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1

Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

Foutes, William; And Others

2

INTEGRATED SYSTEM PROVIDES MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL SERVICE FOR SURVIVAL SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of an integrated system of providing mechanical and electrical ; services for survival shelters is presented and contrasted with all-electric ; systems commonly considered. (Public Health Eng. Abstr., 42: No. 8, Aug. 1962);

Solzman

1962-01-01

3

Integration Method of Mechanical and Electrical Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When mechanical and electrical software systems are constructed from many components, the organization of the overall system-the\\u000a mechanical and electrical software architecture-presents a new set of design problems. In this paper, we provide the integration\\u000a method of mechanical and electrical software architecture. We begin by considering a number of common design styles upon which\\u000a many systems are currently based and

Zhaoyang Peng; Guangdong Vocational

4

Application of linear electric motors in the postal mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of linear electric motors in postal mechanical systems. The author has accomplished the application of several different linear electric motors to different postal machines, i.e., belt conveyers, package sorting machines, push-type suspending conveyers, etc. Postal machines driven by linear electric motors have advantages such as simple construction, high efficiency, noise reduction, ease of control,

Ye Yunyue

2001-01-01

5

Handbook of mechanical and electrical systems for buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical and electrical systems for large buildings are discussed in detail. The book is designed to help engineers and architects. Special attention is given to heating and cooling systems, temperature and humidity control systems, power distribution systems, ventilation, lighting, energy management, and to pumps, boilers, fans, and plumbing. There are also chapters on protection from radiation, solar energy, and central

Bovay; H. E. Jr

1981-01-01

6

Plugging electrical system data into the mechanical design. [Integrating electrical and mechanical designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

When electrical design is considered in unison with development of mechanical design, many benefits for the owner, engineers, and contractors are optimized. Some areas where coincidental consideration of electrical and mechanical designs would result in a shift to off-peak electrical energy or a shift from fossil-fuel energy to electrical energy are discussed. They are: supplementary heating; off-peak heating; control and

1976-01-01

7

Reliability and availability assessment of electrical and mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring reliable electric power to critical equipment is vital to the operation of many industrial, commercial, and military facilities. Accurate assessments of electrical system reliability are needed to determine if improvements are necessary and, in many cases, these assessments are required as a part of any new construction. However, it is generally impossible to perform actual testing on the system,

Stephen J. Briggs; Michael J. Bartos; Robert G. Arno

1998-01-01

8

Reliability and availability assessment of electrical and mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring reliable electric power to critical equipment is vital to the operation of many industrial, commercial, and military facilities. Accurate assessments of electrical system reliability are needed to determine if improvements are necessary and, in many cases, these assessments are required as a part of any new construction. However, it is generally impossible to perform actual testing on the system

Stephen J. Briggs; Mike Bartos; R. Arno

1995-01-01

9

Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Test Structures: 3-Point Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers a program that calculates strain due to change in length of a beam. Written by Janet Marshall of the Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), this three-point formula program is the result of research on multi-layered microelectronics such as silicon chips. The program is intended for use by MEMS lab workers but would work well as part of a college-level engineering class exercise. Users can choose either a cantilevered or a fixed-fixed beam and then input sample data (a sample data set is provided) into a form to get an output of strain gradient and out-of-plane curvature. A link to a page showing the formulae used is provided.

10

Analogy of hydraulic, mechanical, acoustic and electric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A clearer conception of the analogies is pursued by treatment of hydraulic systems as distinct from mechanical systems, interpretation\\u000a of acoustic as mixed mechanic-hydraulic systems, analysis of the operation of piston mechanisms, and consideration of gyro-elements.

J. C. SchÖnfeld

1954-01-01

11

Mecomtronics Module H: Electrical and Mechanical Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module H focuses on electrical and mechanical power systems and process control. Student technicians will construct a conveyor system to transport radio-labeled pharmaceuticals from one side of the plant to the other where the loading bay is located. The transportation of the pharmaceutical must be done within a minimum amount of time in order to preserve the usable lifetime of the drug. In order to determine the exact time of production, the speed of the conveyor system must be precisely maintained. To maintain the precise delivery time, a variable speed motor control circuit will be employed to drive the conveyor belt. Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

12

Noise analysis of geometrically complex mechanical structures using the analogy between electrical circuits and mechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random fluctuations of displacement or velocity in mechanical systems can be calculated by using the analogy between electrical circuits and mechanical systems. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem expresses the relation between the generalized mechanical admittance and the noise in velocity. Similarly, correlation of mechanical noise can be calculated by using the generalized Nyquist theorem which states that the current noise correlation between two ports in an electrical circuit is dictated by the real part of the transadmittance. In this article, we will present the determination of the mechanical transadmittance and we will use the mechanical transadmittance to calculate the noise correlation on geometrically complex structures where it is not possible to approximate the noise by using the simple harmonic oscillator model. We will apply our method to atomic force microscope cantilevers by means of finite element method tools. The application of the noise correlation calculation method to rectangular cantilever beams shows some interesting results. We found that on the resonance frequencies, the correlation coefficient takes values 1 (full correlation) and -1 (anti-correlation) along the cantilever axis depending on the mode shapes of the structure.

Yaralioglu, G. G.; Atalar, A.

1999-05-01

13

Design of an electro-mechanical portable system using natural human body movements for electricity generation  

E-print Network

Design of an electro-mechanical portable system using natural human body movements for electricity and z. Design of an electromechanical portable system using human body movement for electricity that uses natural movements of the human body during walking motion, as a means of increasing the autonomy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Center for Nanoscale Chemical-Electrical-Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Targeted Self-healing  

E-print Network

Mechanics, University of Illinois Abstract The property of self-healing in materials is an important new a material. Thus, tests are being conducted to target self-healing polymers specifically to areas of high#12;Center for Nanoscale Chemical-Electrical-Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Targeted Self-healing

Sottos, Nancy R.

15

Bilingual Skills Training Program. Auto Mechanics. Module 4.0: The Automotive Electrical System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the automotive electrical system is the fourth of six (CE 028 296-301) in the auto mechanics course of a bilingual skills training program (A Vocabulary Development Workbook is available as CE 028 294.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience. Module objectives are for students to develop…

Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

16

Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

17

A multi-layer plastic packaging technology for miniaturized bio analysis systems containing integrated electrical and mechanical functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-layer plastic packaging technology has been developed for microfluidic systems containing electrical and mechanical functionality. Hot embossing and heat staking of plastics, micro stenciling of electrodes, and stereolithography was combined with conventional MEMS fabrication techniques to realize the system. The approach allows for multiple materials of fabrication, provides a solution to integration of electrical functionality throughout the system, and

Arum Han; Olivia Wang; Swomitra K. Mohanty; Mason Graff; B. Frazier

2002-01-01

18

Fail-safe device for an electrical power assisted steering system including an in-line clutch mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power assisted steering system for a vehicle is described, the vehicle having an operator controlled steering mechanism, at least one steered wheel and a steering shaft directly connecting the steering mechanism to the wheel. The system consists of: a bidirectional electric motor; control means for energizing the motor to turn in a first direction when the steering mechanism is

Kalns

1986-01-01

19

Mechanical and electrical behaviour of an electric vehicles drive train due to the choice of the control-system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A future-orientated strategy for the use of energy within passenger cars is electrical energy. Due to this developpment there is a need of considering the conditioning of electrical energy to be used for electrical machines under conditions of an electric vehicle. Comparing a fixed step-size control-system with a space-vector based hysteresis-control (bang-bang-control), the high frequent influence to the whole power

Philip Dost; Constantinos Sourkounis

2011-01-01

20

Electric turbocompound control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described

Algrain; Marcelo C

2007-01-01

21

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE)  

E-print Network

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE) Department of Electronic & Electrical and electrical engineering are in great demand because of their ability to work on complex interdisciplinary and become an expert in the core areas of both mechanical and electrical engineering. Subject aims

Burton, Geoffrey R.

22

Multiscale analysis of liquid lubrication trends from industrial machines to micro-electrical-mechanical systems.  

PubMed

An analytic multiscale expression is derived that yields conditions for effective liquid lubrication of oscillating contacts via surface flow over multiple time and length scales. The expression is a logistics function that depends on two quantities, the fraction of lubricant removed at each contact and a scaling parameter given by the logarithm of the ratio of the contact area to the product of the lubricant diffusion coefficient and the cycle time. For industrial machines the expression confirms the need for an oil mist. For magnetic disk drives, the expression predicts that existing lubricants are sufficient for next-generation data storage. For micro-electrical-mechanical systems, the expression predicts that a bound + mobile lubricant composed of tricresyl phosphate on an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer will be effective only for temperatures greater than approximately 200 K and up to approximately MHz oscillation frequencies. PMID:17661501

Brenner, Donald W; Irving, Douglas L; Kingon, Angus I; Krim, Jacqueline; Padgett, Clifford W

2007-08-28

23

Electrical and mechanical system improvement study (continuous miners). Final technical report as of 15 July 1978. [343 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal production actually achieved using continuous mining machines has rarely reached the level of production for which the machines are designed. The lost opportunity for higher coal production is directly related to machine downtime. The specific goals of this program were to identify those mechanical and electrical components and systems directly responsible for the majority of continuous mining machine failures

R. J. McCracken; E. L. Woods

1978-01-01

24

Mechanical Electrical and Plumbing Course Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Shannon Baird's Mechanical Electrical and Plumbing class, taught at Portland Community College. The course "covers the basic principles, types, and applications of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems in commercial construction." This syllabus includes a detailed course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Baird, Shannon

25

Design and Use of Interactive Learning Stations in Construction Education for Building Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, the building codes that govern the design and installation of mechanical and electrical systems for buildings have become increasingly prescriptive in nature, specifying detailed information related to the design and installation of the systems, while offering no reasoning behind their prescriptive measures. Students now read about the design and installation of these systems in textbooks, and using the building codes, have in-class exercises drafting the systems, which in industry are used for fabrication and installation. Therefore, in conjunction with a new curriculum proposed for the construction management department at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo an interactive learning station was developed for student use to enhance student learning. This paper focuses on the design and use of interactive learning stations for building mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems that allow construction students to perform hands-on fit-up exercises and test their performance.

Korman, Thomas

26

Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical and electrical  

E-print Network

Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanical, Jones und Roos describe the method of automotive production which they had seen in the Toyota company

Boyer, Edmond

27

Electric turbocompound control system  

DOEpatents

Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

Algrain, Marcelo C. (Dunlap, IL)

2007-02-13

28

Electric micropropulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of microspacecraft, the field of electrical micropropulsion is a rapidly expanding discipline. New ideas are being explored constantly and a review of the current state of technological development in the field will be useful. This review deals with electrostatic and electromagnetic micropropulsion systems that are either miniaturization attempts of existing technologies or novel systems in their own right. A brief discussion of the development of microspacecraft and a general overview of the types of micropropulsion are given. The essential mechanism of operation of each electrical micropropulsion system is described and recent progress in the development of these systems is explored, giving latest available data of their performance parameters.

Wright, W. P.; Ferrer, P.

2015-04-01

29

Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.  

PubMed

Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

2013-01-01

30

Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Mechanical and Electrical Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives an overview and considers the most recent aspects of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management\\u000a Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanical and electrical industry have been asked. On the one hand, a questionnaire for a\\u000a mass evaluation was used and on the other hand specialists have been interviewed orally for the specific

Stefan Kluge; Andreas Rau; Engelbert Westkämper

2009-01-01

31

Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding  

E-print Network

- multiagent systems General Terms Algorithms, Design, Economics Keywords electric vehicle, mechanism designOnline Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding eg@ecs.soton.ac.uk Valentin electric vehicles are expected to place a consid- erable strain on local electricity distribution networks

Chen, Yiling

32

Fail-safe device for an electrical power assisted steering system including an in-line clutch mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A power assisted steering system for a vehicle is described, the vehicle having an operator controlled steering mechanism, at least one steered wheel and a steering shaft directly connecting the steering mechanism to the wheel. The system consists of: a bidirectional electric motor; control means for energizing the motor to turn in a first direction when the steering mechanism is moved in one direction by the operator, for energizing the motor to turn in a direction opposite the first direction when the steering mechanism is moved in a direction opposite the one direction by the operator, for monitoring the operational condition of the system to detect malfunctions, and for generating a signal indicative of the operational condition system; a gear reduction means connected between the motor and the steering shaft for increasing the torque delivered to the steering shaft by the motor; clutch means, responsive to the control means for coupling the motor to the ratio reduction means when the system is operating properly and for isolating the motor from the ratio reduction means when the system is not operating properly, and the clutch means including a first clutch half and a coaxial second clutch half, the first clutch half being axially mounted on the motor armature for rotation therewith, second clutch half being axially mounted on the gear reduction means for rotation therewith, and further including means, responsive to the control means for moving one of the first or second clutch halves into frictional contact with the other of the first or second halves when the system is operating properly.

Kalns, I.

1986-03-04

33

Combined electrical and mechanical model of electric submersible pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric submersible pump unit consists of a pump powered by a medium-voltage three-phase induction motor. The power transmission system is integrated with the riser pipes. Starting the pump causes heavy dynamic stresses on the motor shaft and the mechanical connection between pump (impellers) and shaft. The motor and its load will generate transient torque pulsations that may be damaging

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

2001-01-01

34

Electrical Mechanical Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide describes the development of a sixteen-week postsecondary course in electrical mechanical maintenance. Following introductory sections that provide background information and a course summary, the third section describes the instructional model used in the course. Section 4 presents an overview of instructional media used…

Santa Clara County Superintendent of Schools, San Jose, CA.

35

Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-01-03

36

Electric flight systems, overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

Cronin, M. J.

1982-01-01

37

A Unified Procedure for Deriving the Differential Equations of Electrical and Mechanical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on energy considerations, it is possible to obtain the differential equations of motion of any physical system. A statement of equilibrium involving operations on energy functions is the Lagrange equation d \\/ OT a7' D aOV dt (aq,) -aq aq + aq. Providing that the kinetic energy T, potential energy V, and dissipation function D can be written, the

G. W. Ogar; J. J. D'Azzo

1962-01-01

38

Electrical Systems. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This electrical systems manual is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of electrical systems on mobile machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Electricity: How It…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

39

Superconductivity for Electric Systems  

E-print Network

Superconductivity for Electric Systems Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report For the Period January 1, 2007 to March 31, 2007 #12;2 Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report Superconductivity Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory For: Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery

40

Superconductivity for Electric Systems  

E-print Network

Superconductivity for Electric Systems Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report For the Period April 1, 2007, to June 30, 2007 #12;2 Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report Superconductivity Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory For: Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery

41

Superconductivity for Electric Systems  

E-print Network

1 Superconductivity for Electric Systems Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report For the Period October 1, 2006, to December 31, 2006 #12;2 Superconductivity Program Quarterly Progress Report Superconductivity Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory For U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery

42

Hawaii electric system reliability.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

2012-09-01

43

In situ mechanical and electrical characterization of individual TiO2 nanofibers using a nanomanipulator system.  

PubMed

Young's modulus and electrical resistivity of individual titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanofibers were characterized using a nanomanipulator system installed in a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) dual-beam Scanning Electron Microscope system. Young's modulus of individual nanofibers was deduced from the analysis of their in situ resonance behavior in response to an oscillating electric field. The electrical behavior of a single nanofiber was also analyzed by a two-point method probed by a nanomanipulator. These results will contribute to the design of devices based on single TiO(2) nanofibers, as well as devices based on nanofiber networks. The methods presented here can also be applied to characterize other one-dimensional nanostructures. PMID:22549266

Xu, Shiyou; Li, Anton; Poirier, Gerald; Yao, Nan

2012-01-01

44

Preliminary Hazards Assessments for Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion Systems Mechanisms to Quantitatively Ascertain and Address Launch and Operational Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectures are analyzed based on several figures of merit, including mass transported to Mars and samples transported from Mars to Earth, potential to reduce Earth contamination, sites on MArs visited, trip time and potential cost trades.A technological variant of a commercial vehicle for near-Earth missions is used as the nuclear electric propulsion system baseline. Several types of Mars landing and

R. Lenard

2002-01-01

45

T & I--Auto Mechanics. Electrical System. Kit No. 48. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto electrical systems are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

Lake, Robert

46

Mechanical and Electrical Systems for the Tallest Building/Man-Made Structure in the World: A Burj Dubai Case Study  

E-print Network

building and construction in the world, upon its completion in 2009. This paper will present the mechanical and electrical solutions purposed by our Chicago engineering team to harsh environment. Additional challenges associated with any super... into the design will serve to define a new standard for super high rise design for the hot and humid climate. CLIMATE DATA AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The city of Dubai is located at 25°15’ N latitude and 55°19’ E longitude and is situated along the coast...

Frechette, R.; Leung, L.; Boyer, J.

2006-01-01

47

Modeling of a Spring\\/Damper System for Electrical Contacts using Dynamic Designer in Autodesk Mechanical Desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme space limitations and the desire to reduce the bounce between contacts prompted an investigation of the use of Belleville washers and Sorbothane as part of a spring\\/damper system in a medium voltage high-speed shorting device. Experimental tests in conjunction with mechanism simulation have been used to optimize a spring and damping system for the minimization of bounce that occurs

Mary B. Groff

48

Electrical and Mechanical Passive Network Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The context of this paper is the application of electrical circuit synthesis to problems of mechanical control. The use of\\u000a the electrical-mechanical analogy and the inerter mechanical element is briefly reviewed. Classical results from passive network\\u000a synthesis are surveyed including Brune’s synthesis, Bott-Duffin’s procedure, Darlington’s synthesis, minimum reactance extraction\\u000a and the synthesis of biquadratic functions. New results are presented on

Michael Chen; Malcolm Smith

49

US electric power system reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric energy supply, transmission and distribution systems are investigated in order to determine priorities for legislation. The status and the outlook for electric power reliability are discussed.

50

Mechanical systems: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

1975-01-01

51

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

52

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene is an exciting new atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) system of carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice structure. This "wonder material" has been extensively studied in the last few years since it's first isolation in 2004. Its rapid rise to popularity in scientific and technological communities can be attributed to a number of its exceptional properties. In this thesis I will present several topics including fabrication of graphene devices, electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. I will start with a brief introduction of electronic transport in nanosclae system including quantum Hall effect, followed by a discussion of fundamental electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. Next I will describe how graphene devices are produced: from the famous "mechnical exfoliation" to our innovative "scratching exfoliation" method, together with the traditional lithography fabrication for graphene devices. We also developed a lithography-free technique for making electrical contacts to suspended graphene devices. Most of the suspended devices presented in this thesis are fabricated by this technique. Graphene has remarkable electrical properties thanks to its crystal and band structures. In Chapter 3, I will first focus on proximity-induced superconductivity in graphene Josephson transistors. In this section we investigate electronic transport in single layer graphene coupled to superconducting electrodes. We observe significant suppression in the critical current I c and large variation in the product IcR n in comparison to theoretic prediction; both phenomena can be satisfactorily accounted for by premature switching in underdamped Josephson junctions. Another focus of our studies is quantum Hall effect and many body physics in graphene in suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene. We demonstrate that symmetry breaking of the first 3 Landau levels and fractional quantum Hall states are observed in both bilayer and trilayer suspended graphene devices. A surprising finding in these systems is the observation of insulating states in both suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene devices, which arises from electronic interactions. In bilayer graphene, we observe a phase transition between the single-particle metallic state and the interaction-induced insulating state in ultra-clean BLG, which can be tuned by temperature, disorder, charge density n and perpendicular electric field E ?. In trilayer graphene we demonstrate dramatically different transport properties arising from the different stacking orders, and an unexpected spontaneous gap opening in charge neutral ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. One of graphene's unique properties is that it is nature's thinnest elastic membrane with exceptional mechanical properties. In chapter 7 I will describe the first direct observation and controlled creation of one- and two-dimensional periodic ripples in suspended graphene sheets, using both spontaneously and thermally generated strains. We are able to control ripple orientation, wavelength and amplitude by controlling boundary conditions and exploiting graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient, which we measure to be much larger than that of graphite. In addition, we also study the morphological change of suspended graphene sheets by apply gate voltages, which is a simple and direct method to strain and buckle graphene. Our experimental results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electrical and mechanical properties of graphene, and may have important implications for future graphene based applications.

Bao, Wenzhong

53

Basic Electricity in Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on electricity has been designed especially for teachers to use with freshmen and sophomore vocational agricultural students in Montana. It consists of an outline of the unit and eight lesson plans. The unit outline lists the following components: situation, aims and goals, lesson plans, student activities, teacher…

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

54

Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer  

E-print Network

Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer N Kchit, G Bossis L.P.M.C. UMR. Magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) are smart materials made by aligning magnetic microparticles inside a liquid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mechanical strength, temperature, flexibility...maximum allowable voltage drop. Current-carrying...for operating temperature. (b) Main battery system. ...electrical noise that affects the safe performance...due to high voltage transients...

2011-10-01

56

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mechanical strength, temperature, flexibility...maximum allowable voltage drop. Current-carrying...for operating temperature. (b) Main battery system. ...electrical noise that affects the safe performance...due to high voltage transients...

2013-10-01

57

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mechanical strength, temperature, flexibility...maximum allowable voltage drop. Current-carrying...for operating temperature. (b) Main battery system. ...electrical noise that affects the safe performance...due to high voltage transients...

2012-10-01

58

49 CFR 238.225 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...mechanical strength, temperature, flexibility...maximum allowable voltage drop. Current-carrying...for operating temperature. (b) Main battery system. ...electrical noise that affects the safe performance...due to high voltage transients...

2014-10-01

59

Trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle. The electric vehicle contains a driving mechanism, a driving operation part and a control device. The driving mechanism includes a power source, an electric motor and a modality for controlling output level from the power supply to the electric motor in response to the driving operation part. The control device includes a microprocessor which receives commands from the driving operation part and supplies a control signal to the driving mechanism in response to a stored drive control program. The trouble shooting system consists of control device storage mechanisms for storing trouble shooting programs for various parts of the vehicle which are executed by the microprocessor. This system also includes a command generating modality responsive to manual operation for supplying a command to the microprocessor to initiate the execution and read out of a selected trouble shooting program and a method by which the microprocessor may display the program being processed.

Horiuchi, M.

