiconductor via an electron-deformation mechanism is studied. The profiles of acoustic pulses are simulated for different directions of the electric field. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Chigarev, N V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-09-30

274

Evaluation and identification of electrical and thermal conduction mechanisms in carbon nanotube\\/epoxy composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured modification of polymers has opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to realise electrically conductive polymers with improved or retaining mechanical performance. This study focuses on the evaluation of both, the electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoparticulate filled epoxy resins. We discuss the results with regard to the influence of the

Florian H. Gojny; Malte H. G. Wichmann; Bodo Fiedler; Ian A. Kinloch; Wolfgang Bauhofer; Alan H. Windle; Karl Schulte

2006-01-01

275

The effect of concentration of graphene nanoplatelets on mechanical and electrical properties of reduced  

E-print Network

,13­16,20]. Chemical reduction of electrically insulating graphene oxide papers can also produce conductive reducedThe effect of concentration of graphene nanoplatelets on mechanical and electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide papers Sungjin Park a,*, Ji Won Suk b , Jinho An b , Junghoon Oh a , Seungjun Lee

276

Short Fibre Reinforced PP\\/PANI-Complex Blends and their Mechanical and Electrical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the mechanical and electrical properties of polypropylene (PP)\\/ polyaniline (PANI)-complex blends and their short glass fibre (GF) composites. In particular, the surface resistivity, the electrical conductivity and its profile were characterized. Tensile modulus, tensile strength and impact resistance of the materials were also measured as a function of GF- and PANI-complex content. The miscibility and microstructure

R. Taipalus; T. Harmia; K. Friedrich

1999-01-01

277

How to teach basic quantum mechanics to computer scientists and electrical engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the rapid development of quantum computation and of quantum technologies in general, computer scientists and electrical engineers will have to learn quantum mechanics (QM) in the near future. Although the teaching methods of QM are well established in both undergraduate and graduate physics courses, an effective method for teaching QM to computer scientists and electrical engineers is still

Bernardo Cuenca Grau

2004-01-01

278

Mental Mechanisms, Autonomous Systems, and Moral Agency William Bechtel (bechtel@mechanism.ucsd.edu)  

E-print Network

Mental Mechanisms, Autonomous Systems, and Moral Agency William Bechtel (bechtel as a moral agent. Keywords: mechanistic explanation, mental mechanisms, autonomous systems, adaptive systems of mechanisms can best be understood in terms of autonomous systems and their components. Mechanistic

Bechtel, William

279

Reserve valuation in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

280

Results of an electrical power system fault study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

1992-01-01

281

Low-Heat-Leak Electrical Leads For Cryogenic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical leads offering high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity developed for use in connecting electronic devices inside cryogenic systems to power supplies, signal-processing circuits, and other circuitry located in nearby warmer surroundings. Strip of superconductive leads on ceramic substrate, similar to ribbon cable, connects infrared detectors at temperature of liquid helium with warmer circuitry. Electrical leads bridging thermal gradient at boundary of cryogenic system designed both to minimize conduction of heat from surroundings through leads into system and to minimize resistive heating caused by electrical currents flowing in leads.

Wise, Stephanie A.; Hooker, Matthew W.

1994-01-01

282

Hallam Nuclear Power Facility Electric Auxiliary-Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the electric auxiliary-power systems in a sodium-cooled graphite-moderated nuclear reactor (SGR). Reliability requirements and methods of achieving them are discussed, and sodium-system preheating, a requirement unique to sodium-cooled reactors, is outlined. Nuclear instrumentation electric noise problems and methods of avoiding them are included. Auxiliary power requirements of a 360-mwe (electrical megawatt) SGR plant are compared with those

V. R. Pool

1963-01-01

283

30 CFR 75.508-2 - Changes in electric system map; recording.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508-2 Changes in electric system map; recording. Changes made in the location, electrical rating or setting within the mine electrical system shall be recorded on the map of such system no later than...

2010-07-01

284

Mechanical system reliability for long life space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creation of a compendium of mechanical limit states was undertaken in order to provide a reference base for the application of first-order reliability methods to mechanical systems in the context of the development of a system level design methodology. The compendium was conceived as a reference source specific to the problem of developing the noted design methodology, and not an exhaustive or exclusive compilation of mechanical limit states. The compendium is not intended to be a handbook of mechanical limit states for general use. The compendium provides a diverse set of limit-state relationships for use in demonstrating the application of probabilistic reliability methods to mechanical systems. The compendium is to be used in the reliability analysis of moderately complex mechanical systems.

Kowal, Michael T.

1994-01-01

285

A mechanical wave model illustrating acoustic and electrical phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanical model is described which illustrates a band-pass filter. The model consists of a series of equal masses suspended on equal lengths of straightened watch-spring from a rigid bar. Through holes bored in the masses, which are equally spaced, is threaded a piece of elastic. One end is fixed, and the other can move with a simple harmonic motion,

Gilbert D West

1934-01-01

286

Two Cases of Calculation of Mechanical Forces in Electric Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formula is derived for the mechanical force in a circle of round wire, due to its own current. A formula, F = I2 logh a1\\/a2, is also derived for the longitudinal force exerted on a round conductor, due to its own current, where it changes its diameter. Where there is a constriction in a liquid conductor, this force acts

H. B. Dwight

1927-01-01

287

Electrical and mechanical response of skeletal muscle to electrical stimulation after acute passive stretching in humans: A combined electromyographic and mechanomyographic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mechanisms have been suggested to explain stretching-induced maximum force depression: a mechanical alteration in the stretched muscle and an impairment of neural activation. Electrical stimulation allows standardization of the level of muscle activation without being limited by neural control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stretching-induced changes in the electrical and mechanical properties of muscle during

Emiliano Cè; Elena Paracchino; Fabio Esposito

2006-01-01

288

Research on battery management system for light electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the operation characteristics of light electric vehicle, the paper developed a battery management system of light electric vehicle. The system mainly contains battery protection module, battery equalization module, battery data management module. It could be real-time monitoring the operation parameters of batteries effectively: rotational speed of motor, State of Charge (SOC) of the batteries, voltage and current of

Feng Nenglian; Yong Jiawang; Bin Yang; Peng Jiankun; Tang Yanrong

2011-01-01

289

Research on battery management system in electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the bridge of battery and vehicle management system and the drivers, battery management system (BMS) for electric vehicle performance is playing a more and more key role. This article introduces several kinds of battery display methods and displays, and for each display method on the feasibility study, also focuses on the electric car batteries systematic, modular design and the

Cuicui Yin; Yuqun Wang

2012-01-01

290

Nonstationary models for PQ monitoring in naval electrical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many fields of electrical applications, the energy management process, is always more becoming one of the main process should be controlled and monitored. Itpsilas necessary to reach the optimum and, in the same time, the cheaper system working conditions. Particularly in the field of naval electrical system, where there are many environmental factors that stress, grater than other ones,

S. De Falco; N. Pasquino

2008-01-01

291

Electromagnetic interference assessment of an ion drive electric propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electric propulsion thrust system has the capability of providing a high specific impulse for long duration scientific missions in space. The EMI from the elements of an ion engine was characterized. The compatibility of ion drive electric propulsion systems with typical interplanetary spacecraft engineering was predicted.

Whittlesey, A. C.

1981-01-01

292

Systems modeling for electric ship design  

E-print Network

Diesel and gas turbine electric ship propulsion are of current interest for several types of vessels that are important for commercial shipping and for the next generation of war ships. During the design process of a ...

Soultatis, Charalambos

2004-01-01

293

Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

1993-01-01

294

Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems  

E-print Network

of energy such as pumped-storage units and photovoltaic/battery systems on power system security by reducing--Combined-cycle unit, electricity market, natural gas infrastructure, pipeline contingency, pumped-storage hydro, renew

Fu, Yong

295

Mechanical-Electric-Magnetic Coupling Effects in Black and White Graphenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale multifield couplings can turn very common materials such as carbon and boron nitride into promising functional materials for many device applications. We recently found that the magnetism in graphene nanoribbons on silicon substrates can be tuned linearly by applied bias voltage (Phys.Rev.Lett, 103, 187204, 2009), and this novel magnetoelectric effect is robust to material and geometry variations. Adsorbed graphene nanoribbons can also create tunable magnetism on silicon surface (Phys.Rev.B 82, 235423, 2010). Strain tunable magnetism has also been found in defect graphene (ACS Nano 4, 2124, 2010; Phys. Rev. B 82, 085425, 2010). Contrast to the zero-gap graphene, Hexagon-BN layers (white graphene) and rolled-up nanotubes are generally insulating, we show that the wide gap in them can be tuned into semiconducting range, even closed in BN nanoribbons by electric fields and narrowed by reduced tube diameter or local curvature radius (Nano Lett. 10, 5049, 2010; Phys. Rev. B 82, 035412, 2010). What is more, our recent experiments have demonstrated that flow-induced-voltage in graphene can be 20 folds higher than in graphite (Appl.Phys.Lett. 99, 073103 (2011)). Such extraordinary mechanical-electric-magnetic coupling effects in graphene and BN systems open up new vistas in functional devices compatible with silicon-based technology for efficient energy conversion and novel functional systems.

Guo, Wanlin

2012-02-01

296

Electrical savings by use of wood pellet stoves and solar heating systems in electrically heated single-family houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how electrically heated single-family houses can be converted to wood pellets- and solar heating using pellet stoves and solar heating systems. Four different system concepts are presented and system simulations in TRNSYS evaluate the thermal performance and the electrical savings possible for two different electrically heated single-family houses. Simulations show that the electricity savings using a wood

Tomas Persson; Svante Nordlander; Mats Rönnelid

2005-01-01

297

Electrical potential source mechanisms in microbial induced sulfate reducing environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to compare self-potential (SP) signals resulting from possible 'geobattery' effects with electrodic potential signals based on a known galvanic cell (GC) effect in the presence of sulfide, we designed a column experiment using dual sensor Ag-AgCl electrodes. Water from the Langan River (Belfast, UK), known to contain a sulfate reducing microbial community, was obtained. Two experimental columns were packed with fine-grained glass beads. One column continuously circulated (closed loop) with autoclaved river water as a control, while the other retained biologically active natural river water. Six Ag-AgCl electrodes equally spaced along one side of each column, and three Ag-AgCl self potential electrodes (where the metal is in electrolytic contact with the column via a sterilized 1M KCl agar gel), were placed on the other side of each column. Electrical potential signals were continuously recorded with both sensor types. Induced polarization, electrical resistivity, temperature and aqueous geochemistry measurements (pH, Eh, and conductivity) were taken once daily. Over the 20 day experiment duration, darkening of the circulating fluid, biofilm formation and a sulfurous smell were observed in the biologically active column whereas no such color change (or smell) was observed for the control column. In the active column electrodic potential readings approached 570 mV whereas stable and small electrodic potential values (~8 mV) were detected in the control column.. Self potential signals were consistently only 1-8 mV in both columns. The experiment shows although electrodic potentials (at the electrode) are diagnostic of microbial driven sulfate reduction there is no measurable self potential (geobattery) effect associated with this microbial process.

