Sample records for electrical resistivity profiling

  1. GPR profiling and electrical resistivity tomography for buried cavity detection: A test site at the abbaye de l'Ouye (France)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Boubaki; A. Saintenoy; P. Tucholka

    2011-01-01

    The abbaye de l'Ouye (France) presents an underground room situated under a flat graveled path perfect for testing the complementarity of two geophysical methods, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), for buried cavity detection. One GPR mono- offset profile was acquired along with a 2D ERT profile on the surface above the cavity of known dimensions. We use

  2. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  3. State Electricity Profiles

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The annual report contains data tables describing the electricity industry in each state. Data include generating capability, electricity generation, fuel use and prices, retail sales, emissions, and net interstate transfers of electricity.

  4. Resistivity Profile in an Urban Setting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Montgomery

    The student works with an electrical resistivity profile and well information (stratigraphy and static water level)taken in an urban area. The goal is to create an integrated subsurface interpretation from geological and geophysical data. The activity gives students practice in using simple quantitative data to create a hypothetical but data-driven picture of the subsurface. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

  5. State Renewable Electricity Profiles

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Presents a summary of current and recent historical data for the renewable electric power industry. The data focuses on net summer capacity and net generation for each type of renewable generator, as well as fossil-fired and nuclear power plant types, for the period 2006 through 2010.

  6. Molecular Expressions: Electricity & Magnetism: Resistance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Davidson

    Comprehensive tutorial on resistance, accompanied by three interactive simulations. One allows the user to glimpse resistance at a molecular level; the second explores Ohm's Law; and the third introduces the use of color coding in composition resistors. The author uses diagrams to illustrate arrangements of resistors in series and parallel circuits, with explanations of how to calculate equivalent resistances. This item is part of a larger collection on Electricity and Magnetism sponsored by Florida State University..

  7. Electrical resistivity of composite superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.; Lee, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to its superconducting properties, a superconductor is usually characterized by poor thermal conductivity and relatively high electrical resistivity in the normal state. To remedy this situation a study of superconducting properties of Cu-rich CU-Nb wires prepared by directionally solidified and cold-rolled technique was conducted. Some of the specimens were prepared by melting, directional solidification and diffusing in Tin. A total of 12 wire specimens was tested. Each specimen was analyzed by plotting experimental data into the following curves: the graph of the residual resistivity as a function of the specimen current at 4.3 K; and the graph of the electrical resistivity as a function of the temperature at a constant current.

  8. Electrical resistance tomography for imaging concrete structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Buettner; A. Ramirez; W. Daily

    1995-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) has been used to non-destructively examine the interior of reinforced concrete pillars in the laboratory during a water infiltration experiment. ERT is a technique for determining the electrical resistivity distribution within a volume from measurement of injected currents and the resulting electrical potential distribution on the surface. The transfer resistance (ratio of potential to injected current)

  9. Electrical resistance of muscle capillary endothelium.

    PubMed

    Olesen, S P; Crone, C

    1983-04-01

    A recently developed technique for in vivo determination of the electrical resistance of vascular endothelium in microvessels was applied to the vessels in a thin frog muscle, m. cutaneus pectoris. The technique consists of injection of current via a glass micropipette into a capillary and measurement of the resulting intra- and extravascular potential profiles with another micropipette placed at various distances from the current source. The theory of Peskoff and Eisenberg (1974) was used to handle the problems arising from distributed extravascular resistances and was experimentally shown to describe the external field satisfactorily. With this extension of one-dimensional cable theory the specific electrical resistance of arterial microvessels was 33 omega cm2 and of venous capillaries 23 omega cm2. The "length constants" were 135 and 112 micrometers, respectively. If results from arterial and venous vessels are taken together, the ionic permeabilities at 20 degrees C were PNa = 3.9 X 10(-5) cm X s-1, PK = 5.7 X 10(-5) cm X s-1, PCl = 5.9 X 10(-5) cm X s-1 and PHCO3 = 3.4 X 10(-5) cm X s-1. These figures agree with figures for capillary permeability obtained in tracer experiments on whole muscle. The study bridges a gap between single capillary and whole organ techniques with the conclusion that the two different approaches lead to similar results in muscle capillaries. PMID:6601500

  10. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bart?omiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for studies of karstic systems where natural cavities could be used for underground electrodes deployment.

  11. Electrical resistivity investigations over limestone caverns

    E-print Network

    Porter, Charles Osgood

    1966-01-01

    . Electric image analogy f' or a source on the surface of a two-layer earth. 106 ABSTRACT Electrical Resistivity Investigations over Limestone Caverns. (pay 1966) Charles 0. Porter, B. A. , Williams College Directed by& Dr, Davis A. Fahlquist...-amplitude, constant-frequency seismic waves of long duration were produced above the cavities by explosive detonations at various surface locations. A number of cave detection studies have been carried out using electrical resistivity techniques. L. S. Palmer...

  12. Vertical Soil Profiling Using a Galvanic Contact Resistivity Scanning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Luan; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I.; Prasher, Shiv; Gebbers, Robin; Taylor, Richard S.; Dabas, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Proximal sensing of soil electromagnetic properties is widely used to map spatial land heterogeneity. The mapping instruments use galvanic contact, capacitive coupling or electromagnetic induction. Regardless of the type of instrument, the geometrical configuration between signal transmitting and receiving elements typically defines the shape of the depth response function. To assess vertical soil profiles, many modern instruments use multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. Alternatively, vertical electrical sounding can be used to measure changes in apparent soil electrical conductivity with depth at a specific location. This paper examines the possibility for the assessment of soil profiles using a dynamic surface galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach, with transmitting and receiving electrodes configured in an equatorial dipole-dipole array. An automated scanner system was developed and tested in agricultural fields with different soil profiles. While operating in the field, the distance between current injecting and measuring pairs of rolling electrodes was varied continuously from 40 to 190 cm. The preliminary evaluation included a comparison of scan results from 20 locations to shallow (less than 1.2 m deep) soil profiles and to a two-layer soil profile model defined using an electromagnetic induction instrument. PMID:25057135

  13. Electrical resistivity survey in eastern Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical resistivity survey was conducted to acquire basic geological layer information for regional hydrogeologic application by our own developed system in eastern Jeju island. The system mainly consists of a stand-alone TX(transmitter) module, of which the excitation current into the earth has been increased very much using a portable AC generator instead of batteries, a digital stacking RX(receiver), and a pair of programmable synchronization clock modules to achieve the initial synchronization between TX and RX. The waveform of the excitation current into the earth at transmitter side is double bipolar, and the power is 1000V-1A or 800V-5A with a portable AC generator. At the receiver part controlled through a notebook PC's serial port, the operator can observe the exact waveform and the averaged value with 24-bit A/D resolution and gain 1-10-100. The small portable synchronization clocks, operated by 12V/2A sealed battery, provides the precise basic measurement cycles and initial triggering. The control and measurement software which acquires the earth resistivity data was developed user-interactively. The system was field-tested in eastern part of Jeju Island with dipole spacing a=300m and 600m, to n=10, and stations=43, by the array of which the exploration depth has been increased to about 2,400 m. By the developed portable system we could conduct very easy and fast field work and acquire very satisfactory data. The inversion of measured data gave us the useful information about the sub-surface resistivity structure to about 2,400 m depth along a 13km survey profile. Further study will be focused on simultaneous multi receiver data acquisition system.

  14. Electrical resistivity of dilute, interacting fermions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Mattis

    1994-01-01

    A first-principles calculation of the initial decay of a current-carrying state is used to infer the electrical resistivity ofinteracting fermions (electrons or holes). This approach is useful when it is impractical to apply the Kubo formalism.

  15. Electrical Trades. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the electrical trades. The introduction explains…

  16. Electrical Resistivity of Metal Powder Aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Montes; F. G. Cuevas; J. Cintas

    2007-01-01

    An equation for calculating the electrical resistivity of a compressed powder mass, consisting of oxide-coated metal particles, has been derived. In addition to the intrinsic interest of the problem, the proposed equation is useful for describing the very early stages of electrical sintering processes. The problem is approached in a new way, relating the actual powder system to an equivalent

  17. Electrical Resistivity of Metal Powder Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, J. M.; Cuevas, F. G.; Cintas, J.

    2007-12-01

    An equation for calculating the electrical resistivity of a compressed powder mass, consisting of oxide-coated metal particles, has been derived. In addition to the intrinsic interest of the problem, the proposed equation is useful for describing the very early stages of electrical sintering processes. The problem is approached in a new way, relating the actual powder system to an equivalent system consisting of deforming spheres in a simple cubic packing, which is much easier to examine. The proposed equation was experimentally verified from measurements of the electrical resistivity for aluminum, bronze, iron, and nickel powders under pressure. The consistency between theoretical predictions and experimental results was reasonably good in all cases.

  18. Drilling mud filtration and its effect on the electrical resistivity of porous media 

    E-print Network

    Flock, Donald Louis

    1957-01-01

    of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January 195? Major Subject? Petroleum Engineering DRILLING MUD FILTRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ELECTR ICAL RESISTIVITY OF POROUS MEDIA A Dissertation... . Residual Core Water and Clay Content Profiles after Invasion by Bentonite Mud A 0 ? 0 ? a o . . . . . . . . . . 24 13. Resistivity-Ratio Profiles after Bentonite Mud Invasion (Cores Initially Saturated with Filtrate A) . ? ? 25 14 o Resistivity...

  19. Probabilistic electrical resistivity tomography of a CO2 sequestration analog

    E-print Network

    Vrugt, Jasper A.

    Probabilistic electrical resistivity tomography of a CO2 sequestration analog Tobias Lochbühler a 2014 Keywords: ERT CO2 sequestration Probabilistic inversion Model parameterization Electrical potential for monitoring geologic CO2 sequestration, due to its sensitivity to electrical resistivity

  20. Electrical resistivity investigations over limestone caverns 

    E-print Network

    Porter, Charles Osgood

    1966-01-01

    - trol, Dungeon and Alabaster trsverses, knox Cave. Figure 2$. Horizonte1 prcfile over passage to Alabaster Room, Knox Cave. 70 Figure 24. Horizontal profile ov r Dome, Ynox Cave. 71 Figure 2~. Horizontrl profiles, Schoharie Caverns (spring readings.... This method hss been found useful in urban areas where utility wires and pipes inter- fere with electrical observetions. The Compagnie has attempted to locate underground streams in karst arses with this technique, but has to dste been unsuccessful...

  1. Electrolyte injection with electrical resistance heating 

    E-print Network

    Jaimes Gomez, Olmedo

    1992-01-01

    reservoir to extract hydrocarbons. These processes include the Radio-Frequency Heating of oil shales and tar sands , the Microwave Heating of oil shales ", the Induction Heating , the Electrocarbonization , the Selective ERH and the Electric Preheat...ELECTROLYTE INJECTION WITH ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by OLMEDO JAIMES GOMEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May...

  2. Electrical Resistivity of Metal Powder Aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Montes; F. G. Cuevas; J. Cintas

    2007-01-01

    An equation for calculating the electrical resistivity of a compressed powder mass, consisting of oxide-coated metal particles,\\u000a has been derived. In addition to the intrinsic interest of the problem, the proposed equation is useful for describing the\\u000a very early stages of electrical sintering processes. The problem is approached in a new way, relating the actual powder system\\u000a to an equivalent

  3. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, A.P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flameproducing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  4. Continuous resistivity profiling data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Worley, C.R.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine its importance in nutrient delivery to the Chesapeake Bay. The Corsica River Estuary represents a coastal lowland setting typical of much of the eastern bay. An interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science team conducted field operations in the lower estuary in April and May 2007. Resource managers are concerned about nutrients that are entering the estuary via SGD that may be contributing to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and fish kills. Techniques employed in the study included continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), piezometer sampling of submarine groundwater, and collection of a time series of radon tracer activity in surface water. A CRP system measures electrical resistivity of saturated subestuarine sediments to distinguish those bearing fresh water (high resistivity) from those with saline or brackish pore water (low resistivity). This report describes the collection and processing of CRP data and summarizes the results. Based on a grid of 67.6 kilometers of CRP data, low-salinity (high-resistivity) groundwater extended approximately 50-400 meters offshore from estuary shorelines at depths of 5 to >12 meters below the sediment surface, likely beneath a confining unit. A band of low-resistivity sediment detected along the axis of the estuary indicated the presence of a filled paleochannel containing brackish groundwater. The meandering paleochannel likely incised through the confining unit during periods of lower sea level, allowing the low-salinity groundwater plumes originating from land to mix with brackish subestuarine groundwater along the channel margins and to discharge. A better understanding of the spatial variability and geological controls of submarine groundwater flow beneath the Corsica River Estuary could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient over-enrichment in the estuary and in other similar settings.

  5. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  6. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  7. Electrical resistance of dysprosium under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, B.; Tolpygo, V. K.

    2014-05-01

    The electrical resistance of dysprosium metal has been measured as a function of hydrostatic pressure up to 1.2 GPa at temperatures from 300 K to 700 K, and at atmospheric pressure from 80 to 700 K. Our data at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature agree well with literature data. The total pressure coefficient of resistance at 300 K is found to be dlnR/dp = -2.98·10-2 GPa-1 and to decrease slightly with increasing temperature. The results are discussed in terms of simple free-electron type models.

  8. Nearly Constant Electrical Resistance over Large Temperature Range in

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    Nearly Constant Electrical Resistance over Large Temperature Range in Cu3NMx (M 5 Cu, Ag, Au with temperature. Constant electrical resistivity over large temperature range has been rarely measured in a single, aiming at obtaining single solids of nearly constant electrical resistance in some temperature ranges

  9. Electrical Contact Resistance with Dissimilar Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gomez, Matthew; French, David; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Tang, Wilkin

    2010-11-01

    Electrical contact is important to wire-array Z pinches [1], high power microwave sources, and metal-insulator-vacuum junction, etc. It is also an important issue to ITER. Because of the surface roughness on a microscopic scale, true contact between two pieces of conductors occurs only at the asperities of the contacting surfaces, leading to contact resistance. In this paper, Holm's basic a-spot theory [2] for contact resistance is vastly extended to higher dimensions with dissimilar materials [3]. Scaling laws are constructed for both Cartesian and cylindrical channels. The theory was validated by simulations and experiments in several limiting cases [4]. [1] D. A. Chalenski et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 082707 (2009); M. R. Gomez et al., Rev. Sci. Inst. 79, 093512 (2008). [2] R. Holm, Electric Contact (Springer-Verlag, 1967). [3] P. Zhang and Y. Y. Lau, J. Appl. Phys. (July 2010). [4] M. R. Gomez et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 072103 (2009).

  10. Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.

    2015-06-01

    Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 ?m & 285 ?m) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 ?m & 199 ?m) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.

  11. Complex Electrical Resistivity for Monitoring DNAPL Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Brown; David Lesmes; John Fourkas

    2003-09-12

    Nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have landfills and buried waste areas. Of the various contaminants present at these sites, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) are particularly hard to locate and remove. There is an increasing need for external or non-invasive sensing techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface and to track their spread and monitor their breakdown or removal by natural or engineered means. G. Olhoeft and colleagues have published several reports based on laboratory studies using the complex resistivity method which indicate that organic solvents, notably toluene, PCE, and TCE, residing in clay-bearing soils have distinctive electrical signatures. These results have suggested to many researchers the basis of an ideal new measurement technique for geophysical characterization of DNAPL pollution. Encouraged by these results we proposed to bring the field measurement of complex resistivity as a means of pollution characterization from the conceptual stage to practice. We planned to document the detectability of clay-organic solvent interactions with geophysical measurements in the laboratory, develop further understanding of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms, and then apply these observations to develop field techniques. As with any new research endeavor we note the extreme importance of trying to reproduce the work of previous researchers to ensure that any effects observed are due to the physical phenomena occurring in the specimen and not due to the particular experimental apparatus or method used. To this end, we independently designed and built a laboratory system, including a sample holder, electrodes, electronics, and data analysis software, for the measurement of the complex electrical resistivity properties of soil contaminated with organic solvents. The capabilities and reliability of this technique were documented. Using various standards we performed measurement accuracy, repeatability, and noise immunity tests of this system and we were able to reproduce some key complex resistivity effects quoted in the literature. We attempted numerous times to reproduce the seminal results of Olhoeft and Sadowski on the complex resistivity response of toluene-contaminated clay-rich samples. While we observe similar responses to theirs for plain clays with brine, the addition of toluene does not produce the effects they claimed. We can only produce effects of similar magnitude if we intentionally introduce a large artificial dielectric heterogeneity in the specimen. We have also performed laboratory studies to test the sensitivity of the complex resistivity method to toluene and methanol contamination in sands, clays, and rocks. Additionally, we performed 4-wire IP inversion measurements in a two-dimensional laboratory 'ant farm' to test the ability of this technique to image materials with both conductivity and dielectric heterogeneities. This work indicates, at best, a low sensitivity of the complex electrical resistivity method to organic contamination in rocks and soils. This reduces the short-term prospects of using complex resistivity as an effective technique to directly detect organic contamination. However, as noise suppression techniques improve and further understanding of electrical responses in Earth materials is achieved, the potential of the complex resistivity technique should improve. In contrast, we find that certain electrically polarizing materials, some clays for example, have responses large enough compared to sandy and silty soils to be reliably imaged through a detailed field IP survey. Thus, quantifying soil heterogeneity (which may relate to DNAPL distribution and transport) is an immediate potential application of this technique.

  12. Current antimicrobial resistance profiles among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus encountered in the outpatient setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah C. Draghi; Daniel F. Sheehan; Patricia Hogan; Daniel F. Sahm

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of the mec gene complex by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in the community and the increased spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the health care setting to the community underscore a need to monitor the resistance phenotypes likely to be encountered among outpatient MRSA. Data from the LEADER 2004 surveillance program were analyzed to evaluate current resistance profiles

  13. Electrical resistivity measurement through metal casing

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.; Morrison, H.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Methods using dc electrical arrays to measure formation resistivity through casing have relied on approximate forms for the current and potential distributions to derive a simple relationship between the formation resistivity and the transverse resistance calculated from measurements of the potential and its second derivative inside the casing. The authors have derived a numerical solution for the potentials and their derivatives to examine the accuracy of the approximate forms for casing of finite-length, annular zones of varying radius, and for vertical discontinuities such as layers or abrupt changes in annular zone radius. For typical conductivity contrasts between the casing and formation, the approximate relationships may be off by as much as 60% for long casing and may show variations of 20 to 30% as the electrode array moves along the casing. In principle an iterative scheme could be devised to correct the readings if high accuracy was required. The numerical results show that to first order the current flow from the casing is radial, and that all the analytic expressions based on this assumption for evaluating layer resolution and the effects of annular layers are valid. An interesting byproduct of this study has been the discovery that the distortion of the potentials in a nearby well by an annular disk (e.g., an injected steam zone) surrounding the current injection well is greater if the injection well is cased. Crosswell resistivity surveys appear feasible if one of the wells is cased.

  14. Laminar profile of resistivity in frog retina.

    PubMed

    Karwoski, C J; Frambach, D A; Proenza, L M

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of absolute transretinal resistance and of the relative resistance of the various retinal layers were obtained in the frog. The resistance of clamped sections of isolated retina was 66 omega . cm2, which results in an average resistivity (rho) between inner and outer limiting membranes of 5,050 omega . cm. In eyecups, relative resistances (obtained by passing constant currents across the retina) were assigned to specific layers of the retina with the aid of physiological criteria (e.g., depths of light-evoked field potentials, changes in extracellular K+ concentration, base-line noise level, and resistance). These relative resistances were then converted to absolute values, a calculation feasible because the region between inner and outer limiting membranes, which has the same structure in both isolated and eyecup retinas, could be specified during experiments. Resistivities (in omega . cm) for the retinal layers include 1) subretinal space, 970; 2) inner and outer nuclear layers, 6,800; and 3) inner plexiform layer, 1,750. The ganglion cell and optic nerve fiber layers were too thin to resolve individually, but rho of the two layers combined was 7,900. The outer plexiform layer was also too thin to reliably resolve, but its rho is likely the same as the inner plexiform layer. The extracellular space volume fraction (alpha) of the retinal layers was estimated from these rho s, and the following values were obtained: 1) subretinal space, 0.12; 2) outer and inner nuclear layers, 0.03; 3) inner and outer plexiform layers, 0.11; and 4) ganglion cell and optic nerve fiber layers, 0.02. The decreased rho and increased alpha of the inner plexiform layer and the subretinal space, compared with that of the nuclear layers, are expected from their anatomy. A consideration of these inhomogeneities is required in analyses of field potentials and of changes in extracellular ionic concentrations. PMID:3878863

  15. Electrical Resistance Tomography imaging of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Karhunen, Kimmo [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Seppaenen, Aku, E-mail: Aku.Seppanen@uku.f [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lehikoinen, Anssi [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Berkeley, California (United States); Kaipio, Jari P. [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-01-15

    We apply Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) for three dimensional imaging of concrete. In ERT, alternating currents are injected into the target using an array of electrodes attached to the target surface, and the resulting voltages are measured using the same electrodes. These boundary measurements are used for reconstructing the internal (3D) conductivity distribution of the target. In reinforced concrete, the metallic phases (reinforcing bars and fibers), cracks and air voids, moisture gradients, and the chloride distribution in the matrix carry contrast with respect to conductivity. While electrical measurements have been widely used to characterize the properties of concrete, only preliminary results of applying ERT to concrete imaging have been published so far. The aim of this paper is to carry out a feasibility evaluation with specifically cast samples. The results indicate that ERT may be a feasible modality for non-destructive evaluation of concrete.

  16. Determination of Electrical Resistivity of Dry Coke Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidem, P. A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J. A.