1986-01-14

60

Electrical \\/ mechanical \\/ thermal design integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Intermediate Data Format (IDF) is a specification designed to provide a neutral representation for exchanging printed circuit assembly (PCA) data among mechanical design (MCAD), PCA layout (ECAD), and physical design analysis (MCAE) applications. Powerful analysis software, like Ansys, Maxwell, Semcad, Altium Designer or SolidWorks - CircuitWorks, can import the idf files and use the model for electromagnetic or thermal

Lucian Man; Dan Pitica; Monica Zolog

2009-01-01

61

Production cost adjustment mechanism for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of developing a general production cost-adjustment mechanism for electric utilities within a given regulated territory is discussed. Cost-adjustment mechanisms have been an integral part of the utility rate regulation process since the mid-nineteenth century. However, economic conditions have not warranted significant usage of such mechanisms except in periods of economic instability and high inflation. Recent inflation, particularly in

Lamb

1976-01-01

62

Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

2011-01-01

63

Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates  

DOEpatents

A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion. 2 figs.

Chen, P.J.

1987-03-02

64

Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates  

DOEpatents

A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

Chen, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

65

TOPEX electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

1991-01-01

66

ForPeerReview Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Only Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated Quadriceps Muscle Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated Quadriceps Muscle Abstract OBJECTIVE: To measure the energy that can be extracted from the electrically stimulated quadriceps muscle during leg lifts

Durfee, William K.

67

High density electrical card connector system  

SciTech Connect

An electrical circuit board card connection system is disclosed which comprises a wedge-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. An extrusion along the edge of the circuit board mates with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned and the wedge inserted. The disclosed connection system is a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

Haggard, J.E.; Trotter, G.R.

2000-02-29

68

Wind Turbines Electrical and Mechanical Engineering  

E-print Network

Wind Turbines Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Objective · Introduce students to the concept of alternative energy. · Explain the math and scientific principles behind engineering wind turbines. Standards and how it applies to wind energy · About how surface area and shape effects wind turbine efficiency

Provancher, William

69

Robot drive mechanism uses conventional electric motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of three phase asynchronous electric motors in robot technology are presented. The mechanical arm of a robot has as many drives as it has joints. Manipulators in use in modern industry must have six to nine degrees of mobility, and experimental prototypes with 18 coordinates of movement are already developed. A simple, common, and inexpensive industrial

I. Demchenko

1986-01-01

70

Electric vehicle monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for monitoring one or more electric vehicles which are driven by parallel-connected induction motors controlled by a variable voltage/variable frequency inverter, the induction motors being divided into a first group of one or more induction motors and a second group of one or more induction motors, comprising: rotational frequency detecting means for detecting a rotational frequency of the first group of motors; first current detecting means for detecting a first motor current supplied to the first group of motors; second current detecting means for detecting a second motor current supplied to the second group of motors; and protection circuit means responsive only to outputs of the rotational frequency detecting means and the first and second current detecting means for determining an operational parameter of the second group of motors indicative of a rotational frequency of the second group of motors.

Kojima, S.; Obi, H.

1987-08-11

71

Hybrid Mechanical Systems  

E-print Network

We discuss hybrid systems in which a mechanical oscillator is coupled to another (microscopic) quantum system, such as trapped atoms or ions, solid-state spin qubits, or superconducting devices. We summarize and compare different coupling schemes and describe first experimental implementations. Hybrid mechanical systems enable new approaches to quantum control of mechanical objects, precision sensing, and quantum information processing.

Philipp Treutlein; Claudiu Genes; Klemens Hammerer; Martino Poggio; Peter Rabl

2015-01-06

72

Electric space propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active development of electric thrustors began 10 years ago. Today, several kinds of thrustors have achieved efficiencies above 90 % and lifetimes of several thousand hours. The following article derives the basic theory of electric thrust production at constant exhaust velocity, and at variable exhaust velocity programmed for optimum vehicle performance. Electrothermal or arcjet; electrostatic or ion; and electrodynamic or

Ernst Stuhlinger

1967-01-01

73

Electrical power distribution system (HV270DC), for application in more electric aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new designs of military aircraft and unmanned aircraft there is a clear trend towards increasing demand of electrical power. This fact is mainly due to the replacement of mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic equipments by partially or completely electrical systems. Generally, use of electrical power onboard is continuously increasing within the areas of communications, surveillance and general systems, such

D. Izquierdo; R. Azcona; F. J López del Cerro; C. Fernandez; B. Delicado

2010-01-01

74

Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems  

E-print Network

Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer T¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

75

Mechanical switching of ferro-electric rubber  

E-print Network

At the A to C transition, smectic elastomers have recently been observed to undergo $\\sim$35% spontaneous shear strains. We first explicitly describe how strains of up to twice this value could be mechanically or electrically induced in Sm-$C$ elastomers by rotation of the director on a cone around the layer normal at various elastic costs depending on constraints. Secondly, for typical sample geometries, we give the various microstructures in Sm-$C$ akin to those seen in nematic elastomers under distortions with constraints. It is possible to give explicit results for the nature of the textures. Chiral Sm-$C$ elastomers are ferro-electric. We calculate how the polarization could be mechanically reversed by large, hard or soft strains of the rubber, depending upon sample geometry.

J. M. Adams; M. Warner

2008-12-09

76

Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter  

DOEpatents

Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

Kellogg, Rick Allen (Tijeras, NM); Brotz, Jay Kristoffer (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-03-03

77

Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

Dudley, Michael R.

2010-01-01

78

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This model enables one to calculate the flow direction and local density of the charge exchange plasma, and indicates the degree to which this plasma can flow upstream of the thruster exhaust plane. A continuing effort to investigate the most desirable throttling technique for noble gas ion thrusters concentrated this year on experimentally determining the fixed flow rate throttling range of a 30-cm dia. thruster with a two-grid accelerator system. These experiments demonstrated a throttling capability which covers a 2.8 to 1 variation in input power. This throttling range is 55 percent greater than expected, and is due to better accelerator system performance at low net-to-total voltage ratios than indicated in the literature. To facilitate the development of large, higher power ion thrusters several brief studies were performed. These include the development of a technique which simulates ion thruster operation without beam extraction, the development of an optical technique to measure ion thruster grid distortion due to thermal expansion, tests of a capacitance measurement technique to quantify the accelerator system grid separation, and the development of a segmented thruster geometry which enables near term development of ion thrusters at power levels greater than 100 kW. Finally, a paper detailing the benefits of electric propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative was written.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

1991-01-01

79

Mechanical Assemblies Design of Underwater Electric Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric motor plays an important role in providing Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) system the capability for motion. Therefore, the motor should be designed as an integral part of an AUV which provide an efficient way for the mobility and maneuverability of the AUV. At the same time, the motor should not become a liability part that consume unnecessary portion of

Normariah Che Maideen; Indra Putra Almanar; Amir Yazid Ali; Dahaman Ishak; Mohd Rizal

80

Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing  

PubMed Central

The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface. PMID:25489276

2014-01-01

81

A semi-implantable multichannel telemetry system for continuous electrical, mechanical and hemodynamical recordings in animal cardiac research.  

PubMed

We have developed an eight-channel telemetry system for studying experimental models of chronic cardiovascular disease. The system is an extension of a previous device that has been miniaturized, reduced in power consumption and provided with increased functionality. We added sensors for ventricular dimension, and coronary artery blood flow and arterial blood pressure that are suitable for use with the system. The telemetry system consists of a front end, a backpack and a host PC. The front end is a watertight stainless steel case with all sensor electronics sealed inside; it acquires dimension, flow, pressure and five cardiac electrograms from selected locations on the heart. The backpack includes a control unit, Bluetooth radio, and batteries. The control unit digitizes eight channels of data from the front end and forwards them to the host PC via Bluetooth link. The host PC has a receiving Bluetooth radio and Labview programs to store and display data. The whole system was successfully tested on the bench and in an animal model. This telemetry system will greatly enhance the ability to study events leading to spontaneous sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:17322590

Kong, Wei; Huang, Jian; Rollins, Dennis L; Ideker, Raymond E; Smith, William M

2007-03-01

82

Automotive electrical systems circa 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demands for better fuel economy and more electric power are driving cars to multiple higher voltages. In the next 10 years the electrical systems in some luxury automobiles will be so changed as to be almost unrecognizable. Although they will doubtless employ the old reliable 12 V lead-acid battery, their loads will be driven by a variety of voltages, both

J. G. Kassakian; H.-C. Wolf; J. M. Miller; C. J. Hurton

1996-01-01

83

Oscillation control system for electric motor drive  

DOEpatents

A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

1988-08-30

84

Ferroelastic domain switching dynamics under electrical and mechanical excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In thin film ferroelectric devices, switching of ferroelastic domains can significantly enhance electromechanical response. Previous studies have shown disagreement regarding the mobility or immobility of ferroelastic domain walls, indicating that switching behaviour strongly depends on specific microstructures in ferroelectric systems. Here we study the switching dynamics of individual ferroelastic domains in thin Pb(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 films under electrical and mechanical excitations by using in situ transmission electron microscopy and phase-field modelling. We find that ferroelastic domains can be effectively and permanently stabilized by dislocations at the substrate interface while similar domains at free surfaces without pinning dislocations can be removed by either electric or stress fields. For both electrical and mechanical switching, ferroelastic switching is found to occur most readily at the highly active needle points in ferroelastic domains. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of polarization switching dynamics as well as the engineering of ferroelectric devices.

Gao, Peng; Britson, Jason; Nelson, Christopher T.; Jokisaari, Jacob R.; Duan, Chen; Trassin, Morgan; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Guo, Hua; Li, Linze; Wang, Yiran; Chu, Ying-Hao; Minor, Andrew M.; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Chen, Long-Qing; Pan, Xiaoqing

2014-05-01

85

Wind farm electrical system  

DOEpatents

An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

2006-07-04

86

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

87

Electric propulsion system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, achievement of thruster efficiency and specific impulse levels required for missions of interest, and demonstration of adequate engine life at these input power, efficiency, and specific impulse levels. To address these issues we have designed, built, and tested a 100 kW class, radiation-cooled applied-field MPD thruster and a unique dual-beam thrust stand that enables separate measurements of the applied- and self-field thrust components. We have also initiated the development of cathode thermal and plasma sheath models that will eventually be used to guide the experimental program. In conjunction with the cathode modeling, a new cathode test facility is being constructed. This facility will support the study of cathode thermal behavior and erosion mechanisms, the diagnosis of the near-cathode plasma and the development and endurance testing of new, high-current cathode designs. To facilitate understanding of electrode surface phenomenon, we have implemented a telephoto technique to obtain photographs of the electrodes during engine operation. In order to reduce the background vacuum tank pressure during steady-state engine operation in order to obtain high fidelity anode thermal data, we have developed and are evaluating a gas-dynamic diffuser. A review of experience with alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters led to the conclusion that alkali metals, particularly lithium, offer the potential for significant engine performance and lifetime improvements. These propellants are also condensible at room temperature, substantially reducing test facility pumping requirements. The most significant systems-level issue is the potential for spacecraft contamination. Subsequent experimental and theoretical efforts should be directed toward verifying the performance and lifetime gains and characterizing the thruster flow field to assess its impact on spacecraft surfaces. Consequently, we have begun the design and development of a new facility to study engine operation with alkali metal propellants.

Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

1992-01-01

88

Reliability Impact of Solar Electric Generation upon Electric Utility Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of solar electric systems into an electric utility grid brings new considerations in the assessment of the utility's power supply reliability. This paper summarizes a methodology for estimating the reliability impact of solar electric technologies upon electric utilities for value assessment and planning purposes. Utility expansion and operating impacts are considered. Sample results from photovoltaic analysis show that

John T. Day; Walter J. Hobbs

1982-01-01

89

Reliability impact of solar electric generation upon electric utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of solar electric systems into an electric utility grid brings new considerations in the assessment of the utility's power supply reliability. This paper summarizes a methodology for estimating the reliability impact of solar electric technologies upon electric utilities for value assessment and planning purposes. Utility expansion and operating impacts are considered. Sample results from photovoltaic analysis show that

J. T. Day; W. J. Hobbs

1982-01-01

90

Space station electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

1987-01-01

91

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the

M. Maniyar

2004-01-01

92

Nuclear electric propulsion systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear propulsion background; schedule for the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) project; NEP for the Space Exploration Initiative; NEP on-going systems tasks; 20KWe mission/system study; and agenda.

Doherty, Michael P.

1993-01-01

93

Mechanical milling assisted by electrical discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical milling is an effective technique for the preparation of fine metallic and ceramic powders and can also be used to drive a wide range of chemical reactions. Milling devices include planetary machines, attritors and vibrational mills; products include amorphous, nanocrystalline and quasicrystalline materials, supersaturated solid solutions, reduced minerals, high-surface-area catalysts and reactive chemicals. During milling, solid-solid, solid-liquid and solid-gas reactions are initiated through repeated deformation and fracture of powder particles. A separate materials synthesis and processing technique involves reacting a material in a gas atmosphere under an electrical discharge. Here we show that the application of low-current, high-voltage electrical impulses during milling can result in both faster reactions and new synthesis and processing routes. We demonstrate the effects of glow (cold) and spark (hot) discharge milling on particle fracture for brittle, low-conductivity materials and ductile metals. Glow discharge milling was found to promote solid-gas reactions whereas spark discharge milling promotes fast fracturing, recrystallization, mineral reduction and solid-solid reactions.

Calka, A.; Wexler, D.

2002-09-01

94

Autonomously managed electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

Callis, Charles P.

1986-01-01

95

Electrical power systems for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

Giudici, Robert J.

1986-01-01

96

Electrical power systems for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

Giudici, Robert J.

1986-05-01

97

Current status and future trends in More Electric Car power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing use of electrical power to drive automobile subsystems, which historically have been driven by a combination of mechanical, hydraulic, and electrical power transfer systems, is seen as a dominant trend in advanced automotive power systems. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC). Advancements in the areas of power electronics, fault tolerant electrical power distribution systems, electric drives,

J. M. Miller; A. Emadi; A. V. Rajarathnam; M. Ehsani

1999-01-01

98

76 FR 16263 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Salem Electric Cooperative, Salmon River Electric Cooperative, Inc., Umatilla Electric Cooperative, Utah Associated Municipal Power Systems, Washington Rural Electric Cooperative Association, and West Oregon Electric Cooperative,...

2011-03-23

99

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

100

Simulation and Experimental Comparison of Different Coupling Mechanisms for the Wireless Electricity Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless electricity transfer is an emerging technology for the future power supply system. In this paper, we simulate two different coupling mechanisms used in the wireless electricity transfer: the inductive coupling and resonant near-field coupling. Equivalent circuits are extracted to simulate their transfer efficiencies. To achieve the maximum transfer efficiency, the optimized frequencies are derived for two mechanisms. There is

X. C. Wei; E. P. Li; Y. L. Guan; Y. H. Chong

2009-01-01

101

Cavity optoelectromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction  

SciTech Connect

A cavity optoelectromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via optomechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 {mu}N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The integration of electrical actuation into optomechanical devices is an enabling step toward the regime of quantum nonlinear dynamics and provides capabilities for quantum control of mechanical motion.

McRae, Terry G. [Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); MacDiarmid Institute, Physics Department, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Lee, Kwan H.; Harris, Glen I.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P. [Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2010-08-15

102

A simple electrical-mechanical model of the heart applied to the study of electrical-mechanical alternans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent evidence has shown that a subtle alternation in the surface ECG (electrical alternans) may be correlated with the susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. In the present work, the author presents evidence that a mechanical alternation in the heartbeat (mechanical alternans) generally accompanies electrical alternans. A simple finite-element computer model which emulates both the electrical and the mechanical activity of the heart is presented. A pilot animal study is also reported. The computer model and the animal study both found that (1) there exists a regime of combined electrical-mechanical alternans during the transition from a normal rhythm towards a fibrillatory rhythm, (2) the detected degree of alternation is correlated with the relative instability of the rhythm, and (3) the electrical and mechanical alternans may result from a dispersion in local electrical properties leading to a spatial-temporal alternation in the electrical conduction process.

Clancy, Edward A.; Smith, Joseph M.; Cohen, Richard J.

1991-01-01

103

Hybrid electric power generating system  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid power system is described which consists of: (a) a first energy converter operating on a closed Rankine cycle and including a vapor generator for vaporizing an organic working fluid in response to heat furnished from a heat source associated with the vapor generator. A turbogenerator is responsive to vaporized working fluid for generating electrical power and a condenser is responsive to vapor exhausted from the turbo-generator for converting such vapor to a condensed liquid. A means is included for returning the liquid to the vapor generator; (b) a second energy converter including a thermo-electric generator having a junction, a heat source for heating the junction whereby such thermo-electric generator generates electrical power; (c) a heat pipe for conveying heat from the heat source of the second converter to the vapor generator of the first converter and to the junction; and (d) means for applying the electrical power generated by the first and second converters to an electrical load.

Bronicki, L.Y.

1986-11-11

104

Managing hospital electrical systems shutdowns.  

PubMed

Hospital electrical systems shutdowns are an important component to both internal and external disaster planning. An organized, thorough and well-communicated plan can make this important process run smoothly. This document examines the necessary steps in developing and implementing such a shutdown. PMID:10156029

Stymiest, D L

1996-04-01

105

Hybrid electric power generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid power system is described which consists of: (a) a first energy converter operating on a closed Rankine cycle and including a vapor generator for vaporizing an organic working fluid in response to heat furnished from a heat source associated with the vapor generator. A turbogenerator is responsive to vaporized working fluid for generating electrical power and a condenser

Bronicki

1986-01-01

106

Hybrid electric power generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid power system is described which comprises a pair of energy converters operating on a closed Rankine cycle, each energy converter having a vapor generator for vaporizing a high molecular weight working fluid in response to heat furnished from a burner associated with the generator, a turbo-generator responsive to vaporized working fluid for generating electrical power, a condenser responsive

Bronicki

1978-01-01

107

A market mechanism for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

1996-01-01

108

6.061 / 6.690 Introduction to Electric Power Systems, Spring 2007  

E-print Network

This course is an introductory subject in the field of electric power systems and electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Electric power has become increasingly important as a way of transmitting and transforming energy ...

Kirtley, James

109

Detection of arcs in automotive electrical systems  

E-print Network

At the present time, there is no established method for the detection of DC electric arcing. This is a concern for forthcoming advanced automotive electrical systems which consist of higher DC electric power bus voltages, ...

Mishrikey, Matthew David

2005-01-01

110

Introduction to Electric Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine course is offered as a welcome addition to MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative. The materials from this version of "Introduction to Electric Power Systems" are from the iteration taught by Professor James Kirtley in Spring 2011. On the site, visitors can look over the syllabus, the course calendar, readings, assignments, and quizzes. The topics covered here include load flow, power electric motor drives, and polyphase networks. The site also includes a number of problem sets, along with their accompanying solutions. Visitors can look over the readings and provide feedback on the course to the site administrators.

111

Research for electric energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents the technical progress in the two investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems,' Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. During 1992, the derivation of equations which predict differences between the average magnetic flux density using circular coil probes and the flux density at the center of the probe, assuming a dipole magnetic field, were completed. The information gained using these equations allows the determination of measurement uncertainty due to probe size when magnetic fields from many electrical appliances are characterized. Consultations with various state and federal organizations and the development of standards related to electric and magnetic field measurements continued. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities related to compressed-gas insulated high voltage systems: the measurement of dissociative electron attachment cross sections and negative ion production in S2F10, S2OF10, and S2O2F10, and Monte-Carlo simulations of ac-generated partial-discharge pulses that can occur in SF6-insulated power systems and can be sources of gas decomposition.

Anderson, W. E.

1993-10-01

112

Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

Foutes, William

113

Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(?) of

R. Sarathi; R. K. Sahu; P. Rajeshkumar

2007-01-01

114

Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

NONE

1996-03-04

115

Author's personal copy Electric Power Systems Research 96 (2013) 225236  

E-print Network

, USA b The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article and pneumatic mechanisms with electrical configurations. As the complexity of industrial power systems grows

Ray, Asok

116

Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

2014-10-01

117

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

118

Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors  

SciTech Connect

Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

Hilton, J.W.

2001-07-30

119

Electrical impedance controls mechanical sensing in ionic polymer metal composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft electroactive materials that are recently finding extensive application as mechanical sensors and energy harvesters in liquids. In their most fundamental form, IPMCs are composed of a hydrated ionomeric membrane that is sandwiched between two electrochemically deposited metal electrodes. Ionomer swelling, counterion diffusion, and the formation of electric double layers are some of the physical phenomena underpinning energy transduction in IPMCs; however, a thorough understanding of the relative influence of such phenomena is yet to be established. Here, we propose a physics-based modeling framework, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system, to describe IPMC chemoelectrical response to an imposed time-varying flexural deformation. We utilize the method of matched asymptotic expansions to compute a closed-form solution for the electric potential and counterion concentration in the IPMC. The model predicts that IPMC sensing is independent of the time rate of deformation and linearly correlated to the mechanical curvature, with a coefficient of proportionality that is a function of the ionomer thickness and the temperature. Thus, our results demonstrate that the characterization of IPMC electrical impedance suffices to identify all the parameters that are relevant to sensing, in contrast with the current state of knowledge. Theoretical results are validated through experiments on patterned in-house fabricated IPMC samples that are subject to time-varying flexural deformations.

Cha, Youngsu; Cellini, Filippo; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-12-01

120

Manned spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

1987-01-01

121

Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable motion controller. Therefore the use of the term Programmable Electronic Systems (PES) is an encompassing description for a large spectrum of programmable electronic control devices.

Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

122

Apollo Lunar Module Electrical Power System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives include: a) Describe LM Electrical System original specifications; b) Describe the decision to change from fuel cells to batteries and other changes; c) Describe the Electrical system; and d) Describe the Apollo 13 failure from the LM perspective.

Interbartolo, Michael

2009-01-01

123

Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-06-01

124

Power storage system for electric railway  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

Kawamura, T.

1985-06-11

125

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the

S. C. Khamamkar

2000-01-01

126

Dust removal system using static electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by a dc electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed

M Onozuka; Y Ueda; K Takahashi; Y Seki; S Ueda; I Aoki

1996-01-01

127

ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

S. Roy

2004-06-24

128

Research for Electric Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

Anderson, W.E. (ed.)