Zhang, C.; Slater, L.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Singh, K.; Doherty, R.

2007-12-01

298

A simple method to characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of micro-fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure to characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of micro-fibres is presented here. As the required equipment can be found in many teaching laboratories, it can be carried out by physics and mechanical/electrical engineering students. The electrical resistivity, mass density and Young's modulus of carbon micro-fibres have been determined using this procedure, obtaining values in very good agreement with the reference values. Young's modulus has been obtained by measuring the resonance frequency of carbon fibre-based cantilevers. In this way, one can avoid common approaches based on tensile or bending tests which are difficult to implement for microscale materials. Despite the simplicity of the experiments proposed here, they can be used to trigger in the students interest regarding the electrical and mechanical properties of microscale materials.

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

2013-11-01

299

Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts  

SciTech Connect

Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

2010-08-01

300

Automated system for measuring electrical three-phase power components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an automated system, using the software LabVIEW and an experimental setup including a digital oscilloscope equipped with general purpose interface bus (GPIB) interface, to measure the instantaneous and average power components of generic three-phase electrical systems. The system is being used as an academic laboratory tool for teaching concepts on generic three-phase electrical power systems to third-year

Tiago José Goulart; Denise Consonni

2001-01-01

301

An intelligent battery management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the keys to the acceptance of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the increased longevity of the large battery packs used in the vehicles. The objective of this research is to develop an intelligent battery management system that will lengthen the lifetime of the battery pack. The key to this operation is monitoring and charging of individual batteries

Manoj Maskey; Micheal Parten; Darrell Vines; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

302

Analysis of the structural interaction of electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong electrical forces have been revealed in electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases. It has been established that these forces give rise to gradients of the potential of an internal self-electric field that can provide circulation of electric currents in the systems under investigation. It has been found that, in these systems, there arises a double electric layer that represents a new structuring phase, which is characteristic of electrically active systems only. The mechanism of formation of a double electric layer includes electrocontact interaction between the surfaces of two heterogeneous liquid and solid polar dielectrics.

Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Maksimova, N. T.; Baryshnikov, S. S.; Karnakov, V. A.; Marchuk, S. D.; Ezhova, L. I.

2011-07-01

303

Quantum mechanics of a constrained electrically charged particle in the presence of electric currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the dynamics of a classical spinless quantum particle carrying electric charge and constrained to move on a nonsingular static surface in ordinary three-dimensional space in the presence of arbitrary configurations of time independent electric currents. Starting from the canonical action in the embedding space we show that a charged particle with charge q couples to a term linear in qA3M , where A3 is the transverse component of the electromagnetic vector potential and M is the mean curvature in the surface. This term cancels exactly a curvature contribution to the orbital magnetic moment of the particle. It is shown that particles, independently of the value of the charge, in addition to the known couplings to the geometry also couple to the mean curvature in the surface when a Neumann type of constraint is applied on the transverse fluctuations of the wave function. In contrast to a Dirichlet constraint on the transverse fluctuations a Neumann type of constraint on these degrees of freedom will in general make the equations of motion nonseparable. The exceptions are the equations of motion for electrically neutral particles on surfaces with constant mean curvature. In the presence of electric currents the equation of motion of a charged particle is generally nonseparable independently of the coupling to the geometry and the boundary constraints.

Jensen, Bjørn; Dandoloff, Rossen

2009-11-01

304

Lunar Dust Chemical, Electrical, and Mechanical Reactivity: Simulation and Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar dust is recognized to be a highly reactive material in its native state. Many, if not all Constellation systems will be affected by its adhesion, abrasion, and reactivity. A critical requirement to develop successful strategies for dealing with lunar dust and designing tolerant systems will be to produce similar material for ground-based testing.

VanderWal, Randy L.

2008-01-01

305

Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of electric vehicle traction systems using Energetic Macroscopic Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation of an electric vehicle traction system is developed for experimental validations of electrical drives. Energetic macroscopic representation is used to organize the numerous blocks required. A classical 2-driven-wheels traction is studied with an induction machine. The HIL is based on a controlled DC drive, which imposes the same behavior of the mechanical power train to the

A. Bouscayrol; W. Lhomme; P. Delarue; B. Lemaire-Semail; S. Aksas

2006-01-01

306

Pricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets  

E-print Network

the price that energy brokers (retailers) need to pay in case their profile TU Delft Erasmus UniversityPricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets Mathijs de Weerdt , Wolfgang Ketter , and John Collins Abstract We consider the problem of designing a pricing mechanism

de Weerdt, Mathijs

307

Transthoracic electrical bioimpedance versus thermodilution technique for cardiac output measurement during mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the possible influence of mechanical ventilation on the accurracy of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEI) in the measurement of cardiac output, we determined cardiac output concurrently by TEI using Kubicek's equation and by thermodilution in 8 acutely ill patients who were mechanically ventilated (assist\\/control mode) but who had no underlying respiratory failure. Cardiac outputs were lower with TEI than

J. C. Preiser; A. Daper; J.-N. Parquier; B. Contempré; J.-L. Vincent

1989-01-01

308

Electrically conductive and mechanically elastic titanium nitride ceramic microsprings.  

PubMed

The structural and functional characterizations of titanium nitride (TiN) advanced ceramic microsprings (CMSs), with a coil diameter of several micrometers and synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were investigated by microscopy techniques. The CMSs were sufficiently mechanically elastic for extension to more than 1.3 times their original size, and they spontaneously contracted to their original state on releasing the tension. To explore their application to a microdevice, a method of manufacturing TiN-CMS microcircuit elements was developed. The I-V plots of the elements indicated that the CMSs were as conductive as metals. PMID:24738385

Yang, Shaoming; Chen, Xiuqin; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iitake, Masanori; Nishio-Hamane, D; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

2014-06-01

309

Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering.  

PubMed

We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087

Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

310

Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087

Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

311

Electrical conductivity of individual molten rare-earth element chlorides: III. Structure of the melts and electricity transport mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported data are analyzed, and the structure of individual molten rare earth metal chlorides is found to represent a loose\\u000a ionic network with a local octahedral configuration of every cation. Electricity in such melts is carried by both Ln3+ cations and Cl- anions. Electrotransport occurs via the following two main mechanisms: translational motion of individual ions and translational\\u000a transfer in

A. M. Potapov

2010-01-01

312

Electrical and kinematic structure of an Oklahoma mesoscale convective system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The case study examines the dynamics and kinematics of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) by comparing its meteorological parameters with in situ electrical measurements. Conventional MCS characteristics are reported including a rear inflow jet, wake low, and a bipolar cloud-to-ground pattern, but some nonclassical conditions are also reported. Horizontally long cloud-to-ground electrical strikes are noted which demonstrate that cloud-to-ground electrical data alone cannot entirely characterize stratiform electrification in MCSs.

Hunter, Steven M.; Schuur, Terry J.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

1990-01-01

313

Emergy Based Analysis of Italian Electricity Production System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuously increasing demand for electric power together with the demand of environmental friendly technologies require\\u000a a deep acknowledgement of the directions to give to electric power production in order to satisfy both necessities.\\u000a \\u000a The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability of Italian electric system by using the emergy function, a methodology\\u000a developed in the early80s by

C. Caruso; G. Catenacci; N. Marchettini; I. Principi; E. Tiezzi

2001-01-01

314

Electricity Storage Systems and the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power

Ruth Howes

2007-01-01

315

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2013-10-01

316

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2012-10-01

317

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2010-10-01

318

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2011-10-01

319

Unraveling Mechanisms Regulating Systemic Iron Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Systemic iron balance must be tightly regulated to prevent the deleterious effects of iron deficiency and iron overload. Hepcidin, a circulating hormone that is synthesized by the liver, has emerged as a key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin inhibits the absorption of dietary iron from the intestine as well as the release of iron derived from red blood cells from macrophages; thus, variation in hepcidin levels modifies the total amount of iron stored in the body as well as the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. The production of hepcidin by the liver is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli, including iron loading, inflammation, and erythropoietic activity. Investigation of the functions of the gene products mutated in inherited iron disorders using tissue culture systems and animal models has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms by which these hepcidin responses are mediated. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:22160085

Finberg, Karin E.

2013-01-01

320

Spatial informatics and Geographical Information Systems: Tools to transform Electric Power and Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power and energy systems are the key for the growth of any developing country. Electric power shortage is one of the main culprits that hinder the spread of development across these countries and cause of societal disparity. Innovative spatial informatics and geographical information system techniques have come as the boon to solve many problems in the electric power system

A. Nagaraja Sekhar; K. S. Rajan; Amit Jain

2008-01-01

321

Mechanical stability of fused textile systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the results of tests to determine the mechanical stability of textile fusing systems using two instruments: pulser ERDT-3 and rotary-rolls set-up ARRV. The pulser ERDT-3 allows textile systems in different testing conditions to be fatigued; one-sided and double-sided loading. Using instrument ARRV the specimen is not only fatigued in repeated one-axed loading, but at the same time, its surface

M. Gutauskas; V. Masteikaite

1997-01-01

322

Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems  

E-print Network

A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.

G. Van Hooydonk

2005-12-03

323

Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

324

Introduction to JPL's Mechanical Systems Division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the work of the Mechanical Systems Division. It reviews the projects, both past and current that the engineers of this division have worked on. It also reviews the work environment as an exciting place for the entry level engineer.

Short, Kendra

2007-01-01

325

Statistical mechanics of the shallow water system.  