    2008-02-01

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500 °C to 1600 °C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450 °C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  17. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  18. Monitoring of Tunneling Activities with Electrical Resistivity Imaging Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Yang; B. Carr; M. B. Lagmanson

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of electrical resistivity imaging methods for monitoring of tunneling activities with numerical modeling. The sharp resistivity contrast between an air-filled tunnel and surrounding materials presents an excellent opportunity for resistivity imaging methods to locate a tunnel. However, the subsurface inhomogeneity and varying moisture conditions produce strong resistivity anomalies that sometimes overwhelm the tunnel signature. Therefore, tunnel

  19. Improving 3D resist profile compact modeling by exploiting 3D resist physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yongfa; Wu, Cheng-En R.; Ren, Qian; Song, Hua; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    3D Resist profile aware OPC has becoming increasingly important to address hot spots generated at etch processes due to the mass occurrence of non-ideal resist profile in 28nm technology node and beyond. It is therefore critical to build compact models capable of 3D simulation for OPC applications. A straightforward and simple approach is to build individual 2D models at different image depths either based on actual wafer measurement data or virtual simulation data from rigorous lithography simulators. Individual models at interested heights can be used by downstream OPC/LRC tools to account for 3D resist profile effects. However, the relevant image depths need be predetermined due to the discontinuous nature of the methodology itself. Furthermore, the physical commonality among the individual 2D models may deviate from each other as well during the separate calibration processes. To overcome the drawbacks, efforts are made in this paper to compute the whole bulk image using Hopkins equation in one shot. The bulk image is then used to build 3D resist models. This approach also opens the feasibility of including resist interface effects (for example, top or bottom out-diffusion), which are important to resist profile formation, into a compact 3D resist model. The interface effects calculations are merged into the bulk image Hopkins equation. Simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate that resist profile heavily rely on interface conditions. Our experimental results show that those interface effects can be accurately simulated with reference to rigorous simulation results. In modeling reality, such a 3D resist model can be calibrated with data from discrete image planes but can be used at arbitrary interpolated planes. One obvious advantage of this 3D resist model approach is that the 3D model is more physically represented by a common set of resist parameters (in contrast to the individual model approach) for 3D resist profile simulation. A full model calibration test is conducted on a virtual lithography process. It is demonstrated that 3D resist profile of the process can be precisely captured by this method. It is shown that the resist model can be carried to a different lithography process with same resist setup but a different illumination source without model any accuracy degradation. In an additional test, the model is used to demonstrate the capability of resist 3D profile correction by ILT.

  20. Degradation Evaluation of HK-40 Steel Using Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Seung Hoon; Yu, Kwang Min; Park, Jong Seo; Nam, Young Hyun; Han, Sang In; Kim, Jeong Min; Kim, Am Kee

    More effective nondestructive technology for the estimation on material properties has been sought. In this research, a new electrical resistivity method was attempted for the estimation of the creep damage of a degraded heater tube steel. HK40 steel specimens with five different periods of aging were prepared by an isothermal heat treatment at 1050°C and the electrical resistivity was determined by a standard DC four-point probe method. The electrical resistivity at room temperature monotonously decreased with the extent of degradation of the material. It was also observed that Vickers hardness was correlated with the electrical resistivity. The microstructural changes of material during aging was examined by microscope.

  1. Scaling laws for electrical contact resistance with dissimilar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.

    2010-08-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of contaminants on electrical contact resistance. Based on an idealized model, simple and explicit scaling laws for the electrical contact resistance with dissimilar materials are constructed. The model assumes arbitrary resistivity ratios and aspect ratios in the current channels and their contact region, for both Cartesian and cylindrical geometries. The scaling laws have been favorably tested in several limits, and in sample calculations using a numerical simulation code. From the scaling laws and a survey of the huge parameter space, some general conclusions are drawn on the parametric dependence of the contact resistance on the geometry and on the electrical resistivity in different regions.

  2. Development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments 

    E-print Network

    McClelland, Martha Ann

    1994-01-01

    of this study were to design, fabricate and test an electrical resistivity cone using a two-electrode and four-electrode configuration. The laboratory testing program consisted of pushing the cone through a three-layer soil profile in which the central layer...

  3. Foliage Temperature Profile Responses to Stomatal Resistance and Foliage Density Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, R. D.; Qualls, R. J.; Zhao, W.

    2009-05-01

    Remotely sensed land surface temperatures provide valuable information regarding land surface processes such as the surface energy and water balances. However, it is now known that foliage and soil temperatures and even foliage skin temperatures at different levels within the same canopy, can vary by several K. This work was undertaken to improve our understanding of the processes that lead to vertical foliage temperature gradients. A multilayer canopy model was developed using a combination equation for each canopy layer and localized near-field (LNF) turbulent transport. The model was driven by data collected from a micrometeorological station at a dense grassland site in the Southern Great Plains, 1997, field experiment. The model was run with three vertical foliage density profiles and two stomatal resistance profiles for a total of six scenarios. Model results suggest that foliage temperature profiles are strongly affected by the canopy density and stomatal resistance profiles. The density profile determines the layers of canopy that absorb the most radiation for a given solar elevation angle. Dense portions of the canopy that receive a large fraction of net radiation tend to be warm. The enhanced transport efficiency near the canopy top tends to cool the upper layers, but this effect seems to be secondary to the radiation effect, since nearly all runs with uniform canopy density showed peak temperatures at the canopy top. In this study, the magnitude of the foliage temperature changed when the stomatal resistance profile was changed, but the basic shape of the foliage temperature profiles changed little with the stomatal resistance profile. The bulk behavior of the canopy, including production of sensible and latent heat fluxes and radiometric surface temperatures, was moderately affected by the canopy density and stomatal resistance profiles tested.

  4. Resistance to Cognitive Interference as a Function of MMPI Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.; Golden, Ellen E.

    1975-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that resistance to interference as measured by Stroop Color and Word Test is related to psychopathology. College student subjects were classified into three groups on the basis of their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profile high points. Subjects' cognitive interference scores significantly…

  5. Modeling of mechanical damage detection in CFRPs via electrical resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Xia; W. A. Curtin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) are inherently multifunctional materials that, in addition to their primary function as a structural material, allow for the sensing and monitoring of in situ damage nucleation and evolution by the measurement of the material electrical resistance. Here an analytic model is developed for the transverse (perpendicular to the fibers) electrical resistance of pristine and

  6. Rapid electrochemical phenotypic profiling of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Besant, Justin D; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-07-01

    Rapid phenotyping of bacteria to identify drug-resistant strains is an important capability for the treatment and management of infectious disease. At present, the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility is hindered by the requirement that, in existing devices, bacteria must be pre-cultured for 2-3 days to reach detectable levels. Here we report a novel electrochemical approach that achieves rapid readout of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of a bacterial infection within one hour. The electrochemical reduction of a redox-active molecule is monitored that reports on levels of metabolically-active bacteria. Bacteria are captured in miniaturized wells, incubated with antimicrobials and monitored for resistance. This electrochemical phenotyping approach is effective with clinically-relevant levels of bacteria, and provides results comparable to culture-based analysis. Results, however, are delivered on a much faster timescale, with resistance profiles available after a one hour incubation period. PMID:26008802

  7. MicroRNA expression profile of bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe Bao; Li, Wei Qiang; Lin, Shao Jian; Wang, Cheng De; Cai, Lin; Lu, Jiang Long; Chen, Yun Xiang; Su, Zhi Peng; Shang, Han Bing; Yang, Wen Lei; Zhao, Wei Guo

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been implicated in the resistance of tumors to chemotherapy. However, little is known about miRNA expression in bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas. In this study, 23 prolactinoma samples were classified as bromocriptine-sensitive or -resistant according to the clinical definition of bromocriptine resistance, and their miRNA expression profiles were determined using Solexa sequencing. We found 41 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between the two groups, and 12 of these were validated by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Hsa-mir-93, hsa-mir-17, hsa-mir-22*, hsa-mir-126*, hsa-mir-142-3p, hsa-mir-144*, hsa-mir-486-5p, hsa-mir-451, and hsa-mir-92a were up-regulated and hsa-mir-30a, hsa-mir-382, and hsa-mir-136 were down-regulated in bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas in comparison with bromocriptine-sensitive prolactinomas. Furthermore, silencing of mir-93 significantly increased the sensitivity of MMQ cells to dopamine agonist treatment. Mir-93 directly affected p21 expression in MMQ cells by targeting the 3'-UTR. Our study is the first to identify a miRNA expression profile associated with bromocriptine-resistant prolactinoma. PMID:25064468

  8. Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface. PMID:25489276

  9. Resist toploss and profile modeling for optical proximity correction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuniga, Christian; Deng, Yunfei

    2014-10-01

    As critical dimensions decrease for 32-nm node and beyond, the resist loss increases and resist patterns become more vulnerable to etching failures. Traditional optical proximity correction (OPC) models only consider two-dimensional (XY) contours and neglect height (Z) variations. Rigorous resist simulators can simulate a three-dimensional (3-D) resist profile, but they are not fast enough for correction or verification on a full chip. However, resist loss for positive-tone resists is mainly driven by optical intensity variations, which are accurately modeled by the optical portion of an OPC model. We show that a compact resist model can be used to determine resist loss by properly selecting the optical image plane for calibration. The model can then be used to identify toploss hotspots on a full chip and, in some cases, for correction of these patterns. In addition, the article will show how the model can be made more accurate by accounting for some 3-D effects like diffusion through height.

  10. ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY ON A RESISTIVE NETWORK WITH INTERNAL CURRENTS

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yong Jung

    ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY ON A RESISTIVE NETWORK WITH INTERNAL CURRENTS YONG JUNG KIM AND MIN from internal currents and the boundary conductivity. An electrically conducting body is discretized. The conductivity of a body decides the interior electrical cur- rent if a boundary injection current is given

  11. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  12. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  13. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  14. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  16. Mapping Contaminant Remediation with Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Power, C.; Tsourlos, P.; Karaoulis, M.; Giannopoulos, A.; Soupios, P. M.; Simyrdanis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated with industrial chemicals - specifically dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like coal tar and chlorinated solvents - represents a major geoenvironmental challenge. Remediation activities would benefit from a non-destructive technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long-standing potential in this context but has not yet become a common tool at DNAPL sites. This work evaluated the potential of time-lapse ERT for mapping DNAPL mass reduction in real time during remediation. Initially, a coupled DNAPL-ERT numerical model was developed for exploring this potential at the field scale, generating realistic DNAPL scenarios and predicting the response of an ERT survey. Also, new four-dimensional (4D) inversion algorithms were integrated for tracking DNAPL removal over time. 4D ERT applied at the surface for mapping an evolving DNAPL distribution was first demonstrated in a laboratory experiment. Independent simulation of the experiment demonstrated the reliability of the DNAPL-ERT model for simulating real systems. The model was then used to explore the 4D ERT approach at the field scale for a range of realistic DNAPL remediation scenarios. The approach showed excellent potential for mapping shallow DNAPL changes. However, remediation at depth was not as well resolved. To overcome this limitation, a new surface-to-horizontal borehole (S2HB) ERT configuration is proposed. A second laboratory experiment was conducted that demonstrated that S2HB ERT does better resolve changes in DNAPL distribution relative to surface ERT, particularly at depth. The DNAPL-ERT model was also used to demonstrate the improved mapping of S2HB ERT for field scale DNAPL scenarios. Overall, this work demonstrates that, with these innovations, ERT exhibits significant potential as a real time, non-destructive geoenvironmental remediation site monitoring tool.

  17. Resist profile control in immersion lithography using scatterometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Ercken, M.; Foubert, P.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2005-05-01

    Control of critical dimension (CD) and resist profile is increasingly important in low-k1 lithography, and becomes more difficult in thin resist processing due to the chemical interaction occurring at the resist surfaces. Implementation of immersion lithography will make the control even more challenging since more sources of chemical interaction can play a role, e.g. leaching of photo active material from the resist into the water, or diffusion of the water into the resist. Moreover, the contact of the liquid in the scanner showerhead with the wafer surface is a dynamic and local interaction, which needs to be understood and quantified, since variations in soak time are a possible source of intra-field and across wafer CD-variations. In this paper we developed a methodology to understand and to quantify the impact of immersion scanner soak on resist profile control and CD-control. The methodology is on the one hand based on the simulation of the showerhead movements over the wafer during the immersion lithography process, where for a particular location on the wafer the soak time is calculated by accumulating the interaction time every time the showerhead is passing that particular location. On the other hand the methodology quantifies experimentally how much resist profile change and CD-variation is caused by a particular pre- and post-soak time, by testing the process in a virtual immersion set-up and measuring the CD-response with high-precision scatterometry. In this way, we were able to predict CD-variations related to immersion soak. Using the initial resist and topcoat processes, we recently experimentally verified on the ASML XT:1250Di immersion tool at IMEC that these soak related CD-variations exist. The effects are small, but in line with the soak time simulations and the CD-response obtained on the virtual immersion set-up. This demonstrates that the methodology described above could be very useful to select materials for lithography processes and to set specifications for allowed CD-variations in line with to the over-all allowed CD-budget.

  18. Propagation through electrically coupled cells. Effects of a resistive barrier.

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, R W; Veenstra, R; Rawling, D; Chorro, A

    1984-01-01

    Action potential propagation through cardiac tissue occurs in a spatially inhomogeneous three-dimensional electrical syncytium composed of discrete cells with regional variations in membrane properties and intercellular resistance. In comparison with axons, cardiac tissue presents some differences in the application of core conductor cable theory. We have used analytical and numerical techniques to contrast the propagation of action potentials along nerve axons and along cardiac strands, including an explicit inclusion of cellular anatomical factors (the surface-to-volume ratio), the strand radius, and the regional distribution of longitudinal resistance. A localized decrease in the number of gap junctions will produce a functional resistive barrier, which can lead to unidirectional block of propagation if the tissue on two sides of the barrier in either excitability or passive electrical load. However, in some circumstances, a resistive barrier separating regions of different electrical load can actually facilitate propagation into the region of larger electrical load. PMID:6733238

  19. Relative electrical resistivities and poling of nonlinear optical polymeric waveguides

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by applying a dc electric field which partially aligns the dipole moments of the chromophores. This process content of the two components. The resistivity of PMMA was found to be one order of magnitude lower than

  20. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  1. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating

    E-print Network

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01

    OIL PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO I? SITU ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by FRED WILLIAM MCDOUGAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO IN SITV ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by FRED WILLIAM MCDOUGAL Approved to style and content by: R. A. Wattenbar (Chair of Commi ee) L. D. Piper (Member) D. D. Van...

  2. Electrical resistivity and stoichiometry of kkhgr c60 films.

    PubMed

    Kochanski, G P; Hebard, A F; Haddon, R C; Fiory, A T

    1992-01-10

    Electrical resistances of polycrystalline fullerene (C(60)) films were monitored while the films were being doped in ultrahigh vacuum with potassium from a molecular-beam effusion source. Temperature- and concentration-dependent resistivities of K(chi) C(60) films in equilibrium near room temperature were measured. The resistance changes smoothly from metallic at chi approximately 3 to activated as chi --> = 0 or chi --> 6. The minimum resistivity for K(3)C(60) films is 2.2 microohm-centimeters, near the Mott limit. The resistivities are interpreted in terms of a granular microstructure where K(3)C(60) regions form nonpercolating grains, except perhaps at chi approximately 3. Stoichiometries at the resistivity extrema were determined by ex situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to be chi = 3 +/- 0.05 at the resistance minimum and chi = 6 +/- 0.05 at the fully doped resistance maximum. PMID:17756068

  3. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  4. Monitoring an underground steam injection process using electrical resistance tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ramirez; W. Daily; D. LaBrecque; E. Owen; D. Chestnut

    1993-01-01

    We used electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to map the subsurface distribution of a steam flood as a function of time as part of a prototype environmental restoration process performed by the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project. We evaluated the capability of ERT to monitor changes in the soil resistivity during the steam injection process using a dipole-dipole measurement technique to measure

  5. High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Shao; G. Liu; D. Teweldebrhan; A. A. Balandin

    2008-01-01

    The authors reported on the experimental investigation of the high-temperature electrical resistance of graphene. The test structures were fabricated by using the focused ion beam from the single and bilayer graphene produced by mechanical exfoliation. It was found that as temperature increases from 300 to 500 K, the resistance of the single, and bilayer graphene interconnects drops down by 30%

  6. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  7. COMPLEX ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY FOR MONITORING DNAPL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose to develop new practical complex resistivity field measurement techniques for pollution characterization and monitoring. For this purpose we will document the detectability of clay-organic interactions with geophysical measurements in the laboratory, develop further un...

  8. Influence of resistive internal kink on runaway current profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huishan; Fu, Guoyong

    2015-02-01

    An extended magnetohydrodynamic model including the effect of runaway current is developed and implemented in the M3D code. Based on this model, a simulation has been carried out to investigate the linear stability and the nonlinear evolution of the n = 1 resistive kink mode in the presence of runaway current. It is found that sawteeth oscillation is suppressed in a runaway plasma. The nonlinear evolution of the n = 1 mode only leads to a single sawtooth crash before reaching a new steady state axi-symmetric equilibrium with flattened current profile in the plasma core and q(0)>1.

  9. Monitoring of Leachate Recirculation in a Bioreactor Using Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellier, S.; Bureau, N.; Robain, H.; Tabbagh, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Guerin, R.

    2004-05-01

    The bioreactor is a concept of waste landfill management consisting in speeding up the biodegradation by optimizing the moisture content through leachate recirculation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is carried out with fast resistivity-meter (Syscal Pro, IRIS Instruments, developed in the framework of the research project CERBERE 01V0665-69, funded by the French Research Ministry) to monitor leachate recirculation. During a recirculation period waste moisture increases, so that electrical resistivity may decrease, but at the same time temperature and mineralization of both waste and leachate become intermixed. If waste temperature is much higher than leachate temperature electrical resistivity will not decrease as much as if the temperature difference was smaller. If leachate mineralization (i.e. leachate conductivity) is higher than that of wet waste in the landfill, electrical resistivity will tend to decrease. Otherwise for example after an addition of rain water into the leachate storage or in case of very wet waste, the resistivities of each medium (leachate and wet waste) can be almost the same, so that leachate mineralization will not have a great influence on waste resistivity. Resistivity measurements were performed during 85 minutes injection trials (with a discharge of 20 m3 h-1) where leachate was injected through a vertical borehole perforated between 1.85 and 4.15 m. Three first measurements are made during the injection (3, 30 and 60 minutes from the beginning of the injection) and the two other after the injection period (8 and 72 minutes after the end of the injection). Apparent and interpreted resistivity variations that occurred during injection trials, expressed as the relative differences (in %) between apparent, respectively interpreted, resistivity during injection and apparent, respectively interpreted, resistivity before injection (reference measurement) show the formation of a plume (a negative anomaly: resistivity decreases with increasing moisture content). The positive anomaly could be explained by an increasing of biogas proportion in waste porosity. For this experiment, leachate temperature is relatively cold (between 5 and 10° C, as the injection trials take place at the end of October), leachate conductivity is about 9200 ? S cm-1 (i.e. a resistivity of 1.1 ? m) and waste resistivity in the borehole region is about 80 ? m. This is a situation where the temperature difference between waste and leachate is large and the resistivity difference between waste and leachate is high. The resistivity variation is essentially due to waste moisture increase. ERT method allows leachate diffusion to be seen through the waste mass and the influence zone of the leachate recirculation system to be determined.

  10. Jones et al. Canada's lithospheric resistivity Page 1 The electrical resistivity of Canada's lithosphere and correlation

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    Jones et al. Canada's lithospheric resistivity Page 1 The electrical resistivity of Canada. Jones1,5 , Juanjo Ledo1,6 , Ian J. Ferguson2 , James A. Craven1 , Martyn J. Unsworth3 , Michel Chouteau4@sympatico.ca Corresponding author: Alan G. Jones, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 5 Merrion Square, Dublin 2, Ireland

  11. Electrical resistivity structure of the Great Slave Lake shear zone, northwest Canada: implications for tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yaotian; Unsworth, Martyn; Liddell, Mitch; Pana, Dinu; Craven, James A.

    2014-10-01

    Three magnetotelluric (MT) profiles in northwestern Canada cross the central and western segments of Great Slave Lake shear zone (GSLsz), a continental scale strike-slip structure active during the Slave-Rae collision in the Proterozoic. Dimensionality analysis indicates that (i) the resistivity structure is approximately 2-D with a geoelectric strike direction close to the dominant geological strike of N45°E and that (ii) electrical anisotropy may be present in the crust beneath the two southernmost profiles. Isotropic and anisotropic 2-D inversion and isotropic 3-D inversions show different resistivity structures on different segments of the shear zone. The GSLsz is imaged as a high resistivity zone (>5000 ? m) that is at least 20 km wide and extends to a depth of at least 50 km on the northern profile. On the southern two profiles, the resistive zone is confined to the upper crust and pierces an east-dipping crustal conductor. Inversions show that this dipping conductor may be anisotropic, likely caused by conductive materials filling a network of fractures with a preferred spatial orientation. These conductive regions would have been disrupted by strike-slip, ductile deformation on the GSLsz that formed granulite to greenschist facies mylonite belts. The pre-dominantly granulite facies mylonites are resistive and explain why the GSLsz appears as a resistive structure piercing the east-dipping anisotropic layer. The absence of a dipping anisotropic/conductive layer on the northern MT profile, located on the central segment of the GSLsz, is consistent with the lack of subduction at this location as predicted by geological and tectonic models.