1991-06-01

129

Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

Owens, William R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

130

Electrical system for a motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

Tamor, M.A.

1999-07-20

131

Grey prediction with rolling mechanism for electricity demand forecasting of Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional Grey model has been widely used in various forecasting systems, including electricity demand forecasting. However, it is reported that the accuracy of the model is not satisfactory. In this paper, Grey prediction with rolling mechanism (GPRM) approach is proposed to predict the total and industrial electricity consumption of Shanghai. GPRM is used because of high prediction accuracy, applicability

Xiping Wang

2007-01-01

132

Phasor Analysis of Linear Mechanical Systems and Linear Differential Equations  

E-print Network

, mechanical impedances can still be used.) xa ^^ 2 -= Step 3. Analyze using the laws of mechanics (treat systems and volts/amp = Ohms in electrical systems. For a mass, m, we have 2 2 d d d f m x m dt dtdt. Phasor analysis of mass-spring-damper system. Step 3. Apply the laws of mechanics to the complex

Paden, Brad

133

Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

2006-03-01

134

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

135

Mechanical Forces between Electric Currents and Saturated Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general case considered is that of N independent electric circuits placed in a medium of variable permeability and subject to saturation, in parts or as a whole. The problem is to determine the component (in a given direction) of the mechanical force acting upon one of the electric circuits, upon a group of circuits, or upon a group of

Vladimir Karapetoff

1927-01-01

136

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

137

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

M. Maniyar

2004-06-22

138

An Electric Deicing System for Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers an electric ice removal system as applied to a recent experimental airplane. The system is described in detail from the power generators to the ice removal blankets and includes such items as extent of ice protection coverage, construction and installation of ice removal blankets, system electric power requirements, and system control. The paper does not treat the

E. W. Giloy

1949-01-01

139

Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power  

DOEpatents

A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

Su, Gui Jia

2010-06-08

140

Curriculum development in microelectromechanical systems in mechanical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curriculum development in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in the Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics (MEAM) Department at the University of Michigan is presented. A course curriculum structure that integrates both mechanical and electrical engineering courses is proposed for mechanical engineering students. The proposed curriculum starts from undergraduate study and finishes at the Ph.D. level. Two new graduate-level MEMS courses are proposed:

Liwei Lin

2001-01-01

141

Instrumented hip implants: electric supply systems.  

PubMed

Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

Soares dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

2013-10-18

142

Thermally actuated mechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis will discuss the generation of controlled sub-micron motions using novel micro actuators. Our research focuses on the development of an arm-type actuator and a free-motion locomotive walking device. Nano-science and nano-technology focuses on the creation of novel functional materials and also at the development of new fabrication techniques incorporating them. In the fields of novel fabrication techniques, manipulations of micron or sub-micron objects by micro actuators have been suggested in the science and engineering societies for mainly two reasons. From a scientific standpoint, new tools enable new prospective sciences, as is evident from the development of the atomic force microscope. From an engineering standpoint, the miniaturization of manipulation tools will require less material and less energy during a material's production. In spite of such importance, progress in the actuator miniaturization is in a primitive state, especially for the micro mobile devices. The thesis will be a key step in pursuit of this goal with an emphasis on generating motions. Our static actuator uses the excellent elastic properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes as a template for a bimorph system. Deflections in response to temperature variations are demonstrated. The mobile device itself is a bimorph system consisting of thin metal films. Control mechanisms for its velocity and steering are discussed. Finally, fundamental limits on the capabilities of the two devices in a more general sense are discussed under via laws of physics.

Sul, Onejae

143

30. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Closeup view of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north; interlocking mechanism with controller. Both spans are down and locked. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

144

Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

Ray, P. K.

1982-01-01

145

Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1985-01-01

146

Power system characteristics for more electric aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It should not be suprising that more electric aircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considereed when today's power distribution systems were being developed. Electric power, no longer a secondary system, will become a critical element of the primary control system. Functional reliability requiirements will be extremely stringent and can only be met by controlling element redundancy within a distributed power system. Existing electrical systems were not developed to have both the power system and the control/sensing elements distributed and yet meet the requirements of lighting tolerance and high intensity radio frequency (HIRF). In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 vdc or 400 Hertz ac power systems. This paper will expand upon the issues and discuss some of the technologies involved in their resolution.

Hansen, Irving G.

1993-01-01

147

Mechanical milling assisted by electrical discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical milling is an effective technique for the preparation of fine metallic and ceramic powders and can also be used to drive a wide range of chemical reactions. Milling devices include planetary machines, attritors and vibrational mills; products include amorphous, nanocrystalline and quasicrystalline materials, supersaturated solid solutions, reduced minerals, high-surface-area catalysts and reactive chemicals. During milling, solid-solid, solid-liquid and solid-gas

A. Calka; D. Wexler

2002-01-01

148

The Electrical Response to Injury: Molecular Mechanisms and Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Significance: Natural, endogenous electric fields (EFs) and currents arise spontaneously after wounding of many tissues, especially epithelia, and are necessary for normal healing. This wound electrical activity is a long-lasting and regulated response. Enhancing or inhibiting this electrical activity increases or decreases wound healing, respectively. Cells that are responsible for wound closure such as corneal epithelial cells or skin keratinocytes migrate directionally in EFs of physiological magnitude. However, the mechanisms of how the wound electrical response is initiated and regulated remain unclear. Recent Advances: Wound EFs and currents appear to arise by ion channel up-regulation and redistribution, which are perhaps triggered by an intracellular calcium wave or cell depolarization. We discuss the possibility of stimulation of wound healing via pharmacological enhancement of the wound electric signal by stimulation of ion pumping. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are a major problem in the elderly and diabetic patient. Any strategy to stimulate wound healing in these patients is desirable. Applying electrical stimulation directly is problematic, but pharmacological enhancement of the wound signal may be a promising strategy. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular regulation of wound electric signals may reveal some fundamental mechanisms in wound healing. Manipulating fluxes of ions and electric currents at wounds might offer new approaches to achieve better wound healing and to heal chronic wounds. PMID:24761358

Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

2014-01-01

149

Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

Ferg, D. A.

1973-01-01

150

Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

1983-01-01

151

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Instructions § 236.340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical...

2010-10-01

152

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Instructions § 236.340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical...

2011-10-01

153

46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

2012-10-01

154

46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

2011-10-01

155

46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

2013-10-01

156

46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

2010-10-01

157

46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND...Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems;...

2014-10-01

158

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System for supervisory monitoring and control signals. The system interfaces with all facility support loads such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, office, fire protection, monitoring and control, safeguards and security, and communications subsystems.

S.C. Khamamkar

2000-06-23

159

Phasor Analysis of Linear Mechanical Systems and Linear Differential Equations  

E-print Network

, mechanical impedances can still be used.) Step 3. Analyze using the laws of mechanics (treat the mechanical systems and volts/amp = Ohms in electrical systems. For a mass, m, we have 2 2 d d d f m x m x dt dtdt-spring-damper system. Step 3. Apply the laws of mechanics to the complex quantities as though they are real stiffnesses

Paden, Brad

160

Fluid Mechanical and Electrical Fluctuation Forces in Colloids  

E-print Network

Fluctuations in fluid velocity and fluctuations in electric fields may both give rise to forces acting on small particles in colloidal suspensions. Such forces in part determine the thermodynamic stability of the colloid. At the classical statistical thermodynamic level, the fluid velocity and electric field contributions to the forces are comparable in magnitude. When quantum fluctuation effects are taken into account, the electric fluctuation induced van der Waals forces dominate those induced by purely fluid mechanical motions. The physical principles are applied in detail for the case of colloidal particle attraction to the walls of the suspension container and more briefly for the case of forces between colloidal particles.

D. Drosdoff; A. Widom

2004-10-06

161

46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

2012-10-01

162

46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

2014-10-01

163

46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

2010-10-01

164

46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

2011-10-01

165

46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph...CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND...Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order...

2013-10-01

166

Nematodynamics modelling under extreme mechanical and electric stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nematic liquid crystals confined in asymmetric ?-cells and subjected to intense electrical and mechanical stresses undergo strong distortions which can be relaxed by means of the order reconstruction, a fast switching mechanism connecting topologically different textures, assuming bulk and/or surface characteristics depending on both amplitude of the applied electric fields and anchoring angles of the nematic molecules on the confining surfaces. In the frame of the Landau-de Gennes order tensor theory, we provide a numerical model implemented with a moving mesh finite element method appropriate to describe the nematic order dynamics, allowing to map the switching properties of the nematic texture.

Amoddeo, Antonino

2015-01-01

167

Energy storage system for electric utility plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for storing excess energy produced by an electric utility during low energy demand periods, utilizing a closed system with a gaseous fluid as the energy storage medium and turbine working fluid. The fluid medium is stored at low pressure in an underground cavern which is located near a commercial electric utility system. During low energy demand

1982-01-01

168

Characteristics of primary electric propulsion systems. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of advanced electric propulsion systems is expected to provide cost and performance benefits for future energetic space missions. A methodology to predict the characteristics of advanced electric propulsion systems was developed and programmed for computer calculations to allow evaluation of a broad set of technology and mission assumptions. The impact on overall thrust system characteristics was assessed for variations of propellant type, total accelerating voltage, thruster area, specific impulse, and power system approach. The data may be used both to provide direction to technology emphasis and allow for preliminary estimates of electric propulsion system properties for a wide variety of applications.

Byers, D. C.

1979-01-01

169

Mechanical and electrical property improvement in CNT/Nylon composites through drawing and stretching  

E-print Network

Mechanical and electrical property improvement in CNT/Nylon composites through drawing desirable mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. They are promising candidates as reinforcement some advantages in certain low volume frac- tion applications, such as thermally and electrically

Zhu, Yuntian T.

170

Mecomtronics Module D: Electrical and Mechanical Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially developed by NJCATE and a team of math, science, communications and technology faculty, this learning module employs the NJCATE Integrated Curriculum Model to integrate core and technical material. Accessing just-in-time learning concepts in which instructors function as coach/facilitators, the module guides students through core and technical activities built around a main project. Module activities present students with hands-on situations which simulate the workplace both in terms of the knowledge and skills required as well as the ethical concerns they will inevitably address. Specifically, Module D's Filling Station project focuses on process control and production. Students will learn about power supply, sensors, solenoid valves and interfaces, electronic counters, and a sensor interfaces, and will use this knowledge to: Construct, test and verify the operation of the DC power supply Construct and evaluate the performance of the sensors and control system Assemble a liquid filling station Connect the binary counter and seven-segment converter to the digital display Interconnect the system components and verify operation of the filling station according to specifications Prepare and present a project report The filling station will have the capability to: Sense the presence of a container and its contents Fill it with a pre-determined quantity of liquid Count the number of containers filled Display the result Includes student and instructor guides. Target Audience 2-4 year College students Self Evaluation Data: Excellent instructional module to support a new or existing Engineering Technology course or program.

171

Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems Lecture notes by Anton Bovier 12 Weierstrass-Institut f of statistical mechanics. This is a diÆcult, but in my opinion, important task in many respects. Statistical people in statistical mechanics are interested in come from physics, and they tend to be extremely varied

172

Transfer from classical mechanics context to electricity and magnetism context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some classical mechanics concepts, like density, vectors use, conservative fields, 3^rd Newton Law, velocity and acceleration physical and mathematical relations, are the basis for the development of related concepts that are central to the subsequent electricity and magnetism course. We believe that if students and instructors involved recognize the underlying features that are common to the two contexts, a better understanding and performance will be achieved. We are developing a pre- and post-test that is intended to measure the extent to which (1) students enter the electricity and magnetism course with a sufficient mechanics foundation; (2) there is a correlation between student responses to similar questions in mechanics and electrostatics contexts; and (3) mechanics understanding is strengthened through reintroduction of physics principles in a second context. We will give examples of ``paired'' questions and give data from administrations of the pre- and post-tests.

Gonzalez, Maria D.; Kanim, Stephen

2008-10-01

173

Reversible Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Ripped Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the mechanical properties of graphene devices stretched on flexible elastomer substrates. Using atomic force microscopy, electrical transport measurements, and mechanics simulations, we show that microrips form in the graphene during the initial application of tensile strain; however, subsequent applications of the same tensile strain elastically open and close the existing rips. Correspondingly, while the initial tensile strain degrades the devices' transport properties, subsequent strain-relaxation cycles affect transport only moderately, and in a largely reversible fashion. Graphene's electrical and mechanical robustness even after partial mechanical failure is unique among conducting thin films. This understanding of the creation and dynamics of rips in graphene is relevant to the design of flexible graphene-based devices which are required to function under strain.

Hinnefeld, J. Henry; Gill, Stephen T.; Zhu, Shuze; Swanson, William J.; Li, Teng; Mason, Nadya

2015-01-01

174

Captured key electrical safety lockout system  

DOEpatents

A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member`s second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock. 7 figs.

Darimont, D.E.

1995-10-31

175

Reliability analysis of electric utility SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility SCADA systems must be highly reliable given the potential for the SCADA system to directly contribute to load curtailment. This paper presents an analysis of SCADA system reliability in terms of its expected, aggregate contribution to load curtailment on the power system. Expressing this aggregate in system minutes and applying an appropriate damage cost function then provides an

A. G. Bruce

1998-01-01

176

Minimum Check List for Mechanical and Electrical Plans & Specifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fifth revision of the Minimum Check List since its origin in 1960 by North Carolina's School Planning. The checklist was developed to serve as a means of communication between school agencies and design professionals and has been widely used in the development and review of mechanical and electrical plans and specifications by…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Facility Services.

177

132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. WEST SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB (BLDG. 751), QUALITY CONTROL BOARD ON LEFT. SOUTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH, THROUGH OPEN DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

178

113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (110), LSB (BLDG. 770). QUALITY ASSURANCE ROOM (106A) ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO; CABLE TRAYS OVERHEAD AT TOP; STAIRS TO LSB (BLDG. 770) ADDITION (ROOMS 117 THROUGH 120) IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

179

Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

O'Brien, Ralph D.

180

29. View of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. View of the electrical and mechanical rail connections between the two spans facing north. Both spans are down and locked. These connections are operated from the interlocking machine in the control house (photo 42). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

181

Mechanical and electrical failures and reliability of Micro Scanning Mirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of failure and reliability investigations on silicon Micro Scanning Mirrors. The electrical insulation resistance, mechanical shock resistance and long-run stability were characterized. By design optimization including a combination of filled and open insulation trenches we achieve an average insulation resistance of more than 10 G? at 20 V. The experimental data from devices with an eigenfrequency between

E. Gaumont; Alexander Wolter; Harald Schenk; G. Georgelin; M. Schmoger

2002-01-01

182

Diagnostics of Mechanical Condition of Electrical Machine Sliding Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical condition of working surfaces of collectors and slip rings is one of the most important integral indices characterizing electrical machine quality, their separate units and parts. At collector profile impairment in the shape of projecting and sinking down separate collector segments and their groups, faulty performance of operating collector surfaces and collector rings from cylindrical shape, improper rotor balancing,

V. J. Sablukov

2005-01-01

183

Advanced technology in satellite communication antennas: Electrical and mechanical design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antenna technology for earth stations and satellites is discussed. The fundamentals, including common analysis methods, for antenna technology for satellite communication are reviewed. Details of the analysis method for beam waveguide feeds are shown, and electrical and mechanical designs for earth station antennas are examined. Offset dual-reflector antennas and offset reflector antennas with beam waveguide feed are examined, giving comprehensive

Takashi Kitsuregawa

1990-01-01

184

77 FR 39857 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2012 meeting notes from the Project 2010-17 Definition of Bulk Electric System...See Meeting Notes from the Project 2010-17 Definition of Bulk Electric System...the bulk electric system definition project as a criterion to...

2012-07-05

185

High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system  

DOEpatents

A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

Baumbaugh, A.E.

1997-05-06

186

High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system  

SciTech Connect

A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

Baumbaugh, Alan E. (Aurora, IL)

1997-01-01

187

Major Concepts of Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation is a general overview of the concepts and technologies incorporated into hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). These materials are used in the course, "Intro to Mechatronics" at Lawrence Technological University and were developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The following topics are discussed: hybrid powertrain configurations (series, parallel, and series-parallel), hybrid types (mild, medium, and full), components (mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic), and operating modes (start-stop and regenerative).

Lawrence Technological University

188

Effect of Ar Ion Beam Pre-Treatment of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate on the Mechanical and Electrical Stability of Flexible InSnO Films Grown by Roll-to-Roll Sputtering System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of Ar ion beam irradiation on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate as surface pre-treatment method in the roll-to-roll (R2R) sputtering system and its contribution to the electrical durability of flexible InSnO (ITO) electrode upon that the flexible PET substrate under repeated mechanical stresses. It was found that the Ar ion beam irradiation of the flexible PET surface could improve an adhesion between R2R sputter-grown ITO film and the PET substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the Ar ion beam irradiation lead to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups when the working pressure, Ar ion beam power, and exposure time increases. Repetitive bending stresses for the flexible ITO/PET film which fabricated through the surface pre-treatment by Ar ion beam irradiation showed more stable electrical durability than those of ITO films on the wet-cleaned PET substrate due to enhanced interfacial adhesion between the ITO film and PET surface. This suggests that the Ar ion beam pre-treatment before sputtering of ITO film in R2R sputtering system is an effective technique to improve the adhesion between ITO film and PET substrate.

Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

2013-10-01

189

How Do We Convert Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a compass, powerful magnet, and copper magnet wire to build a special generator known as a dynamo. Learners observe what happens to the compass needle when the magnet passes back and forth through the device. Learners can connect the device to a microampere meter to measure the electrical current. This experiment simulates Tesla's electric coil. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning," take an online interactive tour of Tesla's Niagara Power System, and create a diagram of how a dam generates electricity. Use this lesson to demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Energy.

2013-07-30

190

SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer

E. P. McCann

1999-01-01

191

Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system  

DOEpatents

A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

2013-12-03

192

Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems  

DOEpatents

A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

2013-07-02

193

An advanced electric probing system: Measuring DNA derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an advanced electric probing system, which has two probes, with the spatial resolution of ˜1 nm and the detection limit of <1 pA in order to measure electric properties of nanometer-scale samples. This system consists of a conventional AFM system and a piezoactuator system. In electric measurements of samples, two probes must be connected to the sample with keeping an electric isolation between two probes. For a connection of probes with a nanometer-scale sample, the radiuses of curvature of the probes should be smaller than the sample size. Thus, we used carbon nanotube as one of two probes, so that we could measure current-voltage (I-V) curves of the nanometer-scale samples. We have applied our system to measuring I-V curves of a lambda phage DNA (?-DNA) bundle. The curves showed that the current through the ?-DNA was less than ˜1 pA. In order to increase conductance of DNA molecule with chemical doping, we synthesized DNA-acceptor cross-linked derivatives (DACD). We measured I-V curves of DACD at various distances between two probes with our electric probing system. The results showed that the chemical doping increased the conductance of DNA. Furthermore, we explained the electrical transport mechanism through DACD with hopping model.

Shimotani, Kei; Shigematsu, Taishi; Manabe, Chikara; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Masaaki

2003-05-01

194

Mechanisms of Magnetic Stimulation of Central Nervous System Neurons  

E-print Network

Mechanisms of Magnetic Stimulation of Central Nervous System Neurons Tamar Pashut1 , Shuki Wolfus2, Ramat-Gan, Israel Abstract Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field

Bar-Gad, Izhar

195

How Do We Convert Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make an electromagnet motor to demonstrate the most basic method of changing electrical energy into mechanical energy. This experiment relates to Nikola Tesla's work in electrical engineering and his invention of the AC (alternating current) induction motor. To provide learners with background about Tesla, this lesson guide suggests learners watch clips from the film "Tesla: Master of Lightning" and write a report about the challenges Tesla faced as an inventor. Use this activity to help learners explore the Law of Conservation of Energy, motors, and electromagnets.

2013-07-30

196

FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric

Daniel Harvey Doughty; Chris C. Crafts

2006-01-01

197

Electric fish as natural models for technical sensor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of vision, many animals use alternative senses for object detection. Weakly electric fish employ "active electrolocation", during which they discharge an electric organ emitting electrical current pulses (electric organ discharges, EOD). Local EODs are sensed by electroreceptors in the fish's skin, which respond to changes of the signal caused by nearby objects. Fish can gain information about attributes of an object, such as size, shape, distance, and complex impedance. When close to the fish, each object projects an 'electric image' onto the fish's skin. In order to get information about an object, the fish has to analyze the object's electric image by sampling its voltage distribution with the electroreceptors. We now know a great deal about the mechanisms the fish use to gain information about objects in their environment. Inspired by the remarkable capabilities of weakly electric fish in detecting and recognizing objects with their electric sense, we are designing technical sensor systems that can solve similar sensing problems. We applied the principles of active electrolocation to devices that produce electrical current pulses in water and simultaneously sense local current densities. Depending on the specific task, sensors can be designed which detect an object, localize it in space, determine its distance, and measure certain object properties such as material properties, thickness, or material faults. We present first experiments and FEM simulations on the optimal sensor arrangement regarding the sensor requirements e. g. localization of objects or distance measurements. Different methods of the sensor read-out and signal processing are compared.

von der Emde, Gerhard; Bousack, Herbert; Huck, Christina; Mayekar, Kavita; Pabst, Michael; Zhang, Yi

2009-05-01

198

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

199

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection. (1) The main propulsion power line shall be protected with a lightning arrestor, automatic circuit breaker...than No. 6 AWG. These overload protection devices shall be housed in...

2012-10-01

200

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection. (1) The main propulsion power line shall be protected with a lightning arrestor, automatic circuit breaker...than No. 6 AWG. These overload protection devices shall be housed in...

2010-10-01

201

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection. (1) The main propulsion power line shall be protected with a lightning arrestor, automatic circuit breaker...than No. 6 AWG. These overload protection devices shall be housed in...

2014-10-01

202

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection. (1) The main propulsion power line shall be protected with a lightning arrestor, automatic circuit breaker...than No. 6 AWG. These overload protection devices shall be housed in...

2011-10-01

203

49 CFR 238.425 - Electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Electrical system. (a) Circuit protection. (1) The main propulsion power line shall be protected with a lightning arrestor, automatic circuit breaker...than No. 6 AWG. These overload protection devices shall be housed in...