PubMed

We extend the formalism of statistical mechanics developed for the two-dimensional (2D) Euler equation to the case of shallow water system. Relaxation equations towards the maximum entropy state are proposed, which provide a parametrization of subgrid-scale eddies in 2D compressible turbulence. PMID:11863648

Chavanis, P H; Sommeria, J

2002-02-01

326

Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains learning modules designed for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Learning modules consist of some or all of the following materials: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, workbooks, self-tests with answers, review…

Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

327

A Mobile Care System With Alert Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Hypertension and arrhythmia are chronic diseases, which can be effectively prevented and controlled only if the physi- ological parameters of the patient are constantly monitored, along with the full support of the health education and professional med- ical care. In this paper, a role-based intelligent mobile care system with alert mechanism in chronic care environment is proposed and implemented. The

Ren-guey Lee; Kuei-chien Chen; Chun-chieh Hsiao; Chwan-lu Tseng

2007-01-01

328

Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

NONE

1997-09-01

329

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use fully 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data

S. G. Kaufmann; R. H. Wilson; R. E. Jones; T. L. Calton; A. L. Ames

1996-01-01

330

Development of Tailorable Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical characteristics of surfaces on spacecraft are fundamental parameters in controlling its temperature. Passive thermal control coatings with designed solar absorptance and infrared emittance properties have been developed and have been in use for some time. In this total space environment, the coating must be stable and maintain its desired optical properties as well as mechanical properties for the course of the mission lifetime. The mission lifetimes are increasing and in our quest to save weight, newer substrates are being integrated which limit electrical grounding schemes. All of this has added to already existing concerns about spacecraft charging and related spacecraft failures or operational failures. The concern is even greater for thermal control surfaces that are very large. One way of alleviating such concerns is to design new thermal control material systems (TCMS) that can help to mitigate charging via providing charge leakage paths. The objective of this program was to develop two types of passive electrically conductive TCMS. The first was a highly absorbing/emitting black surface and the second was a low (alpha(sub s)/epsilon(sub N)) type white surface. The surface resistance goals for the black absorber was 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) Omega/square, and for the white surfaces it was 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 10) Omega/square. Several material system concepts were suggested and evaluated for space environment stability and electrical performance characterization. Our efforts in designing and evaluating these material systems have resulted in several developments. New concepts, pigments and binders have been developed to provide new engineering quality TCMS. Some of these have already found application on space hardware, some are waiting to be recognized by thermal designers, and some require further detailed studies to become state-of-the-art for future space hardware and space structures. Our studies on baseline state-of-the-art materials and conductive concepts have resulted in several important findings that are of interest to all thermal designers and systems integrators.

Deshpande, M. S.; Harada, Y.

1997-01-01

331

Track treeing mechanism and its application in electrical insulation  

SciTech Connect

Based on electrostriction and fracture mechanics, experiment observation and data-processing, two models (restriction among tree tracks and induction of tree track onto stress concentrated points) and factors (restriction and induction) are proposed; the existence of four types of plastic zone (spot-block pz, single crack isolate pz, transition from isolate to block pz and crack-block pz) are pointed out; the development depth regularities of Gp (Depth of plastic zone), G (diameter of tree track), S (tree track density) and total area of tree track (SG{sup 2}) in two basic experiments (H = H+dH, H = Hc H-field strength) are described by using four basic formulae (dG{sub p}/dH = CK{sub p}{sup p}, dG/dT = d(SG{sup 2})/dN = CK{sup p},S{sub 1}-spot density, K{sub p},K{sub s},K-Stress intensity factors). A series of turning points (G{sub pT},G{sub T},H{sub T},S{sub T},T{sub TS},T{sub TG},T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}) are discovered. The physical meaning of the turning points, the essence of break-down during electrochemical etching and water tree, the fatigue and relation between stress and strain of metal material and the effect of loading mode on crack development are briefly discussed.

Li Boyang [Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing (China)

1996-12-31

332

Automating the tracking of electrical performance for memory test systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an automated tracking methodology for electrical performance of memory test systems. The electrical performance of interest is the edge placement of test signals. Test signal skews often affect the edge placement accuracy, which is critical in many devices testing. The traditional checkout is often performed manually via the use of a scope, which is tedious and the

K. C. Tan; A. A. Mamun

2004-01-01

333

A robotic electrical and tensile testing system for diodes  

SciTech Connect

A robotic system was developed to automate the die attachment electrical testing performed on a specific diode. An industrial robot was integrated with electrical test equipment and a non-destructive tensile tester to verify the integrity of the lead attachment to the diode die. Robotic manipulation is employed to route the diodes through the testing and bin sorting operations. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Darner, G.S.

1989-07-01

334

Modeling and Simulation about an Electric Car's Regenerative Braking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of regenerative braking system of an electric car is studied in the paper. The car's speed, acceleration, the hydraulic accumulator's pressure and volume are simulated with Matlab while the electric car is braking or accelerating from stop. The hydraulic accumulator can absorb all of the braking energy when braking and the energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator can

Zuowu Ding; Dongbiao Zhao; Jianmin Zuo

2007-01-01

335

ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Photovoltaic Systems  

E-print Network

Systems · Central issues in photovoltaic systems · Characteristics of energy systems & performance1 ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Photovoltaic characteristics for PV · Types of PV systems · Overview of components ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University

Honsberg, Christiana

336

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-01-01

337

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AVAILABILITY AND IMPROVEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

SNS electrical systems have been operational for 4 years. System availability statistics and improvements are presented for AC electrical systems, DC and pulsed power supplies and klystron modulators.

Cutler, Roy I [ORNL; Peplov, Vladimir V [ORNL; Wezensky, Mark W [ORNL; Norris, Kevin Paul [ORNL; Barnett, William E [ORNL; Hicks, Jim [ORNL; Weaver, Joey T [ORNL; Moss, John [ORNL; Rust, Kenneth R [ORNL; Mize, Jeffery J [ORNL; Anderson, David E [ORNL

2011-01-01

338

Effect of Electric Field Orientation on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Water Ices: An Ab-initio Study.  

PubMed

We present a first-principles study of the properties of ordinary hexagonal ice (phase Ih) and of its proton-ordered version (phase XI) under the action of static electric fields. We compute the mechanical response to the field in addition to the ionic current-voltage diagrams; we also analyze several other microscopic aspects of the proton transfer mechanism, with particular emphasis on the role played by the oxygen sublattice in driving molecular dissociation. We further study the topological aspects of the mechanical and electrical responses by orienting the external field along two different crystalline directions in both ice samples. At variance with ice Ih, ice XI displays an anisotropic behavior in the range of explored field intensities. In fact, when the direction of the field coincides with the ferroelectric axis, sustained molecular dissociation and proton transfer events are both observed just beyond a given field intensity; instead, the two processes exhibit different activation thresholds when the field is oriented along another symmetry axis. The underlying mechanism of molecular dissociation appears to be the same in solid and liquid water independently of the direction of the field. PMID:25265517

Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A Marco

2014-11-01

339

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16

340

Some neural and behavioural aspects of electrical and mechanical stunning in ostriches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different electrical and mechanical stunning procedures were studied in ostriches to determine the effectiveness of the method. Fifty-eight South-African Black ostriches were equipped with EEG electrodes and stunned with three different electrical head-only methods and with a new captive needle pistol, using air pressure. The first stunning procedure consists of two trials. In the first trial a total of 45

E. Lambooij; C. Pieterse; C. M. Potgieter; J. D. Snyman; G. L. Nortjé

1999-01-01

341

Welding time effect on mechanical properties of automotive sheets in electrical resistance spot welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of welding time on the tensile-peel strength and tensile-shear strength of welding joints in electrical resistance spot welding of chromate micro-alloyed steel sheets having 1.2mm thicknesses were investigated. A timer and current controlled electrical resistance spot welding machine having 120kVA capacity and a pneumatic application mechanism with a single lever was used to prepare the

S. Aslanlar; A. Ogur; U. Ozsarac; E. Ilhan

2008-01-01

342

Quantum electro-mechanical systems (QEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a quantum description of a Quantum Electro-Mechanical System (QEMS) comprising a single quantum dot harmonically bound between two electrodes and facilitating a tunnelling current between them. An example of such a system is a fullerene molecule between two metal electrodes. The description is based on a quantum master equation for the density operator of the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom and thus incorporates the dynamics of both diagonal (population) and off diagonal (coherence) terms. We derive coupled equations of motion for the electron occupation number of the dot and the vibrational degrees of freedom, including damping of the vibration and thermo-mechanical noise, and give a semiclassical description of the dynamics under a variety of bias conditions. This dynamical description is related to observable features of the system including the stationary conductance as a function of bias voltage.

Utami, Dian W.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Milburn, Gerard J.

2004-04-01

343

Electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electrical storage-supply system  

SciTech Connect

An electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electric storage-supply system and process is disclosed using a sodium or potassium sulfidepolysulfide anolyte reaction and an iodide-polyiodide, chloride-chlorine or bromide-bromine species catholyte reaction. The catholyte and anolyte are separated by an ion selective membrane permeable to positive sodium and potassium ions and substantially impermeable to negative bromide, chloride, iodide, sulfide and polysulfide ions. A flowing electrolyte system is disclosed with external electrolyte storage vessels. The apparatus and process provide an electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation system in which the electrolytes may be maintained at near neutral or slightly basic pH, with virtually no parasitic side reactions upon charging, such as hydrogen or oxygen evolution, and the disclosed storage and supply system provides higher energy densities than referenced prior art systems.

Remick, R.J.; Ang, P.G.P.

1984-11-27

344

Tissue heterogeneity as a mechanism for localized neural stimulation by applied electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the heterogeneity of electrical conductivity as a new mechanism to stimulate excitable tissues via applied electric fields. In particular, we show that stimulation of axons crossing internal boundaries can occur at boundaries where the electric conductivity of the volume conductor changes abruptly. The effectiveness of this and other stimulation mechanisms was compared by means of models and computer simulations in the context of transcranial magnetic stimulation. While, for a given stimulation intensity, the largest membrane depolarization occurred where an axon terminates or bends sharply in a high electric field region, a slightly smaller membrane depolarization, still sufficient to generate action potentials, also occurred at an internal boundary where the conductivity jumped from 0.143 S m-1 to 0.333 S m-1, simulating a white-matter-grey-matter interface. Tissue heterogeneity can also give rise to local electric field gradients that are considerably stronger and more focal than those impressed by the stimulation coil and that can affect the membrane potential, albeit to a lesser extent than the two mechanisms mentioned above. Tissue heterogeneity may play an important role in electric and magnetic 'far-field' stimulation.

Miranda, P. C.; Correia, L.; Salvador, R.; Basser, P. J.