  12. Assist feature printability prediction by 3-D resist profile reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    Sub-resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) are powerful tools to enhance the focus margin of drawn patterns. SRAFs are placed and sized so they do not print on the wafer, but the larger the SRAF, the more effective it becomes at enhancing through-focus stability. The size and location of an SRAF that will image on a wafer is highly dependent upon neighboring patterns and models of SRAF printability are, at present, unreliable. Model-based SRAF placement has been used to enhance resolution at 20nm node processes and below with stringent requirements that inserted SRAFs will not be imaged on wafer. However, despite widespread SRAF use and hard data as to SRAF effectiveness, it has been very difficult to develop a process model that accurately predicts under what process conditions an SRAF will image on a wafer. More accurate models of SRAF printing should allow model based SRAF placement to be relaxed, resulting in more effective SRAF placement and broader focus margins. One of the first problems with the concept of SRAF printability is the definition of an SRAF printing on a wafer. This is not obvious because two different states of printing exist. The first print state is when a residue is left on a wafer from the SRAF. The first state can be considered printing from the point of view that photoresist is on the wafer and the photoresist may even lift off and cause defects. However, the first state can be considered non-printing because the over etch from the etch process will generally remove the photoresist residual and the material underneath. The second state is when a pattern is formed and etched into the substrate, a state at which the pattern has clearly printed on the wafer. Of course, intermediate states may also be defined. In order to be applicable, an SRAF printability model must be able to predict both printing states. In addition, the model must be able to extrapolate to configurations beyond those used to develop the model in the first place. These model properties may then be used to optimize the printability vs. efficacy of an SRAF either prior to or during an Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) run. The process models that are used during OPC have never been able to reliably predict which SRAFs will print. This appears to be due to the fact that OPC process models are generally created using data that does not include printed subresolution patterns. An enhancement to compact modeling capability to predict Assist Features (AF) printability is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to bottom. Such a 3-D resist profile is an extrapolation of a well calibrated traditional OPC model without any additional information. Assist features are detected at either top of resist (dark field) or bottom of resist (bright field). Such detection can be done by just extracting top or bottom resist models from our 3-D resist model. There is no measurement of assist features needed when we build AF but it can be included if interested but focusing on resist calibration to account for both exposure dosage and focus change sensitivities. This approach significantly increases resist model's capability for predicting printed SRAF accuracy. And we don't need to calibrate an SRAF model in addition to the OPC model. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can draw assist feature contour with real placement and size at any vertical plane. The result is compared and validated with 3-D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated into current MBAF solutions without any additional work.

  13. Single crystal electrical resistivity of magnetite under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Takaki; Helmuth Berger Collaboration; Lev V Gasparov Collaboration; Viktor V. Struzhkin Collaboration; Russell J. Hemley Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4), the oldest known magnetic mineral has the cubic inversed spinel structure at ambient pressure and temperature. It shows a metal to insulator transition (Verway transition) at about 125 K as temperature decreases at ambient pressure. Under high pressure the Verwey transition is suppressed down to 0 K and above 25 GPa magnetite undergoes a structural transformation to high pressure phase. These behaviors have been intensively examined by various experimental means and computational calculations for decades. However only the limited number of the electrical resistivity measurements on single crystal magnetite under pressure have been performed at the moment. We performed high pressure and low temperature experiments by means of the electrical resistivity on single crystal magnetite to examine Verwey transition under pressure and a structural transformation from cubic spinel phase to high pressure phase. We report the results of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in the pressure range from ambient pressure to more than 50 GPa.

  14. Improving Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Characterization of

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    and agricultural runoff pose significant risks to Arizona's potable water resources. With increasing demands use. Urban and agricultural runoff are non-point sources of contamination that are difficult on the environment. Urban and agricultural runoff are often associated with an increase in water electrical

  15. Monitoring of Leachate Recirculation in a Bioreactor Using Electrical Resistivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grellier; N. Bureau; H. Robain; A. Tabbagh; C. Camerlynck; R. Guerin

    2004-01-01

    The bioreactor is a concept of waste landfill management consisting in speeding up the biodegradation by optimizing the moisture content through leachate recirculation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is carried out with fast resistivity-meter (Syscal Pro, IRIS Instruments, developed in the framework of the research project CERBERE 01V0665-69, funded by the French Research Ministry) to monitor leachate recirculation. During a recirculation

  16. Pressure-induced americium valence fluctuations revealed by electrical resistivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kolomiets; J.-C. Griveau; S. Heathman; A. B. Shick; F. Wastin; P. Faure; V. Klosek; C. Genestier; N. Baclet; L. Havela

    2008-01-01

    Electrical resistivity of americium-plutonium fcc alloys was studied over a series of high-pressure-induced structural phase transitions accompanied by a volume collapse. The temperature dependence of resistivity flattens progressively in the high-pressure phases pointing to the presence of random strong scatterers at the Fermi energy. A theoretical analysis shows that this development is not related to the expected simple delocalization of

  17. Electrical resistivity of Au-ZnO nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Argibay, N.; Goeke, R. S.; Dugger, M. T.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Michael, J. R.; Prasad, S. V. [Materials Science and Engineering Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2013-04-14

    The electrical resistivity of electron beam codeposited gold and zinc oxide (Au-ZnO) films was investigated over the full composition range. The electrical resistivity was shown to increase monotonically with increasing ZnO content, with three characteristic regimes of behavior associated primarily with (1) grain boundary electron scattering due to grain refinement at ZnO volume fractions below 0.3, (2) percolation theory for ZnO volume fractions at and above the percolation threshold (f{sub c} = 0.85), and (3) a transition region between these where it was proposed that resistivity was influenced by the formation of Au-Zn complexes due to an oxygen deficiency in the deposited ZnO. The electrical resistivity of the composite films remained below 100 {mu}{Omega} cm for ZnO volume fractions below 0.5. A model combining the general effective media equation and Mayadas-Shatzkes grain boundary electron scattering model was shown to generally describe the composition dependence of electrical resistivity for the investigated oxide dispersion hardened metal-matrix composite thin films.

  18. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-13

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

  19. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (San Francisco, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

  20. Electrical resistivity investigations at the Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Bhogal, P.S.

    1980-09-01

    The bipole-dipole, Schlumberger and in line dipole-dipole electrical resistivity configurations were used to delineate the Olkaria geothermal reservoir with the view to site boreholes for the production of electric power using the geopressurized hot water. The dipole-dipole resistivity data provided the least ambiguous and most usable data for assessing the resource. Deep drilling into two of the anomalies outlined by this survey has proved the existence of high-temperature reservoirs and a 15MW power station is under construction.

  1. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  2. Use of two-dimensional electric resistivity and ground penetrating radar for archaeological prospecting at the ancient capital of Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fouad F Shaaban; Fathy A Shaaban

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys facilitate tracing of buried archaeological relics at the archaeological site of the Tell El Rabi'a, southwestern Cairo. These surveys also provide information on variations in depth of the groundwater table, which affect both exhumed and buried archaeological remains. The 2-D electrical resistivity profiles obtained show some high anomalies (up to 6900

  3. Electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle in the Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, H.; Seama, N.; Matsuno, T.; Shibata, Y.; Kimura, M.; Nogi, Y.; Okino, K.

    2012-12-01

    We show a 2-D electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle in the Southern Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trough is an active back-arc basin in which the seafloor spreading has occurred. In the southern region of the Mariana Trough, the seafloor spreading rate is 35-45 km/Myr at present (Kato et al., 2003) that is slow, but there are characteristics of the fast spreading ridge such as an axial topographic high (Martinez et al., 2000) and a nearly constant low mantle Bouguer anomaly along the spreading axis suggesting high magmatic activity with a sheet-like mantle upwelling under the spreading axis (Kitada et al., 2006). We carried out an electromagnetic experiment along a ~120 km length profile across the spreading axis to estimate an electrical resistivity structure, and hence the physical property like temperature, water and melt content in the upper mantle. The observation was made using ten Ocean Bottom Electro-Magnetometers (OBEMs) from August to November in 2010. The data was recorded for ~85 days in two OBEMs and for ~60 days in the rest of the OBEMs. Successfully, eight OBEMs recorded time-variations of the electric and magnetic fields and two OBEMs recorded only those of the magnetic field. The magnetotelluric (MT) method is a base for the data analysis. We carried out the time-series data analysis to estimate the MT responses and correct topographic distortions in the MT responses. We have basically performed a smooth model inversion analysis using the processed MT responses to estimate a minimum electrical resistivity structure, and also have considered a prior constraint in the inversion analysis for the subducted slab inferred from a seismic research (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998). The obtained 2-D electrical resistivity structure shows an asymmetry about the spreading center. The trenchward side shows higher resistivity (~300 Ohm-m), while the opposite side (the west side) shows that intermediate resistivity (~100 Ohm-m) with ~40 km thickness is underlain by lower resistivity (~10 Ohm-m) region down to the subducted slab. The region under the spreading center has low resistivity (~30 Ohm-m) down to the depth of ~40 km. This low resistivity region might be connected to the lower resistivity region located in the west side. These regions may be affected by hydration driven by water release from the subducted slab; that may result in abundant magma supply to support the EPR type axial topographic high. The higher resistivity region in the trenchward side might be a result of low temperature as well as the absence of a significant amount of water in a cold nose within the mantle wedge.

  4. The Electrical Resistance of Rutherford-Type Superconducting Cable Splices

    E-print Network

    Heck, C; Fleiter, J; Bottura, L

    2015-01-01

    The electrical resistance of Large Hadron Collider main busbar cable lap splices produced by soft soldering has been measured with two independent methods as a function of intercable contact area and for splices made of cables with various defects. For defect-free lap splices, the resistance increases from 0.3 to 10 n? (at 4.3 K in self-field) when reducing the cable overlap length from 120 to 3 mm, as expected assuming that the resistance is inversely proportional to the intercable contact area. The resistance of bridge splices that connect side-by-side cables can be predicted from the lap splice resistances and the overlap areas involved.

  5. Electrical resistivity survey in soil science: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Samouëlian; I. Cousin; A. Tabbagh; A. Bruand; G. Richard

    2005-01-01

    Electrical resistivity of the soil can be considered as a proxy for the spatial and temporal variability of many other soil physical properties (i.e. structure, water content, or fluid composition). Because the method is non-destructive and very sensitive, it offers a very attractive tool for describing the subsurface properties without digging. It has been already applied in various contexts like:

  6. Heat control for electric resistance welding in steel pipe production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Komine; I. Takahashi; S. Ishiro

    1987-01-01

    A heat control system for electric resistance welding (ERW) for use in pipe manufacturing has been developed. The distinguishing features of the control system are: (1) use of a silicon photodiode array as a heat input sensor, (2) feedback control for steady welding, and (3) open-loop control for transient welding. This control system has been introduced into three ERW mills

  7. Energy Saving Through High Frequency Electric Resistance Welding 

    E-print Network

    Udall, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-Frequency electric resistance heating systems have been widely used for many years for both welding and heat treating. In the past the major reason for using High-Frequency heating processes has been because of their very much higher speeds...

  8. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelos Lampousis

    2009-01-01

    High resolution electrical resistivity images (ERI method) were obtained during vadose zone infiltration experiments on agricultural soils in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program, Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, Extension Education Center, Riverhead, New York [ as well as Cornell University's Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York]. One natural soil was also studied.

  9. Electrical Resistivity Changes in Saturated Rock under Stress.

    PubMed

    Brace, W F; Orange, A S

    1966-09-23

    Electrical resistivity of water-saturated crystalline rock such as granite, diabase, dunite, or quartzite changes by an order of magnitude prior to fracture of the rock in compression. The effect observed even under high confining pressure is due to formation of open cracks which first appear at one-third to two-thirds the fracture stress. PMID:17749731

  10. Health Monitoring of TPS Structures by Measuring Their Electrical Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preci, Arianit; Herdrich, Georg; Steinbeck, Andreas; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    Health Monitoring in aerospace applications becomes an emerging technology leading to the development of systems capable of continuously monitoring structures for damage with minimal human intervention. A promising sensing method to be applied on hot structures and thermal protection systems is the electrical resistance measurement technique, which is barely investigated up to now. This method benefits from the advantageous characteristics of self-monitoring materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced materials. By measuring the variation of the electrical resistance of these materials information on possibly present mechanical damage can be derived. In order to set up a database on electric properties of relevant materials under relevant conditions and to perform a proof-of-concept for this health monitoring method a facility has been laid out, which allows for the measurement of the electrical resistance of thermal protection system relevant materials at temperatures up to 2000°C. First preliminary measurements of the surface resistance of a graphite sample have been performed and are presented. It has been proven necessary to make some modifications to the setup. Therefore, the remaining measurements with graphite and C/C-SiC samples are subject of further investigation which will be performed in the future.

  11. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature. We made corrections according to the temperature profile and to volumetric water contents obtained previously on undisturbed samples. Corrected values tended to be superimposed on those obtained in the field. Then, we calculated the water content of the different reworked waste samples using the correlation between volumetric water content correlation and electrical resistivity and we compared this value to the one measured at the laboratory. Both values were correlated satisfactorily. In conclusion, we show that bulk electrical resistivity measurements are very promising to quantify water content in landfills if temperature can be estimated independently. In future applications, electrical resistivity tomography coupled with distributed temperature sensing could give important estimates of water content of the waste and thus helping in dealing with problematics such as boosting biodegradation and stabilization of the waste, reducing risks of soil and aquifers pollution, landfill mining, and controlled production of methane.

  12. Electrical resistance of complex two-dimensional structures of loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, M. A. F.; Hora, R. R.; Brito, V. P.

    2011-06-01

    This work presents a study of the dc electrical resistance of a recently discovered hierarchical two-dimensional system which has a complex topology consisting of a distribution of disordered macroscopic loops with no characteristic size and a distribution of several types of contacts between loops. In addition to its intrinsic interest in the important context of low-dimensional systems and crumpled systems, the structures under study are of relevance in a number of areas including soft condensed matter and packing of DNA in viral capsids. In the particular case discussed here, the loops are made of layers of graphite with a height of tens of nanometers deposited on a substrate of cellulose. Experiments with these systems indicate an anomalous electrical resistance of sub-diffusive type. The results reported here are explained with scaling arguments and computer simulation. A comparison with the dc electrical properties of percolation clusters is made, and some other experimental issues as future prospects are commented.

  13. SEM viewing of gypsiferous material and study of their influence on electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafalla, M.; Fouzan, F. Al

    2012-04-01

    The gypsum rich material is often linked to the cavity formation due to the high solubility of cal-cium carbonate in the presence of acidic media. This work is dedicated to a close-up look to the structure of materials rich of gypsum and material of less or traces of sulfate ions. Electrical resistivity measurements were conducted along extended lines on sections involving cavities and the resulting profiles were examined for any changes. Forms and features of gypsum and minerals containing sulfates were studied and compared to sam-ples tested using SEM (scanning electron microscope). The chemical analyses (EDAX) using electron beam was carried out and the elements present within these samples were established. Quantitative chemical testing for some parameters including sulfate ions was carried out. Structural forms variation and changes are studied in view of the chemical composition. The electrical resistivity was measured using Syscal R1 electerical resis-tivity equipment for several spots near surface. Statistical correlations between sulfate ions content and elec-trical resistivity, for near surface soils, is presented. This study is aiming at utilizing the geophysical testing methods of sulfate rich soils and predicting future cavity formation in areas of high risk to cavities due to chemical weathering.

  14. Modeling and analysis of direct-current electrical resistivity in the Durham Triassic basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-two Schlumberger electrical soundings were made in the Durham Triassic basin in an effort to determine basin structural geometry, depth of the sedimentary layers, and spatial distribution of individual rock facies. A digital computer program was used to invert the sounding curves of apparent resistivity versus distance to apparent resistivity versus depth. The apparent-resistivity-versus-depth data from the computer-modeling program were used to construct a geoelectric model of the basin that is believed to accurately represent the subsurface geology of the basin. The largest depth to basement in the basin along a resistivity profile (geoelectric section) was determined to be 1,800 m. A resistivity decrease was observed on certain soundings from depths of 100 to 1,000 m; below a 1,000-m depth, apparent resistivity increased to the bottom of the basin. Resistivity values for basement rocks were greater than 1,000 ohm-m and less than 350 ohm-m for the sedimentary layers in the basin. The data suggest that the basin contains a system of step faults near its eastern boundary. ?? 1987.

  15. 3D electrical resistivity imaging of the near-surface structure of mud-volcano vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyen, Hermann; Pessel, Marc; Ledésert, Béatrice; Hébert, Ronan; Bartier, Danièle; Sabin, Mikaël; Lallemant, Siegfried

    2011-08-01

    A near-surface study of the 3D electrical resistivity distribution of a cold mud volcano field in New Zealand is presented. Inversion of 16 densely spaced profiles allowed to image the uppermost 25-30 m. The mud distribution is characterized by areas of very low resistivity (less than 7 ?m) embedded in river terrace sediments with resistivities of above 30 ?m. Within the first 4-6 m below the surface, a good correlation between mud vents and low electrical resistivities is observed. Between ca. 5 and 15 m depth, in contrast, the mud distribution does not reflect anymore the distribution of surface vents but is restrained to a few pipe-like structures that link a deeper mud reservoir to the vents at the surface. The obtained resistivity distribution allows also locating the Masterton strike-slip fault just north of the mud volcano field, confirming the role of this fault as conduit of the mud from deeper layers to the surface.

  16. Electrical conductivity of the Fennoscandian Shield margin from recent magnetotelluric profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Pedersen, L. B.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decade several magnetotelluric profiles extending from Proterozoic East European Craton into younger domains have been measured. Magnetotelluric TOR profile crosses the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist-Zone (STZ) in the southwestern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The STZ marks the border between the intact shield in Sweden to the north and the reactivated Danish basin and the Ringkobing-Fyn High (RFH) to the south. The STZ manifests itself electrically very clearly in the lower crust and upper lithospheric mantle as a narrow zone of high conductivity. The thickness of the electric lithosphere decreases across the STZ from about 300 km in the Fennoscandian Shield to about 100 km in the Danish basin. Jämtland-Trondelag magnetotelluric profile crosses the Central Scandinavian Caledonides from Baltic to Norwegian Sea. The results of the data analysis reveal the following main features: (1) An electrically highly conducting layer beneath the Caledonides images alum shales, the autochthonous Cambrian carbon-bearing black shales on top of the Precambrian basement. (2) Beneath the eastern part of the profile in the Fennoscandian Shield, proper, the first upper mantle conductor is detected at the depth of more than 250-300 km. A region of enhanced conductivity is identified at the depth of c.100- 150 km under the Caledonides in the central part of the profile. Further to the west, however, the lithosphere seems to thicken to 150-200 km. A large-scale international electromagnetic experiment has been carried out in northwest Poland and northeast Germany across the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ), which is the most prominent tectonic boundary in Europe and which constitutes a complex transition between the European Paleozoic Platform towards the southeast and the Precambrian Craton towards the northeast. The results show the presence of highly conductive Cenozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary cover reaching depths up to 3 km. The significant conductivity anomaly in the central part of the TESZ in the Polish Trough at mid-crustal depths is well resolved. The upper mantle of the Precambrian Craton is more resistive than the younger Paleozoic lithosphere by at least one order of magnitude. We can summarize the results from these profiles in the following conclusions. Magnetotelluric data revealed remarkable features at the crustal level along each profile. Some of them were not clearly identified before by other geophysical methods. Conductors like alum shales are very well indicated in the final models. Electrical lithosphere is thick beneath the Fennoscandian Shield and significantly thinner beneath younger domains. The resulting models shows the conductivity contrast at a depth of about 150 km across the cratonic margin to be at least one order of magnitude.

  17. Comparing Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements for Estimating Soil Water Distribution

    E-print Network

    Sailhac, Pascal

    511 Comparing Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements model. TDR-measurements of the spatially distributed water content along transmission lines were compared with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements along the same cross

  18. Students' Understanding of Direct Current Resistive Electrical Circuits

    E-print Network

    Paula V. Engelhardt; Robert J. Beichner

    2004-06-07

    Research has shown that both high school and university students' reasoning patterns regarding direct current resistive electric circuits often differ from the currently accepted explanations. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Two versions of a diagnostic instrument called Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. The information provided by the exam provides classroom instructors a means with which to evaluate the progress and conceptual difficulties of their students and their instructional methods. It can be used to evaluate curricular packages and/or other supplemental materials for their effectiveness in overcoming students' conceptual difficulties. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. During interviews, the idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Students tended to focus on current in solving the problems and to confuse terms, often assigning the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. Results indicated that students do not have a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electric circuit phenomena. On the other hand, students were able to translate easily from a "realistic" representation of a circuit to the corresponding schematic diagram.

  19. Electrical Resistance Technique to Monitor SiC Composite Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are suitable for high temperature structural applications such as turbine airfoils and hypersonic thermal protection systems. The employment of these materials in such applications is limited by the ability to process components reliable and to accurately monitor and predict damage evolution that leads to failure under stressed-oxidation conditions. Current nondestructive methods such as ultrasound, x-ray, and thermal imaging are limited in their ability to quantify small scale, transverse, in-plane, matrix cracks developed over long-time creep and fatigue conditions. Electrical resistance of SiC/SiC composites is one technique that shows special promise towards this end. Since both the matrix and the fibers are conductive, changes in matrix or fiber properties should relate to changes in electrical conductivity along the length of a specimen or part. The effect of matrix cracking on electrical resistivity for several composite systems will be presented and some initial measurements performed at elevated temperatures under stress-rupture conditions. The implications towards electrical resistance as a technique applied to composite processing, damage detection (health monitoring), and life-modeling will be discussed.

  20. Micromechanical approach for electrical resistivity and conductivity of sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to employ the micromechanical approach for the modeling of the electrical resistivity and of the conductivity of sandstone. This type of rock is considered as a mixture of solid mineral and porous space filled fully or partially by conductive water. The Eshelby's solution of a spheroidal inclusion in a homogeneous matrix is employed. The differential effective medium model (DEM) with different concepts of the microstructure is developed for the calculation of the resistivity. The parametric study clarifies the impact of the microscopic parameters on the macroscopic electrical properties. The simulations are compared with the classical empirical and theoretical approaches as well as with the laboratory measurements. The results show a strong impact of the microstructure (the shape of the pore, the presence of non-conductive fluids in the pore space, the connectivity of conductive fluid) on the macroscopic resistivity and conductivity of sandstone. This approach gives a link between the microscopic physical parameters of the rock and the macroscopic electrical parameters such as the cementation exponent and the electrical formation factor.