2013-10-01

204

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

205

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani

2000-01-01

206

Nonholonomic mechanical systems with symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops the geometry and dynamics of mechanical systems with nonholonomic constraints and symmetry from the perspective of Lagrangian mechanics and with a view to control-theoretical applications. The basic methodology is that of geometric mechanics applied to the Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation, generalizing the use of connections and momentum maps associated with a given symmetry group to this case. We begin

Anthony M. Bloch; P. S. Krishnaprasad; Jerrold E. Marsden; Richard M. Murray

1996-01-01

207

Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets  

SciTech Connect

Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Rijk, G. de [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

2014-01-27

208

Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb3Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb3Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb3Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M.; de Rijk, G.

2014-01-01

209

SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side activities of the subsurface facility will be provided at the South Portal by the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the Off-Site Utility System for the receipt of power. The System interfaces with the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control. The System interfaces with MGR Site Layout System for the physical location of equipment and power distribution.

E.P. McCann

1999-04-16

210

Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

Hoepner, Ronald

211

A Mechanical Arm Control System  

E-print Network

This paper describes a proposed mechanical arm control system and some of the lines of thought which led to this design. In particular, the paper discusses the basic systme required in order for the arm to control its ...

Waters, Richard C.

1974-01-01

212

SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

2013-01-01

213

Neurophysiological and biophysical evidence on the mechanism of electric taste  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of electric taste was investigated by recording from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat in response to both electrical and chemical stimulations of the tongue with electrolytes in order to gain some insight into its mechanism on both a neurophysiological and biophysical basis. The maximum neural response levels were identical for an individual salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2), whether it was presented as a chemical solution or as an anodal stimulus through a subthreshold solution. These observations support the idea that stimulation occurs by iontophoresis of ions to the receptors at these current densities (less than 100 microA/cm2). Electric responses through dilute HCl were smaller than the chemically applied stimulations, but the integrated anodal responses appeared similar to chemical acid responses, as evidenced by an OFF response to both forms of stimuli. Hydrogen may be more permeant to the lingual epithelium and would thus be shunted away from the taste receptors during anodal stimulation. When the anion of electric taste was varied via subthreshold salt solutions, the response magnitude increased as the mobility of the anion decreased. The transport numbers of the salts involved adequately explains these differences. The physical aspects of ion migration occurring within the adapting fluid on the tongue are also discussed. Direct neural stimulation by the current appears to occur only at higher current densities (greater than 300 microA/cm2). If the taste cells of the tongue were inactivated with either iodoacetic acid (IAA) or N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), or removed with collagenase, then responses from the chorda tympani could be obtained only at these higher current densities. Latency measurements before and after IAA or NEM treatment corroborated these findings. The results are discussed in terms of several proposed mechanisms of electric taste and it is concluded that an ion accumulation mechanism can adequately explain the data. PMID:2993476

1985-01-01

214

An optical-mechanical-electrical technology for auto zero returning detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zero shifts caused by accumulative error of open-loop numerical controlling mechanical equipments need to be manually corrected. An optical-mechanical-electrical integration technology included image analyzer, slit image and MCU are applied to constitute of a system for auto zero shift detection and auto zero returning. Firstly we utilize optoelectronic device to detect the work zero point, then the zero value

Jianlan Feng; Haibing Qi

2010-01-01

215

Design of an Electric Differential System for Three-Wheeled Electric Welfare Vehicles With Driver-in-the-Loop Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two electric wheel motors are used to propel the rear-driven three-wheeled (3W) electric welfare vehicle independently. Due to the lack of the traditional mechanical differential, the right\\/left rear tractive forces and the corresponding rotational speeds cannot coordinate with each other automatically while cornering, which might increase the required steering angle and torque. An electric differential system is proposed in this

Bo-Chiuan Chen; Cheng-Chi Yu; Wei-Shuo Lee; Wei-Feng Hsu

2007-01-01

216

Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics of Epoxy-Nanoclay Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effects of nanoclay additives on the electrical and mechanical properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were synthesized using organically modified two montmorillonite clays (MMT) with different interlamellar spacing (31.5 Å and 18.5 Å). The electrical and mechanical properties of epoxy-clay nanocopomosites were measured with variation of the amount and type of clay. The nanocomposites were found to be homogenous materials although the nanocomposites still have clay aggregates with increasing nanoclay contents. The dielectric constant showed between 3.2 ~ 3.5 and the dielectric loss showed between 3.2 ~ 5.7% in all nanocoposites. The dielectric strength and tensile strength of the 5 wt% Cloisite 15A added epoxy-oclay nanocomposite were 23.9 kV/mm and 86.7 MPa, respectively.

Noh, Hyun-Ji; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Sung-Gap; Ahn, Byeong-Lib; Won, Woo-Sik; Woo, Hyoung-Gwan; Park, Sang-Man

217

System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed system performance analyses must be performed for early stages as well as for the fully assembled station up to 15 years after beginning of life. Such analyses were repeatedly performed using the FORTRAN code SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over a 10-year period. SPACE combines orbital mechanics routines, station orientation/pointing routines, PV array and battery performance models, and a distribution system load-flow analysis to predict EPS performance. Time-dependent, performance degradation, low earth orbit environmental interactions, and EPS architecture build-up are incorporated in SPACE. Results from two typical SPACE analytical cases are presented: (1) an electric load driven case and (2) a maximum EPS capability case.

Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Follo, Jeffrey C.

1993-01-01

218

System Identification of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wire electrical discharge machining (wire-EDM), it is very important to restrain the vibration of the tool wire electrode for the improvement of machining accuracy. In this paper, investigation is carried out toward the dynamic wire vibration mechanism and a mathematical model is derived. This model is compared with experimental results. The measured displacement of a wire electrode in machining

N. Mohri; H. Yamada; K. Furutani; T. Narikiyo; T. Magara

1998-01-01

219

Perception of electrical and mechanical stimulation of the skin: implications for electrotactile feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinal cord injury is often accompanied by impaired tactile and proprioceptive sensations. Normally, somatosensensory information derived from such sensations is important in the formation of voluntary motor commands. Therefore, as a preliminary step toward the development of an electrotactile feedback system to restore somatosensation, psychophysical methods were used to characterize perceptual attributes associated with electrical stimulation of the skin on the back of the neck in human subjects. These data were compared to mechanical stimulation of the skin on the back of neck and on the distal pad of the index finger. Spatial acuity of the neck, evaluated using two-point thresholds, was not significantly different for electrical (37 ± 14 mm) or mechanical stimulation (39 ± 10 mm). The exponent (?) of the best fitting power function relating perceived intensity to applied stimulus strength was used to characterize perceptual sensitivity to mechanical and electrical stimuli. For electrical stimuli, both current amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated trains of pulses were tested. Perceptual sensitivity was significantly greater for current amplitude modulation (? = 1.14 ± 0.37) compared to frequency modulation (? = 0.57 ± 0.24) and mechanical stimulation (0.51 ± 0.12). Finally, based on the data gathered here, we derive a transfer function that could be used in the future to convert mechanical stimuli detected with artificial sensors placed on the fingers into electrotactile signals that evoke perceptions similar to those arising from normal mechanical stimulation of the skin.

Marcus, Patrick L.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

2009-12-01

220

Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction  

E-print Network

A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The integration of electrical actuation into optomechanical devices is an enabling step towards the regime of quantum nonlinear dynamics, and provides new capabilities for quantum control of mechanical motion.

McRae, Terry G; Harris, Glen I; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P

2010-01-01

221

Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction  

E-print Network

A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The integration of electrical actuation into optomechanical devices is an enabling step towards the regime of quantum nonlinear dynamics, and provides new capabilities for quantum control of mechanical motion.

Terry G. McRae; Kwan H. Lee; Glen I. Harris; Joachim Knittel; Warwick P. Bowen

2010-05-27

222

Degradation Phenomena of Electrical Contacts Using Hammering Oscillating Mechanism and Micro-Sliding Mechanism Contact Resistance and Its Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors have developed the mechanism which gives damping vibration to electrical contacts by reciprocal hammering-oscillation and the other new mechanism which gives periodical micro-sliding to electrical contacts directly driven by a magmetostrictive actuator or a piezo-electrical one. It was shown that each mechanism was able to make a test simulate an actual degradation phenomenon on electrical contacts by the influence

Shin-ichi Wada; Koichiro Sawa

2011-01-01

223

The Dynamic Balancer electrical safety systems  

SciTech Connect

The Pantex Plant Dynamic Balancer is used to identify physical imbalance in some weapon systems. This study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Energy/Albuquerque Operations Office (USDOE/AL) Dynamic Balancer Project Team to identify the electrical conditions required for motor over-speed to occur and to discuss the functions of the various electrical protective features associated with the Dynamic Balancer (DB). As is shown through the development of a fault tree, numerous electrical and human failures are required for over-speed conditions to occur. As directed by the Project Team, no effort was made to develop detailed fault trees for all electrical systems, to quantify basic events in the fault tree, or to develop accident scenarios leading to or resulting from over-speed. The Pantex Building 12-60, Bay 2, facility electrical circuits and grounding are described, and potential hazards are discussed. DB motor over-speed is a safety concern, and therefore, the controls that limit this condition are described and discussed in detail. Other safety-significant electrical circuits are discussed as well. These safety systems also are described in the facility Basis for Interim Operation. A potential for a motor over-speed that is not sensed by the standard safety protective systems does exist. This fault pathway is discussed, and recommendations to mitigate its effect are made.

Konkel, H.

1997-12-01

224

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced

C. W. Ayers; J. S. Hsu; L. D. Marlino; C. W. Miller; G. W. Ott; C. B. Oland

2004-01-01

225

Electrical power systems for space station  

SciTech Connect

Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weightoptimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

Simon, W.E.

1984-08-01

226

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

227

The renewable electric plant information system  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

Sinclair, K.

1995-12-01

228

Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

2002-01-01

229

Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

1986-01-01

230

MEASUREMENT OF SMALL MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF BRAIN TISSUE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY-LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposur...

231

Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally greater than 0.9, heat loads are often substantial. This heat must be rejected by thermal control systems which generally have specific masses of 15-30 kg/kW. PPU's also represent a large fraction of the electric propulsion system dry mass. Simplification or elimination of power processing in a propulsion system would reduce the electric propulsion system specific mass and improve the overall reliability and performance. A direct drive system would eliminate all or some of the power supplies required to operate a thruster by directly connecting the various thruster loads to the solar array. The development of concentrator solar arrays has enabled power bus voltages in excess of 300 V which is high enough for direct drive applications for Hall thrusters such as the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). The option of solar array direct drive for SPT's is explored to provide a comparison between conventional and direct drive system mass.

Hamley, John A.

1995-05-01

232

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOEpatents

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2008-09-02

233

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOEpatents

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2006-03-07

234

A NEW FAILURE MECHANISM BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE INDUCED ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF TUNGSTEN WINDOWS IN  

E-print Network

A NEW FAILURE MECHANISM BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE INDUCED ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF TUNGSTEN..................................................................15 2.1.3 Mechanics of CVD Tungsten 2.2.2 Tungsten Corrosion

Pearton, Stephen J.

235

Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

236

Mechanical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites.  

SciTech Connect

Effects of Ag particle dispersions on microstructural development and some properties were investigated for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. They were fabricated by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS) Process to achieve finer and densified microstructure. ZnO/Ag nanocomposites with novel microstructure which were prepared by a reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powders were compared with microcomposites prepared by mixing of Ag and ZnO powders. SEM observation indicated that fine Ag particles were homogeneously dispersed within the ZnO matrix grains and at the grain boundaries for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites prepared by the reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powder. Hardness and fracture toughness increased with increasing the Ag volume fraction. Linear resistivity was decreased with increasing Ag volume fraction. However, the mechanical and electrical properties appeared to the significantly different for composites prepared by two different powder processes.

Hayashi, Y.

1998-08-27

237

Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

2015-04-01

238

Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical engineers made impact. Through a basic understanding of the history of MEMS, the background physics and scaling in micromechanical systems, and an introduction to baseline MEMS processes, a mechanical engineer should be well on his way to Alice's wonderland in the ever-exciting playground of MEMS.

Lee, A. P., LLNL

1996-11-18

239

The role of renewable distributed generation in California's electricity system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolling blackouts, escalating electricity prices, ratepayers on the verge of open revolt, and electric utilities publicly threatening bankruptcy have brought California's electricity system under intense scrutiny. It is clear that California's electricity system is in imbalance. Causes of the imbalance include slower than expected increases in generating capacity, unexpectedly high demand growth rates and insufficient electricity delivery capability. This paper

G. Simons; P. Sethi; R. Davis; K. DeGroat; D. Comwell; B. Jenkins

2001-01-01

240

MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor  

E-print Network

In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

Meenen, Jordan N

2010-01-01

241

Electric power steering system for vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An electric power steering system for vehicles is described comprising: an input shaft operatively connected to a steering wheel; an output shaft operatively connected to a steered wheel; an electric motor for operatively supplying auxiliary torque to the output shaft; steering torque detection means for detecting steering torque acting on the input shaft; driving control means for feeding the electric motor with a motor drive signal based on an output signal from the steering torque detecting means; steering angle detection means for detecting a steering angle of the steering wheel; and correction means for gradually decreasing the motor drive signal to reduce the auxiliary torque to be developed at the electric motor, when the steering angle of the steering wheel is detected to be exceeding a predetermined angle by the steering angle detection means, the predetermined angle being slightly less than a maximum steering angle of the steering wheel.

Shimizu, Y.; Kawai, T.

1988-03-01

242

The variation of electrical resistance of near stoichiometric NiTi during thermo-mechanic procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of electrical resistance of near stoichiometric NiTi during some thermo-mechanic procedures was studied in this paper. The results show that when the R-phase does not exist in the near stoichiometric NiTi wire, the electrical resistance of NiTi wire increases linearly with the increase of strain at constant temperature. When a phase transformation or martensite reorientation takes place, the slopes of the electrical against strain curves are changed. During the cycles of tensile loading and unloading, electrical resistance of NiTi wire increases as the increase of the cycle numbers, but will stabilize after approximately 15 cycles. Furthermore, the possibility to use NiTi wire as a sensor in the intelligent materials system is discussed.

Wu, X. D.; Wu, J. S.; Wang, Z.

1999-10-01

243

MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary results of the COMPASS MW-class electric propulsion power system study are reported, and discussion is provided on how the analysis might be used to guide future technology investments as NASA moves to more capable high power in-space propulsion systems.

LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

2011-01-01

244

MSFC Skylab electrical power systems mission evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and operation of the Skylab electrical power system are discussed. The electrical systems for the airlock module of the orbital workshop and the Apollo telescope mount are described. Skylab is considered an integral laboratory, however, both cluster and module hardware distinct sections are included. Significant concept and requirement evolution, testing, and modifications resulting from tests are briefly summarized to aid in understanding the launch configuration description and the procedures and performance discussed for in-orbit operation. Specific problems encountered during Skylab orbital missions are analyzed.

Woosley, A. P.

1974-01-01

245

Radiation and electrical safety systems for PEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At SLAC, the Personnel Protection System (PPS) protects people from radiation hazards. For PEP, the system was expanded to include protection against electrical and RF hazards. The overall system design is described, giving particular attention to the novel features not found in similar systems in other areas of SLAC. These include the Restricted Access Mode to allow limited occupancy in the ring while high voltage or RF may be present, the automatic badge reader system for improving the efficiency of entry logging and control, and the solid state lighting control system for switching large lighting loads with minimum electromagnetic interference.

Smith, H.; Constant, T.; Crook, K.; Fitch, J.; Taylor, T.

1981-02-01

246

Mechanical design of process systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text shows how to design equipment\\/components using techniques available in heat transfer, hydraulics, and static and dynamic analyses. Chemical, mechanical, civil, and nuclear engineers in the petrochemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, power generation, and ship-building industries will find insights into solving process system design problems. All the techniques and data are ''field tested,'' and some are published here for the

Escoe

1986-01-01

247

Transforming the U.S. Electricity System  

SciTech Connect

The smart electric power grid of the future will integrate the traditional elements of supply and demand, transmission and distribution with new technologies such as superconductors, energy storage, customer load management, and distributed generation, using information to make them function as a ''society'' of devices in a complex, integrated system. The vision for transforming the nation's electric system ''from central generation down to customer appliances and equipment'' into a collaborative network filled with information and a myriad of market-based opportunities is being put forward by leading thinkers in the U.S Department of Energy, national laboratories, and industry as a major scientific and engineering challenge for the nation and as an important economic value proposition for ratepayers and the electric industry. An overview of this vision and some illustrative examples are the subjects of this paper.

Pratt, Robert G.

2004-10-25

248

Electrical and mechanical properties of vapour grown gallium monotelluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of gallium monotelluride (GaTe) in different crystalline habits was established in the growth ampoule, strongly depending on the temperature gradient. Proper control on the temperatures of source and growth zones in an indigenously fabricated dual zone furnace could yield the crystals in the form of whiskers and spherulites. Optical and electron microscopic images were examined to predict the growth mechanism of morphologies. The structural parameters of the grown spherulites were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The stoichiometric composition of these crystals was confirmed using energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The type and nature of electrical conductivity were identified by the conventional hot probe and two probe methods, respectively. The mechanical parameters, such as Vickers microhardness, work hardening index, and yield strength, were deduced from microindentation measurements. The results show that the vapour grown p-GaTe crystals exhibit novel physical properties, which make them suitable for device applications.

Reshmi, P. M.; Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.

2013-10-01

249

Electrical Systems for Rapid Transit Railroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances have made possible new and improved electrical systems for rapid transit railroads. Two new circuit elements contribute to this. One of these, the thyristor, or controlled silicon rectifier, is a lineal descendant of the advances in solid-state physics that led to the transistor 21 years ago. Tjhvrstors are still in limited use because of cost, and the costs

William H. T. Holden

1971-01-01

250

Tidal energy in electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the uses and advantages of tidal energy in restructured power systems. The paper defines the resources as well as the ways in which tidal energy is converted into electricity. The paper also reviews a few tidal power projects around the world. It also shows the working of hydro tidal power plant. A comparative review of renewable energy

S. Sheth; M. Shahidehpour

2005-01-01

251

Pattern recognition for electric power system protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to demonstrate pattern recognition tools such as decision trees (DTs) and neural networks that will improve and automate the design of relay protection functions in electric power systems. Protection functions that will benefit from the research include relay algorithms for high voltage transformer protection (TP) and for high impedance fault (HIF) detection. A methodology,

Yong Sheng

2002-01-01

252

Emerging Electric Power Systems and Future Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on electric power systems and future grid by P.K. Sen, Colorado School of Mines, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Sen, P.K.

253

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify pressure relief device bellows integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

254

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers Dan Maynard and John Shuping prepare to install a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). The three RTGs which will provide electrical power to Cassini on its mission to the Saturnian system are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

255

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) worker Mary Reaves mates connectors on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to power up the Cassini spacecraft, while quality assurance engineer Peter Sorci looks on. The three RTGs which will be used on Cassini are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

256

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers David Rice, at left, and Johnny Melendez rotate a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to the horizontal position on a lift fixture in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTG is one of three generators which will provide electrical power for the Cassini spacecraft mission to the Saturnian system. The RTGs will be installed on the powered-up spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification testing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

257

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers prepare the installation cart (atop the platform) for removal of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) from the adjacent Cassini spacecraft. This is the second of three RTGs being removed from Cassini after undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The third RTG to be removed is in background at left. The three RTGs will then be temporarily stored before being re-installed for flight. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

258

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Missile and Space Co. employees Joe Collingwood, at right, and Ken Dickinson retract pins in the storage base to release a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in preparation for hoisting operations. This RTG and two others will be installed on the Cassini spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1997-01-01

259

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) employees Norm Schwartz, at left, and George Nakatsukasa transfer one of three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to be used on the Cassini spacecraft from the installation cart to a lift fixture in preparation for returning the power unit to storage. The three RTGs underwent mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

260

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers carefully roll into place a platform with a second radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for installation on the Cassini spacecraft. In background at left, the first of three RTGs already has been installed on Cassini. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

261

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported on a lift fixture, this radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), at center, is hoisted from its storage base using the airlock crane in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are preparing to install the RTG onto the Cassini spacecraft, in background at left, for mechanical and electrical verification testing. The three RTGs on Cassini will provide electrical power to the spacecraft on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

262

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) employees bolt a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) onto the Cassini spacecraft, at left, while other JPL workers, at right, operate the installation cart on a raised platform in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). Cassini will be outfitted with three RTGs. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

263

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), at center, will undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing now that it has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. A handling fixture, at far left, is still attached. Three RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1997-01-01

264

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility remove the storage collar from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in preparation for installation on the Cassini spacecraft. Cassini will be outfitted with three RTGs. The power units are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle.

1997-01-01

265

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification tests in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying a neutron radiation detector, Fred Sanders (at center), a health physicist with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and other health physics personnel monitor radiation in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility after three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) were installed on the Cassini spacecraft for mechanical and electrical verification tests. The RTGs will provide electrical power to Cassini on its 6.7-year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four-year mission at Saturn. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate at great distances from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed by JPL.

1997-01-01

266

Experiment and MATLAB simulation of electric power steering system based on permanent magnet AC servo motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing to traditional mechanical hydraulic steering, electric power steering system has the advantages of high efficiency, fast reaction velocity, safety and pollution free, although DC servo motor is generally adopted at present. This work proposes experiment and MATLAB simulation of electric power steering system based on permanent magnet AC servo motor, to prove that permanent magnet AC servo motor can

Li Hongda; Fengxiang Li

2011-01-01

267

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical...only, by one train at a time. Manual interlocking in service as of the date of this...authorizing conflicting movements when interlocking is unattended, may be...

2012-10-01

268

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical...only, by one train at a time. Manual interlocking in service as of the date of this...authorizing conflicting movements when interlocking is unattended, may be...

2011-10-01

269

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical...only, by one train at a time. Manual interlocking in service as of the date of this...authorizing conflicting movements when interlocking is unattended, may be...

2013-10-01

270

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical...only, by one train at a time. Manual interlocking in service as of the date of this...authorizing conflicting movements when interlocking is unattended, may be...

2014-10-01

271

49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical...only, by one train at a time. Manual interlocking in service as of the date of this...authorizing conflicting movements when interlocking is unattended, may be...