2007-09-01

345

Statistical Mechanics of a Discrete Nonlinear System  

SciTech Connect

Statistical mechanics of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation is studied by means of analytical and numerical techniques. The lower bound of the Hamiltonian permits the construction of standard Gibbsian equilibrium measures for positive temperatures. Beyond the line of T={infinity} , we identify a phase transition through a discontinuity in the partition function. The phase transition is demonstrated to manifest itself in the creation of breatherlike localized excitations. Interrelation between the statistical mechanics and the nonlinear dynamics of the system is explored numerically in both regimes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Cretegny, T.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Groenbech-Jensen, Niels

2000-04-24

346

Statistical mechanics of a discrete nonlinear system  

SciTech Connect

Statistical mechanics of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation is studied by means of analytical and numerical techniques. The lower bound of the Hamiltonian permits the construction of standard Gibbsian equilibrium measures for positive temperatures. Beyond the line of T=infinity, we identify a phase transition, through a discontinuity in the partition function. The phase transition is demonstrated to manifest itself in the creation of breather-like localized excitations. Interrelation between the statistical mechanics and the nonlinear dynamics of the system is explored numerically in both regimes.

Rasmussen, K.O.; Cretegny, T.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

1999-09-01

347

Optics, Mechanics and Quantization of Reparametrization Systems  

E-print Network

In this paper we regard the dynamics obtained from Fermat principle as begin the classical theory of light. We (first-)quantize the action and show how close we can get to the Maxwell theory. We show that Quantum Geometric Optics is not a theory of fields in curved space. Considering Classical Mechanics to be on the same footing, we show the parallelism between Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Geometric Optics. We show that, due to the reparametrization invariance of the classical theories, the dynamics of the quantum theories is given by a Hamiltonian constraint. Some implications of the above analogy in the quantization of true reparameterization invariant systems are discussed.

M. Navarro; J. Guerrero; V. Aldaya

1994-04-20

348

Integrated Nanodevices and Nanosystems Laboratory (Inano), Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nano and Micro Manufacturing, University of California Davis, CA Research Position in Micro/Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS/NEMS)  

E-print Network

, electronic and mechanical devices. We use physical and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, PVD), RIE/DRIE, wet chemical etching, passivation coating and bond technologies as well as less common micromachining methods/nanofabrication, surface coating/passivation and characterization skills (e.g. microscopy, mechanical testing, SEM imaging

Yoo, S. J. Ben

349

Field and temperature dependence of the small polaron hopping electrical conductivity in 1D disordered systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of the electric field and the temperature on the electrical conductivity of one-dimensional disordered systems due to phonon assisted hopping of small polarons. The microscopic transport mechanism is treated within the framework of the generalized molecular crystal model and the Kubo formula, while percolation theoretical arguments lead to analytical expressions for the macroscopic behavior of the electrical conductivity at high (multi-phonon assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon assisted hopping) temperatures under the influence of moderate electric fields. The theoretical results are successfully applied to recent experimental findings for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields. Comparison is made with other theories. PMID:21832371

Triberis, G P; Dimakogianni, M

2009-09-23

350

Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the design of control systems for a parallel hybrid electric drive train which is an alternative to conventional passenger vehicles. The principle components of the drive train are a small internal combustion engine...

Buntin, David Leighton

2012-06-07

351

117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

352

49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements....

2012-10-01

353

49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements....

2013-10-01

354

CVD facility electrical system captor/dapper study  

SciTech Connect

Project W-441, CVD Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses.

SINGH, G.

1999-10-28

355

92. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CENTRAL CONTROL STATION GENERAL ARRANGEMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

92. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - CENTRAL CONTROL STATION - GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINERY (ML-5-71/1-FS), January 1934 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

356

Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD) Hybrid-electric drive system  

E-print Network

a broad range of military missions Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle (TUGV) · Quiet hybrid-electric drive system · 24 hour mission endurance · 2500 lb weight · 30 kph top speed Unmanned Ground Vehicles National

Gupta, Abhinav

357

Comprehensive Diagnosis of Complex Electrical Power Distribution Systems  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Diagnosis of Complex Electrical Power Distribution Systems Indranil Roychoudhury subsystems. This heterogeneity introduces significant challenges for model-based diagnosis, such as building and modeling errors. In this paper, we present a comprehensive methodology for the diagnosis of parametric

Daigle, Matthew

358

Electrical microfluidic pressure gauge for elastomer microelectromechanical systems  

PubMed Central

We report on an electrical microfluidic pressure gauge. A polydimethylsiloxane microvalve closes at a characteristic applied pressure determined by the material’s properties and the valve’s dimensions. Hence, when the same pressure is applied to all valves of a heterogeneous valve array, some valves close while others remain open. The state of the array is combined with knowledge of the respective characteristic closing pressures of the individual valves to yield an estimate of the applied pressure. The state of each valve is obtained by electrical measurements, since the electrical resistance of the respective underlying fluid-filled channel increases by at least two orders of magnitude as the valve closes and its insulating elastomer material interrupts the electrical circuit. The overall system functions as a pressure gauge with electrical readout. This device would be a critical component in active pressure-regulation loops in future integrated microfluidic systems. PMID:19587835

Kartalov, Emil P.; Maltezos, George; Anderson, W. French; Taylor, Clive R.; Scherer, Axel

2009-01-01

359

An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications.  

PubMed

Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm(-1). On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ?90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ?10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems. PMID:23142944

Tee, Benjamin C-K; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

2012-12-01

360

An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm-1. On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ~90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ~10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan

2012-12-01

361

Combined electrical and mechanical properties of titanium nitride thin films as metallization materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium nitride (TiNx) thin films, ˜100 nm thick, were deposited on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The effects of the substrate bias voltage and deposition temperature on their optical, electrical, and mechanical properties have been studied. It was found a strong correlation between the electrical and mechanical properties of the films which are significantly improved with increasing the substrate bias voltage and the deposition temperature. The low resistivity (43 ?? cm), combined with the high hardness and elastic modulus values, suggest the TiNx as a promising metallization material in Si technology.

Patsalas, P.; Charitidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Valassiades, O.

1999-11-01

362

Electrical/mechanical evaluation of high voltage dielectrics for OTEC riser cables  

SciTech Connect

The unique design and test requirements for the cable dielectrics selected for evaluation for use in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants are described. Specifically, the methodology of developing the test procedure is defined. The basic cable dielectrics selected for evaluation include taped/oil-impregnated insulation, and extruded solid cross-linked polyethylene insulation. These cables are designed to transmit 100 MW at 138 kV, and will be subjected to installation and operating conditions that are unprecedented for any power cable system. These conditions include ocean depths of 4000 to 5000 feet, long vertical suspension, and the motions and forces imparted by the plant and ocean. The developmental test program is designed primarily to determine the weak link in the components of the candidate cable with regard to the ability to successfully withstand the unusual OTEC conditions over a 10 to 30 year lifetime. Two basic areas of concern are the mechanical fatigue of metallic sheaths and strength members, and the electrical/mechanical ''fatigue'' of the dielectric and shielding components. The constraints and problems in such testing are addressed, and the engineering solutions are described. Finally, the scheduled plan for completion of the entire development test plan is defined.

Traut, R. T.; Kurt, J. P.; DiPietro, F. M.; Roberts, K. P.

1980-01-01

363

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

364

Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown capacities of different cells; such as the EcoEagle that partially receives its power from the electrical energy system. This thesis was conducted as the theory behind the EcoEagles Electrical Energy System.

Hashemi, Iman Ahari

365

Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

at Elliot Hospital in Manchester. New Hampshire, to evaluate actual system operations and installation procedures. The chiller system. including the absorption package, exhibited an average COP approaching 2.0. The preliminary results of the field... at Elliot Hospital in Manchester. New Hampshire, to evaluate actual system operations and installation procedures. The chiller system. including the absorption package, exhibited an average COP approaching 2.0. The preliminary results of the field...

Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

1988-01-01

366

Electric, Gas, and Electric/Gas Energy Options for Cold-Air HVAC Systems  

E-print Network

ELECTRIC, GAS, AND ELECTRICIGAS ENERGY OPTIONS FOR COLD-AIR HVAC SYSTEMS GERSHON MECKLER, P.E. President Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C. Herndon, Virginia ABSTRACT An important aspect of the design of cost- effective HVAC systems today is (a... of these factors, this paper does the following: 1. Describes three cold air-water HVAC systems (elec- tric, gas, electric/gas) developed by the author for office buildings and shopping centers to (a) reduce the first cost and the energy cost of cold air...

Meckler, G.

1989-01-01

367

A demand responsive bidding mechanism with price elasticity matrix in wholesale electricity pools  

E-print Network

In the past several decades, many demand-side participation features have been applied in the electricity power systems. These features, such as distributed generation, on-site storage and demand response, add uncertainties ...

Wang, Jiankang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

368

Chilldown Electrical System for S-IVB Space Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the electrical system used to drive the chilldown motor pumps on the S-IVB space vehicle. This system consists of a 56 volt battery supplying power to the two three-phase solid state inverters which in turn drive two cryogenic motor pumps. Included in this paper is a short description of the overall chilldown system requirements. The advantages of

John H. Lanaman; Ralph J. Morrow; Darrell W. Tesdall

1965-01-01

369

Generators for use in electric marine ship propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ship propulsion using electric drives is a quickly evolving technology. Industry focus to date has been on the most unique parts of the system, the electronic motor drives and propulsion motors. The input power presumed for these systems is typically conventional AC power. Additional benefits can be obtained by removing the constraint of conventional AC input power. System performance and

R. M. Calfo; J. A. Fulmer; J. E. Tessaro

2002-01-01

370

Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

2007-03-01

371

Road electric generation system with use of solar power  

SciTech Connect

The temperature of road pavement surface becomes more than 70 C because of the solar power in summer. The characteristics of asphalt pavement on heat transfer and the relatively huge occupation with urban area have caused the heat-island phenomena. The phenomena increase the temperature and the energy consumption for conditioners. Road administrators have to keep the road pavement surface out of freezing in winter. For the purpose, the use of dusting powder becomes popular in recent days. However, the negative influence of the huge amount of the powder could not be ignored, for instance, corrosion of steel bridge and cars, water pollution, and soil pollution. Another way is a road heating system. The enormous electric energy consumption prevents the system from becoming popular. The authors have devised the new system that generates electric power and works as a road heating system. The authors call the system as ``Road Electric Generation System (REGS).`` The basic principal of the electric generation and road heating is Seebeck and Pertier effect, respectively. In this paper, the authors have calculated the electric power generated by the system, road surface temperature after introducing the system, and the heat radiation from the road surface.