  1. Electrical resistivity response due to elastic-plastic deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of many materials is sensitive to changes in the electronic band configurations surrounding the atoms, changes in the electron-phonon interaction cross-sections, and changes in the density of intrinsic defect structures. These changes are most directly dependent on interatomic measures of relative deformation. For this reason, a model for resistivity response is developed in terms of interatomic measures of relative deformation. The relative deformation consists of two terms, a continuous function to describe the recoverable displacement between two atoms in the atomic lattice structure and a functional to describe the nonrecoverable displacement between two atoms as a result of interatomic discontinuities from dislocation kinetics. This model for resistivity extends the classical piezoresistance representation and relates electric resistance change directly to physical mechanisms. An analysis for the resistivity change of a thin foil ideally embedded in a material that undergoes elastic-plastic deformation is presented. For the case of elastic deformations, stress information in the material surrounding the thin foil is inferred for the cases of pure strain coupling boundary conditions, pure stress coupling boundary conditions, and a combination of stress-strain coupling boundary conditions. 42 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Electric-field effects in resistive oxides: facts and artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; Genossar, J.; Patlagan, L.; Reisner, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Striking non-linear conductivity effects induced by surprisingly low electric-fields in charge-ordered oxides, were reported variously as dielectric breakdown, charge-order collapse, depinning of charge-density-waves or other electronic effects. Our pulsed and d.c. I-V measurements on resistive oxides show that non-linear conductivity of electronic origin at low electric-fields is a rare phenomenon. In the majority of cases we detected no deviations from linearity in pulsed I-V characteristics under fields up to E ~ 500 V/cm. Current-controlled negative-differential-resistance (NDR) and hysteresis were found in d.c. measurements at fields that decrease with increasing temperatures, a behavior typical of Joule heating in materials with negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. For the d.c. I-V characteristics of our samples exhibiting NDR, we found a rather unexpected correlation between ?(Em) - the resistivity at maximum field (at the onset of NDR) and ?(E=0) - the ohmic resistivity. The data points for ?(Em) versus ?(E=0) obtained from such characteristics of 13 samples (8 manganites, 4 nickelates and one multiferroic) at various ambient temperatures, plotted together on a log-log scale, follow closely a linear dependence with slope one that spans more than five orders of magnitude. This dependence is reproduced by several simple models.

  3. Aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity surveys of Ascension Island

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Nielson, D.L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential, the University of Utah Research Institute conducted a detailed aeromagnetic survey of Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, in 1983. Interpretation of the data, supported by three-dimensional numerical modeling, indicated structural features and a low-magnetization area near the center of the island. Reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys were completed in 1984 and these identified a zone of low apparent resistivity which corresponds to anomalous temperatures and alteration well above a high-temperature geothermal system.

  4. Electrical resistivity surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of naturally occurring and mining related metals to Cement Creek, a tributary of the upper Animas River in southwestern Colorado. Efforts to improve water quality in the watershed have focused on Prospect Gulch because many of its abandoned mines and are located on federal lands. Information on sources and pathways of metals, and related ground-water flow, will be useful to help prioritize and develop remediation strategies. It has been shown that the occurrence of sulfate, aluminum, iron, zinc and other metals associated with historical mining and the natural weathering of pyritic rock is substantial. In this study, direct current resistivity surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution and to identify faults and fractures that may act as ground-water conduits or barriers to flow. Five lines of resistivity data were collected in the vicinity of Prospect Gulch, and cross-section profiles were constructed from the field data using a two-dimensional inversion algorithm. The conductive anomalies in the profiles are most likely caused by wet or saturated rocks and sediments, clay rich deposits, or high TDS ground water. Resistive anomalies are likely bedrock, dry surficial and sub-surface deposits, or deposits of ferricrete.

  5. Electrical resistivity imaging of the near-surface structure of the Solfatara volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Fedele, Alessandro; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We describe the results from an high-resolution study of the near-surface electrical resistivity structures carried out in the Solfatara area, located in the central part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) composite caldera, west of Naples, Italy. This area represents the most active zone within the CF area. It has been the site of an intense hydrothermal activity since Greek times, and currently exhibits the most impressive degassing manifestations. A direct relationship has always been observed between the increase of hydrothermal activity and ground uplift in the caldera. For this reason, dynamic of the Solfatara zone is considered a direct indicator of the volcanism taking place in the CF caldera. Since 2005 a new gradual increase of the hydrothermal activity and ground uplift has been observed. A steep growth of these effects has been recorded from 2012, accompanied by seismic events with hypocentres mostly concentrated below the area of Pozzuoli at depths ranging between 1 and 3 km, and highest magnitude of 1.8. It is thought that a further increase of the activity might lead to more critical conditions, including the occurrence of phreatic explosions. The detailed recovery of the structure and features of the shallow aquifers, mainly in the largest fumarole areas, is a crucial step for interpreting the ground movements and to improve our capability to forecast future pre-eruptive scenarios. Electrical resistivity results particularly sensitive to the presence of aqueous fluids and partial melts. By electrical imaging the volume of subsurface fluids can be constrained and the rheology of the subsoil can be reconstructed. To this aim, we have carried out eight profiles for electrical resistivity imaging, crossing the fumaroles field, deducting an electric model of the structural setting of the hydrothermal system in the first 100 m depth. Six of the profiles were 250 m long, with an electrodic distance of 5 m. Two longer profiles, up to 750 m, characterised by an electrodic distance of 10 m, was also realised, that crosses the whole Solfatara crater in the N-S and NE-WSW direction, respectively. The main electric features has been reconstructed and ERT results have been utilised to the aim of detailing the outlines of the fumarolic field defined by previous ground temperature, CO2 soil degassing, seismic noise, Bouguer anomaly mapping. A further analysis of the correlation between the recorded physical parameters and the main electric discontinuities has been realised.

  6. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.; Agha, Stan O.

    2014-06-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq). The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in some parts of Niger delta by Center for Basic Space Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, were employed in this study. Gauss spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) method was used to separate the internal and external field contributions to Sq current system. The result depicted that the conductivity profile rose steadily from about 0.032 S/m at a depth of 89 km to 0.041 S/m at 100 km and 0.09 S/m at 221 km. This high conductivity region agreed with the global seismic low velocity region, the asthenosphere. The conductivity profile continued increasing downward until it got to 0.157 S/m at a depth of about 373 km (close to the base of upper mantle), 0.201 S/m at 784 km and reached 0.243 S/m at a depth of 1179 km at the lower mantle.

  7. Characterization of subsurface stratigraphy along the lower American River floodplain using electrical resistivity, Sacramento, California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, completed a geophysical survey using electrical resistivity along an approximately 6-mile reach of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, to map near-surface lithological variations. This survey is a part of a manifold and comprehensive study of river-flow dynamics and geologic boundary-property knowledge necessary to estimate scour potential and levee erosion risk. Data were acquired on the left (south or west) bank between river mile 5 and 10.7 as well as a short section on the right bank from river mile 5.4 to 6. Thirteen direct-current resistivity profiles and approximately 8.3 miles of capacitively coupled resisistivity data were acquired along accessible areas of the floodplain between the levee and river bank. Capacitively coupled resistivity was used as a reconnaissance tool, because it allowed for greater spatial coverage of data but with lower resolution and depth of investigation than the DC resistivity method. The study area contains Pleistocene-age alluvial deposits, dominated by gravels, sands, silts, and clays, that vary in both lateral extent and depth. Several generations of lithologic logs were used to help interpret resistivity variations observed in the resistivity models.

  8. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. C. Y.; Fortini, A.

    1971-01-01

    Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous materials, including 304L stainless steel Rigimesh, 304L stainless steel sintered spherical powders, and OFHC sintered spherical powders at different porosities and temperatures are reported and correlated. It was found that the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity can be related to the solid material properties and the porosity of the porous matrix regardless of the matrix structure. It was also found that the Wiedermann-Franz-Lorenz relationship is valid for the porous materials under consideration. For high conductivity materials, the Lorenz constant and the lattice component of conductivity depend on the material and are independent of the porosity. For low conductivity, the lattice component depends on the porosity as well.

  9. Electrostatic multipole for electrical resistivity measurements at the decimetric scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souffaché, B.; Cosenza, P.; Flageul, S.; Pencolé, J.-P.; Seladji, S.; Tabbagh, A.

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive electrical resistivity studies at the decimetric scale can be achieved by using electrostatic multipoles. The reduction of the influence of electromagnetic induction at this scale facilitates the choice of frequency. We first present the hexapole instrument (six poles) comprising one transmitting current pair of poles and two different voltage pairs corresponding to two different depths of analysis: roughly 7 and 15 cm. Two different examples are then presented, illustrating the wide range of possible applications of this technique. Firstly, by measuring the electrical resistivity of the stone blocks of an historical building, it is possible to verify whether its builders took into account the stresses these blocks had to support, when choosing their position. Secondly, the characterisation and monitoring of cultivated soil compaction is illustrated on an experimental plot of land.

  10. 3D electrical resistivity inversion using prior spatial shape constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Cai; Nie, Li-Chao; Liu, Bin; Song, Jie; Liu, Zheng-Yu; Su, Mao-Xin; Xu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    To minimize the number of solutions in 3D resistivity inversion, an inherent problem in inversion, the amount of data considered have to be large and prior constraints need to be applied. Geological and geophysical data regarding the extent of a geological anomaly are important prior information. We propose the use of shape constraints in 3D electrical resistivity inversion. Three weighted orthogonal vectors (a normal and two tangent vectors) were used to control the resistivity differences at the boundaries of the anomaly. The spatial shape of the anomaly and the constraints on the boundaries of the anomaly are thus established. We incorporated the spatial shape constraints in the objective function of the 3D resistivity inversion and constructed the 3D resistivity inversion equation with spatial shape constraints. Subsequently, we used numerical modeling based on prior spatial shape data to constrain the direction vectors and weights of the 3D resistivity inversion. We established a reasonable range between the direction vectors and weights, and verified the feasibility and effectiveness of using spatial shape prior constraints in reducing excessive structures and the number of solutions. We applied the prior spatially shape-constrained inversion method to locate the aquifer at the Guangzhou subway. The spatial shape constraints were taken from ground penetrating radar data. The inversion results for the location and shape of the aquifer agree well with drilling data, and the number of inversion solutions is significantly reduced.

  11. Electrical resistivities of solid and liquid Pr, Nd and Sm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hiemstra; P. Keegstra; W. T. Maselink; J. B. Van Zytveld

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the electrical resistivities rho , of the light rare-earth metals, Pr, Nd and Sm from room temperature to above their melting points. They find, for the liquid phases at their various melting points, that the values of rho L are 139+or-2, 154+or-2 and 182+or-2 mu Omega cm for Pr, Nd and Sm, respectively. Similarly, d rho

  12. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Subterranean Void Space for Assessment of Endangered Species Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissling, B. P.; White, K.

    2007-12-01

    The challenge of identifying and delineating subterranean habitat for endangered species in karst environments has been addressed through the application of near-surface geophysical techniques. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in both galvanic DC and capacitance-coupled modes has been applied to the problem of imaging subsurface voids, potentially conducive to karst invertebrate habitat, in two distinctly different geologic, geophysical, and environmental settings. Surveys were conducted in extrusive volcanic terrain on the south shore of Kauai, Hawaii, a site known for lava tube formation, and in limestone karst terrain in central Texas. The two study sites were distinctly different in their geophysical settings in terms of surface layer and subsurface background resistivities, values at the Kauai site ranging from 1000 - 5000 ohm-meters and at the Texas site 100 - 800 ohm-meters, values reflecting differing lithology, porosity, and pore fluid content. An Advanced Geosciences Inc. (AGI) Supersting R8 DC resistivity system was the primary instrumentation utilized for both surveys, with a capacitance-coupled Geometrics Inc. OhmMapper TR-2 system utilized on the Kauai site for reconnaissance profiles. Opportunities existed for direct comparisons of Supersting and OhmMapper pseudo- section profiles. Supersting lines were acquired with a mixed array combining the horizontal resolution sensitivity of the dipole-dipole array with the vertical resolution sensitivity of the Inverse Schlumberger array. At both sites, surveys were conducted over known and mapped cave passage for validation of the techniques. Forward simulation modeling was conducted to verify resistivity anomaly signatures of known void spaces. Results were highly encouraging and serve to reinforce the karst-imaging capabilities of electrical resistivity, especially when mixed array types are utilized.

  13. Detecting Cracks in Ceramic Matrix Composites by Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90o fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  14. Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  15. Uncertainty analysis for common Seebeck and electrical resistivity measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Jon; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2014-08-01

    This work establishes the level of uncertainty for electrical measurements commonly made on thermoelectric samples. The analysis targets measurement systems based on the four probe method. Sources of uncertainty for both electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient were identified and evaluated. Included are reasonable estimates on the magnitude of each source, and cumulative propagation of error. Uncertainty for the Seebeck coefficient includes the cold-finger effect which has been quantified with thermal finite element analysis. The cold-finger effect, which is a result of parasitic heat transfer down the thermocouple probes, leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A silicon germanium thermoelectric sample has been characterized to provide an understanding of the total measurement uncertainty. The electrical resistivity was determined to contain uncertainty of ±7.0% across any measurement temperature. The Seebeck coefficient of the system is +1.0%/-13.1% at high temperature and ±1.0% near room temperature. The power factor has a combined uncertainty of +7.3%/-27.0% at high temperature and ±7.5% near room temperature. These ranges are calculated to be typical values for a general four probe Seebeck and resistivity measurement configuration. PMID:25173324

  16. Electrical resistance of dysprosium and titanium under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, Bertil

    2013-06-01

    The electrical resistances of metallic dysprosium and titanium have been measured in the temperature range 80-700 K and under hydrostatic pressure in silicone oil up to 1.2 GPa. For both metals, the measured temperature and pressure dependence of resistance are in good agreement with available literature data near room temperature and atmospheric pressure. For titanium, the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity can be very well described by standard Bloch-Grüneisen theory if a correction for the density of states is applied, although saturation effects are observed at the highest temperatures. The pressure dependence is practically independent of temperature over the range 300 to 700 K, as expcted from simple theory. For dysprosium, the low temperature data show the well known antiferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transformation near 174 K. The pressure coefficient of resistance at room temperature is somewhat larger than found by Bridgman, probably reflecting a higher purity of the material. The pressure coefficient is observed to decrease with increasing temperature.

  17. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  18. Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Arabia-Eurasia Collision Zone in Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkoglu, E.; Unsworth, M.; Caglar, I.; Tuncer, V.; Avsar, U.; Tank, B.; Turkoglu, E.; Demir, T.; Sener, A.

    2005-12-01

    The tectonics of eastern Anatolia is dominated by the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent passive seismic exploration has provided new constraints on the seismic velocity structure of this region and suggest that asthenosphere may be present at shallow depth within the collision zone. Magnetotelluric data can provide independent constraints on processes in regions of active tectonics by remotely sensing the electrical resistivity of the crust and upper mantle. From May to November 2005 magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected in Eastern Anatolia in a joint Canadian-Turkish project by the University of Alberta and Istanbul Technical University. Long period MT data give penetration to upper mantle depths and were collected on profiles extending from the Arabian plate to the Black Sea with a spacing of 10-15 km. More detailed broadband MT data were collected on shorter profiles crossing the North and East Anatolian Fault Zones with a spacing of 1-2 km. Preliminary resistivity models will be presented for each of the profiles and indicate that: (1) A mid-crustal conductor is present beneath the Anatolian Block in the vicinity of Elazig and terminates directly beneath the surface trace of the East Anatolian Fault. This geometry is very similar to that observed on major strike-slip faults in Northern and Eastern Tibet. (2)East of the Karliova triple junction, the Anatolian crust has a high resistivity. A low resistivity zone is present at depths of 40-50 km and may represent a shallow asthenosphere. (3)Low resistivity is observed in the upper mantle beneath Karacadag, a center of recent basaltic eruptions on the Arabian Plate, and in the crust beneath the Nemrut Golu - Suphan Dagi volcanic belt. The tectonic significance of these new MT data will be discussed in the context of other geological and geophysical data.

  19. Electrical Resistivity in Non-stoichiometric MoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. M. S.; Benaion, S. S.; Romanelli, C. M.; dos Santos, C. A. M.; da Luz, M. S.; de Lima, B. S.; Oliveira, F. S.; Machado, A. J. S.; Guedes, E. B.; Abbate, M.; Mossanek, R. J. O.

    2015-04-01

    MoO y with 1.85 ? y ? 2.20 has been studied by X-ray diffractometry and photoemission spectroscopy at room temperature and by electrical resistance as a function of temperature from 2 to 300 K. Although X-ray diffractograms are very similar to the stoichiometric MoO2 with monoclinic structure of the space group P21/c (14), the electrical properties are strongly dependent on the oxygen composition. Samples with y = 1.85 and 1.90 show anomalous behavior in electrical conductivity. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements suggest that this anomalous behavior is related to the presence of Mo3+ ions such as in KxMoO2 compound.

  20. Variations of electric field and electric resistivity of air caused by dust motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Renno, N.; Elliott, H.

    2013-08-01

    report results of a field campaign conducted in the Nevada desert with a suite of electric field instruments consisting of a field mill (FM) and a short dipole antenna (SDA). Furthermore, we show that a combination of the measurements of these two instruments allows the estimation of the electric resistivity of air, an important quantity that is extremely difficult to measure near the Earth's surface. The electric resistivity of air is found to vary between 1.5 · 1013 and 6 · 1013 ? m and to correlate with changes in electric field. Vertical DC electric fields with amplitudes up to 6 kV m-1 were observed to correspond to clouds of dust blowing through the measurement site. Enhanced DC and AC electric fields are measured during periods when horizontal wind speed exceeds 7 m s-1, or around twice the background value. We suggest that low-frequency emissions, below ~200 Hz, are generated by the motion of electrically charged particles in the vicinity of the SDA electrode and propose a simple model to reproduce the observed spectra. According to this model, the spectral response is controlled by three parameters, (i) the speed of the charged particles, (ii) the charge concentration, and (iii) the minimum distance between the particle and the electrode. In order to explain the electric fields measured with the FM sensors at different heights, we developed a multilayer model that relates the electric field to the charge distribution. For example, a nonlinear variation of the electric field observed by the FM sensors below 50 cm is simulated by a near-surface layer of tens of centimeters that is filled with electrically charged particles that carry a predominantly negative charge in the vicinity of the soil. The charge concentration inside this layer is estimated to vary between 1012 and 5 · 1013 electrons m-3.

  1. Monitoring soil volume wetness in heterogeneous soils by electrical resistivity. A field-based pedotransfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Bichet, Vincent; Michot, Didier; Lévêque, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Modern irrigation techniques require accurate, rapid, cost-effective, spatial measurement of soil moisture. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) meets most of these requirements, but needs to be calibrated for each use because it is very sensitive to differences in soil characteristics. In this study, a pedotransfer function approach is used to remove the need for site-specific calibration, allowing ERT to be used directly to measure soil moisture. The study site was a hillslope vineyard, where eight calcaric-cambisol soil profiles were identified. From 2012 to 2013, 23 000 soil volume wetness measurements were acquired by Time Domain Reflectometry, and over 100 000 electrical resistivity data were collected in 160 ERT acquisitions. To better understand the ERT signal, soil texture, gravel content, cation exchange capacity, CaCO3, pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen were analysed in 64 soil samples from the study site. The sensitivity of ERT to differences in soil characteristics makes it difficult to establish a unique model linking electrical resistivity and soil moisture in heterogeneous soils. This study presents two possible solutions to overcome this problem, which are differentiated by the availability of data on soil characteristics. When these data are not available, it is possible to fit a number of different models for each homogeneous soil layer, but a site-specific calibration is necessary at least once. Conversely, when soil characteristics are available, they can be integrated into the model to build a pedotransfer function. A unique, accurate model is obtained in this way for all samples. In soils with similar characteristics to those observed, the function can be used directly to measure soil moisture by ERT. Developing pedotransfer functions such the one presented here could greatly improve, simplify and develop the use of electrical resistivity to measure soil moisture.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Studying Dynamics of Vadose Zone Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, V.; Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining the spatial distribution of subsurface hydrologic properties is critical to developing efficient groundwater management strategies. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) provides continuous maps of the subsurface electrical conductivity, which can be related to water content, making it particularly useful to groundwater studies. We present an application of ERI to monitoring infiltration in the top 20 m of the subsurface at the Harkins Slough Recharge Pond, located in an agricultural region on the northern California coast. The purpose of the recharge pond is two-fold: to store diverted storm-flow run-off to meet groundwater delivery demands and to replenish underlying aquifers, which have been overdrawn for several decades, allowing saltwater intrusion. Operators of the pond have rights to divert 2.5e6 m3 of surface water to the pond each year, but decreasing infiltration rates during diversion reduces the operational efficiency, only allowing infiltration of ~1e6 m3 each year. It is hypothesized that deposition of fine-sediments from diverted water, run-off from adjacent fields, and/or microbial activity reduce the hydraulic conductivity over time by clogging pore spaces. As part of an effort to better understand the hydrologic processes controlling infiltration to improve operational efficiency of the recharge pond we conducted time-lapse ERI experiments to monitor infiltration processes beneath the pond during the winters of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Each year measurements were made using four 3-m long permanent probes installed in the base of the pond in a T-shape configuration, with 20 m between each probe. The probes allow for monitoring of the conductivity profile to a depth of 2 m; the top meter of each probe monitors bulk conductivity of the pond water. In addition, a number of surface electrodes were laid out in lines between the four probes. In 2008-2009, 20-m lines were used. In 2009-2010, three lines of lengths 10 m, 65 m, and 75 m were deployed. Acquisition geometries designed to target different regions of the subsurface were used to acquire measurements every 1.5 hours. In 2008-2009 ~2000 data sets were acquired; each data set included measurements from probes and surface lines. In 2009-2010 ~1000 data sets were acquired. Data were processed using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach. The EKF was chosen for processing time-series ERI data because it models evolution of the physical system and the observation process, incorporating previous information into data-inversion at each time-step. In this application, the first for surface-based ERI field data, we modify the classical Kalman filter cost functional to incorporate spatial smoothing and impose an update constraint to account for slow state evolution with respect to the sampling interval. Results identified more hydrologic complexity than was originally assumed and indicated that processes in the top 0.5 m of the subsurface control infiltration rates. The results of ERI monitoring demonstrate that integrating geophysics into hydrologic studies can provide increased information about spatial and temporal evolution of vadose zone processes.