2010-10-01

272

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

Mancini, T.R.

1997-12-31

273

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

274

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

275

Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

1991-01-01

276

Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

Cronin, M. J.

1983-01-01

277

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures  

E-print Network

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures Trieu Mai Electricity of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity

Van Veen, Barry D.

278

Design analysis mechanisms for carbon auction market through electricity market coupling  

E-print Network

Design analysis mechanisms for carbon auction market through electricity market coupling Mireille electricity produc- ers selling their production on an electricity market and buying CO2 emission al- lowances functions of the electricity production. We set out a clear Nash equilibrium on the power market that can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Integration of Electric Propulsion Systems with Spacecraft An Overview  

E-print Network

electric propulsion systems are currently being developed ­ ranging from high-power (i.e., >10 kW) systems pace of electric propulsion technologies being infused into space missions, a growing need exists-thruster) electric propulsion subsystems (i.e., power processing units, propellant management, etc.)? · Electric

Walker, Mitchell

280

Multiple voltage electrical power distribution system for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of the 20th Century, the automobile electrical system has experienced one architectural change, one significant electrical power plant change and one notable change in the electrical storage component. There is now growing disparity in voltage level requirements between electronic and electrical loads to the point that a single voltage system may no longer be the most efficient

John M. Miller

1996-01-01

281

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

282

A transition in mechanisms of size dependent electrical transport at nanoscale metal-oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect

As device miniaturization approaches nanoscale dimensions, interfaces begin to dominate electrical properties. Here the system archetype Au/SrTiO{sub 3} is used to examine the origin of size dependent transport properties along metal-oxide interfaces. We demonstrate that a transition between two classes of size dependent electronic transport mechanisms exists, defined by a critical size ?. At sizes larger than ? an edge-related tunneling effect proportional to 1/D (the height of the supported Au nanoparticle) is observed; interfaces with sizes smaller than ? exhibit random fluctuations in current. The ability to distinguish between these mechanisms is important to future developments in nanoscale device design.

Hou, Jiechang; Nonnenmann, Stephen S.; Qin, Wei; Bonnell, Dawn A., E-mail: bonnell@lrsm.seas.upenn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-12-16

283

Structure Formation Mechanisms and Electrical Properties of PVD Fluoropolymer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of forming fluoropolymer coatings on silicon substrates via condensation from an active gas phase using directed flows of accelerated electrons and ions are studied. It is demonstrated that electrical properties of the resulting fluoropolymer films strongly depend on the technological parameters of the deposition process. Their most optimal properties are reported when condensation takes place at the temperatures within ~373-386 K. It is shown that thermal annealing of the films in vacuum at 430-470 K improves their electrophysical parameters by re-evaporating the low-molecular complexes from the structure and decreasing the concentration of defects and spin-radicals, while annealing in air gives rise to formation of additional polar groups.

Luchnikov, P. A.

2015-01-01

284

Searching for Electrical Properties, Phenomena and Mechanisms in the Construction and Function of Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1) chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2) chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3) chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a) electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b) electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c) mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important. PMID:24688715

Kanev, Ivan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Mizuno, Akira; DeHaai, Kristi; Sanmann, Jennifer; Hess, Michelle; Starr, Lois; Grove, Jennifer; Dave, Bhavana; Sanger, Warren

2013-01-01

285

Fatigue Response of a PZT Multilayer Actuator under High-Field Electric Cycling with Mechanical Preload  

SciTech Connect

An electric fatigue test system has been developed for piezoelectric actuator with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator (MLA) with a plate-through electrode configuration have been studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of a coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 1.0x10^9 cycles were carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under a high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized by using FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation). It has been observed that both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients underwent a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86x10^8 cycles under the relevant preload, and then fluctuated to a certain extent. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also exhibited the fluctuations after a certain amount of drop but at different levels relative to the pre-fatigue. And finally, the results were discussed with respect to domain wall mobility, microcracking, and other pre-existing anomalies.

Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

2009-01-01

286

The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

Geppert, S.

1981-01-01

287

Multiple Mechanisms Switch an Electrically Coupled, Synaptically Inhibited Neuron between Competing Rhythmic Oscillators  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Rhythmic oscillations are common features of nervous systems. One of the fundamental questions posed by these rhythms is how individual neurons or groups of neurons are recruited into different network oscillations. We modeled competing fast and slow oscillators connected to a hub neuron with electrical and inhibitory synapses. We explore the patterns of coordination shown in the network as a function of the electrical coupling and inhibitory synapse strengths with the help of a novel visualization method that we call the “parameterscape.” The hub neuron can be switched between the fast and slow oscillators by multiple network mechanisms, indicating that a given change in network state can be achieved by degenerate cellular mechanisms. These results have importance for interpreting experiments employing optogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations to understand circuit dynamics. PMID:23473315

Gutierrez, Gabrielle J.; O’Leary, Timothy; Marder, Eve

2013-01-01

288

A finite element model of passive mechanics and electrical propagation in the rabbit ventricles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the interaction of electrical and mechanical processes in the three-dimensional heart, the authors have developed a high-order finite element model of the rabbit ventricles and used it to simulate electrical propagation and the passive mechanical response to ventricular filling in transversely isotropic myocardium. Simulations of passive mechanics showed good agreement with experimental epicardial strains. These simulations were conducted

F. J. Vetter; J. M. Rogers; A. D. McCulloch

1998-01-01

289

Electric power system test and verification program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) electric power system (EPS) hardware and software verification is performed at all levels of integration, from components to assembly and system level tests. Careful planning is essential to ensure the EPS is tested properly on the ground prior to launch. The results of the test performed on breadboard model hardware and analyses completed to date have been evaluated and used to plan for design qualification and flight acceptance test phases. These results and plans indicate the verification program for SSF's 75-kW EPS would have been successful and completed in time to support the scheduled first element launch.

Rylicki, Daniel S.; Robinson, Frank, Jr.

1994-01-01

290

Stability analysis of large electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions of the world, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Ensuring the reliable operation of the power system requires engineers to study the response of the system to various disturbances. The responses to large disturbances are examined by numerically solving the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations describing the power system. The response to small disturbances is typically studied via eigenanalysis. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently developed the Extended Transient/Mid-term Stability Program (ETMSP) to study large disturbance stability and the Small Signal Stability Program Package (SSSP) to study small signal stability. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were to (1) explore ways of speeding up ETMSP, especially on mid-term voltage stability problems, (2) explore ways of speeding up the Multi-Area Small-Signal Stability program (MASS), one of the codes in SSSP, and (3) explore ways of increasing the size of problem that can be solved by the Cray version of MASS.

Elwood, D.M.

1993-01-01

291

FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.  

SciTech Connect

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

2006-08-01

292

Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.  

PubMed

Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

Galley, Chad R

2013-04-26

293

Characterization of interdigitated electrode piezoelectric fiber composites under high electrical and mechanical loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this work is to develop a standard methodology for characterizing structural actuation systems intended for operation in high electrical and mechanical loading environments. The designed set of tests evaluates the performance of the active materials system under realistic operating conditions. The tests are also used to characterize piezoelectric fiber composites which have been developed as an alternative to monolithic piezoceramic wafers for structural actuation applications. The performance of this actuator system has been improved using an interdigitated electrode pattern, which orients the primary component of the electric field into the plane of the structure, enabling the use of the primary piezoelectric effect along the active fibers. One possible application of this technology is in the integral twist actuation of helicopter rotor blades for higher harmonic control. This application requires actuators which can withstand the harsh rotor blade operating environment. This includes large numbers of electrical and mechanical cycles with considerable centripetal and bending loads. The characterization tests include standard active material tests as well as application-driven tests which evaluate the performance of the actuators during simulated operation. Test results for several actuator configurations are provided, including S2 glass- reinforced and E-glass laminated actuators. The study concludes that the interdigitated electrode piezoelectric fiber composite actuator has great potential for high loading applications.

Rodgers, John P.; Bent, Aaron A.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

1996-05-01

294

Power electronics layout in a hybrid electric or electric vehicle drive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power electronics in a drive system of a hybrid electric or electric car can be subdivided in different function blocks without considering the effective concept of the drive system (series\\/parallel hybrid, range extender) or the kind of electrical machine in use (direct\\/alternating current machines). This paper identifies the main function blocks and discusses the requirements and possible solutions. Some

A. Vezzini; K. Reichert

1996-01-01

295

Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

Laudenslager, James B. (inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (inventor)

1987-01-01

296

An Embedded Electric Meter Based on Bluetooth Data Acquisition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design an embedded electric meter based on Bluetooth data acquisition system in view of the complicated cables and accident potential in the process of data acquisition of electric meter. Combined wireless Bluetooth communication technology with data acquisition system, we build wireless data acquisition system based on ARM processor LPC2142 and Bluetooth chip Rok101008 in the embedded electric meter which

Peng Xuange; Xiao Ying

2010-01-01

297

SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

1971-01-01

298

An Investigation on the Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Electrical Response of Automobile Thermoelectric Materials and Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can directly convert heat to electrical energy, possess wide application potential for power generation from waste heat. As TE devices in vehicle exhaust power generation systems work in the long term in a service environment with coupled thermal-mechanical-electrical conditions, the reliability of their mechanical strength and conversion efficiency is an important issue for their commercial application. Based on semiconductor TE devices wih multiple p- n couples and the working environment of a vehicle exhaust power generation system, the service conditions of the TE devices are simulated by using the finite-element method. The working temperature on the hot side is set according to experimental measurements, and two cooling methods, i.e., an independent and shared water tank, are adopted on the cold side. The conversion efficiency and thermal stresses of the TE devices are calculated and discussed. Numerical results are obtained, and the mechanism of the influence on the conversion efficiency and mechanical properties of the TE materials is revealed, aiming to provide theoretical guidance for optimization of the design and commercial application of vehicle TE devices.

Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Zhai, Pengcheng; Li, Guodong; Zhang, Qingjie

2013-07-01

299

Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

Ray, P. K.

1982-01-01

300

Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits  

DOEpatents

A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

1988-04-12

301

Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits  

DOEpatents

A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

Jatko, William B. (10601 Rivermist La., Knoxville, TN 37922); McNeilly, David R. (Rte. 12, Box 538, Maryville, TN 37801)

1988-01-01

302

Cassini's RTGs undergo mechanical and electrical verification testing in the PHSF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers examine the interface surface on the Cassini spacecraft prior to installation of the third radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The other two RTGs, at left, already are installed on Cassini. The three RTGs will be used to power Cassini on its mission to the Saturnian system. They are undergoing mechanical and electrical verification testing in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electric power. The generators enable spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. The Cassini mission is scheduled for an Oct. 6 launch aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. Cassini is built and managed for NASA by JPL.

1997-01-01

303

A new electrical readout mechanism for Si:P qubits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus donor spins in silicon are a promising candidate for the implementation of quantum bits, and electrical detection is viewed as the most promising route towards the single donor readout required to further advance such concepts. We will discuss a major limitation to commonly used electrical detection schemes. The standard way to electrically detect Si:P spin states involves utilizing spin

Dane R. McCamey; G. W. Morley; S.-Y. Paik; S.-Y. Lee; L.-C. Brunel; J. van Tol; C. Boehme

2009-01-01

304

Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

2013-01-01

305

POWERHU-a PC-based electric power system analysis software package for electric power system courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software package is developed to perform electrical power system analysis on a personal computer. The software is capable of performing impedance calculations, load-flow studies, fault analysis and transient-stability analyses of electric power systems. It is intended for electric power system students, and is realized in such a manner that a problem can be solved by using alternative methods. Each

M. Songur; B. Ercan

1997-01-01

306

Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)  

SciTech Connect

The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

2007-12-31

307

International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

2005-01-01

308

A multicylinder free-piston Stirling engine for application in Stirling-electric drive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study gives a short introduction to Stirling-electric drive systems and their applications. The development of a Stirling-electric drive system concentrates on the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), which will form the most important part of the system. One of the most important ideas behind the design of the FPSE is that a simple, robust, and efficient electric power generator has to be developed which can run on any available liquid for gaseous fuel and which can easily be plugged into a larger system, such as a Stirling-electric drive system. The benefits are found mainly in the silent and environmentally friendly operation of the system, but also in the free positioning of the FPSE and the ease with which a mechanical connection can be made between the electric motor and the load.

de Graaff, Peter J.

309

Influence of GHz electric fields on the mechanical properties of a microtubule.  

PubMed

The effects of external GHz electric fields on the mechanical properties of a microtubule (MT) have been modeled through the application of a molecular dynamics simulation method. To explore the properties of the MT, two different systems each consisting of a pair of dimers were exposed to an 0.03 V/nm electric field with a frequency ranging between 1 to 10 GHz. It was found that the Young's modulus of each system, which is related to the flexibility of the MT, was lower at some frequencies and higher at others in comparison with normal biological conditions. Hence, the application of such an electric field with a frequency in this range may affect MT function, which could have positive or negative effects on cell health. Positive effects include its potential use in cancer treatment, where the application of such a field could lead to a decrease in MT rigidity, similar to the effect of Taxol on MTs. Negative effects include unwanted changes to the mechanical properties of MTs (e.g., disturbing the cell division process and in turn increasing the risk of cancer) upon the application of such a field. PMID:25764325

Setayandeh, S S; Lohrasebi, A

2015-04-01

310

Optimal management of batteries in electric systems  

DOEpatents

An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

2002-01-01

311

Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system  

PubMed Central

Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement. PMID:22876934

2012-01-01

312

Garrett Electric Boosting Systems (EBS) Program  

SciTech Connect

Turbo diesel engine use in passenger cars in Europe has resulted in 30-50% improvement in fuel economy. Diesel engine application is particularly suitable for US because of vehicle size and duty cycle patterns. Adopting this technology for use in the US presents two issues--emissions and driveability. Emissions reduction technology is being well addressed with advanced turbocharging, fuel injection and catalytic aftertreatment systems One way to address driveability is to eliminate turbo lag and increase low speed torque. Electrically assisted turbocharging concepts incorporated in e-Turbo{trademark} designs do both The purpose of this project is to design and develop an electrically assisted turbocharger, e-Turbo{trademark}, for diesel engine use in the US. In this report, early design and development of electrical assist technology is described together with issues and potential benefits. In this early phase a mathematical model was developed and verified. The model was used in a sensitivity study. The results of the sensitivity study together with the design and test of first generation hardware was fed into second generation designs. In order to fully realize the benefits of electrical assist technology it was necessary to expand the scope of work to include technology on the compressor side as well as electronic controls concepts. The results of the expanded scope of work are also reported here. In the first instance, designs and hardware were developed for a small engine to quantify and demonstrate benefits. The turbo size was such that it could be applied in a bi-turbo configuration to an SUV sized V engine. Mathematical simulation was used to quantify the possible benefits in an SUV application. It is shown that low speed torque can be increased to get the high performance expected in US, automatic transmission vehicles. It is also shown that e-Turbo{trademark} can be used to generate modest amounts of electrical power and supplement the alternator under most load-speed conditions. It is shown that a single (large) e-Turbo{trademark} consumes slightly less electrical power for the same steady state torque shaping than a bi-Turbo configuration. However, the transient response of a bi-Turbo configuration is slightly better. It was shown that in order to make full use of additional capabilities of e-Turbo{trademark} wide compressor flow range is required. Variable geometry compressor (VGC) technology developed under a separate project was evaluated for incorporation into e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was shown that the combination of these two technologies enables very high torque at low engine speeds. Designs and hardware combining VGC and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. There is concern about high power demands (even though momentary) of e-Turbo{trademark}. Reducing the inertia of the turbocharger can reduce power demand and increase battery life. Low inertia turbocharger technology called IBT developed under a separate project was evaluated for synergy with e-Turbo{trademark} designs. It was concluded that inertial reduction provided by IBT is very beneficial for e-Turbo{trademark}. Designs and hardware combining IBT and e-Turbo{trademark} are to be developed in a future project. e-Turbo{trademark} provides several additional flexibilities including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for emissions reduction with minimum fuel economy penalty and exhaust temperature control for aftertreatment. In integrated multi-parameter control system is needed to realize the full potential of e-Turbo{trademark} performance. Honeywell expertise in process control systems involving hundreds of sensors and actuators was applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of multi-parameter, model based control systems.

Steve Arnold; Craig Balis; Pierre Barthelet; Etienne Poix; Tariq Samad; Greg Hampson; S. M. Shahed

2005-03-31

313

Monitor System Design for Machine Electric Spindle Based on MCGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces some principal parameters, which are required to be monitored, of machine electric spindle, hardware components of the system and main functions of configuration software MCGS(Monitor and Control Generated System) in China. The system is a set of online monitoring and analysis system that is designed for machine electric spindle. The system analyzes real-time information acquired from the

Xue Yangang; Wang Han; Luo Xingqi; He Qiang

2010-01-01

314

Charge Allocation for Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems  

E-print Network

Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems, composed of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical destination banks. We introduce a gen- eralized HEES architecture and build the corresponding electrical and a HEES system comprised on bat- teries and supercapacitors demonstrate a significant gain in charge

Pedram, Massoud

315

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. [Statutory Provisions...trolley circuits, shall be shown on a mine map. Any changes made in a location,...

2010-07-01

316

Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

Kelledes, W. L.

1984-01-01

317

Reconfigurable bioimpedance emulation system for electrical impedance tomography system validation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel bioimpedance emulation method designed for electrical impedance tomography system validation. The proposed method can emulate the impedance frequency characteristics of various biological samples from user configurations. The bioimpedance emulation system is realized in a hardware prototype comprising current sensing circuitry, voltage generating circuitry, a USB controller and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for reconfigurable digital control of emulated impedance. Experimental validation shows that the emulation system exhibits good accuracy ( > 97% at 1 kOhm magnitude) in the frequency range 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The digitally configurability offers advantages in flexibility, repeatability, and cost-efficient compared to more traditional approaches, simplifying the validation process of electrical impedance tomography systems. PMID:23893205

Li, Nan; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Zhou; Xin, Jinling; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Xin

2013-08-01

318

Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.

Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Molzahn, Daniel K.

2014-10-17

319

Operating health analysis of electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation. A procedure is illustrated to determine the well-being indices of the overall interconnected system. Under normal operating conditions, the system may also be able to carry a limited amount of interruptible load on top of its firm load without violating the operating criterion. An energy based approach is presented to determine the optimum interruptible load carrying capability in both the isolated and interconnected systems. Composite system spinning reserve assessment and composite system well-being are also examined in this research work. The impacts on the composite well-being of operating reserve considerations such as stand-by units, interruptible loads and the physical locations of these resources are illustrated. It is expected that the well-being framework and the concepts developed in this research work will prove extremely useful in the new competitive utility environment.

Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

320

Advances in electric power systems : robustness, adaptability, and fairness  

E-print Network

The electricity industry has been experiencing fundamental changes over the past decade. Two of the arguably most significant driving forces are the integration of renewable energy resources into the electric power system ...

Sun, Xu Andy

2011-01-01

321

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must be waterproof or watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for current carrying parts of...

2011-10-01

322

46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must be waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for current carrying parts of...

2011-10-01

323

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...stationary electric apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including permanent cables, switchgear, rectifying substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, and settings of all direct-current...

2014-07-01

324

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stationary electric apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including permanent cables, switchgear, rectifying substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, and settings of all direct-current...

2012-07-01

325

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stationary electric apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including permanent cables, switchgear, rectifying substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, and settings of all direct-current...

2013-07-01

326

30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stationary electric apparatus in connection with the mine electric system, including permanent cables, switchgear, rectifying substations, transformers, permanent pumps, and trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, and settings of all direct-current...

2011-07-01

327

14 CFR 29.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a mock-up using the same generating equipment used in the rotorcraft; (2) The equipment must simulate the electrical...

2010-01-01

328

14 CFR 25.1363 - Electrical system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tests. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted— (1) The tests must be performed on a mock-up using the same generating equipment used in the airplane; (2) The equipment must simulate the electrical...

2010-01-01

329

Soot Removal Mechanism in an Electric Diesel Particulate Trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the performance of electric diesel particulate trap (E-DPT) that has been proposed by the authors, behavior of trapping and re-burning of diesel soot was investigated using an electric diesel particulate trap with a pair of electro-plates (1-channel E-DPT). The E-DPT was capable to trap soot by applying DC electric field between electro-plates. Experimental results showed that

Hiroyuki Hoshino; Youhei Mitsuyama; Masahiro Saito; Tomohiko Furuhata; Masataka Arai

330

Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

2006-01-01

331

The mechanism for fluid-rock deformation and seismic and electric effects before earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new understanding of fluid-rock deformation, where fluid-saturated microcrack geometry responds to small changes of stress, provides a mechanism for seismic, electric, and magneto-electric phenomena. Accurate crosshole seismic travel-time measurements (P-, SH-, and SV-waves, and shear-wave splitting time-delays), with a resolution of 20?s over 315m at 500m-depth, show systematic variations correlating with well-level changes, and Global Positioning System measurements, induced by tectonic-stress release due to small-scale seismicity (? mb~4) at 70km-distance. This unique data set has not yet been fully interpreted, but is consistent with anisotropic poro-elasticity (APE): a model of low-level fluid-rock pre-fracturing deformation, where the mechanism is micro-scale fluid-movement along pressure-gradients between neighbouring microcracks at different orientations to the stress-field. Fluid-saturated microcracks in the crust are so closely-spaced that they form critical systems verging on fracture-criticality (at the percolation threshold), fracturing, and self-organised criticality. APE shows that seismic shear-wave splitting directly monitors low-level deformation. Variations in shear-wave splitting have been identified (with hindsight) before some 10 earthquakes worldwide, and the time and magnitude of one earthquake has been correctly stress-forecast in SW Iceland. The hypothesis, confirmed by the new high-sensitivity observations, is that fluid-saturated microcracks make rock weak to shear-stress, so that stress before large earthquakes necessarily accumulates over enormous volumes of rock, and that shear-wave splitting can monitor the approach to fracture-criticality almost anywhere within this stressed volume. Correspondingly, changes in shear-wave splitting have been seen at substantial distances (70km from ? mb~4 earthquake activity, above, and 240km from the Vatnajökull eruption). The significance for electric and magneto-electric effects is that the APE mechanism of modifying stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcrack geometry also changes the anisotropic electrical resistivity. This is believed to be the source of the resistivity changes observed at great distances, for example before (and after) earthquakes in China by Chu et al. Since the elastic response of rock to changes of stress is calculable by APE, this means that in principle the electric and electromagnetic response to changes of stress can also be calculated.