Meiarashi, S. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center; Ohara, Toshimasa [Inst. of Behavioral Science, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-09-01

372

46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113.35-7...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7 Electric...

2010-10-01

373

Electrical System Technology Working Group (WG) Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology needs for space power systems (military, public, commercial) were assessed for the period 1995 to 2005 in the area of power management and distribution, components, circuits, subsystems, controls and autonomy, modeling and simulation. There was general agreement that the military requirements for pulse power would be the dominant factor in the growth of power systems. However, the growth of conventional power to the 100 to 250kw range would be in the public sector, with low Earth orbit needs being the driver toward large 100kw systems. An overall philosophy for large power system development is also described.

Silverman, S.; Ford, F. E.

1984-01-01

374

Regeneration of zinc anodes for the Electric Fuel(R) zinc-air refuelable EV battery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Fuel Limited (EFL) refuelable zinc-air battery system is currently being tested in a number of electric vehicle demonstration projects, the largest of which is a field test of zinc-air postal vans sponsored chiefly by Deutsche Post AG (the German Post Office). The zinc-air battery is not recharged electrically, but rather is `refueled' through a series of mechanical and

Binyamin Koretz; Jonathan R. Goldstein

1997-01-01

375

The tunable mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes under an electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spring-induced compression of water-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under an electric field is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the incompressibility and polarity of water, the mechanical property of CNTs can be tuned through filling with water molecules and applying an electric field. To explore the variation of the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs, the effects of the CNT length, the filling density and the electric field intensity are examined. The simulation results indicate that the water filling and electric field can result in a slight change in the elastic property (the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) of water-filled CNTs. However, the yield stress and average post-buckling stress exhibit a significant response to the water density and electric field intensity. As compared to hollow CNTs, the increment in yield stress of the water-filled CNTs under an electric field of 2.0 V Å-1 is up to 35.29%, which is even higher than that resulting from metal filling. The findings from this study provide a valuable theoretical basis for designing and fabricating the controlling units at the nanoscale.

Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen; Zong, Zhi; Zheng, Yonggang

2014-03-01

376

Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with combined effect of electrical nonlinearities and mechanical impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an advanced study including the design, characterization and theoretical analysis of a capacitive vibration energy harvester. Although based on a resonant electromechanical device, it is intended for operation in a wide frequency band due to the combination of stop-end effects and a strong biasing electrical field. The electrostatic transducer has an interdigited comb geometry with in-plane motion, and is obtained through a simple batch process using two masks. A continuous conditioning circuit is used for the characterization of the transducer. A nonlinear model of the coupled system ‘transduce-conditioning circuit’ is presented and analyzed employing two different semi-analytical techniques together with precise numerical modelling. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained from numerical modelling. With the 1 g amplitude of harmonic external acceleration at atmospheric pressure, the system transducer-conditioning circuit has a half-power bandwidth of more than 30% and converts more than 2 µW of the power of input mechanical vibrations over the range of 140 and 160 Hz. The harvester has also been characterized under stochastic noise-like input vibrations.

Basset, P.; Galayko, D.; Cottone, F.; Guillemet, R.; Blokhina, E.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.

2014-03-01

377

Electric terminal performance and characterization of solid oxide fuel cells and systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices which can effect efficient, clean, and quiet conversion of chemical to electrical energy. In contrast to conventional electricity generation systems which feature multiple discrete energy conversion processes, SOFCs are direct energy conversion devices. That is, they feature a fully integrated chemical to electrical energy conversion process where the electric load demanded of the cell intrinsically drives the electrochemical reactions and associated processes internal to the cell. As a result, the cell's electric terminals provide a path for interaction between load side electric demand and the conversion side processes. The implication of this is twofold. First, the magnitude and dynamic characteristics of the electric load demanded of the cell can directly impact the long-term efficacy of the cell's chemical to electrical energy conversion. Second, the electric terminal response to dynamic loads can be exploited for monitoring the cell's conversion side processes and used in diagnostic analysis and degradation-mitigating control schemes. This dissertation presents a multi-tier investigation into this electric terminal based performance characterization of SOFCs through the development of novel test systems, analysis techniques and control schemes. First, a reference-based simulation system is introduced. This system scales up the electric terminal performance of a prototype SOFC system, e.g. a single fuel cell, to that of a full power-level stack. This allows realistic stack/load interaction studies while maintaining explicit ability for post-test analysis of the prototype system. Next, a time-domain least squares fitting method for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is developed for reduced-time monitoring of the electrochemical and physicochemical mechanics of the fuel cell through its electric terminals. The utility of the reference-based simulator and the EIS technique are demonstrated through their combined use in the performance testing of a hybrid-source power management (HSPM) system designed to allow in-situ EIS monitoring of a stack under dynamic loading conditions. The results from the latter study suggest that an HSPM controller allows an opportunity for in-situ electric terminal monitoring and control-based mitigation of SOFC degradation. As such, an exploration of control-based SOFC degradation mitigation is presented and ideas for further work are suggested.

Lindahl, Peter Allan

378

Optimal locomotion of mechanical rectifier systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles utilizing animal locomotion mechanisms may possess increased performance parameters and the ability to overcome more difficult terrain than conventional wheel or propeller driven vehicles. The essential mechanism underlying animal locomotion can be viewed as mechanical rectification that converts periodic body movements to thrust force through interactions with the environment. This dissertation defines a general class of mechanical rectifiers as multi-body systems equipped with such thrust generation mechanisms. A general model is developed from the Euler-Lagrange equation and simplified by assuming small body oscillations around a given nominal posture. The model reveals that the rectifying dynamics can be captured by a bilinear (but not linear) term of body shape variables. An optimal gait problem is formulated for the bilinear rectifier model as a minimization of a quadratic cost function over the set of periodic functions subject to a constraint on the average locomotion velocity. We prove that a globally optimal solution is given by a harmonic gait that can be found by generalized eigenvalue computation with a line search over cycle frequencies. We verify the solution method through case studies of a two dimensional chain of links for which snake-like undulations and jellyfish-like flapping gaits are found to be optimal, and obtain analytical insights into determinants of optimal gaits from a simple disk-mass rectifier system. Lastly, we develop a dynamic model for batoid swimming featuring a 6 degree-of-freedom main body (position and orientation), with independent wing deformation (described as the motion of many discrete points in the body-fixed coordinate frame), and calculate various gaits. Multiple wing shapes and optimality criteria are considered, such as the maximum thrust to deflection ratio or minimum input power, and the resulting gaits are compared.

Blair, Justin T.

379

Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems  

E-print Network

-varying parametricuncertaintiesboundedbyapolytope.Inthispaper, we provide a systematic procedure based on the mean value theorem in conjunction for Time-Varying Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Modeled by a Particular Class of Linear Differential Inclusion for Time-Varying Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Modeled by a Particular Class of Linear Differential Inclusion

Pota, Himanshu Roy

380

A review of nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft system concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last 25-30 years of system concepts and design philosophies for spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) are reviewed. NEP spacecraft-system design constraints and criteria are identified, including radiation exposure of humans and electronics, thermal control requirements, effluent contamination of spacecraft surfaces, surface erosion, launch-vehicle integration, operations and safety requirements, attitude control, EM interference, and power control and distribution. The impact on spacecraft design philosophy of these constraints and criteria is explored. Several NEP spacecraft are characterized and discussed with respect to the propulsion system used. The electric propulsion system catagories are electrothermal (arcjet), EM (magnetoplasmadynamic and pulsed-inductive thruster) and electrostatic (ion engine). A brief summary of the mission, nuclear power source, electric propulsion system, and spacecraft configuration are provided for each NEP spacecraft concept.

Deininger, W. D.; Nock, K. T.

1990-01-01

381

Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

1994-08-08

382

System and method to determine electric motor efficiency nonintrusively  

DOEpatents

A system and method for nonintrusively determining electric motor efficiency includes a processor programed to, while the motor is in operation, determine a plurality of stator input currents, electrical input data, a rotor speed, a value of stator resistance, and an efficiency of the motor based on the determined rotor speed, the value of stator resistance, the plurality of stator input currents, and the electrical input data. The determination of the rotor speed is based on one of the input power and the plurality of stator input currents. The determination of the value of the stator resistance is based on at least one of a horsepower rating and a combination of the plurality of stator input currents and the electrical input data. The electrical input data includes at least one of an input power and a plurality of stator input voltages.

Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA); Harley, Ronald G. (Lawrenceville, GA)

2011-08-30

383

Wind turbine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis using both mechanical and electrical signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some large wind turbines use a synchronous generator, directly-coupled to the turbine, and a fully rated converter to transform power from the turbine to the mains. This paper considers condition monitoring and diagnosis of mechanical and electrical faults in such a variable speed machine. A new condition monitoring technique is proposed in this paper, which removes the negative influence of

Wenxian Yang; P. J. Tavner; Michael Wilkinson

2008-01-01

384

Effects of carbon black on the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of pitch-matrix composites  

E-print Network

Effects of carbon black on the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of pitch) was increased from 44 to 81 °C upon addition of 7.0 vol.% carbon black. Accompanying effects are increase these effects increase with increasing carbon black content. Carbon black and sand together are much more

Chung, Deborah D.L.

385

Thixoforming characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated AA 6061 alloy for suspension parts of electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thixoforming trials of AA 6061 alloy, which is a wrought aluminum alloy, were undertaken to manufacture the steering knuckles designed for suspension parts of low speed electric vehicles. The billets used as a starting material were thermo-mechanically treated to induce thixoformable fine globular microstructures during subsequent reheating process. After a slug was reheated up to the working temperature (?645°C) using

Sang-Yong Lee; Se-Il Oh

2002-01-01

386

Using electrical noise to enhance the ability of humans to detect subthreshold mechanical cutaneous stimuli  

E-print Network

to detect a subthreshold mechanical cutaneous stimulus can be significantly enhanced by introducing Institute of Physics. S1054-1500 98 00503-5 Under certain conditions, the presence of noise can in- crease by introducing a particular level of electrical noise. This effect is likely due to the fact that cutaneous

Collins, James J.