  3. Local Resistance Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction with Spike Lamp and Laser Annealing Using Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yuji; Nishikawa, Kazuhisa; Wakaya, Fujio; Takai, Mikio [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Oda, Hidekazu [Renesas Technology Corporation, 4-1 Mizuhara, Itami, Hyogo, 664-0005 (Japan)

    2008-11-03

    Local resistance profiles of ultra-shallow arsenic implanted into silicon with an energy of 3.5 keV and a dose of 1.2x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} activated by conventional spike lamp and laser annealing were measured by SSRM in a nitrogen atmosphere with a depth resolution of less than 10 nm for investigating the combination of the conventional spike lamp and laser annealing. Spike lamp annealing at 1050 deg. C followed by laser annealing at a power density of 0.42 kW/mm{sup 2} was found to give the lowest sheet resistance. The resistance profiles obtained by SSRM also indicated the lowest resistance for the sample after spike lamp annealing at 1050 deg. C followed by laser annealing with a power density of 0.42 kW/mm{sup 2}. Laser annealing alone with a power density of 0.42 kW/mm{sup 2} resulted in the higher sheet resistance, though the shallower resistance profile could be obtained. Spike lamp annealing followed by laser annealing procedures are effective in activating shallow arsenic profiles.

  4. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas-fired electricity contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Wiser; Devra Bachrach; Mark Bolinger; William Golove

    2004-01-01

    Electricity policymakers, industry participants, analysts, and even consumers have become acutely aware of the ever-present risks that face the delivery of electricity. Recent instability in the electricity industry illustrates the need for thoughtful resource planning to balance the cost, reliability, and risk of electricity supply. This article evaluates the relative risk profiles of renewable and natural gas generating plants. It

  5. Lipid profiles in wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to tan spot and the effect of disease on the profiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwon; Jeannotte, Richard; Welti, Ruth; Bockus, William W

    2013-01-01

    Lipid profiles in wheat leaves and the effects of tan spot on the profiles were quantified by mass spectrometry. Inoculation with Pyrenophora tritici-repentis significantly reduced the amount of leaf lipids, including the major plastidic lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which together accounted for 89% of the mass spectral signal of detected lipids in wheat leaves. Levels of these lipids in susceptible cultivars dropped much more quickly during infection than those in resistant cultivars. Furthermore, cultivars resistant or susceptible to tan spot displayed different lipid profiles; leaves of resistant cultivars had more MGDG and DGDG than susceptible ones, even in noninoculated plants. Lipid compositional data from leaves of 20 noninoculated winter wheat cultivars were regressed against an index of disease susceptibility and fitted with a linear model. This analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between resistance and levels of plastidic galactolipids and indicated that cultivars with high resistance to tan spot uniformly had more MGDG and DGDG than cultivars with high susceptibility. These findings suggest that lipid composition of wheat leaves may be a determining factor in the resistance response of cultivars to tan spot. PMID:23035632

  6. Electrical resistivity tomography to delineate greenhouse soil variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Amato, M.; Bitella, G.; Bochicchio, R.

    2013-03-01

    Appropriate management of soil spatial variability is an important tool for optimizing farming inputs, with the result of yield increase and reduction of the environmental impact in field crops. Under greenhouses, several factors such as non-uniform irrigation and localized soil compaction can severely affect yield and quality. Additionally, if soil spatial variability is not taken into account, yield deficiencies are often compensated by extra-volumes of crop inputs; as a result, over-irrigation and overfertilization in some parts of the field may occur. Technology for spatially sound management of greenhouse crops is therefore needed to increase yield and quality and to address sustainability. In this experiment, 2D-electrical resistivity tomography was used as an exploratory tool to characterize greenhouse soil variability and its relations to wild rocket yield. Soil resistivity well matched biomass variation (R2=0.70), and was linked to differences in soil bulk density (R2=0.90), and clay content (R2=0.77). Electrical resistivity tomography shows a great potential in horticulture where there is a growing demand of sustainability coupled with the necessity of stabilizing yield and product quality.

  7. Connection equation and shaly-sand correction for electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the amount of conductive and nonconductive constituents in the pore space of sediments by using electrical resistivity logs generally loses accuracy where clays are present in the reservoir. Many different methods and clay models have been proposed to account for the conductivity of clay (termed the shaly-sand correction). In this study, the connectivity equation (CE), which is a new approach to model non-Archie rocks, is used to correct for the clay effect and is compared with results using the Waxman and Smits method. The CE presented here requires no parameters other than an adjustable constant, which can be derived from the resistivity of water-saturated sediments. The new approach was applied to estimate water saturation of laboratory data and to estimate gas hydrate saturations at the Mount Elbert well on the Alaska North Slope. Although not as accurate as the Waxman and Smits method to estimate water saturations for the laboratory measurements, gas hydrate saturations estimated at the Mount Elbert well using the proposed CE are comparable to estimates from the Waxman and Smits method. Considering its simplicity, it has high potential to be used to account for the clay effect on electrical resistivity measurement in other systems.

  8. Monitoring water flows with time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography on the Super-Sauze landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, J.; Sailhac, P.; Malet, J.-P.; Grandjean, G.; Supper, R.; Jochum, B.; Ottowitz, D.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents results of a permanent hydro-geophysical monitoring of an active landslide developed in clay-shales. Hydrology has been proved to be a major factor controlling the Super-Sauze earthflow behavior, but it knowledge still limited mainly because of the importance of spatial heterogeneities. The geometry of the bedrock creates internal crests and gullies that can guide waterflows or create a lock and engender an excess of pore water pressure; the soil surface characteristics plays also a large role in the surface hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, on the infiltration pattern. To understand in detail these processes, it is therefore important to monitor spatially at large scale (with high resolution) those phenomena and to overcome the monitoring difficulties inherent to a fast-moving clayey earthflow. The objectives of the survey are to identify and characterize spatially and temporarily the water flow circulation within the landslide body over a period of one year. The studied profile measures 114 m long and is surveyed with 93 electrodes spaced from 0.5, 1 or 2 meter according the soil surface cracking. Four resistivity datasets of 4300 measurements are acquired each day using a gradient array since May 2011. The monitoring is performed with the GEOMON4D system, developed by the Geological Survey of Austria. To facilitate the interpretation, humidity, conductivity, temperature, and piezometer sensors are placed along the profile. Two dGPS antenna placed upstream and downstream the profile allow to correlate the results with soil displacement. Lefranc tests and granulometry results realized on several samples have shown the important heterogeneities of the near surface. The objective of this work is to present the data processing strategy for the analysis of long periods time-lapse ERT survey of natural rain events taking into account changes through time of the position of the electrodes, changes in the soil surface state and important changes in sub-surface soil temperature. Two high-resolution optical cameras are installed on stable crests on the side of the cross-sections and time-lapse stereoscopy is used to reconstruct the displacement field to locate the electrodes in space and time (in order to take into account changes in the dipole geometry). The apparent electrical resistivity values were inverted with a time-lapse approach using an initial model constructed from statistical analysis of resistivity data and a priori knowledge on the landslide structure from a previous geotechnical model. The near surface apparent resistivity can vary of ten percent without any input of water. This shows the importance of temperature effect on the measurement. The temperature correction is handled from a complete study of the soil temperature propagation solving the heat equation with several temperature probes placed at different depths in soil and in the water table. The results are interpreted in combination to hydrological data (rain, water table level). The acquisition of 8 ERT all over the studied area, in different directions permits to create by interpolation a 3D electrical resistivity model of the area. This model shows the importance of the bedrock topography because high water content areas are visible at the theoretical hydrological network computed from the 3D geotechnical model of Travelletti and Malet (2011). Transversal waterflow circulation not predicted are also visible and permit to interpret the results taking into account the 3D structure of the landslide. A 250 m long P-wave tomography acquired on the studied profile and inversed with a quasi-Newton algorithm that uses Fresnel wavepaths and the finite bandwidth of the source signal, specially developed for the study of very heterogeneous soils, shows a very good correlation with electrical resistivity and permits to propose a geotechnical model of the profile. Spatially heterogeneous water flow patterns are identified and the presence of a deep water supply is hypothesized downstream of the investigated profile. The presentation will fo

  9. Statistical analysis of the Time Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the "Vence landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebourg, T.; Hernandez, M. H.; El Bedoui, S. E. L.; Jomard, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    A temporal imagery of water circulation in a landslide by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was conducted to analyses the electrical signal behaviour of the slope during 600 days of measurement. This work is based on an experimental approach applied on the "Vence" landslide (South-eastern France) which is characterised by a sandy-clay sliding mass mostly controlled by high rainfall events. This instrumented landslide is considered as a translational landslide including 1.2?106m3 of material, affecting an area about 250 m large by 350 m long, with a slope of 12°/14°. In this study dipole-dipole pseudo-section scheme is used to image the "Vence" landslide. The Permanent ERT (Perm_ERT) is based on an autonomous acquisition device constituted by a 120 m long profile with 24 nodes. It allows obtaining a daily acquisition with 574 sample points. The 2D resistivity data were recorded using the Syscal R1 48 Plus imaging system (developed by IRIS Instrument). In order to detect small electrical variations, between the different temporal measurement series, a statistical analysis was improved. Theses variations are clearly coupling to external solicitations (temperature, rainfall event, water table movement…). The 1D and 2D statistical analysis shows: - The majority of the rainfall events are associated to a loss of linear correlation between temporal data. - The electrical signal has two distinguishable answers to the landslide hydric conditions: the first one (considered like a perturbation) is due to the rain and the second one (observable at a longer scale time) is due to the variation water table head. - Several periods show electrical signal stability. - The rainfall event impact on the electrical signal is different depending on the material saturation.

  10. Using electrical resistance probes for moisture determination in switchgrass windrows

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser Jr., G. D.; Davis, J. D.; Purswell, J. L.; Lemus, R.

    2011-08-01

    Determining moisture levels in windrowed biomass is important for both forage producers and researchers. Energy crops such as switchgrass have been troublesome when using the standard methods set for electrical resistance meters. The objectives of this study were to i) develop the methodologies needed to measure MC in switchgrass using electrical resistance meters, ii) to determine the effects of pressure and probe orientation on MC measurement and iii) to generate MC calibration equations for electrical resistance meters using switchgrass in the senescence growth stage. Two meters (Meter 1, Farmex HT-PRO; Meter 2, Delmhorst F-2000) were selected based on commercial availability. A forage compression apparatus was designed and constructed with on-farm materials and methods to provide a simple system of applying pressure achievable by any forage producer or researcher in the field. Two trials were performed to test four levels of moisture contents (10, 20, 30, and 40%), five pressures (0, 1.68, 3.11, 4.55, 6.22 kN/m 2; 0, 35, 65, 95, 130 lb/ft 2), and two probe orientations (axial and transverse) in a 4x5x2 factorial design. Results indicated that meter accuracy increased as pressure increased. Regression models accounted for 91% and 81% of the variation for Meter 1 and Meter 2 at a pressure of 4.55 kN/m 2 (95 lb/ft 2) and a transverse probe orientation. Calibration equations were developed for both meters to improve moisture measurement accuracy for farmers and researchers in the field.

  11. Computational Modeling and Analysis of a Contact Pair for the Prediction of Fretting Dependent Electrical Contact Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiji Mashimo; Yasuyuki Ishimaru

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational model of fretting corrosion was proposed by the authors. The two-dimensional simulation result was reported in the previous paper. Presently, the model is extended to three-dimensional space. This paper focuses on the electrical contact resistance profile, which is caused by particle generation, oxidation, and transportation at the interface of connector terminals. The material used in the study

  12. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1996-10-22

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.

  13. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  14. Investigating Root Zone Soil Moisture Using Electrical Resistivity and Crop Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diker, K.; Van Dam, R. L.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Basso, B.

    2011-12-01

    An accurate understanding of soil moisture variability is critical for agroecological modeling and for understanding the implications of climate change for agriculture. In recent years, electrical resistivity (ER) methods have successfully been used to characterize soil moisture in a range of environments, but there remains a need to better link these data to climate variability, soil textural properties, and vegetation and root dynamics. We present results for a novel ER measurement system at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) in southwest Michigan. Permanent multi-electrode arrays were installed beneath a range of annual and perennial biofuel crop types including corn, soybean, various grasses, and poplars. The ER arrays provide both high spatial resolution 2D and high temporal resolution 1D apparent resistivity data (4 week and 2 hour intervals, respectively). These data, along with a forward simulation of electrical resistivity in the soil column, are used to calibrate and refine root growth dynamics modules within the crop growth and soil hydrologic model SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability). Simulations are compared to 1D TDR-inferred soil moisture data. Variability in root zone dynamics among different biofuel cropping systems is explored. Total water use and efficiency, along with profile root water extraction, vary considerably among the crops.

  15. Embryonic Carcinoma Cells Show Specific Dielectric Resistance Profiles during Induced Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Öz, Simin; Maercker, Christian; Breiling, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2?-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1?-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2). Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating cultures and real-time label-free monitoring of differentiation processes. This work might provide a basis for further analyses of drug candidates for differentiation therapy of cancers. PMID:23533658

  16. Embryonic carcinoma cells show specific dielectric resistance profiles during induced differentiation.

    PubMed

    Öz, Simin; Maercker, Christian; Breiling, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1?-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2). Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating cultures and real-time label-free monitoring of differentiation processes. This work might provide a basis for further analyses of drug candidates for differentiation therapy of cancers. PMID:23533658

  17. Gene expression profiling discriminates cerebral malaria-susceptible mice and cerebral malaria-resistant mice

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gene expression profiling discriminates cerebral malaria-susceptible mice and cerebral malaria-resistant mice Short title: Gene expression profiles in mouse malaria Nicolas F. Delahaye1 , Nicolas Coltel2;2 Abstract The development of mouse cerebral malaria (CM) upon Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection is under

  18. Global Gene Expression Profiles of Resistant and Susceptible Genotypes of Glycine tomentella During Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a destructive foliar disease that occurs in many soybean-producing countries. Towards the goal of identifying genes controlling resistance to soybean rust, transcriptome profiling was conducted in resistant and susceptible Glycine tomentella genotype...

  19. Marine seismic profiling and shallow marine sand resistivity investigations in Jervis Bay, NSW, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Vrbancich; Robert J. Whiteley; Don W. Emerson

    2011-01-01

    A marine continuous seismic profiling (CSP) study and a resistivity study of vibrocore samples of shallow marine sands were undertaken in Jervis Bay, NSW, Australia, to characterise the seabed. The CSP study also included Crookhaven Bight, adjacent to Jervis Bay facing north-east to the ocean. The overall aims were: (i) to estimate sediment thickness, and surficial sediment resistivity (upper 3m)

  20. Combining Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar to study geological structuring of karst Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrière, Simon D.; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Sénéchal, Guy; Danquigny, Charles; Emblanch, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    This paper highlights the efficiency and complementarity of a light package of geophysical techniques to study the structure of karst Unsaturated Zone (UZ) in typical Mediterranean environment where soil cover is thin or absent. Both selected techniques, 2D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), are widely used in environmental studies and their application is accessible for a lot of scientists/engineers. However, GPR or ERT alone is not able to provide an enhanced characterization of geological features in karst media. In the present study, GPR results supply a near surface high resolution imaging and thus can provide relevant geological information such as stratifications and fractures. Despite the quality of the results GPR's investigation depth remains limited to around 12 m. Apparent and inverted resistivity provided by ERT surveys shows strong lateral and vertical variations. These variations can inform about general geological structuring and feature orientation. ERT is able to prospect down to 40 m but it's a low resolution integrative technique. In the study area the investigated limestone is a commonly electrical resistive formation (more than 2000 ?.m). However deeper than 5-7 m, the ERT profiles reveal several zones of moderate resistivity (around 900 ?.m). In these zones a stratification change corresponding to slanted bedding is clearly identified by GPR results. The combination of both GPR and ERT results can allow a well-established geological interpretation. These moderate resistivity zones with slanted beddings can explain the presence of a perennial water flow point 35 m below the surface of the studied site within the underground gallery of the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB).

  1. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring.

    PubMed

    Clément, R; Descloitres, M; Günther, T; Oxarango, L; Morra, C; Laurent, J-P; Gourc, J-P

    2010-03-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a "minimum length" constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills. PMID:19913401

  2. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R., E-mail: remi.clement@hmg.inpg.f [Laboratoire d'Etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, LTHE, UMR 5564, CNRS, INPG, IRD, UJF, B.P. 53, 38041, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Descloitres, M. [Laboratoire d'Etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, LTHE, UMR 5564, CNRS, INPG, IRD, UJF, B.P. 53, 38041, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Guenther, T., E-mail: Thomas.Guenther@liag-hannover.d [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Oxarango, L. [Laboratoire d'Etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, LTHE, UMR 5564, CNRS, INPG, IRD, UJF, B.P. 53, 38041, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Morra, C., E-mail: christophemorra@yahoo.f [PROKHEM/Floralis, 6 allee de Bethleem, 38610 Gieres (France); Laurent, J.-P.; Gourc, J.-P. [Laboratoire d'Etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, LTHE, UMR 5564, CNRS, INPG, IRD, UJF, B.P. 53, 38041, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-03-15

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a 'minimum length' constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills.

  3. Electrical resistivity tomography applied to a complex lava dome: 2D and 3D models comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The study of volcanic domes growth (e.g. St. Helens, Unzen, Montserrat) shows that it is often characterized by a succession of extrusion phases, dome explosions and collapse events. Lava dome eruptive activity may last from days to decades. Therefore, their internal structure, at the end of the eruption, is complex and includes massive extrusions and lava lobes, talus and pyroclastic deposits as well as hydrothermal alteration. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for volcano structure imaging. Because a large range of resistivity values is often observed in volcanic environments, the method is well suited to study the internal structure of volcanic edifices. We performed an ERT survey on an 11ka years old trachytic lava dome, the Puy de Dôme volcano (French Massif Central). The analysis of a recent high resolution DEM (LiDAR 0.5 m), as well as other geophysical data, strongly suggest that the Puy de Dôme is a composite dome. 11 ERT profiles have been carried out, both at the scale of the entire dome (base diameter of ~2 km and height of 400 m) on the one hand, and at a smaller scale on the summit part on the other hand. Each profile is composed of 64 electrodes. Three different electrode spacing have been used depending on the study area (35 m for the entire dome, 10 m and 5 m for its summit part). Some profiles were performed with half-length roll-along acquisitions, in order to keep a good trade-off between depth of investigation and resolution. Both Wenner-alpha and Wenner-Schlumberger protocols were used. 2-D models of the electrical resistivity distribution were computed using RES2DINV software. In order to constrain inversion models interpretation, the depth of investigation (DOI) method was applied to those results. It aims to compute a sensitivity index on inversion results, illustrating how the data influence the model and constraining models interpretation. Geometry and location of ERT profiles on the Puy de Dôme volcano allow to compute 3D inversion models of the electrical resistivity distribution with a new inversion code. This code uses tetrahedrons to discretize the 3D model and uses also a conventional Gauss-Newton inversion scheme combined to an Occam regularisation to process the data. It allows to take into account all the data information and prevents the construction of 3D artefacts present in conventional 2D inversion results. Inversion results show a strong electrical resistivity heterogeneity of the entire dome. Underlying volcanic edifices are clearly identified below the lava dome. Generally speaking, the flanks of the volcano show high resistivity values, and the summit part is more conductive but also very heterogeneous.

  4. Electric-field-driven resistive switching in dissipative Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiajun; Aron, Camille; Kotliar, Gabriel; Han, Jong

    2015-03-01

    Understanding of solids driven out of equilibrium by external fields has been one of the central goals in condensed matter physics for the past century and is relevant to nanotechnology applications such as resistive transitions. We study how strongly correlated electrons on a dissipative lattice evolve from equilibrium when driven by a constant electric field, focusing on the extent of the linear regime and hysteretic non-linear effects at higher fields. We access the non-equilibrium steady states, non-perturbatively in both the field and the electronic interactions, by means of a non-equilibrium dynamical mean-field theory in the Coulomb gauge. The linear response regime is limited by Joule heating effects and breaks down at fields orders of magnitude smaller than the quasi-particle energy scale. For large electronic interactions, strong but experimentally accessible electric fields can induce a resistive switching by driving the strongly correlated metal into a Mott insulator. Hysteretic I- V curves suggest that the non-equilibrium current is carried through a spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator mixed state. Supported by NSF DMR-0907150, NSF DMR-1308141.