Crampin, S.

2003-04-01

332

The mechanism for fluid-rock deformation and seismic and electric effects before earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new understanding of fluid-rock deformation, where fluid-saturated microcrack geometry responds to small changes of stress, provides a mechanism for seismic, electric, and magneto-electric phenomena. Accurate crosshole seismic travel-time measurements (P-, SH-, and SV-waves, and shear-wave splitting time-delays), with a resolution of 20?s over 315m at 500m-depth, show systematic variations correlating with well-level changes, and Global Positioning System measurements, induced by tectonic-stress release due to small-scale seismicity (mb~4) at 70km-distance. This unique data set has not yet been fully interpreted, but is consistent with anisotropic poro-elasticity (APE): a model of low-level fluid-rock pre-fracturing deformation, where the mechanism is micro-scale fluid-movement along pressure-gradients between neighbouring microcracks at different orientations to the stress-field. Fluid-saturated microcracks in the crust are so closely-spaced that they form critical systems verging on fracture-criticality (at the percolation threshold), fracturing, and self-organised criticality. APE shows that seismic shear-wave splitting directly monitors low-level deformation. Variations in shear-wave splitting have been identified (with hindsight) before some 10 earthquakes worldwide, and the time and magnitude of one earthquake has been correctly stress-forecast in SW Iceland. The hypothesis, confirmed by the new high-sensitivity observations, is that fluid-saturated microcracks make rock weak to shear-stress, so that stress before large earthquakes necessarily accumulates over enormous volumes of rock, and that shear-wave splitting can monitor the approach to fracture-criticality almost anywhere within this stressed volume. Correspondingly, changes in shear-wave splitting have been seen at substantial distances (70km from ? mb~4 earthquake activity, above, and 240km from the Vatnajökull eruption). The significance for electric and magneto-electric effects is that the APE mechanism of modifying stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcrack geometry also changes the anisotropic electrical resistivity. This is believed to be the source of the resistivity changes observed at great distances, for example before (and after) earthquakes in China by Chu et al. Since the elastic response of rock to changes of stress is calculable by APE, this means that in principle the electric and electromagnetic response to changes of stress can also be calculated.

Crampin, S.

2003-04-01

333

Simultaneous characterization of mechanical and electrical performances of ultraflexible and stretchable organic integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the simultaneous characterization of mechanical and electrical performances of ultraflexible and stretchable organic integrated circuits comprised of high-performance organic semiconductors, carbon nanotube-based elastic conductors, and self-assembled monolayers. By employing a high-precision mechanical stage that combines electrical functional terminals, the electrical performances of ultraflexible or stretchable organic transistors were measured after being bent to a 50 µm bending radius

Tsuyoshi Sekitania; Tomoyuki Yokotaa; Kazunori Kuribaraa; Takao Someyaa

2012-01-01

334

AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

Slicker, J. M.

1983-01-01

335

An automated, externally heated opposed anvil high pressure-high temperature system for electrical resistivity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, externally heated opposed (Bridgman) anvil system has been developed for electrical resistivity measurements up to 8 GPa pressure and 400 °C. The whole system is automated, in which the application and measurement of pressure and heating of the sample are undertaken using an IBM PC and associated electronic and mechanical hardware. The system developed has a pressure control

T. K. Mondal; S. Murugavel; S. Asokan

1999-01-01

336

Fracture criterion for conductive cracks in soda-lime glass under combined mechanical and electrical loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture tests of electrically conductive cracks on pre-notched four-point bending soda-lime glass samples were conducted\\u000a under combined mechanical and electrical loading. The experimental results show that the critical stress intensity factor\\u000a at fracture is reduced if an electric field is applied, thereby indicating that the electric field makes contributions to\\u000a the fracture of conductive cracks. Base on the charge-free zone

Dong-Jun Yan; Hai-You Huang; Chi-Wai Cheung; Tong-Yi Zhang

2010-01-01

337

Spin-controlled mechanics in nanoelectromechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a dc-electronic tunneling transport through a carbon nanotube suspended between normal-metal source and arbitrarily spin-polarized drain lead in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between electrical current through the nanotube and its mechanical vibrations may lead to an electromechanical instability and give an onset of self-excited mechanical vibrations depending on spin polarization of the drain lead and frequency of vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlation between the occupancy of quantized Zeeman-split electronic states in the nanotube and the direction of velocity of its mechanical motion. It is an effective gating effect by the presence of electron in the spin state which, through the Coulomb blockade, permits tunneling of electron to the drain predominantly only during a particular phase of mechanical vibration thus coherently changing mechanical momentum and leading into instability if mechanical damping is overcome.

Radi?, D.

2015-03-01

338

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-06-15

339

Design of electric differential system for an electric vehicle with dual wheel motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an electric differential system (EDS) for an electric vehicle (EV) driven directly by dual motors in the rear wheels. This system consists of twofold control loops: the outer loop modulates the yaw motion of the vehicle, and the inner loop improves the robustness against system uncertainties and road conditions. In experiments, the inner control loop is constructed

Yee-pien Yang; Xian-yee Xing

2008-01-01

340

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles. Addendum 1: Voltage considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two electric vehicle propulsion systems that best met cost and performance goals were examined to assess the effect of battery pack voltage on system performance and cost. A voltage range of 54 to 540 V was considered for a typical battery pack capacity of 24 k W-hr. The highest battery specific energy (W-hr/kg) and the lowest cost ($/kW-hr) were obtained at the minimum voltage level. The flywheel system traction motor is a dc, mechanically commutated with shunt field control, and due to the flywheel the traction motor and the battery are not subject to extreme peaks of power demand. The basic system uses a permanent-magnet motor with electronic commutation supplied by an ac power control unit. In both systems battery cost were the major factor in system voltage selection, and a battery pack with the minimum voltage of 54 V produced the lowest life-cycle cost. The minimum life-cycle cost for the basic system with lead-acid batteries was $0.057/km and for the flywheel system was $0.037/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1980-01-01

341

ESE 680: Special Topics in Electrical and Systems Engineering Modern Electrical Energy Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Infrastructure Course style: Project oriented. The students are expected and will be guided to deeply explore integration between the electrical energy infrastructure and other infrastructure systems. Instructors: Ufuk

Plotkin, Joshua B.

342

Abstract--A new system for gait restoration by electrical stimulation is presented. The system combines electrical  

E-print Network

Abstract--A new system for gait restoration by electrical stimulation is presented. The system combines electrical stimulation of the paralyzed quadriceps muscle with a hip-knee orthosis. The orthosis for mobility. Functional electrical Stimulation (FES) is one of the means to restore ambulatory function

Durfee, William K.

343

Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

2008-01-01

344

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of

Jirang Cui; Eric Forssberg

2003-01-01

345

Electrical system/environment interactions on the planet Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian environment is a diverse environment with which systems will interact in numerous ways. Preliminary thoughts on electrical system/environment interactions which might be of interest to system designers at all stages of system design are presented. These interactions are primarily related to electrical charging, contamination, and Martian surface sand and dust.

Kolecki, J. C.; Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

1991-01-01

346

Mechanical sensitivity reveals evolutionary dynamics of mechanical systems.  

PubMed

A classic question in evolutionary biology is how form-function relationships promote or limit diversification. Mechanical metrics, such as kinematic transmission (KT) in linkage systems, are useful tools for examining the evolution of form and function in a comparative context. The convergence of disparate systems on equivalent metric values (mechanical equivalence) has been highlighted as a source of potential morphological diversity under the assumption that morphology can evolve with minimal impact on function. However, this assumption does not account for mechanical sensitivity-the sensitivity of the metric to morphological changes in individual components of a structure. We examined the diversification of a four-bar linkage system in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda), and found evidence for both mechanical equivalence and differential mechanical sensitivity. KT exhibited variable correlations with individual linkage components, highlighting the components that influence KT evolution, and the components that are free to evolve independently from KT and thereby contribute to the observed pattern of mechanical equivalence. Determining the mechanical sensitivity in a system leads to a deeper understanding of both functional convergence and morphological diversification. This study illustrates the importance of multi-level analyses in delineating the factors that limit and promote diversification in form-function systems. PMID:25716791

Anderson, P S L; Patek, S N

2015-04-01

347

Therapeutic Application of Electric Fields in the Injured Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Significance: Nervous system injuries, both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system are a major cause for pain, loss-of-function, and impairment of daily life. As nervous system injuries commonly heal slowly or incompletely, new therapeutic approaches may be required. Recent Advances: The observation that cultured neurons are able to respond to exogenous electric fields (EFs) by sprouting more neurites and directing growth along the field, along with the presence of endogenous EFs in the developing vertebrate nervous system have led to the suggestion of the use of EFs in a regenerative therapeutic setting. This review discusses the effects of EFs on nervous cells, and their use in the treatment of nervous injuries in the eye, limb nerves, and the spinal cord. Exogenous EFs have been shown to be neuroprotective in various injury models of the eye, including traumatic injury, congenital degenerative retinopathy, and glaucoma. In the PNS, EFs are able to stimulate regrowth and functional recovery in damaged limb nerves. In the spinal cord, axonal regeneration and improved quality of life may be achieved using EF stimulation. Critical Issues: The optimal paradigm for electrical stimulation has not been determined, and the mechanisms behind the effect of EF are still largely unknown. Future Directions: Although the therapeutic use of EFs in the nervous system is still in its infancy, it is a promising therapeutic avenue for otherwise hard to treat injuries. The cellular/molecular mechanisms of such regulation need to be fully investigated, and the efficiency of applied EFs during wound healing needs to be optimized in a systematic approach in both animal models and future clinical trials. PMID:24761356

Haan, Niels; Song, Bing

2014-01-01

348

Developing Business Case for Electrical System Replacement  

E-print Network

Generating plants in United States have 30 to 40-year-old electrical distribution equipment that is reaching the end of its useful life. The demand for electric power is expected to increase by about 25 percent, over the ...

Miller, Carles

2006-05-19

349

Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

350

Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus  

DOEpatents

An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

2011-03-22

351

Dual power, constant speed electric motor system  

DOEpatents

A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

Kirschbaum, H.S.

1984-07-31

352

Dual power, constant speed electric motor system  

DOEpatents

A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

Kirschbaum, Herbert S. (Asheville, NC)

1984-01-01

353

The Tractor Electrical System. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental principles underlying the application of electricity to tractors and farm equipment are presented. An understanding of the material in the basic manual will enable the service man to understand better the service procedures covered in service manuals on electrical equipment. Topics dealt with are fundamentals of electricity,…

American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

354

Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

Anderson, Iver

2011-01-14

355

Random vibration of mechanical and structural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses random vibration of mechanical and structural systems commonly encountered in aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Techniques are examined for determining probabilistic characteristics of the response of dynamic systems subjected to random loads or inputs and for calculating probabilities related to system performance or reliability. Emphasis is given to applications.

T. T. Soong; Mircea Grigoriu

1993-01-01

356

HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-01-01

357

Mechanisms of muscle gene regulation in the electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus.  

PubMed

Animals perform a remarkable diversity of movements through the coordinated mechanical contraction of skeletal muscle. This capacity for a wide range of movements is due to the presence of muscle cells with a very plastic phenotype that display many different biochemical, physiological and morphological properties. What factors influence the maintenance and plasticity of differentiated muscle fibers is a fundamental question in muscle biology. We have exploited the remarkable potential of skeletal muscle cells of the gymnotiform electric fish Sternopygus macrurus to trans-differentiate into electrocytes, the non-contractile electrogenic cells of the electric organ (EO), to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the skeletal muscle phenotype. In S. macrurus, mature electrocytes possess a phenotype that is intermediate between muscle and non-muscle cells. How some genes coding for muscle-specific proteins are downregulated while others are maintained, and novel genes are upregulated, is an intriguing problem in the control of skeletal muscle and EO phenotype. To date, the intracellular and extracellular factors that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in muscle and EO have not been defined. Expression studies in S. macrurus have started to shed light on the role that transcriptional and post-transcriptional events play in regulating specific muscle protein systems and the muscle phenotype of the EO. In addition, these findings also represent an important step toward identifying mechanisms that affect the maintenance and plasticity of the muscle cell phenotype for the evolution of highly specialized non-contractile tissues. PMID:23761472

Güth, Robert; Pinch, Matthew; Unguez, Graciela A

2013-07-01

358

Crystalline electric fields in mixed valent systems  

SciTech Connect

The inelastic neutron studies of rare-earth-based mixed valent systems have all shown remarkably similar results: a broad quasielastic line with half width on the order of 10 MeV. This width exhibits a strong temperature dependence in those systems which undergo a valence transition and is only weakly temperature dependent in those systems which show no transition. A surprising result was the absence of crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations. Recent measurements on the alloy Ce/sub .9-x/La/sub x/Th/sub .1/ have revealed the existence of CEF excitations. For x = 0, the valence transition is strongly first order and occurs near T/sub 0/ approx. 150 K. The inelastic spectra exhibit the typical broad quasielastic scattering. As x increases, T/sub 0/ decreases due to internal pressure effects, and a well-defined, but broad, excitation appears near E = 15 MeV. This is interpreted as a CEF excitation between the GAMMA/sub 7/ and GAMMA/sub 8/ levels of the Ce/sup 3/+ ion. For x = 0.40, the valence transition is almost completely suppressed and the excitation becomes even sharper.

Shapiro, S.M.

1980-01-01

359

Electrical Systems. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, which is part of a series on agricultural and industrial machinery, deals with electrical systems. Special attention is paid to electricity as it is commonly used on mobile machines. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: electricity and how it works (current, voltage, and resistance; types of circuits;…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

360

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

361

Primary electric propulsion technology study. [for thruster wear-out mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the 30-cm engineering-model-thruster technology with emphasis placed on the development of models for understanding and predicting the operational characteristics and wear-out mechanisms of the thruster as a function of operating or design parameters is presented. The task studies include: (1) the wear mechanisms and wear rates that determine the useful lifetime of the thruster discharge chamber; (2) cathode lifetime as determined by the depletion of barium from the barium-aluminate-impregnated-porous-tungsten insert that serves as a barium reservoir; (3) accelerator-grid-system technology; (4) a verification of the high-voltage propellant-flow-electrical-isolator design developed under NASA contract NAS3-20395 for operation at 10-kV applied voltage and 10-A equivalent propellant flow with mercury and argon propellants. A model was formulated for predicting performance.

Poeschel, R. L.; Beattie, J. R.

1979-01-01

362

Electric arc deposition of carbon steel coatings with improved mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high deposition rate and efficiency, electric arc spraying has been routinely used to deposit carbon steel coatings. Although retention of carbon in these coatings is poor due to the use of compressed air during spraying, the coatings are sufficiently hardened by brittle iron oxide inclusions to be suitable for hardfacing mechanical components used in mild adhesive and abrasive wear environments. However, carbon steel coatings can be employed for hardfacing mechanical components used in more aggressive wear environments, provided they are hardened by the carbon retention rather than by iron oxide inclu-sions. Therefore, to increase retention of carbon, reduce inclusion of iron oxides, and improve hardness and wear properties of carbon steel coatings, deposition experiments were carried out using an inexpen-sive nitrogen, which is produced on-site by a pressure swing adsorption or a membrane separation sys-tem, instead of compressed air during spraying.

Zurecki, Z.; Garg, D.; Bowe, D.

1997-12-01

363

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

364

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

365

System for the co-production of electricity and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Described herein is a system for the co-generation of hydrogen gas and electricity, wherein the proportion of hydrogen to electricity can be adjusted from 0% to 100%. The system integrates fuel cell technology for power generation with fuel-assisted steam-electrolysis. A hydrocarbon fuel, a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, or a partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel can be fed into the system.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Anderson, Brian Lee (Lodi, CA)

2007-10-02

366

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XX, TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS (INTRODUCTION), (2) TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR TROUBLESHOOTING, (3) THE BATTERY, (4) PERIODIC BATTERY SERVICING, (5) THE DC CHARGING SYSTEM, (6) PERIODIC…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

367

Survey of harmonics measurements in electrical distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the harmonics found in the electrical distribution system of several buildings in the three Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge plants in Tennessee has yielded several conclusions useful in the design of electrical distribution systems. A preliminary survey to determine where significant amounts of harmonic currents or voltages existed in the distribution system was performed at several

Leon M. Tolbert; Harold D. Hollis

1996-01-01

368

1 5/22/2014 Electrical and Electronics Systems  

E-print Network

1 5/22/2014 Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division Kenneth Tobin, Director Electro and Safety Operations, EESD David Fowler Yvonne Horton Advanced Power and Electronics and Electric Motors Sensing and Controls Electronics and Embedded Systems Dwight Clayton Power and Energy Systems Aleks

369

Electric-power protection system fuzzy critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes and exemplifies how to use the fuzzy logic in the critical analysis of the faults including abnormal workings, for the most important elements in power systems. Fuzzy event tree method is used in performing the electric power protection system independent analysis. For critical analysis of the protected electric power element-protection system we built a complex software tool

Manana Dumitrescu; Toader Munteanu; Anatoli Paul Ulmeanu

2004-01-01

370

Electric vehicle DC charger integrated within a photovoltaic power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation of the variability in output power of renewable generators such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems is a growing concern as these generators reach higher penetrations on electric grids. This paper presents a system where a bidirectional, highly efficient, DC-DC electric vehicle (EV) charger is placed between the high-voltage DC bus of a PV system and the EV battery. In

Joshua Traube; Fenglong Lu; Dragan Maksimovic

2012-01-01

371

Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development. For China, the most promising options for promoting sustainable development, one of the goals of the Kyoto Protocol, appear to be tied to increasing electrical end-use and generation efficiency, particularly clean coal technology for electricity generation since coal will likely continue to be a dominant primary fuel.

Steenhof, Paul A.

372

Pattern recognition for electric power system protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to demonstrate pattern recognition tools such as decision trees (DTs) and neural networks that will improve and automate the design of relay protection functions in electric power systems. Protection functions that will benefit from the research include relay algorithms for high voltage transformer protection (TP) and for high impedance fault (HIF) detection. A methodology, which uses DTs and wavelet analysis to distinguish transformer internal faults from other conditions that are easily mistaken for internal faults, has been developed. Also, a DT based solution is proposed to discriminate HIFs from normal operations that may confuse relays. Both methods have been verified with simulation data generated by the Electromagnetic Transients Program. Compared with traditional methods, both show better performance. After being trained with a large number of carefully selected features, the desired DTs can obtain an accuracy of greater than 95%. Further, no special equipment is necessary; the DT-based controller only needs the standard relay input signals sampled at 1920 Hz. So far, no one has applied the same methodologies to solve these problems. Even though some future work with experimental data is needed to make the methods more convincing for utilities, the research has already shown that pattern recognition is a promising direction in developing power system protection algorithms.

Sheng, Yong

2002-11-01

373

Electrocoalescence mechanisms of microdroplets using localized electric fields in microfluidic channels.  

PubMed

Electrocoalescence of water-in-oil microdroplets in microfluidic channels is an active technique that enables droplet-based mixing functionalities to be achieved in lab-on-a-chip applications. In this work, a characterization of the electrocoalescence mechanisms of water microdroplets in oil is presented, using localized electric field systems. We report a theoretical and experimental description of the electrocoalscence behavior of droplet pairs by varying the physical and fluid dynamic conditions of the phases. Our results demonstrate that localized electric field systems can be reliably used to merge droplets in pairs, regardless of the distance between the drops. The coalescence behavior was dependent upon the viscosity of the continuous phase for water droplets that were separated by a thick layer of oil and upon interfacial tension for droplets that were in close proximity. We showed that these systems have the potential to be used for high-throughput applications and that, unlike other examples of active systems in the literature, the need of droplet synchronization and the application of high voltages is considerably reduced. PMID:20731333

Zagnoni, Michele; Le Lain, Guillaume; Cooper, Jonathan M

2010-09-21

374

Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of Electric Power Steering System of Automobile Using Bond Graph Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems have many merits over traditional hydraulic power steering systems in fuel economy, variable assist capabilities and favorable road feeling by virtue of adjustment assist characteristic with adopting assist motor in replacement of hydraulic pump. This paper aims at modeling the mechanical parts, the assist motor and electronic control unit by bond graph technique and simulating

Lin-an Wang; Qiang Li; Xiao-juan Liang

2010-01-01

375

Automating a spacecraft electrical power system using expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since Skylab, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recognized the need for large electrical power systems (EPS's) in upcoming Spacecraft. The operation of the spacecraft depends on the EPS. Therefore, it must be efficient, safe, and reliable. In 1978, as a consequence of having to supply a large number of EPS personnel to monitor and control Skylab, the Electrical power Branch of MSFC began the autonomously managed power system (AMPS) project. This project resulted in the assembly of a 25-kW high-voltage dc test facility and provided the means of getting man out of the loop as much as possible. AMPS includes several embedded controllers which allow a significant level of autonomous operation. More recently, the Electrical Division at MSFC has developed the space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard to investigate managing and distributing power in the Space Station Freedom habitation and laboratory modules. Again, the requirement for a high level of autonomy for the efficient operation over the lifetime of the station and for the benefits of enhanced safety has been demonstrated. This paper describes the two breadboards and the hierarchical approach to automation which was developed through these projects.

Lollar, L. F.

1991-01-01

376

Penny shaped crack in a piezoelectric cylinder surrounded by an elastic medium subjected to combined in-plane mechanical and electrical loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture problem of a penny shaped crack in a piezoelectric ceramic cylinder surrounded by an infinite elastic medium under in-plane normal mechanical and electrical loads is considered with the electric continuous boundary conditions on the crack surface. By using the potential theory and Hankel transform, a system of dual integral equations is obtained, and expressed to a Fredholm integral

Ji Hyuck Yang; Kang Yong Lee

2003-01-01

377

Analysis of the structural interaction of electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong electrical forces have been revealed in electrically active heterogeneous finely dispersed systems at the interfaces between the solid and liquid phases. It has been established that these forces give rise to gradients of the potential of an internal self-electric field that can provide circulation of electric currents in the systems under investigation. It has been found that, in these systems, there arises a double electric layer that represents a new structuring phase, which is characteristic of electrically active systems only. The mechanism of formation of a double electric layer includes electrocontact interaction between the surfaces of two heterogeneous liquid and solid polar dielectrics.

Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Maksimova, N. T.; Baryshnikov, S. S.; Karnakov, V. A.; Marchuk, S. D.; Ezhova, L. I.

2011-07-01

378

Magnetisation-induced mechanical resonance in electrical steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research has been carried out over the years to reduce the acoustic noise resulting from vibration of electromagnetic cores mainly caused by magnetostriction. This paper presents the results of a basic experimental study of magnetostriction in strips of grain oriented electrical steel commonly used in electromagnetic cores which gives an important new understanding of the phenomenon. Results suggest that a transformer core assembled from laminations of grain-oriented electrical steel around 0.3 m long would resonate at a magnetising frequency of 1.5 kHz which could result in excessive vibration and noise.

Phway, T. P. P.; Moses, A. J.

2007-09-01

379

Micro-electro-mechanics of ionic polymeric gels as electrically controllable artificial muscles  

SciTech Connect

A polymer gel is defined as a cross-linked polymer network swollen in a liquid medium. These gels possess an ionic structure in the sense that they are generally composed of a number of fixed ions pertaining to sites of various polymer cross-links and segments and mobile ions (counter ions) due to the presence of a solvent which is electrolytic. Ionic polymeric gels are three-dimensional networks of cross-linked macromolecular polyelectrolytes that swell or shrink in aqueous solutions on addition of alkali or acids, respectively. Linear reversible dilation and contraction of the order of more than 1,000 percent have been observed in the laboratory for polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers. Furthermore, it has been experimentally observed that swelling and shrinking of ionic gels can also be induced electrically. Thus, direct computer control of large expansions and contractions of ionic polymeric gels by means of a voltage gradient appears to be possible. A mechanism is presented for the reversible nonhomogeneous large deformations and in particular bending of strips of ionic polymeric gels in the presence of an electric field. Exact expressions are given relating the deformation characteristics of the gel to the electric field strength or voltage gradient, gel dimensions and other physical parameters such as the resistance and the capacitance of the gel strip. It is concluded that direct voltage control of such nonhomogeneous large deformations in ionic polymeric gels is possible. These electrically controlled deformations may find unique applications in robotics, artificial muscles, large motion actuator designs, drug delivery systems and smart materials, adaptive structures and systems.

Shahinpoor, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

380

Statistical mechanics and disordered systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since computers are able to simulate the equilibrium properties of model systems, they may also prove useful for solving the hard optimization problems that arise in the engineering of complex systems.

Scott Kirkpatrick; Robert H. Swendsen

1985-01-01

381

Electrical power systems (Jamaica). Electrical power systems, July 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The United States presently supplies 70% of Jamaica's demand for Electrical Power Systems. Market demand is not limited to the requirements of the National Power Company. There is domestic demand created by the need to have backup or stand-by facilities during load shedding or power outages. Ongoing refurbishing programs and the ultimate need to increase the capacity of the Public Service Company will facilitate an ongoing demand for power systems. The market is very steady and will gain momentum lasting well beyond 1993.

Not Available

1992-07-01

382

Gear locking mechanism to extend the consistent power operating region of the electric motor to enhance acceleration and regenerative braking efficiency in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicle and electric vehicles are employing electric motor as one of the major propulsion medium. As a result of the higher performance requirement and to manipulate the variety of driving circumstances, sizing of the electric motor is crucial in this particular drivetrain systems. In addition to that, since the electric motor is assisting with the IC engine to

P. Suntharalingam; J. T. Economou; K. Knowles

2009-01-01

383

Transient response of an insulating crack between dissimilar piezoelectric layers under mechanical and electrical impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?The dynamic response of an interface crack between two dissimilar piezoelectric layers subjected to mechanical and electrical\\u000a impacts is investigated under the boundary condition of electrical insulation on the crack surface by using the integral transform\\u000a and the Cauchy singular integral equation methods. The dynamic stress intensity factors, the dynamic electrical displacement\\u000a intensity factor, and the dynamic energy release rate

B. Gu; S.-W. Yu; X.-Q. Feng

2002-01-01

384

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between...

2014-10-01

385

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between...

2013-10-01

386

49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.340 Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between...

2012-10-01

387

Transformers and the Electric Utility System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

Roman, Harry T.

2005-01-01

388

Illuminating Systems: Edison and Electrical Incandescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the life and inventions of Thomas A. Edison up to the invention of electrical incandescent lighting in 1881. Focuses on the process that Edison followed in developing incandescent lighting, including financial aspects, other competitors in the field, and the eventual establishment of the Edison Electric Light Companies. (RW)

Sanford, Greg

1989-01-01

389

Electricity/Electronics Systems. Laboratory Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This electricity/electronics guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 35 modules on the following topics: electrical

Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

390

Analysis and simulation of a system connecting batteries of an electric vehicle to the electric grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of electric chains of plug-in vehicles can be carried out considering several and distinct aspects, resulting in many different solutions. One approach is to study the battery-power converter-electric machine chain for different types of batteries and electric machines, and therefore, adapt the power converter to the performance and dynamics required for those systems. In addition, these types of

Duarte M. Sousa; Antonio Roque; Claudio Casimiro

2011-01-01

391

On the mechanism of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field interactions with living tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the empirical observations of ELF electric field effects on living tissue has led the authors to propose that effects occur through the action of the electric polarization forces which develop at the cell surface. Such an interaction mechanism predicts that the field effects should be associated with a time-development response as well as an actual deformation of

K. J. McLeod; C. T. Rubin; H. J. Donahue; F. Guilak

1992-01-01

392

How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

Skumiel, A.

2011-01-01

393

How to teach basic quantum mechanics to computer scientists and electrical engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the rapid development of quantum computation and of quantum technologies in general, computer scientists and electrical engineers will have to learn quantum mechanics (QM) in the near future. Although the teaching methods of QM are well established in both undergraduate and graduate physics courses, an effective method for teaching QM to computer scientists and electrical engineers is still

Bernardo Cuenca Grau

2004-01-01

394

Investigation of Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics for Cracked Conductive Particle in Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive (ACA) Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) assembly, the electrical conduction is usually achieved with the conductive particles between the bumps of integrated circuit (IC) and corresponding conductive tracks on the glass substrate. Fully understanding of the mechanical and electrical characteristics of ACA particles can help to optimize the assembly process and improve the reliability of ACA interconnection. Most conductive particles

Bin Xie; X. Q. Shi; Han Ding

2008-01-01

395

Mechanoelectric feedback as a trigger mechanism for cardiac electrical remodeling: a model study.  

PubMed

Regional variation in ionic membrane currents causes differences in action potential duration (APD) and is proarrhythmic. After several weeks of ventricular pacing, AP morphology and duration are changed due to electrical remodeling of the transient outward potassium current (I (to)) and the L-type calcium current (I (Ca,L)). It is not clear what mechanism drives electrical remodeling. By modeling the cardiac muscle as a string of segments that are electrically and mechanically coupled, we investigate the hypothesis that electrical remodeling is triggered by changes in mechanical load. Contractile force generated by the sarcomeres depends on the calcium transient and on the sarcomere length. Stroke work is determined for each segment by simulating the cardiac cycle. Electrical remodeling is simulated by adapting I (Ca,L) kinetics such that a homogeneous distribution of stroke work is obtained. With electrical remodeling, a more homogeneous shortening of the fiber is obtained, while heterogeneity in APD increases and the repolarization wave reverses. Our results are in agreement with experimentally observed homogeneity in mechanics and heterogeneity in electrophysiology. In conclusion, electrical remodeling is a possible mechanism to reduce heterogeneity in cardiomechanics induced by ventricular pacing. PMID:18777211

Kuijpers, Nico H L; Ten Eikelder, Huub M M; Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Verheule, Sander; Arts, Theo; Hilbers, Peter A J

2008-11-01

396

Data collection mechanisms for intrusion detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from the experience obtained during the devel- opment and testing of a distributed intrusion detection system, we reect on the data collection needs of in- trusion detection systems, and on the limitations that are faced when using the data collection mechanisms built into most operating systems. We claim that it is best for an intrusion detection system to be

Eugene Spaord; Diego Zamboni

2000-01-01

397

The structure of 2-bodies mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under-actuated 2-bodies mechanical systems with 1 actuator are considered. This family of systems includes the double pendulum, the inverted pendulum on a cart, the acrobot, the pendubot... and other systems with two degrees of freedom but only one actuated joint. The maximal linearization problem is investigated and it is shown that these systems may be classified into two subfamilies depending

Jiri Zikmund; Claude H. Moog

2006-01-01

398

Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO? nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO?, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm?¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm?³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m?¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

2012-08-31

399

Reserve valuation in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

400

Study on Mechanical, Thermal and Electrical Characterizations of Nano-SiC\\/Epoxy Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the results of a study on evaluating the effect of nano-SiC particles on mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of epoxy by lap shear, TGA, DSC and electrical tests. Epoxy composites filled with micro-SiC particles were also studied for comparison. The mechanisms of performance improvement were discussed in detail. The results showed that with identical loading, silane treated

Tianle Zhou; Xin Wang; Mingyuan Gu; Dangsheng Xiong

2009-01-01

401

Discrimination among mechanical fault types in induction motors using electrical measurements  

E-print Network

for thc degree of NIASTER OF SCIENCE Dece&nber 2002 Ms jor Subject: Kfcr hanical Engineering DISCRIMINATION AMONG MECHANICAL FAULT TYPES IN INDUCTION MOTORS USING ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by , JUSTIN ROBERT MCFATTER Submitted to Texas AE... of Depar trrrerrt) Deccrrrbcr 2002 Major Subject: Kfechaurcal Engineering 111 ABSTRACT Discrimination Among Mechanical Fault Types in Induction Motors Using Electrical Measurements (December 2002) Justin Robert McFatter, B. S. , Texas A&M U...

McFatter, Justin Robert

2002-01-01

402

A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

DelRosario, Ruben

2014-01-01

403

Electrical control system for oil well bailer pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an electric control system for an oil well bailer pump having an electric motor for actuating a cable for lowering a bailer into an oil well, filling the bailer, raising the bailer, emptying the bailer, and recycling, the improvement in means sensing the fluid level of the oil in the oil well. The system consists of: a

K. A. Senghaas; P. Senghaas

1986-01-01

404

DC link stabilized field oriented control of electric propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motor based electric propulsion systems can be used in a wide variety of applications including locomotives, hybrid electric vehicles, and ships. Field oriented control of these drives is attractive since it allows the torque to be tightly and nearly instantaneously controlled. However, such systems can be prone to negative impedance instability of the DC link. This paper examines this

S. D. Sudhoff; K. A. Corzine; S. F. Glover; H. J. Hegner

1998-01-01

405

Electrical Equipment Replacement: Energy Efficiency versus System Compatibility  

E-print Network

efficient. Manufacturers continually improve their products to make them more efficient, more productive, more compact, and, consequently, more economical. Installing energy efficient components without considering the integration of those... components into the electrical system can have unanticipated consequences, especially when replacing individual components within an existing system. Often, replacing electrical components with energy efficient equipment is a relatively simple...

Massey, G. W.

2005-01-01

406

Electromagnetic interference assessment of an ion drive electric propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electric propulsion thrust system has the capability of providing a high specific impulse for long duration scientific missions in space. The EMI from the elements of an ion engine was characterized. The compatibility of ion drive electric propulsion systems with typical interplanetary spacecraft engineering was predicted.

Whittlesey, A. C.

1981-01-01

407

A Testing System for Diagnosing Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a test-based diagnosis system for misconceptions in DC electric circuits and its three parts: problem library, problem selector and diagnoser. Discusses misconception discrimination and diagnosis theories, and reports the system supports satisfactory diagnosis. Includes an analysis of nine student misconceptions about electrical circuits…

Chang, Kuo-En; Liu, Sei-Hua; Chen, Sei-Wang

1998-01-01

408

Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

1993-01-01

409

Biomedical | Chemical & Biomolecular | Civil & Environmental | Electrical & Computer | Industrial | Mechanical | Petroleum Careers in Electrical Engineering  

E-print Network

Biomedical | Chemical & Biomolecular | Civil & Environmental | Electrical & Computer | Industrial of student organizations receive career guidance from industry professionals and participate in activities organization. Events include the Region 5 Robotics Competition and annual Chili Cook-Off. About UH Engineering

Azevedo, Ricardo

410

Design and implementation of an electric drive system for in-wheel motor electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and application of a hub drive system for Hybrid (HEV) and All Electric Vehicles (EV). Initially Matlab SIMULINK model of a hub driven hybrid electric vehicle is developed and the performance values are calculated. Two 15 kW brushless dc machines (BLDC) are designed and manufactured to be located inside the rim of the wheels. The

R. Nejat Tuncay; Ozgur Ustun; Murat Yilmaz; Can Gokce; Utku Karakaya

2011-01-01

411

Electrical Cerebral Stimulation Modifies Inhibitory Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue has been proposed as a method to treat some neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. Epileptic seizures result from excessive, synchronous, abnormal firing patterns of neurons that are located predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Many people with epilepsy continue presenting seizures even though they are under regimens of antiepileptic medications. An alternative therapy for treatment resistant epilepsy is cerebral electrical stimulation. The present study is focused to review the effects of different types of electrical stimulation and specifically changes in amino acids.

Cuéllar-Herrera, M.; Rocha, L.

2003-09-01

412

Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy  

DOEpatents

Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

Liu, Yan (Ballston Lake, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

2008-06-24

413

Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts  

SciTech Connect

Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

2010-08-01

414

Systems modeling for electric ship design  

E-print Network

Diesel and gas turbine electric ship propulsion are of current interest for several types of vessels that are important for commercial shipping and for the next generation of war ships. During the design process of a ...

Soultatis, Charalambos

2004-01-01

415

Conic optimization of electric power systems  

E-print Network

The electric power grid is recognized as an essential modern infrastructure that poses numerous canonical design and operational problems. Perhaps most critically, the inherently large scale of the power grid and similar ...

Taylor, Joshua Adam

2011-01-01

416

ARGOS laser system mechanical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

2014-07-01

417

A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application  

SciTech Connect

The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of electrical hazards. The new comprehensive electrical hazard classification system uses a combination of voltage, shock current available, fault current available, power, energy, and waveform to classify all forms of electrical hazards. Based on this electrical hazard classification system, many new tools have been developed, including (a) work controls for these hazards, (b) better selection of PPE for R&D work, (c) improved training, and (d) a new Severity Ranking Tool that is used to rank electrical accidents and incidents with various forms of electrical energy.

Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

418

Mechanical-Electric-Magnetic Coupling Effects in Black and White Graphenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale multifield couplings can turn very common materials such as carbon and boron nitride into promising functional materials for many device applications. We recently found that the magnetism in graphene nanoribbons on silicon substrates can be tuned linearly by applied bias voltage (Phys.Rev.Lett, 103, 187204, 2009), and this novel magnetoelectric effect is robust to material and geometry variations. Adsorbed graphene nanoribbons can also create tunable magnetism on silicon surface (Phys.Rev.B 82, 235423, 2010). Strain tunable magnetism has also been found in defect graphene (ACS Nano 4, 2124, 2010; Phys. Rev. B 82, 085425, 2010). Contrast to the zero-gap graphene, Hexagon-BN layers (white graphene) and rolled-up nanotubes are generally insulating, we show that the wide gap in them can be tuned into semiconducting range, even closed in BN nanoribbons by electric fields and narrowed by reduced tube diameter or local curvature radius (Nano Lett. 10, 5049, 2010; Phys. Rev. B 82, 035412, 2010). What is more, our recent experiments have demonstrated that flow-induced-voltage in graphene can be 20 folds higher than in graphite (Appl.Phys.Lett. 99, 073103 (2011)). Such extraordinary mechanical-electric-magnetic coupling effects in graphene and BN systems open up new vistas in functional devices compatible with silicon-based technology for efficient energy conversion and novel functional systems.

Guo, Wanlin

2012-02-01

419

MECHANISMS OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF RARE EARTH ALLOYS AT LOW TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of complete solid solubility in the alloy systems Gd-- Lu, ; Tb- Lu, and Gd- Er was established by means of x-ray diffraction and electrical ; resistivity methods. The electrical resistivity was measured as a function of ; temperature from 4.2 to 310 deg K for twelve alloys in these systems and the data ; were analyzed to

Smidt; F. A. Jr

1962-01-01

420

Analysis of various all-electric-ship electrical distribution system topologies  

E-print Network

As advances in technology mature, the need is evident for a coherent simulation of the total electric-drive ship to model the effect of new systems on the overall performance of the vessel. Our laboratory has been developing ...

Chalfant, Julie

421

Modeling Mechanical Subsystems of the Hybrid Electric Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is part of the course “Intro to Mechatronics” at Lawrence Technological University and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. In the lab students are introduced to the use of planetary gearsets and their application to hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) transmissions. Students are first familiarized with the planetary gearset equation and then use MAT Lab software to visualize the relationship between input data and the resulting output torque and speed through the gear set. All MAT Lab files are included.

2013-04-11

422

Regulatory mechanisms of the plasma contact system.  

PubMed

The plasma contact system is a proinflammatory and procoagulant protease system. The biochemistry of the system is well established, however, its biological functions are just beginning to emerge. Here, we provide a condensed overview on mechanisms involved in activation and regulation of the contact system. These recent findings will help us to better understand the role of the enigmatic system for health and disease. PMID:22398015

Maas, Coen; Renné, Thomas

2012-05-01

423

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading for instance to ground state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Aurelien Dantan; Bhagya Nair; Guido Pupillo; Claudiu Genes

2014-06-27

424

Hybrid cavity mechanics with doped systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a mechanical resonator in which is embedded an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with an optical cavity field. We show that this hybrid approach to optomechanics allows for enhanced effective interactions between the mechanics and the cavity field, leading, for instance, to ground-state cooling of the mechanics, even in regimes, like the unresolved sideband regime, in which standard radiation pressure cooling would be inefficient.

Dantan, Aurélien; Nair, Bhagya; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

2014-09-01

425

Reliability Mechanisms for Very Large Storage Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and availability are increasingly important in large-scale storage systems built from thousands of indi- vidual storage devices. Large systems must survive the fail- ure of individual components; in systems with thousands of disks, even infrequent failures are likely in some device. We focus on two types of errors: nonrecoverable read er- rors and drive failures. We discuss mechanisms for

Qin Xin; Ethan L. Miller; Thomas J. E. Schwarz; Darrell D. E. Long; Scott A. Brandt; Witold Litwin

2003-01-01

426

Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

1966-01-01

427

Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

2003-03-01

428

An EMC study of an electrical powertrain for transportation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many reasons, why electric drive systems will be used in future more frequently in transportation systems. The electrification allows a flexible use of different energy sources and thus creates a greater independence from fossil energy. However, electric drive systems are a challenge for the manufacturers of transportation systems. The electrical powertrain can not only be exposed to interferences, it may also emit interferences into components and communication cables in the vicinity. This can be a high risk for the drive system and for the passengers. For that reason, an EMC study of an electrical powertrain for transportation systems is presented. There the interference at the unshielded high-voltage cable (HV-cable) is characterized. The analysis of the influence of position variation of the communication cable with respect to the unshielded HV-cables is one main aspect. Different optimizations have been added to the test setup.

Chand, B.; Hähre, K.; Keghie, J.; Dickmann, S.

2012-09-01

429

Pricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets  

E-print Network

the price that energy brokers (retailers) need to pay in case their profile TU Delft Erasmus UniversityPricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets Mathijs de Weerdt , Wolfgang Ketter , and John Collins Abstract We consider the problem of designing a pricing mechanism

de Weerdt, Mathijs

430

Quantum mechanical aspects of friction and electric resistance in microscopic problems with applications to radiation physics  

E-print Network

Friction incorporates the close connection between classical mechanics in irreversible thermodynamics. The translation to a quantum mechanical foundation is not trivial and requires a generalization of the Lagrange function. A change to electromagnetic circuits appears to more adequate, since the electric analogue (Ohms law) is related to scatter of electrons at lattice vibrations.

Ulmer, W

2015-01-01

431

A mechanism to automatically bait electric grid insect traps with sex pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism to automatically bait electric grid traps with prospective sex pheromone samples was developed and used during bioassays of chemical components isolated from the extracts of female tobacco budworms,Heliothis virescens (F.). By baiting traps at specified times during the night, this mechanism contributed to the final identification of the sex pheromone.

D. E. Hendricks; C. T. Perez; R. J. Guerra

1975-01-01

432

Mechanical Diagnostics System Engineering in IMD HUMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goodrich Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics Health and Usage System (IMD-HUMS) mechanical diagnostics functionality is the integration of disparate subsystems. When the aircraft is in the appropriate capture window, the primary processing unit (PPU), commands the vibration processing unit (VPU) to capture vibration data and a tachometer reference. This time domain data is processed by standard and proprietary algorithms to generate

Eric Bechhoefer; Eric Mayhew

2006-01-01

433

A new simulation approach to characterizing the mechanical and electrical qualities of a connector contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to ongoing miniaturization in electronics, connector contact designs have to follow the same trends. The prediction of the mechanical and electrical performance of low force connector contacts becomes increasingly important. This paper shows a new approach for modeling elastic plastic contact between two multi-layered non-conforming rough bodies subjected to pressure and shear traction. Three main considerations will be presented: realistic surface simulations, numerical simulation of contact interfaces, and constriction resistance calculations. (i) Since measured three dimensional (3D) digitized surface data is not always available, having the ability to numerically simulate “realistic” rough surface topographies is of great importance. It will be shown how realistic engineered surfaces can be modeled using five scale independent parameters: RMS roughness, x/y correlation length, kurtosis and skew. (ii) A numerical algorithm has been developed which calculates the stresses and deformations generated in a contact system with up to three different layers per contact partner. The mechanical properties of each individual contact layer are incorporated into the calculation. This numerical algorithm is based on Papkovich-Neuber Potentials, both multi grid and conjugate gradient methods are used, and the plastic deformation of the individual contact points (a-spots) can be interpolated using different material hardening behaviors. (iii) Once the contact interface a-spot distribution is simulated, the constriction resistance of the true contact area can then be calculated. The voltage drop within the contacting bodies is interpolated by iteratively solving the Laplace equation. The electrical properties of all the individual contact layers as well as the interaction between the individual a-spots are taken into account. A validation of these simulation algorithms will be shown using a hard Au/Ni/CuSn6 contact system. The results show excellent agreement between measured and simulated contact resistance results over a normal force range from 1 cN up to 250 cN. The algorithms have been implemented with an “easy to use” Windows software interface called “First Contact”. The software also incorporates a material database that when used together with a surface modeler, allows for the fast calculation and 3D visualization of all mechanical and electrical contact characteristics.