387

Innovation performance in the periphery: The case of mechanical and electrical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the innovation performance of peripheral mechanical and electrical engineering establishments. The results of a major survey demonstrate that, although lagging the traditional industrial heartland, the performance of parts of the periphery is similar to many of the core regions. Detailed interviews with engineering establishments reveal differences between peripheral and non?peripheral establishments in product development strategy, level of

Neil Alderman

1998-01-01

388

Radio frequency electrical transduction of graphene mechanical resonators Yuehang Xu,1,2  

E-print Network

B is demonstrated. In addition to being over two orders of magnitude faster than the electrical rf mixing method,2 For NEMSs, robust transduction of the mechanical motion rep- resents a central challenge; methods employing of the gate. Finally, a dry etch process is used to open a trench 200 nm deep between the source and drain

Kim, Philip

389

Synthesis of Multi-dimensional Organic Nano-conductors for the Enhancement of Thermal, Electrical, and Mechanical Properties of Composites.  

E-print Network

??For years, composite materials have attracted significant attention toward the improvement of their mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. In more recent studies, carbon based fillers,… (more)

Smith, James II

2014-01-01

390

Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,  

E-print Network

70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer, photonics, and quantum information processing. MAJORS & AREAS OF EMPHASIS · ElectricalEngineering · Computer)Algorithmsandcomputationalmeth- odsforefficientsolutionofengineeringproblems. Introductiontoengineeringsoftwaretools. EE 200L Foundations of Electrical Engineer- ing Systems

Rohs, Remo

391

Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

Song, Wang-Cheol

392

Acoustic and Electrical Signal Emission recordings when marble specimens are subjected to compressional mechanical stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of Acoustic Emissions (AE) and Electrical Signals (ES) has been proved as a valuable experimental method to characterize the mechanical status of marble specimens when subjected to mechanical stress. In this work, marble specimens with dimensions 10cm x 4cm x 4cm where subjected to sequential loading cycles. The maximum stress of each loading was near the vicinity of fracture and was maintained for a relatively long time (th=200s). Concurrently to the mechanical tests, AE and ES were recorded. Specifically, two AE sensors and five ES sensors were installed on the surface of the specimens and the detected emissions were stored on a PC. The recordings show that AE and ES provide information regarding the damage spreading and location in the bulk of the specimen. Specifically, when the mechanical stress was maintained constant at the high stress value during each loading cycle the cumulative number of the AE hits become gradually less reaching a minimum after the first three loading cycles, indicating the existence of the Kaiser effect. During the eighth loading cycle the AE hits show a significant increase that became maximum at the ninth cycle before where failure occured. A similar behavior was observed for the cumulative energy. A b-value analysis was conducted following both Aki's and Gutenberg-Richter relations on the amplitudes of the AE hits. The b-values were found to increase during the three first loading cycles while consequently they were practically constant until reaching the two final loading cycles where they became gradually lower. The ES significantly increases during the stress increase of each cycle and gradually restores at a background level when the applied stress is maintained constant near the vicinity of fracture. It was observed that the background restoration level becomes gradually higher during the first four loading cycles. Consequently, during the next three loading cycles the background level is maintained practically constant. During the two final loading cycles the background restoration level significantly increases indicating the upcoming fracture. Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc. SEISMO FEAR HELLARC".

Triantis, Dimos; Stavrakas, Ilias; Hloupis, George; Ninos, Konstantinos; Vallianatos, Filippos

2013-04-01

393

Statistical Mechanics of Infinite Gravitating Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmological many-body problem was stated over 300 years ago, but its solution is quite recent and still incomplete. Imagine an infinite expanding universe essentially containing a very large number of objects moving in response to their mutual gravitational forces. What will be the spatial and velocity distributions of these objects and how will they evolve? This question fascinates on many levels. Though inherently non-linear, it turns out to be one of the few analytically solvable problems of statistical mechanics with long range forces. The partition function can be calculated. From this all the thermodynamic properties of the system can be obtained for the grand canonical ensemble. They confirm results derived independently directly from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The behavior of infinite gravitating systems is quite different from their finite relations such as star clusters. Infinite gravitating systems have regimes of negative specific heat, an unusual type of phase transition, and a very close relation to the observed large-scale structure of our universe. This last feature provides an additional astronomical motivation, especially since the statistical mechanics may be generalized to include effects of dark matter haloes around galaxies. Previously the cosmological many-body problem has mostly been studied using the BBGKY hierarchy (not so suitable in the non-linear regime) and by direct computer integrations of the objects' orbits. The statistical mechanics agrees with and substantially extends these earlier results. Most astrophysicists had previously thought that a statistical thermodynamic approach would not be applicable because: a) many-body gravitational systems have no rigorous equilibrium state, b) the unshielded nature of the long-range force would cause the partition function to diverge on large scales, and c) point masses would produce divergences on small scales. However, deeper considerations show that these are not significant difficulties. There remain many important questions for which we have only a very preliminary understanding. An example is to find the basin of attraction for initial states which are able to evolve into systems described by this gravitational partition function. It may well be that ideas and techniques developed for other types of statistical mechanical systems will help us answer these questions.

Saslaw, William C.

2008-01-01

394

ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION PRODUCTS FROM ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEMS WITH MECHANICAL ANTIFOULING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of corrosion products from steam-electric power plant once-through cooling systems equipped with mechanical antifouling devices. (About 67% of the currently operating plants in the U.S. use once-through cooling systems. Various cleaning m...

395

Multi-mode electro-mechanical vibrations of a microtubule: In silico demonstration of electric pulse moving along a microtubule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microtubules are known to be involved in intracellular signaling. Here, we show in silico that electrically polar collective vibration modes of microtubules form electric oscillating potential which is quasi-periodic both in space and in time. While single mode microtubule vibration excites an electric field with spatially stationary local minima and maxima of the electric field, the multimode excitation causes the formation of an electric pulse and many transient local electric field minima. The biophysical mechanism we describe lends support to the view that microtubules may comprise a substrate for ultra-fast electrical signaling in neurons or other living cells.

Havelka, Daniel; Cifra, Michal; Ku?era, Ond?ej

2014-06-01

396

The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use full 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data from a commercial CAD system into input data for the system, which has allowed us to plan assembly sequences for many industrial assemblies. Archimedes 2 has been used to plan sequences for assemblies consisting of 5 to 109 parts. We have also successfully taken a CAD model of an assembly, produced an optimized assembly sequence for it, and translated the plan into robot code, which successfully assembles the device specified in the model.

Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

1996-03-01

397

Corona in Aircraft Electric Systems as a Function of Altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corona-starting voltages of the components of a 208-volt 400-cycle grounded-neutral electric system are reported for conditions to simulate altitudes between sea level and 50,000 feet. The corona characteristics are shown to be functions of air pressure, electric-field geometry, humidity, and the cleanliness of insulating surfaces. The effect of reducing pressure is shown to lower the corona-starting voltages of aircraft cables

W. R. Wilson

1944-01-01

398

MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR INTEGRATED HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE DYNAMIC STABILITY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expanded an existing full car dynamic model (HVOSM.VD2) to enable simulation of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles with integrated vehicle stability systems. A prototype range extending series hybrid vehicle was constructed with independent front wheel drives. A hybrid vehicle stability assist (VSA) algorithm was developed to perform proportional control of yaw rate through left\\/right distribution of

Joel R. Anstrom

2003-01-01

399

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Alaska Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Alaska Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

400

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

401

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Colorado Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Colorado Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2006-12-01

402

Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

403

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Washington Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Washington Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

404

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oregon Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oregon Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

405

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

406

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maryland Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-01-01

407

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Illinois Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

408

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Michigan Consumer's Guide (revised)  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Michigan Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-01-01

409

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Minnesota Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Minnesota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

410

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Vermont Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

411

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2006-04-01

412

Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

2013-01-08

413

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Ohio Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: An Ohio Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

414

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

415

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide provides Utah consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

416

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

417

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Kansas Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A Kansas Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-08-01

418

Information System for Electric Vehicle in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicle (EV)/plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) grid infrastructure is to increase the stability of local power system by managing the charging operations. A user interface device equipped on EVs allows the driver to receive instructions or seeks advice to manage EV's battery charging/backfill process. In this paper, we design vehicle-grid communications system. To improve the performance of the system, we customize our communication protocol for distributing EV charging information. From the experiments, we verify the performance of our protocol with respect to the data delivery ratio and the number of message forwarding.

Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

419

Electric vehicle battery system testing at TVA  

SciTech Connect

It was found that lead-acid batteries, because of low specific energy density and life, are marginal for eV use. However, with the established lead-acid industry, they may be more economical for limited future eV applications. The NiFe battery provides sufficient energy density and range for many eV applications and can withstand abusive treatment. With its longer life, this system is attractive for commercial eV applications. It is also anticipated that NiZn, NiCd, and ZnCl systems may also show promise for the future.

Barnett, J.H.; Blickwedel, T.W.

1984-01-01

420

Electric power distribution and load transfer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

421

Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

422

Space Electrical Power Systems for the Mid-1970'S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of candidate electrical power systems capable of providing up to 6.5 kW for an earth orbiting mission is presented in this report. Three power systems could be ready for a mid-1970 launch, if proper funding were provided for development prog...

R. V. Silverman

1969-01-01

423

An Electric Power Steering System Controller based on Disturbance Observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver's steering feel for back force of road is an important characteristic performance for electric power steering (EPS) system, except for the characteristic of convenient of steer wheel rotating and safety of driving. In this paper, a model of EPS system is set up, and a new low-pass filter is introduced. A controller is designed by using disturbance observer method

Lianbing Li; Lin He; Jiang Du; Tao Lin

2007-01-01

424

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning

S. Swaminathan; R. K. Sen

1997-01-01

425

Thermal aspects of a shipboard integrated electric power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and validation of a dynamic model focused on thermal aspects of the integrated propulsion system (IPS) on a notional all-electric ship (AES) is presented. This model serves as a baseline for investigation of thermal management technologies and architectures focused on identifying tradeoffs, improving system-level efficiency, and increasing the performance of an AES. The IPS model includes component models for

Christopher R. Holsonback; Thomas M. Kiehne

2010-01-01

426

Module Zero: Orientation; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This orientation module for the Basic Electric/Electronics Individualized Learning System (BEEINLES) was designed to familiarize the individual with this new learning experience. The module is divided into six lessons: your rating (a brief discussion of each of the job categories); what an individualized learning system is; the BEEINLES multimedia…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

427

Powertrain Communication System Design of Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the automotive system design flow, protocol design is an essential step which mainly includes message allocation, message priority assignment and message period assignment. This work provides an approach in the message period assignment through experiment and validation. The experiment and validation takes the powertrain system of hybrid electric vehicle as the platform. Under the baud rate of 500 Kbps,

Lifang Wang; Fang Li; Chenglin Liao

2009-01-01

428

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

SciTech Connect

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

429

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems  

DOEpatents

It is an object of the present invention to provide superconducting magnetic energy storage for a plurality of asynchronous electrical systems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide load leveling and stability improvement in a plurality of independent ac systems using a single superconducting magnetic energy storage coil.