  5. Electrical resistivity tomography at the DOE Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1996-04-04

    Recent work at the DOE Hanford site has established the potential of applying Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) for early leak detection under hazardous waste storage facilities. Several studies have been concluded to test the capabilities and limitations of ERT for two different applications. First, field experiments have been conducted to determine the utility of ERT to detect and map leaks from underground storage tanks during waste removal processes. Second, the use of ERT for long term vadose zone monitoring has been tested under different field conditions of depth, installation design, acquisition mode/equipment and infiltration chemistry. This work involves transferring the technology from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program at the DOE Hanford Site. This paper covers field training studies relevant to the second application for long term vadose monitoring. Electrical resistivity tomography is a cross-borehole, imaging technique for mapping subsurface resistivity variations. Electrodes are placed at predetermined depths in an array of boreholes. Electrical current is introduced into one electrode pair located in one borehole while the resulting voltage change is detected between electrode pairs in other boreholes similar to a surface dipole-dipole array. These data are topographically inverted to image temporal resistivity contrasts associated with an infiltration event. Thus a dynamic plume is spatially mapped as a function of time. As a long-term vadose zone monitoring method, different field conditions and performance requirements exist than those for short term tank leak detection. To test ERT under these conditions, two vertical electrode arrays were constructed to a depth of 160 feet with a linear surface array between boreholes. The fielding was used to facilitate the technology transfer from LLNL to the Hanford RCRA program. Installation methods, commercial equipment and acquisition mode were evaluated to determine economic and technical feasibility to assist design of long-term monitoring networks. Preliminary results of the training test are presented. Until recently, vadose zone monitoring techniques could provide only local point or linear coverage for leak detection and thus, are used primarily under liquid collection systems at land disposal units. As developed by LLNL, ERT can provide areal coverage under waste treatment and storage facilities given the right conditions. Advantages of ERT to groundwater protection programs are explored along with suggestions for future uses where ERT can be employed today.

  6. Ovulation prediction by monitoring salivary electrical resistance with the Cue Fertility Monitor.

    PubMed

    Roumen, F J; Dieben, T O

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between the salivary electrical resistance, as measured by the Cue Fertility Monitor, and the time of ovulation. Twenty-seven cycles in 18 volunteers were analyzed. A slight correlation could be demonstrated between the day of salivary electrical resistance peak and the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) peak. However, the changes in salivary electrical resistance values, arranged to the day of LH peak, were not statistically significant. The days of salivary electrical resistance peak in relation to the day of LH peak were not reproducible in individual women. The apparent relationship between the day of salivary electrical resistance peak and the day LH peak might be explained by the methodology used. It is concluded that measuring the salivary electrical resistance is of no use in predicting the day of ovulation. PMID:3336540

  7. Studies on the Electrical Potential Profile across Rabbit Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Richard C.; Schultz, Stanley G.

    1971-01-01

    When isolated strips of mucosal rabbit ileum are bathed by physiological electrolyte solution the electrical potential difference (PD) across the brush border (?mc) averages 36 mv, cell interior negative. Rapid replacement of Na in the mucosal solution with less permeant cations, Tris or choline, results in an immediate hyperpolarization of ?mc. Conversely, replacement of choline in the mucosal solution with Na results in an abrupt depolarization of ?mc. These findings indicate that Na contributes to the conductance across the brush border. The presence of actively transported sugars or amino acids in the mucosal solution brings about a marked depolarization of ?mc and a smaller increase in the transmural PD (??ms). It appears that the Na influx that is coupled to the influxes of amino acids and sugars is electrogenic and responsible for the depolarization of ?mc. Under control conditions ??ms can be attributed to the depolarization of ?mc together with the presence of a low resistance transepithelial shunt, possibly the lateral intercellular spaces. However, quantitatively similar effects of amino acids on ?mc are also seen in tissues poisoned with metabolic inhibitors or ouabain. Under these conditions ??mc is much smaller than under control conditions. Thus, the depolarization of ?mc might not account for the entire ??ms, observed in nonpoisoned tissue. An additional electromotive force which is directly coupled to metabolic processes might contribute to the normal ??ms. PMID:5576764

  8. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, Angelos

    High resolution electrical resistivity images (ERI method) were obtained during vadose zone infiltration experiments on agricultural soils in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program, Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, Extension Education Center, Riverhead, New York [ as well as Cornell University's Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York]. One natural soil was also studied. Infiltration was monitored by means of image analysis of two-dimensional array resistivity generated by a Syscal Kid Switch resistivity system (Griffiths et al., 1990). The data was inverted with the computer program RES2DINV (Loke, 2004). The agricultural soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silt loam (BgA). The natural site was located in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The soils there are classified as Schoharie silty clay loam. The electrical images of the three sites were compared against established soil properties, including particle size distribution, available water capacity, and soluble salts (from the literature), as well as against site-specific soil samples and penetrometer data, which were collected along with the geophysical measurements. This research evaluates the potential of acquiring high resolution, non-destructive measurements of infiltration in the uppermost 1.5 meter of the vadose zone. The results demonstrate that resistivity differences can detect infiltration in soils typical of the north-eastern United States. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water content in the upper 1.5 meters (relevant to agriculture) of the subsurface can be monitored successfully and non-destructively with ERI. The sensitivity of the method is higher in subsurface environments that demonstrate high overall apparent resistivity values (e.g. high sand content). Under conditions of increased soil heterogeneity, instead of the formation of a continuous water plume as occurred in the homogeneous agricultural soils, the location of the infiltrated water seems to be highly influenced by the soil heterogeneity, and the water front is scattered into discontinuous layers and travels in additional directions. The geophysical results during infiltration correlate well with soil compaction data. It follows that the ERI method can be used as a proxy for soil compaction and water content variations in agricultural applications. In a natural environment, ERI successfully maps the tree root zone of mature trees. Applications include continuous water content monitoring in high value cash crops, such as viticulture (precision agriculture).

  9. Quantifying the Effect of Kerogen on Electrical Resistivity Measurements on Organic-rich Source Rocks 

    E-print Network

    Kethireddy, Nikhil Reddy

    2013-12-04

    Interpretation of electrical resistivity logs in organic-rich source rocks has been challenging for petrophysicists. Conventional resistivity-porosity-saturation models (e.g., Archie’s, Dual-Water, and Waxman-Smits equations) assume that saline...

  10. Electrical resistivity of hot-pressed TiC-SiC-C composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Gorinskii; A. R. Beketov; I. L. Shabalin; M. I. Podkovrykin; A. F. Kokorin

    1982-01-01

    In hot-pressed TiC-SIC-C materials the effect of the carbon phase manifests itself in anisotropy of electrical resistivity and in the existence of an inflection point on the electrical resistivity vs temperature curve in the range 900–1200°K. The addition of silicon carbide is responsible for the high electrical resistivity of the materials. At high silicon carbide contents the presence of free

  11. Low-temperature electrical resistivity study of deformed Inconel alloy 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Feng Shiu; Yao, Yeong Der; Wang, Shing Hoa

    2006-09-01

    The electrical resistivity of a plastic deformed Inconel alloy 600 (alloy of Ni 72 Cr 16 Fe 8) as function of temperature between 25 K and 300 K was studied. The deformation does not affect the Curie temperature much; it is roughly near 176 K of the deflected point at electrical resistivity, except for the sample with 75% deformation. The ?-type behavior of the electrical resistivity is a typical signal for the magnetic phase transition.

  12. Electric field profiles around an electrical probe immersed in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barnat, E. V.; Hebner, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy was used to measure the spatial distribution of electric fields around a biased cylindrical probe in an argon rf discharge. Two-dimensional maps of the field profiles were obtained around the probe as functions of argon pressure, discharge power, probe bias, and phase of the rf cycle. Analysis of the radial dependence of the electric fields indicated that the ion density decreased in the vicinity of the probe for all cases, contrary to the orbit motion limited regime typically employed for Langmuir probe analysis. We also observed perturbation of the plasma by the presence of the probe that extended many times the measurable length scale of the sheath ({approx}5{delta}x{sub sheath}) into the plasma around the probe. Electric field distributions were also measured as functions of distance from the plasma sheath boundary. Coupling between the bounding sheath fields of the plasma and those formed around the biased probe was observed, even at distances greater than length scales of either sheath.

  13. Contrast in the Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter Isolates Originating from Different Poultry Production Facilities (Broiler Breeder Hens, Broilers, and Leghorn Hens) in the Same Geographical Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens is of major concern from both human and animal health perspectives and resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. from individual poultry facilities have been extensively studied. However, a comparison of antimicrobial resistance profile...

  14. Material variability as measured by low temperature electrical resistivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, A. F.; Tryon, P. V.

    1972-01-01

    Low temperature electrical resistivity was used to determine the material variability (1) between different manufacturers, (2) between different heats from the same manufacturer, and (3) within a given heat for Al 2024, Al-5% Mg alloys, Inconel 718, A286 stainless, and AISI 316. Generally, the coefficient of variation for solution annealed alloys ranged from 1.2 to 14% between manufacturers, 0.8 to 5.1% between heats, and 0.1 to 1.6% within a heat with stainless steels at the low ends and Al 2024 at the high ends. The variability is increased if the material is in a precipitation-hardened condition. A statistical analysis suggests that the variability within a heat is non-normal.

  15. Electrical resistivity investigations of UT(Si, Ge) series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, V. H.; Tro?, R.; Badurski, D.

    1990-07-01

    Low-temperature electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on ternary uranium transition metal silicides and germanides with the general formula UT(Si, Ge), where T = Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt. Experimental results pointed out the progression in the magnetic properties from spin-fluctuation systems (URuSi, URuGe, UIrSi), through itinerant-electron ferromagnets (URh(Si, Ge)) and antiferromagnetic phases (UIrGe, UNiGe, UNiSi) to magnetically ordered Kondo compounds (UPtSi, UPdSi, UPdGe, UPtGe). The variation in the ground state properties of this series of compounds is determined mainly by an extent of the hybridization which takes place between the U-5f and ligand electrons and is reflected in their transport properties.

  16. Changes in electrical resistivity track changes in tectonic plate coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Wiebke; Caldwell, T. Grant; Bertrand, Edward A.; Hill, Graham J.; Bennie, Stewart L.; Ogawa, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    coupling on the Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island changes north to south from almost uncoupled to locked. Clay-rich sediments and aqueous fluids at the subduction interface have been invoked as key factors in the frictional processes that control interplate coupling. Here we use magnetotelluric data to show that the subduction interface in the weakly coupled region is electrically conductive but is resistive in the locked region. These results indicate the presence of a layer of fluid- and clay-rich sediments in the weakly coupled region and support the idea that the presence of fluid and hydrated clays at the interface is a major factor controlling plate coupling.

  17. Electrical resistivity tomography at the DOE Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M.; Halter, T.D.; Sweeney, M.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Recent work at the DOE Hanford site has established the potential of applying Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) for early leak detection under hazardous waste storage facilities. Several studies have been concluded to test the capabilities and limitations of ERT for two different applications. First, field experiments have been conducted to determine the utility of ERT to detect and map leaks from underground storage tanks during waste removal processes. Second, the use of ERT for long term vadose zone monitoring has been tested under different field conditions of depth, installation design, acquisition mode/equipment and infiltration chemistry. This work involves transferring the technology from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program at the DOE Hanford Site. This paper covers field training studies relevant to the second application for long term vadose zone monitoring.

  18. Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

  19. Contribution of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography for landmines detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwaly, M.; El-Qady, G.; Matsushima, J.; Szalai, S.; Al-Arifi, N. S. N.; Taha, A.

    2008-12-01

    Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic) landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and metal detector (MD) techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant limitations in resolving the non-metallic landmines and wherever the host materials are conductive. In this work, the 3-D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) technique is evaluated as an alternative and/or confirmation detection system for both landmine types, which are buried in different soil conditions and at different depths. This can be achieved using the capacitive resistivity imaging system, which does not need direct contact with the ground surface. Synthetic models for each case have been introduced using metallic and non-metallic bodies buried in wet and dry environments. The inversion results using the L1 norm least-squares optimization method tend to produce robust blocky models of the landmine body. The dipole axial and the dipole equatorial arrays tend to have the most favorable geometry by applying dynamic capacitive electrode and they show significant signal strength for data sets with up to 5% noise. Increasing the burial depth relative to the electrode spacing as well as the noise percentage in the resistivity data is crucial in resolving the landmines at different environments. The landmine with dimension and burial depth of one electrode separation unit is over estimated while the spatial resolutions decrease as the burial depth and noise percentage increase.

  20. Pyroclastic and Volcaniclastic Deposits Near Bishop, California: Geologic Controls on Near-Surface Electrical Resistivity and Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, R. N.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Stillman, D. E.; Heggy, E.; Grimm, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic deposits near Bishop, California were recommended for study as potential Mars analogs (National Research Council Decadal Study report on Terrestrial Analogues to Mars, 2001). We report here on three geophysically distinct analog sites in the Bishop area—the nonwelded Bishop Tuff, the moderately welded Bishop Tuff, and a fluvially reworked volcaniclastic unit. We performed geological mapping and sampling, multielectrode resistivity profiling, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiling to identify and interpret radar signatures obtained from these three analogs of near-surface lithologies. Specific gravity and electromagnetic properties will be determined from core and hand samples to assess the electrical response of these geologic units. Multielectrode resistivity survey results indicate the moderately welded Bishop Tuff has relatively high resistivities (average ?a= 964 ohm-m) and contains near-vertical, alluvium-filled joints. The nonwelded Bishop Tuff is relatively resistive (average ?a= 364 ohm-m), massive, and highly fractured near large- displacement faults. The reworked volcaniclastic unit is less resistive (average ?a= 207 ohm-m), contains primary ashfall deposits interbedded with layered fluvially reworked tuffaceous sediments, and is cut by horst- bounding, meter-scale displacement normal faults. This study provides a basis for correlating physical attributes (i.e., lithology and deformation features) with measured data (i.e., resistivity and GPR data). Survey results indicate that multielectrode resistivity is a particularly instructive method to use with GPR surveys for constraining interpretations and for estimating signal loss from attenuation (e.g., Grimm et al., this meeting). This integrated approach provides a deeper understanding of the electrical and radar properties within terrestrial analogs of Mars.

  1. Electrical resistivity of ultrafine-grained copper with nanoscale growth twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. H. Chen; L. Lu; K. Lu

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated electrical resistivities of high-purity ultrafine-grained Cu containing different concentrations of nanoscale growth twins, but having identical grain size. The samples were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition, wherein the density of twins was varied systematically by adjusting the processing parameters. The electrical resistivity of the Cu specimen with a twin spacing of 15 nm at room temperature (RT) is

  2. Shape memory alloy servo actuator system with electric resistance feedback and application for active endoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Ikuta; M. Tsukamoto; Shigeo Hirose

    1988-01-01

    A control system for a shape memory alloy (SMA) servo actuator, and its application to a unique medical tool, are considered. It is thought that the electric resistance value of an SMA can be utilized to monitor the transformation of the SMA directly. Therefore, an antagonistic transformation control scheme using electric resistance feedback is proposed and is verified by several

  3. Effects of peritubular oncotic pressure on rat proximal tubule electrical resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F Seely

    1973-01-01

    Effects of peritubular oncotic pressure on rat proximal tubule electrical resistance. The effects of peritubular oncotic pressure changes upon the electrical resistance of the rat proximal tubule were studied by cable analysis of voltage attenuation experiments during normal capillary blood flow and following peritubular capillary perfusions containing varying concentrations of Dextran or albumin. Hypooncotic and hyperoncotic perfusions led to significant

  4. Selection of superplasticizer in concrete mix design by measuring the early electrical resistivities of pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lian-zhen Xiao; Zong-jin Li; Xiao-sheng Wei

    2007-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurement was used to study the early setting and hardening process of pastes, with different dosages, for 2 types of superplasticizer. The inflection point (Pi) was found on the differential curve of electrical resistivity for each sample. A time ratio, Kt, is defined as the inflection time ratio of the pastes with superplasticizer to the paste without superplasticizer

  5. Apparatus and methods for electrical contact resistance study of cleaned and corroded materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Jemaa; J. L. Queffelec; D. Travers

    1990-01-01

    Contact resistance is the main reliability criterion for contact components such as relays, switches and connectors. In order to be free from the imposed mechanical and electrical parameters of these components, a complete apparatus has been adjusted in the authors' laboratory. It performs contact resistance measurements, mechanical and electrical evaluations of contact properties in a wide range of current and

  6. Defect dynamics of cement mortar under repeated loading, studied by electrical resistivity measurement

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    cement paste under repeated compression in the elastic regime [1]. As indicated by electrical resistivity cement paste to mortar. Cement * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-716-645-2593; fax: +1-716-645-3875. EDefect dynamics of cement mortar under repeated loading, studied by electrical resistivity

  7. Velocity profile method for time varying resistance in minimal cardiovascular system models.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bram W; Chase, J Geoffrey; Nokes, Roger I; Shaw, Geoffrey M; David, Tim

    2003-10-21

    This paper investigates the fluid dynamics governing arterial flow used in lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) models, particularly near the heart where arteries are large. Assumptions made in applying equations conventionally used in lumped parameter models are investigated, specifically that of constant resistance to flow. The Womersley number is used to show that the effects of time varying resistance must be modelled in the pulsatile flow through the large arteries near the heart. It is shown that the equation commonly used to include inertial effects in fluid flow calculations is inappropriate for including time varying resistance. A method of incorporating time varying resistance into a lumped parameter model is developed that uses the Navier-Stokes equations to track the velocity profile. Tests on a single-chamber model show a 17.5% difference in cardiac output for a single-chamber ventricle model when comparing constant resistance models with the velocity profile tracking method modelling time varying resistance. This increase in precision can be achieved using 20 nodes with only twice the computational time required. The method offers a fluid dynamically and physiologically accurate method of calculating large Womersley number pulsatile fluid flows in large arteries around the heart and valves. The proposed velocity profile tracking method can be easily incorporated into existing lumped parameter CVS models, improving their clinical application by increasing their accuracy. PMID:14620064

  8. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Surveys of the Intertidal Zone: Implications for Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. M.; Wong, T.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now widely recognized as a crucial contributor to surface water as it provides a pathway for nutrients and contaminants that can significantly impact coastal ecosystems. Field measurements in the vicinity of the freshwater/seawater interface (FSI) have shown that the spatio-temporal distribution of SGD can be highly heterogeneous. Some numerical models have identified 3 regions (a density-driven circulation cell offshore, an upper saline plume and a freshwater tube in the intertidal zone) which seem to persist over time, such that the distinct regions can be recognized in simulations that average the numerically predicted salinity profiles over the tidal phases. The size and shape of each region are influenced by factors such as the tidal and wave loading, inland hydraulic gradient, beach geometry and aquifer properties. There is a paucity of field data at the FSI on the evolution of the salinity profile during a tidal cycle. To characterize the spatio-temporal heterogeneities of the FSI and compare with numerical predictions, we used electrical resistivity as a proxy for salinity. Electrical resistivity surveys were acquired during a 12-hour cycle in a tidally dominated environment. On September 12 2012, at West Neck Bay (Shelter Island, NY), a 33.4 m long stationary cable with 56 electrodes was extended over land and sea to image the intertidal zone. Hourly measurements were conducted over a full tidal cycle. Our measurements indicate fundamentally different scenarios during high and low tide. At low tide, our resistivity data suggest a strong influx of freshwater from land, forming a plume that rises up and contributes significantly to SGD in the intertidal zone. We also observed the occurrence of 3 regions somewhat analogous to the numerical predictions. However, at high tide, instead of these distinct regions, we observed a diffuse mixing zone that extended along the water/sediment interface and overlaid the freshwater from land. Point measurements of seepage rates and salinity are in basic agreement with the two scenarios. It should also be noted that the phase-averaged section obtained with the resistivity surveys resembles the high tide scenario and therefore differs from the phase-averaged simulations.

  9. Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the Karstic Aquifer of Bittit spring (Middle Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qarqori, Kh.; Rouai, M.; Moreau, F.; Saracco, G.; Hermitte, D.; Boualoul, M.; Dauteuil, O.; Biessy, G.; Sahbi, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Tabular Middle Atlas reservoir is one of the most important aquifers in northern Morocco. It is mainly a water table fractured reservoir consisting of Lias limestone and dolomite. The matrix permeability is very low and water flows essentially along open fractures and karsts. The Bittit Spring belongs to this karstic system and constitutes an important aquifer lying at the junction between the tabular reservoir and the Sais basin. Bittit spring, with an average annual discharge of about 1600 l/s, contributes largely to water supply of the big city of Meknes. Groundwater circulation is complex due to tectonics and to presence of karstic Quaternary travertine overlying Lias carbonate. In Bittit area, travertine is mostly covered by Quaternary basalt. Up to now water flow paths and the underground karst organization remain misknown, and turbidity affects the water quality after rain events. To highlight these issues, an integrated geophysical survey was performed in this area in the framework of a French-Moroccan scientific project. The geophysical imaging was carried out mainly by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Resistivity data were acquired by an ABEM Terrameter SAS1000 and a multi-electrode Lund system imaging using a Wenner array configuration of 64 electrodes and 5m spacing, reaching a depth of about 50m. Topographic corrections and 2D inversion models were performed using Res2Dinv software package. Seven 2D resistivity high resolution images have been obtained allowing to detect, delineate important fractures and also to hydrogeological characterization of the underground karst. A borehole of 100m depth was drilled in order to correlate and calibrate geophysical data and proposed models. Two sub-vertical fracture families have been identified with NE-SW and NW-SE directions respectively. These results correlate well with fracture data analysis gathered from remote sensing Spot images at large scale, and from local field fracture scanline surveys. A 3D picture of the fracture system has been drawn showing a mini-graben structure. Geophysical scans and interpreted fractures were displayed with Gocad software leading to geometric construction of aquifer units and to 3D modelling of subsurface architecture. Several horizontal electrical resistivity profiles and electromagnetic VLF profiles were also performed in order to discriminate between dry and favourable hydrological fractures. ERT appears to be an appropriate geophysical method in this issue, especially by improving understanding of fracture geometry. This study initiates a hydrogeophysical research in the Middle Atlas karst in order to improve water resources management and reducing aquifer vulnerability in the region.