Leidner, M.; Schmidt, H.; Myers, M.; Schlaak, H. F.

2010-02-01

434

Some Electrical and Mechanical Devices to Illustrate Biological Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of metal construction toys (erector sets) to build laboratory equipment (to compare rates of decay, record small mammal activity, stir solutions, and function as a kymograph) and to build analogue models of skeletal joints, and feedback mechanisms responding to external stimuli. (AL)

Kramer, L. M. J.

1971-01-01

435

Natural rubber electrical conduction mechanism in high and low electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The services in energized lines become more and more indispensable and its efficiency depends on the electrical worker who is involved in such activity. The efficiency of such work highly depends on the worker's safety, which is protected by tools such as gloves, sleeves, blankets and flexible coverings among other manufactured natural-rubber goods. Use, storage and maintenance of these tools

E. L. Kowalski; R. Robert; J. Tomioka; Teixeira Junior; J. C. Tosin; R. E. Clerise; O. E. Filho

2005-01-01

436

Quantum mechanics of a constrained electrically charged particle in the presence of electric currents  

E-print Network

We discuss the dynamics of a classical spinless quantum particle carrying electric charge and constrained to move on a non singular static surface in ordinary three dimensional space in the presence of arbitrary configurations of time independent electric currents. Starting from the canonical action in the embedding space we show that a charged particle with charge $q$ couples to a term linear in $qA^3M$, where $A^3$ is the transverse component of the electromagnetic vector potential and $M$ is the mean curvature in the surface. This term cancels exactly a curvature contribution to the orbital magnetic moment of the particle. It is shown that particles, independently of the value of the charge, in addition to the known couplings to the geometry also couple to the mean curvature in the surface when a Neumann type of constraint is applied on the transverse fluctuations of the wave function. In contrast to a Dirrichlet constraint on the transverse fluctuations a Neumann type of constraint on these degrees of freedom will in general make the equations of motion non separable. The exceptions are the equations of motion for electrically neutral particles on surfaces with constant mean curvature. In the presence of electric currents the equation of motion of a charged particle is generally non separable independently of the coupling to the geometry and the boundary constraints.

B. Jensen; R. Dandoloff

2009-11-01

437

Electric signaling behavior and the mechanisms of electric organ discharge production in mormyrid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mormyrid fish communicate and navigate using electric organ discharges (EODs). The EOD is highly stereotyped and provides information on sender identity, including species, sex, reproductive condition, and possibly relative status and individual identity. By contrast, the sequence of pulse intervals (SPI) is variable and plays more of a role in signaling behavioral states. Various types of SPI displays may be

Bruce A. Carlson

2002-01-01

438

Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087

Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

439

Transient mechanical and electrical properties of uncooled resistive microbolometer focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in MEMS and focal plane array (FPA) technologies have led to the development of manufacturing microbolometers monolithically on a readout integrated circuit (ROIC). In this work, both numerical and finite element methods were performed to simulate the transient electrical and mechanical responses of resistive microbolometer FPAs made by several TCR (thermal coefficient of resistance) materials including a-Si, VOx and semiconducting YBCO. Numerical simulation shows that the pulsed bias readout mode in resistive microbolometer FPAs causes a non-steady-state of the system during the operation. As a result, NETD decreases with the increasing pulse width. In FPAs, the array size, frame rate, ROIC and mechanical reliability set the up-limit to the pulse width. The transient mechanical response for three microbolometer configurations was investigated using finite element modeling. The biased pulse results in membrane bending along the z-axis for the symmetric extended configuration (Type I), or twisting in three axes for the asymmetric extended configuration (Type II) due to the constraint force from the supporting arms. The square configuration (Type III) exhibits the smallest deformation and minimum shear stress at the sharp geometries. a-Si microbolometer generates higher shear stress than other microbolometers with the same square configuration.

Li, Biao; Huang, Shusen; Zhang, Xin

2004-10-01

440

Deployment Mechanism for Thermal Pointing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deployment Mechanism for the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is responsible for bringing the Thermal Pointing System (TPS) from its stowed, launch locked position to the on-orbit deployed, operational position. The Deployment Mechanism also provides structural support for the TSIS optical bench and two-axis gimbal. An engineering model of the Deployment Mechanism has been environmentally qualified and life tested. This paper will give an overview of the TSIS mission and then describe the development, design, and testing of the Deployment Mechanism.

Koski, Kraig

2014-01-01

441

The electricity consumption impacts of commercial energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of energy management systems (EMSs) in large commercial and institutional buildings in North Carolina was undertaken to determine how EMSs currently affect electricity consumption and what their potential is for reducing on-peak electricity demand. A survey was mailed to 5000 commercial customers. The 430 responses were tabulated and analyzed, EMS vendors were interviewed, and 30 sites were investigated

S. Buchanan; R. Taylor; S. Paulos; W. Warren; J. Hay

1989-01-01

442

An exploratory analysis of the Dutch electricity system in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent contextual developments constitute a backdrop of change for the Dutch electricity system. Institutional change driven by liberalization, changing economic competitiveness of the dominant fuels, new technologies, and changing end-user preferences regarding electricity supply are some examples of these developments. This paper explores plausible transition trajectories in the face of these developments given technological uncertainty about investment and operating costs,

Jan H. Kwakkel; Gonenc Yucel

2011-01-01

443

THERMIONIC CONVERSION IN A NUCLEAR-ELECTRIC SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and experimental performance of the thermionic converter is ; analyzed for use in power conversion in a nuclear-electric space propulsion ; system. Electrical propulsion power requirements are shown to demand a minimum ; ratio of powerplant weight to power in the jet. The elements of a powerplant ; into which the converter must be integrated are discussed, including

J. P. Ditz; T. R. Shukay

1961-01-01

444

WattBot: a residential electricity monitoring and feedback system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity production emits carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere, adversely influences global climate change, depletes limited natural resources, and negatively impacts the lives of those who live near power plants. We designed a residential electricity monitoring and feedback system called WattBot, that allows users to track their home energy usage and encourages them to reduce consumption. Our solution

Dane Petersen; Jay Steele; Joe Wilkerson

2009-01-01

445

Modeling and Simulation about an Electric Car's Regenerative Braking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of regenerative braking system of an electric car is studied in the paper. The car's speed, acceleration, the hydraulic accumulator's pressure and volume are simulated with Matlab while the electric car is braking or accelerating from stop. The hydraulic accumulator can absorb all of the braking energy when braking and the energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator can

Zuowu Ding; Dongbiao Zhao; Jianmin Zuo

2007-01-01

446

Control, Alarm and Indicator Systems in Modern Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the different controls and their associated indicator and alarm systems used in modern day electric vehicles (EVs). These electric vehicles are of hybrid type incorporating diesel, petrol or hydrogen as alternate fuel source. The purpose of different controls is to give smooth start, passenger comfort, amenities, safety and smooth stop. This is achieved through vehicle management unit

V. K. Sharma; R. D. Kamble; R. Sharma

2006-01-01

447

A generalized information management system applied to electrical distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system solution approach to information management for electrical distribution that meets the requirements being imposed by industry trends and the electric utility customer is presented. The approach is based on three significant phenomena in the computer industry: the replacement of traditional mainframe computer solutions with networked microcomputer and workstation solutions; the emergence of a standards-based software products industry; and

K. I. Geisler; S. A. Neumann; T. D. Nielsen; P. K. Bower; B. A. Hughes

1990-01-01

448

A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

449

Field and temperature dependence of the small polaron hopping electrical conductivity in 1D disordered systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of the electric field and the temperature on the electrical conductivity of one-dimensional disordered systems due to phonon assisted hopping of small polarons. The microscopic transport mechanism is treated within the framework of the generalized molecular crystal model and the Kubo formula, while percolation theoretical arguments lead to analytical expressions for the macroscopic behavior of the electrical conductivity at high (multi-phonon assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon assisted hopping) temperatures under the influence of moderate electric fields. The theoretical results are successfully applied to recent experimental findings for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields. Comparison is made with other theories. PMID:21832371

Triberis, G P; Dimakogianni, M

2009-09-23

450

Mechanical and electric fatigue of PZT(53\\/47) films on metallic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the fatigue of electromechanical and dielectric properties of sol-gel derived PZT(53\\/47) thin films deposited on metallic substrates by means of electric and mechanical cycling. For the mechanical cycling a two point bending method was used to apply transversal stress to the samples. During mechanical cycling the piezoelectric coefficient d31 remained constant up to about 10 cycles, for

T. Hauke; H. Beige; M. Giersbach; S. Seifert; D. Sporn

2001-01-01

451

Development of Tailorable Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical characteristics of surfaces on spacecraft are fundamental parameters in controlling its temperature. Passive thermal control coatings with designed solar absorptance and infrared emittance properties have been developed and have been in use for some time. In this total space environment, the coating must be stable and maintain its desired optical properties as well as mechanical properties for the course of the mission lifetime. The mission lifetimes are increasing and in our quest to save weight, newer substrates are being integrated which limit electrical grounding schemes. All of this has added to already existing concerns about spacecraft charging and related spacecraft failures or operational failures. The concern is even greater for thermal control surfaces that are very large. One way of alleviating such concerns is to design new thermal control material systems (TCMS) that can help to mitigate charging via providing charge leakage paths. The objective of this program was to develop two types of passive electrically conductive TCMS. The first was a highly absorbing/emitting black surface and the second was a low (alpha(sub s)/epsilon(sub N)) type white surface. The surface resistance goals for the black absorber was 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) Omega/square, and for the white surfaces it was 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 10) Omega/square. Several material system concepts were suggested and evaluated for space environment stability and electrical performance characterization. Our efforts in designing and evaluating these material systems have resulted in several developments. New concepts, pigments and binders have been developed to provide new engineering quality TCMS. Some of these have already found application on space hardware, some are waiting to be recognized by thermal designers, and some require further detailed studies to become state-of-the-art for future space hardware and space structures. Our studies on baseline state-of-the-art materials and conductive concepts have resulted in several important findings that are of interest to all thermal designers and systems integrators.

Deshpande, M. S.; Harada, Y.

1997-01-01

452

Simulation of linear mechanical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamics and controls analyst is typically presented with a structural dynamics model and must perform various input/output tests and design control laws. The required time/frequency simulations need to be done many times as models change and control designs evolve. This paper examines some simple ways that open and closed loop frequency and time domain simulations can be done using the special structure of the system equations usually available. Routines were developed to run under Pro-Matlab in a mixture of the Pro-Matlab interpreter and FORTRAN (using the .mex facility). These routines are often orders of magnitude faster than trying the typical 'brute force' approach of using built-in Pro-Matlab routines such as bode. This makes the analyst's job easier since not only does an individual run take less time, but much larger models can be attacked, often allowing the whole model reduction step to be eliminated.

Sirlin, S. W.

1993-01-01

453

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16

454

Networked Architecture for Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems  

E-print Network

, pedram}@usc.edu ABSTRACT A hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) system that consists of multiple system be- cause no storage element has ideal characteristics. The state-of- the-art HEES systems introduction of a HEES system based on a networked CTI architecture, which is highly scalable and is capa- ble

Pedram, Massoud

455

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-01-01

456

Transforming the U.S. electricity system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart electric power grid of the future will integrate the traditional elements of supply and demand, transmission and distribution with new technologies such as superconductors, energy storage, customer load management, and distributed generation, using information to make them function as a \\

R. G. Pratt; Robert G

2004-01-01

457

Lunar Dust Chemical, Electrical, and Mechanical Reactivity: Simulation and Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar dust is recognized to be a highly reactive material in its native state. Many, if not all Constellation systems will be affected by its adhesion, abrasion, and reactivity. A critical requirement to develop successful strategies for dealing with lunar dust and designing tolerant systems will be to produce similar material for ground-based testing.

VanderWal, Randy L.

2008-01-01

458

MultiFunctional Spacecraft Structures Integrating Electrical and Mechanical Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future earth orbiting, solar system and celestial body autonomous missions can benefit from spacecraft systems and instruments that have significantly lower weight and volume over current state of the art designs. Incorporating electronic traces or signal paths directly into the spacecraft or instrument structure can provide a significant savings in weight and volume. In addition, local computer processing power, increased

Donald V. Schatzel

2007-01-01

459

Electrical stimuli in the central nervous system microenvironment.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation to manipulate the central nervous system (CNS) has been applied as early as the 1750s to produce visual sensations of light. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, and functional electrical stimulation (FES) are being applied in the clinic to treat a wide array of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries. This review describes the history of electrical stimulation of the CNS microenvironment; recent advances in electrical stimulation of the CNS, including DBS to treat essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and depression; FES for the treatment of spinal cord injuries; and alternative electrical devices to restore vision and hearing via neuroprosthetics (retinal and cochlear implants). It also discusses the role of electrical cues during development and following injury and, importantly, manipulation of these endogenous cues to support regeneration of neural tissue. PMID:25014787

Thompson, Deanna M; Koppes, Abigail N; Hardy, John G; Schmidt, Christine E

2014-07-11

460

Electrical conduction mechanism of an individual polypyrrole nanowire at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting polypyrrole (PPY) nanowires doped with p-toluene sulfonamide (PTSA) were synthesized by a template-free self-assembly method. Electrical transport characteristics, i.e. current–voltage (I–V) behavior, of an individual PPY/PTSA nanowire have been explored in a wide temperature range from 300 down to 40 K. The fitting results of I–V curves indicated that the electrical conduction mechanism can be explained by the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) theory from 300 down to 100 K. In this temperature range, traps play an important role for this non-crystalline system. The corresponding trap energy and trap concentration have also been calculated based on the SCLC theory. Interestingly, there is no trap at 160 K, different from other temperatures. The obtained carrier mobility for the polymer nanowires is 0.964 cm2 V?1 s?1 on the basis of trap free SCLC theory. In the temperature range of 80–40 K, little current can flow through the nanowire especially at lower voltages, however, the current follows the equation I ? (V/Vt?1)? at higher bias, which could be attributed to Coulomb blockade effect. Additionally, the differential conductance dI/dV curves also show some clear Coulomb oscillations.

Yu, Gui-Feng; Pan, Wei; Yu, Miao; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Long, Yun-Ze

2015-01-01

461

Mechanical design of SERT 2 thruster system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical design of the mercury bombardment thruster that was tested on SERT is described. The report shows how the structural, thermal, electrical, material compatibility, and neutral mercury coating considerations affected the design and integration of the subsystems and components. The SERT 2 spacecraft with two thrusters was launched on February 3, 1970. One thruster operated for 3782 hours and the other for 2011 hours. A high voltage short resulting from buildup of loose eroded material was believed to be the cause of failure.

Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.

1972-01-01

462

Optimization of multiplant cogeneration system operation including electric and steam networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimizing the short-term operation of a multiplant cogeneration system in a large industrial complex is solved. A cogeneration system is defined as a system that simultaneously produces electric power (electricity) and thermal power (steam). The cogeneration system model includes both the electric and thermal systems. The electric system model includes generation and transmission. The thermal system model

K. Moslehi; M. Khadem; R. Bernal; G. Hernandez

1991-01-01

463

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF.

N. Ramirez

2004-12-16

464

Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics  

E-print Network

, and refrigerators in various electri- cal devices and systems.1­7 In particular, intensive experimental electri- cal breakdowns of soft dielectrics, the breakdown fields of the dielectrics are approximately

Ferrari, Silvia

465

A review of electric propulsion systems and mission applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The satisfaction of growing demands for access to space resources will require new developments related to advanced propulsion and power technologies. A key technology in this context is concerned with the utilization of electric propulsion. A brief review of the current state of development of electric propulsion systems on an international basis is provided, taking into account advances in the USSR, the U.S., Japan, West Germany, China and Brazil. The present investigation, however, is mainly concerned with the U.S. program. The three basic types of electric thrusters are considered along with the intrinsic differences between chemical and electric propulsion, the resistojet, the augmented hydrazine thruster, the arcjet, the ion auxiliary propulsion system flight test, the pulsed plasma thruster, magnetoplasmadynamic propulsion, a pulsed inductive thruster, and rail accelerators. Attention is also given to the applications of electric propulsion.

Vondra, R.; Nock, K.; Jones, R.

1984-01-01

466

Electrical microfluidic pressure gauge for elastomer microelectromechanical systems  

PubMed Central

We report on an electrical microfluidic pressure gauge. A polydimethylsiloxane microvalve closes at a characteristic applied pressure determined by the material’s properties and the valve’s dimensions. Hence, when the same pressure is applied to all valves of a heterogeneous valve array, some valves close while others remain open. The state of the array is combined with knowledge of the respective characteristic closing pressures of the individual valves to yield an estimate of the applied pressure. The state of each valve is obtained by electrical measurements, since the electrical resistance of the respective underlying fluid-filled channel increases by at least two orders of magnitude as the valve closes and its insulating elastomer material interrupts the electrical circuit. The overall system functions as a pressure gauge with electrical readout. This device would be a critical component in active pressure-regulation loops in future integrated microfluidic systems. PMID:19587835

Kartalov, Emil P.; Maltezos, George; Anderson, W. French; Taylor, Clive R.; Scherer, Axel

2009-01-01

467

A preliminary study on electrically enhanced crossflow microfiltration of CMP (chemical-mechanical polishing) wastewater.  

PubMed

Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is currently one of the main technologies used by wafer plants in the semiconductor industry. Normally, a large amount of de-ionized water should be used to wash out the abrasives adhered to the surface of wafers during the grinding process. Therefore, CMP wastewater not only has a great quantity but also contains very small size of suspended solids. Generally, these suspended solids would not settle. This phenomenon results in a low visibility of CMP wastewater. To solve this problem, a study on electrically enhanced crossflow microfiltration of CMP wastewater was conducted. Normally, the membrane of traditional dead-end filtration is easily blocked by the filter cake resulting in a small flux of filtrate. Therefore, the form of crossflow filtration (CFF) is used to reduce the blocking of the membrane. Furthermore, if CFF is accompanied by an external electric field, the negatively charged suspended solids in wastewater would move toward the positive electrode. Meanwhile, the flux of filtrate would increase. In this investigation, CMP wastewater was obtained from a wafer plant and characterized by various standard methods. Before testing, the CMP wastewater was pre-filtered using a 1.2 microm pore size filter. Then it was operated by a crossflow microfiltration (0.1 microm pore size) system under an appropriate crossflow velocity, filtration pressure, and electric potential. The filtrate was also characterized by various standard methods. Experimental results show that the filtrate has a turbidity of zero value. Thus, the filtrate could be reused for other purposes. However, the suspended solids of the CMP wastewater would be concentrated by this method. Therefore, the recovery of the suspended solids would be worth considering. PMID:12523750

Yang, G C C; Yang, T Y; Tsai, S H

2002-01-01

468

Understanding the Heart's Electrical System and EKG Results  

MedlinePLUS

... over and over with each new heartbeat. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works ... activity. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

469

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...845 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a)...

2010-10-01

470

49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. Sheet H-4, December 12, 1939. File no. SA 342/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

471

CVD facility electrical system captor/dapper study  

SciTech Connect

Project W-441, CVD Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses.

SINGH, G.

1999-10-28

472

49. Detail of floor system and electrical equipment, probably in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Detail of floor system and electrical equipment, probably in the Sullivan Machinery Company, Machine and Erecting Shops. - Sullivan Machinery Company, Main Street between Pearl & Water Streets, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

473

Aircraft Pneudraulic Systems Mechanic (AFSC 42354).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for aircraft pneudraulic systems mechanics. Covered in the individual volumes are shop administration; fundamentals, materials, and equipment of pneudraulics; pneudraulic components; and pneudraulic systems. Each volume in the set…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

474

Mechanical systems subjected to generalized nonholonomic constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study mechanical systems subject to constraint functions that can be dependent at some points and independent at the rest. Such systems are modelled by means of generalized codistributions. We discuss how the constraint force can transmit an impulse to the motion at the points of dependence and derive an explicit formula to obtain the 'post-impact' momentum in terms of

J. Cort; D. Mart; S. Mart; Sonia Mart ´ õnez

475

Mechanical Engineering Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory  

E-print Network

the marginal costs and average total costs of the various energy services provided by the system. As expected a continuously decreasing average total cost is found for the monopolistic energy service firm. The basic ideaSchool of Mechanical Engineering Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory Study of the Integration

Candea, George

476

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

477

Morphological stability analysis of vesicles with mechanical–electrical coupling effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a recently established liquid crystal model for vesicles, we present a theoretical method to analyze the morphological\\u000a stability of liquid crystal vesicles in an electric field. The coupled mechanical–electrical effects associated with elastic\\u000a bending, osmotic pressure, surface tension, Maxwell pressure, as well as flexoelectric and dielectric properties of the membrane\\u000a are taken into account. The first and second variations

Lingtian Gao; Ying Liu; Qing Hua Qin; Xi Qiao Feng

2010-01-01

478

TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system  

SciTech Connect

This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

Singh, G.

1997-05-30

479

Retrofitting a used car with hybrid electric propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design concept of converting a conventional used car to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The existing propulsion system using an internal combustion engine(ICE) was replaced by an electric drive, which is supplied by batteries and an on-board generator. The propulsion system is configured as a series-hybrid concept. The input energy can come either from the on-board

Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2009-01-01

480

System engineering of a nuclear electric propulsion testbed spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mission concept aimed at evaluating performance of a Russian Space Nuclear Power System (SNPS) and electric thrusters to be consistent with U.S. safety standards is discussed. Solutions of unique nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) problems optimized for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Test Program (NEPSTP) are considered. The problems include radiation, thermal management, safety, ground processing concerns of a nuclear payload, the launch of an NEP payload, orbital operations, electromagnetic compatibility, contamination, guidance and control, and a power system. Attention is also given to preliminary spacecraft and mission design developed taking into account all aforementioned problems.

Cameron, G. E.; Herbert, G. A.

1993-06-01

481

Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels  

DOEpatents

A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, add