Boenig, H.J.

1984-05-16

430

Probabilistic Wind Energy Modeling in Electric Generation System Reliability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power grid reliability impacts could be significant when a large amount of variable wind generation is integrated with the electric power system. The widely used determinis- tic reliability assessment method is invalid when modeling the intermittency of wind energy sources. The energy-based proba- bilistic reliability assessment models are required in system re- liability impact assessment in order to consider the

Yi Zhang; A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

2011-01-01

431

Probabilistic wind energy modeling in electric generation system reliability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power grid reliability impacts could be significant when a large amount of variable wind generation is integrated with the electric power system. The widely used deterministic reliability assessment method is invalid when modeling intermittency of wind energy sources. The energy based probabilistic reliability assessment models are required in system reliability impact assessment in order to consider the stochastic characteristic

Yi Zhang; A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

2010-01-01

432

Modal analysis of the Uruguayan electrical power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Uruguayan electric power system is facing deep challenges in the near future. The plans for 2015 include a significant expansion of generation based on renewable sources (wind, biomass) and a new HVDC international interconnection. These plans and the opening to multiple, distributed private generators pose significant challenges to the system operation and planning. This work describes the modal analysis

Alvaro Giusto; P. Monzo?n

2010-01-01

433

Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems  

SciTech Connect

The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission products and fuel from the damaged reactor core. The bulk of this contamination is loosely adherent to the drain pipe walls; however, significant amounts of contamination have become incorporated into pipe wall oxide and corrosion layers and embedded in microscopic pits and fissures in the pipe wall material. The need to remove this contamination was recognized early in the TMI-2 cleanup effort. A program consisting of development and laboratory testing of floor drain decontamination techniques was undertaken early in the cleanup with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Based on this initial research, two techniques were judged to show promise for use at TMI-2: a rotating brush hone system and a high-pressure water mole nozzle system. Actual use of these devices to clean floor drains at TMI-2 has yielded mixed decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness that has been obtained is highly dependent on the nature of the contamination in the drain pipe and the combination of decontamination techniques used.

Palau, G.L.; Saigusa, Moriyuki

1987-01-01

434

A contactless electrical energy transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most mains-operated equipment in use today is connected to the supply via plugs and sockets. These are generally acceptable in benign environments, but can be unsafe or have limited life in the presence of moisture. In explosive atmospheres and in undersea applications, special connectors must be used. This paper describes a technique, the contactless energy transfer system (CETS), by which

Don A. G. Pedder; Andrew D. Brown; J. Andrew Skinner

1999-01-01

435

Union Electric Company's Solid Waste Utilization System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Solid Waste Utilization System capable of processing 7300 metric tons of solid refuse from the St. Louis metropolitan area per day is under construction and scheduled for full operation in June 1977. Solid wastes collected at transfer stations will be transported to a 5500 ton\\/day processing facility associated with the 2400 MW Labadie power plant and to a 1800

D. Klumb

1976-01-01

436

Novel, unifying mechanism for mescaline in the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

A unifying mechanism for abused drugs has been proposed previously from the standpoint of electron transfer. Mescaline can be accommodated within the theoretical framework based on redox cycling by the catechol metabolite with its quinone counterpart. Electron transfer may play a role in electrical effects involving the nervous system in the brain. This approach is in accord with structure activity relationships involving mescaline, abused drugs, catecholamines and etoposide. Inefficient demethylation is in keeping with the various drug properties, such as requirement for high dosage and slow acting. There is a discussion of receptor binding, electrical effects, cell signaling and other modes of action. Mescaline is a nonselective, seretonin receptor agonist. 5-HTP receptors are involved in the stimulus properties. Research addresses the aspect of stereochemical requirements. Receptor binding may involve the proposed quinone metabolite and/or the amino sidechain via protonation. Electroencephalographic studies were performed on the effects of mescaline on men. Spikes are elicited by stimulation of a cortical area. The potentials likely originate in nonsynaptic dendritic membranes. Receptor-mediated signaling pathways were examined which affect mescaline behavior. The hallucinogen belongs to the class of 2AR agonists which regulate pathways in cortical neurons. The research identifies neural and signaling mechanisms responsible for the biological effects. Recently, another hallucinogen, psilocybin, has been included within the unifying mechanistic framework. This mushroom constituent is hydrolyzed to the phenol psilocin, also active, which is subsequently oxidized to an ET o-quinone or iminoquinone. PMID:20716904

Somanathan, Ratnasamy

2009-01-01

437

In-situ electrical, mechanical and electrochemical characterizations of one-dimensional nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-dimensional nanostructures initiated new aspects to the materials applications due to their superior properties compared to the bulk materials. Properties of nanostructures have been characterized by many techniques and used for various device applications. However, simultaneous correlation between the physical and structural properties of these nanomaterials has not been widely investigated. Therefore, it is necessary to perform in-situ study on the physical and structural properties of nanomaterials to understand their relation. In this work, we will use a unique instrument to perform real time atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of nanomaterials inside a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) system. This AFM/STM-TEM system is used to investigate the mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and Silicon nanorods (SiNRs). BNNTs are one of the subjects of this PhD research due to their comparable, and in some cases superior, properties compared to carbon nanotubes. Therefore, to further develop their applications, it is required to investigate these characteristics in atomic level. In this research, the mechanical properties of multi-walled BNNTs were first studied. Several tests were designed to study and characterize their real-time deformation behavior to the applied force. Observations revealed that BNNTs possess highly flexible structures under applied force. Detailed studies were then conducted to understand the bending mechanism of the BNNTs. Formations of reversible ripples were observed and described in terms of thermodynamic energy of the system. Fracture failure of BNNTs were initiated at the outermost walls and characterized to be brittle. Second, the electrical properties of individual BNNTs were studied. Results showed that the bandgap and electronic properties of BNNTs can be engineered by means of applied strain. It was found that the conductivity, electron concentration and carrier mobility of BNNTs can be tuned as a function of applied stress. Although, BNNTs are considered to be candidate for field emission applications, observations revealed that their properties degrade upon cycles of emissions. Results showed that due to the high emission current density, the temperature of the sample was increased and reached to the decomposition temperature at which the B-N bonds start to break. In addition to BNNTs, we have also performed in-situ study on the electrochemical properties of silicon nanorods (SiNRs). Specifically, lithiation and delithiation of SiNRs were studied by our STM-TEM system. Our observations showed the direct formation of Li22Si 5 phases as a result of lithium intercalation. Radial expansion of the anode materials were observed and characterized in terms of size-scale. Later, the formation and growth of the lithium fibers on the surface of the anode materials were observed and studied. Results revealed the formation of lithium islands inside the ionic liquid electrolyte which then grew as Li dendrite toward the cathode material.

Mir Shah Ghassemi, Seyyed Hessam

438

Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

2014-03-01

439

HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

440

Electrical, Corrosion, and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-Copper Joints Produced by Explosive Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the microstructure, electrical, corrosion, and mechanical properties of plate-shaped aluminum-copper couple produced using the explosive welding method. Mechanical tests, including hardness, tensile, tensile-shear, and impact test, concluded that the Al-Cu bimetal had an acceptable joint resistance. In this study, local intermetallic regions formed on the interface of the joint of the aluminum-copper bimetal, produced using the explosive welding technique. However, the formed intermetallic regions had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the joint, except for increasing its hardness. According to electrical conductivity tests, the Al-Cu bimetal had an average electrical conductivity in comparison to the electrical conductivity of aluminum and copper, which were the original materials forming the joint. According to the results of electro-chemical corrosion test, during which galvanic corrosion formed, the Al side of the Al-Cu bimetal was more anodic due to its high electronegativity; as a result, it was exposed to more corrosion in comparison to the copper side.

Acarer, Mustafa

2012-11-01

441

Influence of argon gas flow on mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered titanium nitride thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium nitrides have good mechanical, tribological, electrical, biomedical, and optical properties; therefore, they are used to harden and protect cutting and sliding surfaces, as semiconductor devices, and as a nontoxic exterior for biomedical applications. The dependence of the mechanical and electrical properties of titanium nitride thin films deposited on silicon substrates by direct-current reactive magnetron sputtering technique on argon gas flow (in the range of 8 to 20 sccm) was investigated. The crystallographic structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and electrical properties of these films were investigated by nanoindentation test and a four-point probe instrument, respectively. The XRD patterns showed titanium nitride (TiN) formation with a face-centered cubic structure for all samples. It was also observed that (111) crystallographic direction was the preferred orientation for TiN thin films which became more pronounced with increasing argon gas flow. The AFM images showed a granular structure for TiN layers. The hardness, crystallite/grain size (obtained from XRD and AFM), and surface roughness increased with the flow of argon gas, while elastic modulus and dislocation density in the films decreased. The study on electrical properties showed that the dependence of voltage with current for all samples was linear, and film resistivity was increased with argon gas flow.

Khojier, Kaykhosrow; Savaloni, Hadi; Shokrai, Ebrahim; Dehghani, Zohreh; Dehnavi, Naser Zare

2013-07-01

442

Electrical and mechanical effects of hyoscine butylbromide on the human stomach: a non-invasive approach.  

PubMed

Due to the importance of motility in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, efforts have been made to evaluate both gastric motility counterparts: electrical activity and mechanical activity. The present work aimed to propose a new approach, associating AC biosusceptometry (ACB) and electrogastrography (EGG), to noninvasively monitoring mechanical and electrical gastric activity, respectively. Fourteen volunteers ingested a test meal and their gastric activity was evaluated by EGG and ACB at a baseline and after 20 mg of i.v. hyoscine butylbromide. ACB and EGG showed a similar signal pattern and high temporal correlation. Hyoscine butylbromide decreased the mechanical motility index (MI) by 50.9%, while for electrical MI the reduction was 36.5%. Delayed times to onset (mean+/-SD: 50+/-15 versus 40+/-20 s; P<0.01) and the inhibitory effect (16+/-4 versus 14+/-5 min; P<0.01) were calculated for ACB and EGG, respectively. ACB and EGG emerged due to their interesting nature, noninvasiveness and low cost to evaluate gastric motility. Our approach associating ACB and EGG allowed monitoring and quantification of the effects of an anticholinergic drug in gastric electrical activity and contractile activity in humans. PMID:19282558

Américo, Madileine F; Miranda, José Ricardo A; Corá, Luciana A; Romeiro, Fernando G

2009-04-01

443

Electric vehicle battery system testing at TVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that lead-acid batteries, because of low specific energy density and life, are marginal for eV use. However, with the established lead-acid industry, they may be more economical for limited future eV applications. The NiFe battery provides sufficient energy density and range for many eV applications and can withstand abusive treatment. With its longer life, this system is

J. H. Barnett; T. W. Blickwedel

1984-01-01

444

Automation of electric power system (selected articles)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment on the automatic control of laser bias current in a digital system by the total electronic method is described. Approximate expression for junction temperature and threshold current with the consideration of bias current, and makes qualitative and quantitative analyses on the nonideal saturation characteristic for the junction voltage, which is the theoretical basis of the total electronic method for automatic control of bias current is also presented.