  10. Identification of potential early regulators of aphid resistance in Medicago truncatula via transcription factor expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling-Ling; Kamphuis, Lars G; Kakar, Klementina; Edwards, Owain R; Udvardi, Michael K; Singh, Karam B

    2010-06-01

    *Resistance to aphids has been identified in a number of plant species, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying aphid resistance remain largely unknown. *Using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR technology, the transcription profiles of 752 putative Medicago truncatula transcription factor genes were analysed in a pair of susceptible and resistant closely related lines of M. truncatula following 6 and 12 h of bluegreen aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi) infestation. *Eighty-two transcription factor genes belonging to 30 transcription factor families were responsive to bluegreen aphid infestation. More transcription factor genes were responsive in the resistant interaction than in the susceptible interaction; of the 36 genes that were induced at 6 and/or 12 h, 32 were induced only in the resistant interaction. Bluegreen aphid-induced expression of a subset of these genes was correlated with the presence of AKR, a single dominant gene conferring resistance to bluegreen aphids. Similar transcription factor expression patterns of this subset were associated with bluegreen aphid resistance in other M. truncatula genetic backgrounds, as well as with resistance to pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). *Our results suggest that these transcription factors are among the early aphid-responsive genes in resistant plants, and may play important roles in resistance to multiple aphid species. PMID:20345634

  11. Effect of elastic recovery on the electrical contact resistance in anisotropic conductive adhesive assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melida Chin; James R. Barber; S. Jack Hu

    2006-01-01

    The successful design of anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) assemblies depends mainly on the accurate prediction of their electrical contact resistance. Among the parameters that influence this resistance, the bonding force used to compress the conductive particles against the conductive tracks during the assembly process is very important. This paper investigates how the contact resistance changes as the bonding force is

  12. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AS A TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING GEOLOGIC HETEROGENEITIES WHICH CONTROL SEEPAGE AT MIRROR LAKE, NH

    E-print Network

    Toran, Laura

    The results of electrical resistivity surveys using cables both surface-towed and stationary (lake- bottom heterogeneities that control groundwater-surface water interaction, as well as for imaging road-salt contamination contamination revealed a plume-shaped feature of low resistivity. Low resistivity and high chloride content were

  13. Application of two electrical methods for the rapid assessment of freezing resistance in Salix eriocephala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Tsarouhas; W. A. Kenney; L. Zsuffa

    2000-01-01

    The importance of early selection of frost-resistant Salix clones makes it desirable to select a rapid and accurate screening method for assessing freezing resistance among several genotypes. Two electrical methods, stem electrical impedance to 1 and 10kHz alternating current, and electrolyte leakage of leaf tissue, were evaluated for detecting freezing resistance on three North America Salix eriocephala Michx., clones after

  14. Programmed resist sidewall profiles using subresolution binary grayscale masks for Si-photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ofir; Allen, Paul; Barkai, Assia; Buck, Peter; Connolly, Brid; Frish, Harel; Pindo, Massimiliano

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we present a 45-degree mirror created for optical applications utilizing CMOS high-volume manufacturing processes with a gray-scale lithography technique. The process that is presented here was done by creating a 3D pattern in the photoresist and then by transferring the photoresist profile to the Si/SiO2 substrate by specific dry etch processing. We discuss the optimization of the half-tone pattern to achieve the desired resist profile. We achieved smooth sidewalls with various sidewall angles and show that different 3D angles and profiles can be achieved and processed simultaneously.

  15. Electrical resistance measurements of highly inhibited SiC coated carbon-carbon laminates 

    E-print Network

    Parker, Paul Albert

    1998-01-01

    Figure 26. Boron Concentrations for Four Oxidized Carbon-Carbon Specimens . . . . . 44 Figure 27. Electrical Resistance . . Figure 28. Electrical Resistance versus Percent Mass Loss for Eighteen Specimens . . . . Figure 29, Representative Electrical...]. Carbonization techniques similar to those used in fiber production are also used in the fabrication of the carbon matrix. Manufacturing of the carbon matrix can be accomplished from either liquid precursors or from gases. Liquid precursors, such as resins...

  16. The use of electrical resistivity techniques to detect an underground conduit in the karst regions of the Inner Bluegrass

    SciTech Connect

    Bonita, J.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Electrical resistivity studies conducted within the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region have been employed to map the presence of a fracture controlled solution that drains the royal Spring Basin. Exist theories by authors such as Thrailkill (1982) suggest that the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region is divided into basin and interbasin areas, with the zone of active meteoric water circulation at deep depths below the surface in basin areas and flow within a few meters of the surface in interbasin areas. Initial resistivity soundings were performed along various traverses to access information on the underlying lexington Limestone. Sounding curves calculated form the modeling program RESIX indicate that low resistivity zones occur at two distinctly different depth intervals, denoting the boundary between the basin and interbasin areas. Information from electric resistivity profiles within this now defined basin area indicate resistivity anomalies trending in linear segments of N45W and N40E. Fracture and joint orientation measurements at roadcuts and on topographic maps and air photographs also indicate a preferential orientation parallel to the orientation of the linear segments of the conduit.

  17. Plasma resistivity profile measurement from an external radio-frequency magnetic coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, John T.; Andreason, Samuel P.; Milroy, Richard D.

    2004-10-01

    Plasma resistivity is obtained by measuring the change in circuit behavior from a simple loop placed externally to the plasma. The loop is part of a series-driven oscillator that can be tuned over a wide range of frequencies with a very low internal impedance. By varying the frequency, and observing both the detuning and loading of this circuit, the location and resistance of the screening currents can be determined. A two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic code calculation is performed to obtain both the plasma interaction with the oscillating field as well as the effects of nearby conductors. The plasma resistance in the numerical calculations is adjusted to match the data from the experiment and, in this way, obtain a measure of the plasma resistivity profile.

  18. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of a nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Dale F.; Levitt, Marc T.; Greenwood, William J.

    2009-12-11

    A three-dimensional (3D) modeling study was completed on a very large electrical resistivity survey conducted at a nuclear waste site in eastern Washington. The acquisition included 47 pole-pole two dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles collected along parallel and orthogonal lines over an area of 850 m×570 m. The data were geo-referenced and inverted using EarthImager3D (EI3D). EI3D runs on a Microsoft 32-bit operating system (e.g. WIN-2K, XP) with a maximum usable memory of 2 GB. The memory limits the size of the domain for the inversion model to 200 m×200 m, based on the survey electrode density. Therefore, a series of increasing overlapping models were run to evaluate the effectiveness of dividing the survey area into smaller subdomains. The results of the smaller subdomains were compared to the inversion results of a single domain over a larger area using an upgraded form of EI3D that incorporates multi-processing capabilities and 32 GB of RAM memory. The contours from the smaller subdomains showed discontinuity at the boundaries between the adjacent models, which do not match the hydrogeologic expectations given the nature of disposal at the site. At several boundaries, the contours of the low resistivity areas close, leaving the appearance of disconnected plumes or open contours at boundaries are not met with a continuance of the low resistivity plume into the adjacent subdomain. The model results of the single large domain show a continuous monolithic plume within the central and western portion of the site, directly beneath the elongated trenches. It is recommended that where possible, the domain not be subdivided, but instead include as much of the domain as possible given the memory of available computing resources.

  19. Deformation dependent electrical resistance of MWCNT layer and MWCNT\\/PEO composite films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    It has been well documented that the electrical properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT) can be either metallic or semiconducting depending upon the tube's chirality. Theoretical aspects of the unique electrical properties of CNTs are reviewed. Based upon the fundamental understanding of this special feature, the deformation-dependent electrical resistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) layer and MWCNT\\/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite

  20. Magnetic and electric field induced resistance change in SrFeO thin film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinya Kito; Takeshi Yokota; Yasutoshi Tsuboi; Rempei Imura; Manabu Gomi

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated Fe electrode\\/SrFeO3-x stacking layer as resistance random access memory which is called next generation non-volatile memory. In this stacking system, positive magnetoresistance (MR) due to exchange coupling between Fe electrode and SrFeO3-x layer was observed in initial state. After applying external electric field, in the each resistance state which is high resistance state or low resistance state,

  1. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL); Mawdsley, Jennifer R. (Woodridge, IL); Niyogi, Suhas (Woodridge, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL); Cruse, Terry (Lisle, IL); Santos, Lilia (Lombard, IL)

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  2. Research on Nonlinear Feature of Electrical Resistance of Acupuncture Points

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0??A to 20??A and then returned to 0??A again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points. PMID:23346191

  3. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric A; Monroe, Stephen A; Springer, Abraham E; Blasch, Kyle W; Bills, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration. PMID:16961484

  4. Research on nonlinear feature of electrical resistance of acupuncture points.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0??A to 20??A and then returned to 0??A again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points. PMID:23346191

  5. Contact resistance of micromachined electrical switches incorporating a chevron-type bi-stable spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallamuthu, Punithavelan; Hwang, Il-Han; Jeong, Dae-Hun; Moon, Seung-Hwan; Seo, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Micromachined electrical switches with bi-stable springs, which can stay at one of the two stable states without consuming energy, are proposed. Cascaded bent beams are incorporated as thermoelastic microactuators and are characterized through a coupled electro-thermo-mechanical analysis using ANSYS. For improved electrical switch performance, the contact resistances should be kept as low as possible. Therefore, the shape of the contact head needs to be optimized, though to date there have been few studies pertaining to the contact heads of electrical switches reported, except for a flat contact shape. In this paper, the effects of contact angle on the electrical resistance are investigated for contact angles of 30°, 45°, and 60°. It is subsequently observed that the contact resistance decreases with the contact angle due to a greater normal contact force; the minimum contact resistance is 0.22 ? at a contact angle of 60°. The contact resistance shows negligible change during repeated ON/OFF switching operations.

  6. Plume and lithologic profiling with surface resistivity and seismic tomography.

    PubMed

    Watson, David B; Doll, William E; Gamey, T Jeffrey; Sheehan, Jacob R; Jardine, Philip M

    2005-01-01

    Improved surface-based geophysical technologies that are commercially available provide a new level of detail that can be used to guide ground water remediation. Surface-based multielectrode resistivity methods and tomographic seismic refraction techniques were used to image to a depth of approximately 30 m below the surface at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Field Research Center. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the research center on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to conduct in situ field-scale studies on bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. Bioremediation studies are being conducted on the saprolite, shale bedrock, and ground water at the site that have been contaminated with nitrate, uranium, technetium, tetrachloroethylene, and other contaminants (U.S. DOE 1997). Geophysical methods were effective in imaging the high-ionic strength plume and in defining the transition zone between saprolite and bedrock zones that appears to have a significant influence on contaminant transport. The geophysical data were used to help select the location and depth of investigation for field research plots. Drilling, borehole geophysics, and ground water sampling were used to verify the surface geophysical studies. PMID:15819938

  7. Electrical resistivity and piezoresistivity of Ni-CNT filled epoxy-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinbao; Xiao, Huigang; Li, Hui

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates properties about electrical resistivity and piezoresistivity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-filled epoxy-based composite and its further use for strain sensing. The MWCNTs dispersed epoxy resin, using MWCNTs in the amount of 1.5~3.0 vol.%, was first prepared by combined high-speed stirring and sonication methods. Then, the MWCNTs dispersed epoxy resin was cast into an aluminum mold to form specimens measuring 10×10×36 mm. After curing, DC electrical resistance measurements were performed along the longitudinal axis using the four-probe method, in which copper nets served as electrical contacts. The percolation threshold zone of resistivity was got as MWCNTs in the amount of 2.00-2.50 vol.%. Further compressive testing of these specimens was conducted with four-probe method for resistance measurements at the same time. Testing results show that the electrical resistivity of the composites changes with the strain's development, namely piezoresistivity. While for practical strain sensing use, signals of electric resistance and current in the acquisition circuits were both studied. Results show that the signal of current, compared with that of resistance, had better linear relationship with the compressive strain, better stability and longer effective section to reflect the whole deformation process of the specimens under pressure. Further works about the effects of low magnetic field on the electrical resistivity and piezoresistivity of Ni-CNTs filled epoxy-based composites were presented briefly at the end of the paper.

  8. Investigation of real field application issues for resistive type SFCLs for distribution electric power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, S. B.; Lee, B. W.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional electric power networks were designed and operated not considering fault current limiting devices. Therefore, the performance and characteristics of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) should be reviewed considering the coordination with other electric circuit protecting devices. In this paper, real field application issues of resistive SFCL were investigated considering utilities’ demands and coordination with other protection devices. Pure resistive SFCL and hybrid resistive SFCL were compared in order to determine suitable solutions for electric power systems. SFCLs were modeled and analyzed using electro-magnetic transients program (EMTP) and their performances were compared to identify the adaptability to the conventional power networks. Consequently, Simulation results showed that hybrid resistive SFCL have more advantages than pure resistive SFCL considering the requirements and specification for the distribution networks.

  9. Resolving Large Pre-glacial Valleys Buried by Glacial Sediment Using Electric Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Welz, M.; Rokosh, C. D.; Pontbriand, M.-C.; Smith, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    Two-dimensional electric resistivity imaging (ERI) is the most exciting and promising geological tool in geomorphology and stratigraphy since development of ground-penetrating radar. Recent innovations in 2-D ERI provides a non-intrusive mean of efficiently resolving complex shallow subsurface structures under a number of different geological scenarios. In this paper, we test the capacity of ERI to image two large pre-late Wisconsinan-aged valley-fills in central Alberta and north-central Montana. Valley-fills record the history of pre-glacial and glacial sedimentary deposits. These fills are of considerable economical value as groundwater aquifers, aggregate resources (sand and gravel), placers (gold, diamond) and sometime gas reservoirs in Alberta. Although the approximate locations of pre-glacial valley-fills have been mapped, the scarcity of borehole (well log) information and sediment exposures make accurate reconstruction of their stratigraphy and cross-section profiles difficult. When coupled with borehole information, ERI successfully imaged three large pre-glacial valley-fills representing three contrasting geological settings. The Sand Coulee segment of the ancestral Missouri River, which has never been glaciated, is filled by electrically conductive pro-glacial lacustrine deposits over resistive sandstone bedrock. By comparison, the Big Sandy segment of the ancestral Missouri River valley has a complex valley-fill composed of till units interbedded with glaciofluvial gravel and varved clays over conductive shale. The fill is capped by floodplain, paludal and low alluvial fan deposits. The pre-glacial Onoway Valley (the ancestral North Saskatchewan River valley) is filled with thick, resistive fluvial gravel over conductive shale and capped with conductive till. The cross-sectional profile of each surveyed pre-glacial valley exhibits discrete benches (terraces) connected by steep drops, features that are hard to map using only boreholes. Best quality ERI results were obtained along the Sand Coulee and Onoway transects where the contrast between the bedrock and valley-fill was large and the surficial sediment was homogeneous. The effects of decreasing reliability with depth, 3-D anomalies, principles of equivalence and suppression, and surface inhomogeneity on the image quality are discussed.

  10. Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelei; Wen, Jiling; Li, Rongbing; Qiu, Guangming; Zhou, Lan; Wen, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is a global health issue. Usually, men with metastatic disease will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumor samples from non-castrated and castrated men from LNCaP Orthotopic xenograft models of prostate cancer and to study the mechanisms of CRPC. Material/Methods In this work, GSE46218 containing 4 samples from non-castrated men and 4 samples from castrated men was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. We identified DEGs using limma Geoquery in R, the Robust Multi-array Average (RMA) method in Bioconductor, and Bias methods, followed by constructing an integrated regulatory network involving DEGs, miRNAs, and TFs using Cytoscape. Then, we analyzed network motifs of the integrated gene regulatory network using FANMOD. We selected regulatory modules corresponding to network motifs from the integrated regulatory network by Perl script. We preformed gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs in the regulatory modules using DAVID. Results We identified total 443 DEGs. We built an integrated regulatory network, found three motifs (motif 1, motif 2 and motif 3), and got two function modules (module 1 corresponded to motif 1, and module 2 corresponded to motif 2). Several GO terms (such as regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process, phosphorylation, and phosphorus metabolic process) and two pathways (pathway in cancer and Melanoma) were enriched. Furthermore, some significant DEGs (such as CAV1, LYN, FGFR3 and FGFR3) were related to CPRC development. Conclusions These genes might play important roles in the development and progression of CRPC. PMID:25592164

  11. Fully automatic apparatus for the determination of doping profiles in Si by electrical measurements and anodic stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloni, R.; Sardo, A.

    1983-03-01

    A completely automatic, computer-controlled apparatus for the determination of doping profiles in silicon has been set up. Doping is determined by resistivity and Hall measurements associated with the subsequent removal of controlled thin layers of material. Anodic oxidation and subsequent oxide stripping by chemical etching has been chosen as the most controllable peeling technique. Electrical measurements are automatically detected and both carrier concentration and mobility values are plotted versus depth. A set of empirical parameters are provided to fit mobility-concentration data for P, B, and As available in the literature, with analytical expressions. In this way, comparison with experimental values detected in the profiling operation can be readily made and information on the presence of lattice imperfections can be obtained. A new technique for sample preparation, which uses an ultrasonic drill for mesa etching the van der Pauw pattern, is also described. With this apparatus the critical and time wasting operation of electrical activity profiling becomes a powerful method of standard analysis.

  12. Metabolic profiling of chickpea-Fusarium interaction identifies differential modulation of disease resistance pathways.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yashwant; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-08-01

    Chickpea is the third most widely grown legume in the world and mainly used as a vegetarian source of human dietary protein. Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc), is one of the major threats to global chickpea production. Host resistance is the best way to protect crops from diseases; however, in spite of using various approaches, the mechanism of Foc resistance in chickpea remains largely obscure. In the present study, non-targeted metabolic profiling at several time points of resistant and susceptible chickpea cultivars using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to better understand the mechanistic basis of wilt resistance or susceptibility. Multivariate analysis of the data (OPLS-DA) revealed discriminating metabolites in chickpea root tissue after Foc inoculation such as flavonoids, isoflavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. Foc inoculated resistant plants had more flavonoids and isoflavonoids along with their malonyl conjugates. Many antifungal metabolites that were induced after Foc infection viz., aurantion-obstine ?-glucosides and querecitin were elevated in resistant cultivar. Overall, diverse genetic and biochemical mechanisms were operational in the resistant cultivar for Foc defense as compared to the susceptible plant. The resistant chickpea plants employed the above-mentioned metabolic pathways as potential defense strategy against Foc. PMID:25935544

  13. Fabrication of intermetallic coatings for electrical insulation and corrosion resistance on high-temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.-H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cho, W.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Several intermetallic films were applied to high-temperature alloys (V alloys and 304, 316 stainless steels) to provide electrical insulation and corrosion resistance. Alloy grain growth at 1000 C for the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy was investigated to determine stability of the alloy substrate during coating formation by CVD or metallic vapor processes at 800-850 C. Film layers were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and by electron-energy-dispersive and XRD analysis; they were also tested for electrical resistivity and corrosion resistance. Results elucidated the nature of the coatings, which provided both electrical insulation and high-temperature corrosion protection.

  14. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  15. Change in the electrical resistance of the metallic composite material-steel contact under friction and electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    The I- V characteristics of the sliding contact of metallic composites of grade 45 steel without a lubricant are presented. Steel-based composites are shown to increase the actual electric-contact area due to the appearance of electric discharges, which provide the main passage of an electric current with a density up to 300 A/cm2. Copper-based composites cannot initiate electric-discharge conduction because of the fracture of the contact zone material at a current density higher than 50 A/cm2. The electrical resistivity of the contact layer of metallic composites is calculated. It is found that, during friction with a high current density, the electrical resistivity of the contact layer approaches the electrical resistivity of graphite. It is experimentally shown that the actual electric-contact area can be increased by the introduction of a Pb-Sn melt into the friction zone and reaching a current density higher than 300 A/cm2 in the contact.

  16. Determination of surface electric charge profile in pyroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, R.; Davani, F. Abbasi

    2014-12-01

    Pyroelectric crystals are used to produce high energy self-focused electron beams. Here, an experimental analysis in combination with simulation studies will be reported to investigate possible sources of this effect. In the experiments, the surface of crystal was divided into six separated parts and the rate of surface electric charge production was measured accordingly. A non-steady and spatially non-uniform distribution of the surface charge generation was observed, in which it tends to a uniform distribution in the course of experiment. The obtained surface electric charges from the experiments were used to simulate the electric field and potential around the crystal by COMSOL Multiphysics. It was observed that emitted electrons from the crystal surface were focused, and the non-uniformity in spatial charge is responsible for this phenomenon.

  17. Characterizing heterogeneous coastal groundwater pathways using multi-scale onshore-to-offshore electrical resistivity surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. M.; Cardenas, M.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical resistivity (ER) imaging techniques are useful for investigating porewater salinity distributions and dynamics within coastal environments. However, complex coastal geology can obscure the hydrologic target of ER surveys. We investigated the geologic controls on groundwater pathways in Rarotonga, a high volcanic island with a carbonate fringe. We used three ER survey configurations to explore this hydrogeologic setting: 1) waterborne, continuous resistivity profiling in the lagoon, 2) submerged cable surveys across the terrestrial-marine interface, and 3) traditional surveys on land. We designed overlapping portions of these surveys to reveal differences in how the deployment methods image subsurface ER structure. Using both the field data and forward modeling, we quantified the resolvability of ER features imaged by overlapping configurations, where the sensitivity changed both as a function of electrode spacing and boundary conditions (i.e. influence of seawater). Waterborne ER results revealed large scale variations in the ER structure of the lagoon geology. These heterogeneities are products of Rarotonga's volcanic history and reef diagenesis that change both the electrical signature and hydrogeologic properties of the subsurface. Time-lapse, submersed ER surveys imaged groundwater salinity dynamics and resolved select ER features more effectively than the waterborne surveys. Terrestrial ER surveys traced the extent of the freshwater lens and the transition from the unsaturated-saturated conditions, i.e., the water table. The ER responses of the three field configurations were concordant but imaged different scales hydrogeologic variability. The unique spatial signatures of both methodology and the geologic setting must be incorporated into future coastal ER applications.