Lu, W.; Zhang, Y.

1983-03-01

445

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

1997-10-15

446

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of C70 Fullerene and Graphite under High Pressures Studied Using Designer Diamond Anvils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare electrical and mechanical properties of C70 fullerene with high purity graphite to 48 GPa at room temperature using designer diamond anvils with embedded electrical microprobes. The electrical resistance of C70 shows a minimum at 20 GPa with transformation to an amorphous insulating phase complete above 35 GPa, while graphite remains conducting. Nanoindentation shows hardness values 220 times larger

Jeremy R. Patterson; Shane A. Catledge; Yogesh K. Vohra; Jagannadham Akella; Samuel T. Weir

2000-01-01

447

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Cââ Fullerene and Graphite under High Pressures Studied Using Designer Diamond Anvils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare electrical and mechanical properties of Cââ fullerene with high purity graphite to 48 GPa at room temperature using designer diamond anvils with embedded electrical microprobes. The electrical resistance of Cââ shows a minimum at 20 GPa with transformation to an amorphous insulating phase complete above 35 GPa , while graphite remains conducting. Nanoindentation shows hardness values 220times larger

Jeremy R. Patterson; Shane A. Catledge; Yogesh K. Vohra; Jagannadham Akella; Samuel T. Weir

2000-01-01

448

Effect of electrical and mechanical stunning on bleeding, instrumental properties and sensory meat quality in rabbits.  

PubMed

Different voltage and frequency (T-1=49V, 250Hz; T-2=130V, 172Hz; T-3=22V, 833Hz) combinations of electrical stunning and cervical dislocation (T-4) were studied in 101 commercial rabbits in an industrial abattoir. Electrical stunning accelerated the early muscular acidification, providing lower pH-45 and pH-2h values on Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris and higher pH-24h on Biceps femoris than cervical dislocation (P<0.02). Furthermore, meat from rabbits stunned with electrical methods showed more redness (a* with mean values 1.17-1.30 vs. 0.66, P<0.02), although this cannot be associated to low exsanguination levels because electrical methods tend to produce even higher bleeding percentage than mechanical stunning (P=0.063). Haematin content in muscle, water-holding capacity and cooking losses were similar in all treatments. Shear force did not change because of the stunning methods, but the members of experienced panel found the meat coming from electrical stunning T-1 (with intermediate voltages and frequencies) tougher and less juicy than the meat obtained with other electrical applications or with cervical dislocation (P<0.05). PMID:24973775

Lafuente, R; López, M

2014-10-01

449

Signal amplification in biological and electrical engineering systems: universal role of cascades.  

PubMed

In this paper we compare the cascade mechanisms of signal amplification in biological and electrical engineering systems, and show that they share the capacity to considerably amplify signals, and respond to signal changes both quickly and completely, which effectively preserves the form of the input signal. For biological systems, these characteristics are crucial for efficient and reliable cellular signaling. We show that this highly-efficient biological mechanism of signal amplification that has naturally evolved is mathematically fully equivalent with some man-developed amplifiers, which indicates parallels between biological evolution and successful technology development. PMID:19447541

Grubelnik, Vladimir; Dugonik, Bogdan; Osebik, Davorin; Marhl, Marko

2009-08-01

450

14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.  

... 2014-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

2014-01-01

451

14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems...Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems...inspections and procedures for electrical wiring interconnection...

2013-01-01

452

18 CFR 292.302 - Availability of electric utility system cost data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Availability of electric utility system cost data. 292.302...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...1978 § 292.302 Availability of electric utility system cost data. (a)...

2011-04-01

453

18 CFR 292.302 - Availability of electric utility system cost data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Availability of electric utility system cost data. 292.302...AND COGENERATION Arrangements Between Electric Utilities and Qualifying Cogeneration...1978 § 292.302 Availability of electric utility system cost data. (a)...

2012-04-01

454

Damage-mitigating control of mechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage-Mitigating Control is a field of research involving the integration of two distinct disciplines: Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. This dissertation presents a feedback control architecture for mechanical systems to achieve a tradeoff between dynamic performance and structural durability of critical plant components. The proposed damage-mitigating control system has a two-tier structure: (i) A lower-level linear output feedback controller for plant output tracking and stability robustness over a specified operating range; and (ii) An upper-level nonlinear feedback controller which takes advantage of the real-time information generated by a physics-based model of material damage. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods available for the design of linear tracking controllers are discussed. A robust sampled-data Hsbinfty controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine, similar to the Space Shuttle Main Engine, based on a 2-input/2-output, 20-state model. The mu-synthesis technique is used to design a robust sampled-data controller for a commercial-scale fossil-fueled power plant based on a 4-input/4-output, 27-state model. A procedure for the design of damage-mitigating linear tracking controllers is also presented. The concept of fuzzy control is used to synthesize upper-level nonlinear feedback controllers based on real-time damage information. Damage-mitigating controllers are designed for the reusable rocket engine and the fossil-fueled power plant. A major advantage of using the fuzzy method for damage-mitigating controller design is that the controller can be synthesized without directly dealing with the inherent nonlinearities of the damage model. Simulation results for the reusable rocket engine and the fossil-fueled power plant suggest that the fuzzy method of damage mitigation is a practical way to design damage controllers for mechanical systems. The damage controller parameter optimization method is presented as an alternative to fuzzy control. This damage-mitigating controller synthesis technique involves the direct optimization of the system matrices of the linear component of a damage controller via nonlinear programming. This procedure is used to design a damage controller for the reusable rocket engine.

Holmes, Michael S.

455

Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ? 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

Xu, Tao

456

Antibacterial mechanisms identified through structural systems pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Background The growing discipline of structural systems pharmacology is applied prospectively in this study to predict pharmacological outcomes of antibacterial compounds in Escherichia coli K12. This work builds upon previously established methods for structural prediction of ligand binding pockets on protein molecules and utilizes and expands upon the previously developed genome scale model of metabolism integrated with protein structures (GEM-PRO) for E. coli, structurally accounting for protein complexes. Carefully selected case studies are demonstrated to display the potential for this structural systems pharmacology framework in discovery and development of antibacterial compounds. Results The prediction framework for antibacterial activity of compounds was validated for a control set of well-studied compounds, recapitulating experimentally-determined protein binding interactions and deleterious growth phenotypes resulting from these interactions. The antibacterial activity of fosfomycin, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim were accurately predicted, and as a negative control glucose was found to have no predicted antibacterial activity. Previously uncharacterized mechanisms of action were predicted for compounds with known antibacterial properties, including (1-hydroxyheptane-1,1-diyl)bis(phosphonic acid) and cholesteryl oleate. Five candidate inhibitors were predicted for a desirable target protein without any known inhibitors, tryptophan synthase ? subunit (TrpB). In addition to the predictions presented, this effort also included significant expansion of the previously developed GEM-PRO to account for physiological assemblies of protein complex structures with activities included in the E. coli K12 metabolic network. Conclusions The structural systems pharmacology framework presented in this study was shown to be effective in the prediction of molecular mechanisms of antibacterial compounds. The study provides a promising proof of principle for such an approach to antibacterial development and raises specific molecular and systemic hypotheses about antibacterials that are amenable to experimental testing. This framework, and perhaps also the specific predictions of antibacterials, is extensible to developing antibacterial treatments for pathogenic E. coli and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:24112686

2013-01-01

457

Communications and control for electric power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long-term strategy for the integration of new control technologies for power generation and delivery is proposed: the industry would benefit from an evolutionary approach that would adapt to its needs future technologies as well as those that it has so far not heeded. The integrated operation of the entire system, including the distribution system, was proposed as a future goal. The AbNET communication protocols are reviewed, and additions that were made in 1991 are described. In the original network, traffic was controlled by polling at the master station, located at the substation, and routed by a flooding algorithm. In a revised version, the polling and flooding are modified. The question of interfacing low-energy measurement transducers or instrument transformers is considered. There is presently little or no agreement on what the output of optical current transducers (CT's) should be. Appendices deal with the calibration of current transducers; with Delta modulation, a simple means of serially encoding the output of an OCT; and with noise shaping, a method of digital signal processing that trades off the number of bits in a digital sample for a higher number of samples.

Kirkham, H.

1992-01-01

458

A study on the modulation of the electrical transport by mechanical straining of individual titanium dioxide nanotube  

E-print Network

. There are few reports on the electrical transport properties of an array of TiO2 nanotubes and thin films.8 mechanical strain- ing. A recent theoretical work on boron nitride nanotubes BNNTs under flatteningA study on the modulation of the electrical transport by mechanical straining of individual

Endres. William J.

459

Assessment of distributed photovoltair electric-power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a methodology to assess the potential impacts of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems on electric utility systems, including subtransmission and distribution networks, and to apply that methodology to several illustrative examples was developed. The investigations focused upon five specific utilities. Impacts upon utility system operations and generation mix were assessed using accepted utility planning methods in combination with models that simulate PV system performance and life cycle economics. Impacts on the utility subtransmission and distribution systems were also investigated. The economic potential of distributed PV systems was investigated for ownership by the utility as well as by the individual utility customer.

Neal, R. W.; Deduck, P. F.; Marshall, R. N.

1982-10-01

460

Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

William J. Beaty, an Electrical Engineer at the University of Washington, has posted this website about electricity. He offers a simple answer to the question, What Is "Electricity?," identifies twenty misconceptions he has found to be barriers to understanding electricity, and then proceeds to explain various aspects of electricity. Beaty's debunking articles address common misconceptions about circuitry, doorknob sparks, voltage, and more.

Beaty, William J.