  18. Electrical resistivity of some Zintl phase and the precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, L.

    1990-09-21

    Resistivity measurements have been performed for electric characterization of the compounds Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}Cl, both with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} structure type, along with Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3} and Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}F, both with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} structure type. These measurements were taken as a function of temperature using the four probe method on pressed polycrystalline pellets of the compounds. A sealed apparatus was developed for containing these air-sensitive compounds throughout the experiments. By a simple electron count, one extra electron in both Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3} should occupy a conduction band, giving these compounds a metallic character. In the cases of Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}Cl and Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}F, the extra electron should bond to the halide, both filling the valence band and giving rise to semiconducting character. Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}, Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}F, and Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}Cl were found to comply with the electron count prediction. Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, however, was found to be a semiconductor (E{sub g} = 0.30 eV) with a larger band gap than its corresponding chloride (E{sub g} = 0.09 eV).

  19. Comparative genomics of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Sun, Peng; Vamathevan, Jessica; Li, Yong; Ingraham, Karen; Palmer, Leslie; Huang, Jianzhong; Brown, James R

    2011-09-01

    There is a global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes nosocomial and urinary tract infections. While the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae strains and occurrences of specific antibiotic resistance genes, such as plasmid-borne extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), have been extensively studied, only four complete genomes of K. pneumoniae are available. To better understand the multidrug resistance factors in K. pneumoniae, we determined by pyrosequencing the nearly complete genome DNA sequences of two strains with disparate antibiotic resistance profiles, broadly drug-susceptible strain JH1 and strain 1162281, which is resistant to multiple clinically used antibiotics, including extended-spectrum ?-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazoles. Comparative genomic analysis of JH1, 1162281, and other published K. pneumoniae genomes revealed a core set of 3,631 conserved orthologous proteins, which were used for reconstruction of whole-genome phylogenetic trees. The close evolutionary relationship between JH1 and 1162281 relative to other K. pneumoniae strains suggests that a large component of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of clinical isolates is due to horizontal gene transfer. Using curated lists of over 400 antibiotic resistance genes, we identified all of the elements that differentiated the antibiotic profile of MDR strain 1162281 from that of susceptible strain JH1, such as the presence of additional efflux pumps, ESBLs, and multiple mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. Our study adds new and significant DNA sequence data on K. pneumoniae strains and demonstrates the value of whole-genome sequencing in characterizing multidrug resistance in clinical isolates. PMID:21746949

  20. Resistance Training Improves Hemodynamic Function, Collagen Deposition and Inflammatory Profiles: Experimental Model of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Jadson P.; Nunes, Ramiro B.; Stefani, Giuseppe P.; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The role of resistance training on collagen deposition, the inflammatory profile and muscle weakness in heart failure remains unclear. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of a resistance training program on hemodynamic function, maximum strength gain, collagen deposition and inflammatory profile in chronic heart failure rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats submitted to myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned into four groups: sedentary sham (S-Sham, n?=?8); trained sham (T-Sham, n?=?8); sedentary chronic heart failure (S-CHF, n?=?8) and trained chronic heart failure (T-CHF, n?=?8). The maximum strength capacity was evaluated by the one maximum repetition test. Trained groups were submitted to an 8-week resistance training program (4 days/week, 4 sets of 10–12 repetitions/session, at 65% to 75% of one maximum repetition). After 8 weeks of the resistance training program, the T-CHF group showed lower left ventricular end diastolic pressure (P<0.001), higher left ventricular systolic pressure (P<0.05), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.05), an improvement in the maximal positive derivative of ventricular pressure (P<0.05) and maximal negative derivative of ventricular pressure (P<0.05) when compared to the S-CHF group; no differences were observed when compared to Sham groups. In addition, resistance training was able to reduce myocardial hypertrophy (P<0.05), left ventricular total collagen volume fraction (P<0.01), IL-6 (P<0.05), and TNF-?/IL-10 ratio (P<0.05), as well as increasing IL-10 (P<0.05) in chronic heart failure rats when compared to the S-CHF group. Eight weeks of resistance training promotes an improvement of cardiac function, strength gain, collagen deposition and inflammatory profile in chronic heart failure rats. PMID:25340545

  1. Electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle beneath Northeastern China: Implications for rheology and the mechanism of craton destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zeyi; Tang, Ji; Unsworth, Martyn; Chen, Xiaobin

    2015-03-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) and Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) in Northeastern China experienced a range of tectonic events during the Phanerozoic, dominated by lithospheric thinning of the eastern NCC in the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the NCC and the CAOB, new broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected along a north-west to south-east trending profile that extended from the CAOB across the Yanshan Belt, the Tanlu Fault Zone to the Liaodong Peninsula. A two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model was derived from inversion of the transverse electric mode, transverse magnetic mode and vertical magnetic field data. In the crust of the CAOB, the resistivity model shows a northwest dipping low resistivity zone beneath the Solonker suture that is identified as the suture zone formed by the collision between the Siberian and North China cratons. The upper mantle of the CAOB is characterized by moderate resistivity values (300-1000 ? m) that are best explained by the presence of hydrogen dissolved in olivine. The water concentration of the CAOB mantle is comparable to values reported for the asthenosphere and cratons that have been significantly hydrated. The NCC upper mantle is generally lower in resistivity than the CAOB upper mantle, and a zone of lower resistivity is observed in the upper mantle at the southeast end of the profile beneath the NCC (<100 ? m) which requires around 1% partial melt to account for the observed resistivity. Superimposed on this southeast decrease in upper mantle resistivity, three low resistivity zones were imaged: (1) below the Xilamulun fault, (2) close to the North-South Gravity Lineament, and (3) between the northern Yanshan Belt and Tanlu Fault Zone. The low resistivities can be explained as regions of partial melts or fluids, perhaps caused by asthenospheric upwelling. Together with seismic imaging results and geochemical data, the resistivity model shows that the modification of the lithosphere associated with craton destruction has occurred in a spatially non-uniform manner in the region of the NCC investigated in this study.

  2. The effects of electrical stimulation on body composition and metabolic profile after spinal cord injury - Part II.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Dolbow, David R; Dolbow, James D; Khalil, Refka K; Gater, David R

    2015-01-01

    Diet and exercise are cornerstones in the management of obesity and associated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and disturbances in the lipid profile. However, the role of exercise in managing body composition adaptations and metabolic disorders after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well established. The current review summarizes evidence about the efficacy of using neuromuscular electrical stimulation or functional electrical stimulation in exercising the paralytic lower extremities to improve body composition and metabolic profile after SCI. There are a number of trials that investigated the effects on muscle cross-sectional area, fat-free mass, and glucose/lipid metabolism. The duration of the intervention in these trials varied from 6 weeks to 24 months. Training frequency ranged from 2 to 5 days/week. Most studies documented significant increases in muscle size but no noticeable changes in adipose tissue. While increases in skeletal muscle size after twice weekly training were greater than those trials that used 3 or 5 days/week, other factors such as differences in the training mode, i.e. resistance versus cycling exercise and pattern of muscle activation may be responsible for this observation. Loading to evoke muscle hypertrophy is a key component in neuromuscular training after SCI. The overall effects on lean mass were modest and did not exceed 10% and the effects of training on trunk or pelvic muscles remain unestablished. Most studies reported improvement in glucose metabolism with the enhancement of insulin sensitivity being the major factor following training. The effect on lipid profile is unclear and warrants further investigation. PMID:25001669

  3. Composite Materials with Distinctive Behaviors under High Electric Fields: I - Material Switches to 'High Resistive' State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    Electrically conductive silver filled epoxy ECF-563 preform, sandwiched between gold contact pads exhibits intermittent current-voltage characteristics with switching to 'high resistive' state under applied bias voltage.

  4. High-temperature electrical resistivity of rare-earth metals with variable valence

    SciTech Connect

    Povzner, A.A.; Abel'skii, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The electrical resistivity of compounds of rare-earth metals at high temperatures is calculated on the basis of allowance for the background mechanism of scattering and the hybridization of local electron states with the states of conduction electrons. An analytic expression is obtained for resistivity in a strong hybridization approximation. It follows from the expression that electrical resistivity may have a negative temperature coefficient within a broad range of high temperatures. The use of a three-band (s, d, f) model makes it possible to explain experimental data on the resistivity of certain rare-earth metals, particularly the connection between the sign of the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and the curvature of the relation (T).

  5. Effects of Contact Resistance on Electrical Conductivity Measurements of SiC-Based Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Henager, Charles H.

    2012-04-17

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from RT to ~700°C. The specific contact resistance values (Rc) behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: Rc >~1000 ?-cm2 at RT, decreasing continuously to ~1-10 ?-cm2 at 700°C. The temperature dependence of the inverse Rc indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ~0.3 eV. For the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by ~1/2.

  6. Posteruptive changes of electrical resistance values in fissure enamel of premolars.

    PubMed

    Schulte, A; Gente, M; Pieper, K

    1999-01-01

    In studies about 15-25% of the caries-free teeth proved to have as low electrical resistance values as carious teeth, due probably to incomplete enamel maturation. It was the aim of the present prospective clinical study to investigate, if an increase in electrical resistance values could be observed after the eruption of premolars. The electrical resistance measurements were performed in children who were patients of the Dental School of the University of Marburg, Germany. The first measurement was made when a premolar was erupting or when it had erupted within 12 months before. The electrical resistance measurements were repeated every 3-6 months until the 24th posteruptive month. The measuring device consisted of an AC ohmmeter modified by Gente indicating the real component of the impedance and employing a frequency of 500 Hz and an amplitude of about 1 microA. For erupting teeth a mean resistance value of 17+/-15 kohm was computed when the contact fluid had been NaCl (A). The corresponding values were 72+/-51 kohm when distilled water (B) had been applied and 392+/-374 kohm when the initially saliva-coated teeth had briefly been dried (C). The mean resistance values of the premolars increased continuously from the eruption up to the 15th posteruptive month. This observation was independent of the three modes of measuring that had been used. It is concluded that enamel maturation leads to an increase in electrical resistance. To improve accuracy of caries diagnosis with electrical resistance measurements, the posteruptive age of teeth should be taken into account. In addition, electrical resistance measurements offer the opportunity to observe enamel maturation in vivo noninvasively. PMID:10207201

  7. Relationship between structure and electrical resistivity in nano-structured copper-containing carbon films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Onoprienko; I. B. Yanchuk; I. A. Kossko

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of carbon\\/copper (C\\/Cu) films and its relation to the variation of film electrical resistivity has been studied. The films doped with copper in the range of 1.4–22.6at.% Cu, were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering of composite graphite–copper target. The microstructure of films was studied by Raman spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The electrical resistivity was measured parallel and

  8. Development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments

    E-print Network

    McClelland, Martha Ann

    1994-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY CONE FOR THE DETECTION OF GAS HYDRATES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by MARTHA ANN McCLELIAND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... (Member) Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe (I(cad oi' Department) May 1994 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ABSTRACT Development of an Electrical Resistivity Cone for the Detection of Gas Hydrates in Marine Sediments. (May 1994) Martha Ann McClelland, B. S...

  9. Uniaxial Strain Effect on TV and Electrical Resistivity in Magnetite (Fe3O4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Yasuo; Hara, Ryohei; Seino, Toshiaki; Kosaka, Masashi; Môri, Nobuo; Todo, Sakae; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    2006-09-01

    Magnetization and electrical resistivity studies are reported for a single crystal of magnetite under uniaxial strain applied along the [110] and [100] directions. The metal-insulator transition temperature, TV, shifted to higher temperatures with increasing uniaxial compression which is opposite to the result obtained under hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity was found to increase at temperatures below TV, and to decrease at temperatures above TV, with increasing uniaxial compression. Differences between the present results and those under hydrostatic pressure are discussed.

  10. An electrically modifiable synapse array of resistive switching memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyejung Choi; Heesoo Jung; Joonmyoung Lee; Jaesik Yoon; Dong-jun Seong; Wootae Lee; Musarrat Hasan; Gun-Young Jung; Hyunsang Hwang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the resistive switching of a cross-point cell array device, with a junction area of 100 nm × 100 nm, fabricated using ultraviolet nanoimprinting. A GdOx and Cu-doped MoOx stack with platinum top and bottom electrodes served as the resistive switching layer, which shows analog memory characteristics with a resistance ratio greater than 10. To demonstrate a neural

  11. Electrical resistivity and stoichiometry of K(x)C60 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, G. P.; Hebard, A. F.; Haddon, R. C.; Fiory, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical resistance of polycrystalline fullerene (C60) films were monitored while the films were being doped in ultrahigh vacuum with potassium from a molecular-beam effusion source. Temperature- and concentration-dependent resistivities of K(x)C60 films in equilibrium near room temperature were measured. The resistance changes smoothly from metallic at x of about equal to 3 to activated as x approaches 0 or x approaches 6. The minimum resistivity for K3C60 films is 2.2 microohm-centimeters, near the Mott limit. The resistivities are interpreted in terms of a granular microstructure where K3C60 regions form nonpercolating grains, except perhaps at x of about equal to 3. Stoichiometries at the resistivity extrema were determined by ex situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to be x = 3 +/- 0.05 at the resistance minimum and x = 6 +/- 0.05 at the fully doped resistance maximum.

  12. Electric field polarization around Ioannina VAN station, Greece, inferred from a resistivity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Wataru; Uyeshima, Makoto; Makris, John; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Hase, Hideaki; Nagao, Toshiyasu; Uyeda, Seiya

    2000-05-01

    In the summer of 1997, we made a bipole-dipole mapping survey around Ioannina station of VAN (Varotsos, Alexopoulos, and Nomicos), where detection of the pre-seismic electric signal (SES) has been repeatedly reported. Since we had found the characteristic directional properties of the electric field in the previous study, the present study was aimed to examine it by investigating the shallow electric structure around the station. The apparent resistivity tensor was derived from two sets of measured voltages at each receiver position. From a rough sketch of the resistivity tensor distribution, we found that the electric field was enhanced along the direction parallel to the trend of the basin at receivers located in the conductive basin, and perpendicular to it at receivers in the resistive mountainside. Conductance distribution models with thin plates were constructed by using the measured voltages. The results showed that the VAN station is located on the resistive portion near the contact between the conductive and the resistive part. Furthermore, we simulated the apparent resistivity tensor near the VAN station on the inferred conductance distribution model. Although the directional property similar to those of magnetotelluric (MT) and lightning electric field was not reproduced there, we found that the electric field polarization is affected by heterogeneous structure not only around receivers but also around the source.

  13. Ovulation prediction by monitoring salivary and vaginal electrical resistance with the PEAK Ovulation Predictor.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M H; Blasco, L; Sondheimer, S J

    1989-05-01

    We investigated the ability of the PEAK Ovulation Predictor to predict the expected date of ovulation in 21 infertile, spontaneously ovulating women. A nonsignificant correlation (R = 0.15; P = .51) existed between the predicted date of ovulation and the day of the serum LH peak. A moderately strong correlation (R = 0.61; P less than .01) was observed between the day of the salivary electrical resistance peak and that of the serum LH peak. However, the serum LH peak occurred between 4-9 days after an identified peak in salivary electrical resistance. Twice-daily urine LH testing correlated strongly with both the serum LH peak (R = 0.93; P = .0001) and the ultrasound-detected day of ovulation (R = 0.81; P = .0001). A statistically significant peak in the mean salivary or vaginal electrical resistance on a particular day relative to the day of the serum LH peak could not be demonstrated. When identified, the nadir in vaginal electrical resistance occurred no earlier than 2 days before the serum LH peak and thus may mark the endpoint of the fertile period for natural family planning methods. We conclude that, whereas the PEAK Ovulation Predictor is of little value in accurately predicting ovulation, measurements of salivary and vaginal electrical resistance may be helpful in timing inseminations. However, for detection of the serum LH surge, twice-daily urine LH testing demonstrated a stronger correlation and narrower frequency distribution than did those determinations based on electrical resistance. PMID:2649824

  14. Using different ELECTRE methods in strategic planning in the presence of human behavioral resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Milani; Ali Shanian; Christine El-Lahham

    2006-01-01

    In the multicriteria strategic planning of an organization, management should often be aware of employees' resistance to change before making new decisions; otherwise, a cho- senstrategy,thoughtechnologicallyacceptable,maynotbeefficientinthelongterm.This paper, using a sample case study within an organization, shows how different versions of ELECTRE methods can be used in choosing efficient strategies that account for both human behavioral resistance and technical elements. The

  15. Electric-field-induced resistance switching universally observed in transition-metal-oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamaguchi; K. Aoyama; S. Asanuma; Y. Uesu; T. Katsufuji

    2006-01-01

    We show that polarity-dependent, nonvolatile resistance switching by electric field occurs in the thin film of various transition-metal oxides in almost the same manner. This result indicates that, contrary to the general acceptance, perovskite manganite is by no means a special compound for this phenomenon. It is also suggested that the resistance switching is not dominated by a detailed electronic

  16. Effect of pressure on the electrical resistivity of water-saturated crystalline rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Brace; A. S. Orange; T. R. Madden

    1965-01-01

    Electrical r.esistivity of eight igneous rocks and two crystalline limestones was measured at pressures to 10 kb. The rocks were saturated with tap water or salt solution, and the pore pressure was maintained near zero. The dependence of resistivity on temperature, porosity, and pore fluid salinity suggested that conduction was primarily electrolytic through- out the .entire pressure range, even though

  17. The concentration of deep sea gas hydrates from downhole electrical resistivity logs and laboratory data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Hyndman; T. Yuan; K. Moran

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of gas hydrate at an Ocean Drilling Program Site on the continental slope off the coast of Vancouver Island has been estimated using a combination of downhole electrical resistivity logs, resistivity and porosity of recovered core, and core pore fluid salinity. From a depth of 100m to the base of gas hydrate stability (bottom-simulating reflector, or BSR) at

  18. The electrical resistivity and super-conductivity of some uranium alloys and compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Chandrasekhar; J. K. Hulm

    1958-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and superconductivity of a series of alpha ; (orthorhombic) and quenched (bodycentered cubic) binary alloys of uranium ; with niobium and molybdenum were investigated at temperatures down to 1 K. ; Anomalous resistivity behavior occurs in both types of structure. The ; alloys are particularly unusual in possessing a negative temperature coefficient ; from room temperature down

  19. The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Electrical Resistance of Rubidium and Caesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Dugdale; D. Phillips

    1965-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the electrical resistivity of rubidium and caesium at temperatures between 1.5 and 300 ^circK and at pressures up to 3000 atm. From our results we have calculated the ideal resistivity and its pressure derivative both at constant pressure and at constant density. The results are compared with those of the lighter alkali metals and with

  20. An Ultra-Precise System for Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Adkins, Paula L

    2008-12-09

    The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of building and operating an ERT system that will allow measurement precision that is an order of magnitude better than existing systems on the market today and in particular if this can be done without significantly greater manufacturing or operating costs than existing commercial systems. Under this proposal, we performed an estimation of measurement errors in galvanic resistivity data that arise as a consequence of the type of electrode material used to make the measurements. In our laboratory, measurement errors for both magnitude and induced polarization (IP) were estimated using the reciprocity of data from an array of electrodes as might be used for electrical resistance tomography using 14 different metals as well as one non-metal - carbon. In a second phase of this study, using archival data from two long-term ERT surveys, we examined long-term survivability of electrodes over periods of several years. The survey sites were: the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (which was sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy as part of the civilian radioactive waste management program), and a water infiltration test at a site adjacent to the New Mexico Institute of Mines and Technology in Socorro, New Mexico (sponsored by the Sandia/Tech vadose program). This enabled us to compare recent values with historical values and determine electrode performance over the long-term as well as the percentage of electrodes that have failed entirely. We have constructed a prototype receiver system, made modifications and revised the receiver design. The revised prototype uses a new 24 bit analog to digital converter from Linear Technologies with amplifier chips from Texas Instruments. The input impedance of the system will be increased from 107 Ohms to approximately 1010 Ohms. The input noise level of the system has been decreased to approximately 10 Nanovolts and system resolution to about 1 Nanovolt at the highest gain range of 125 to 1. The receiver also uses very high precision and high temperature stability components. The goal is to improve the accuracy to better than 0.1%. The system has more receiver channels, eight, to allow efficient data collection at lower base frequencies. We are also implementing a frequency-domain acquisition mode in addition to the time-domain acquisition mode used in the earlier systems. Initial field tests were started in the fall of 2008. We conducted tests on a number of types of cable commonly used for resistivity surveys. A series of different tests were designed to determine if the couplings were primarily resistive, capacitive, or inductive in nature and to ascertain that the response was due to the cable cross-talk and did not depend on the receiver electronics. The results show that the problem appears to be primarily capacitive in nature and does not appear to be due to problems in the receiver electronics. Thus a great deal of emphasis has been placed on finding appropriate cables as well as stable electrodes that have low contact impedance at the very low current flows observed at the receiver. One of the issues in survey design and data collection has been determining how long one must wait before using the same electrode as a transmitter and as a receiver. A series of tests was completed in the laboratory sand tank where four-electrode measurements were made using the same dipole transmitters and dipole receivers (the dipoles used adjacent electrodes). For each data series, a single set of normal measurements were collected with no reciprocals and electrodes were never reused as a receiver after being used as a transmitter. After waiting a specified length of time, the reciprocal measurements were collected using a schedule of measurements. The order of this second schedule was rearranged such that if this second set of measurements were performed without first using the normal schedule, no electrode would be used as a receiver after being used as a transmitter. For this study, we cannot conclude that increasing the

  1. Focused subsurface flow in the Amargosa Desert characterized by direct-current resistivity profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Abraham, J. D.; Lucius, J. E.; Prudic, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    Environmental-tracer studies have shown that ground-water recharge in the thick alluvial fill of the Amargosa Desert is localized beneath ephemeral stream channels and anthropogenic sources of water, with little recharge beneath native vegetation on interfluvial areas under current climatic conditions. These borehole-based studies provided relatively robust but limited, one-dimensional (vertical) information that can be only tentatively regionalized using geomorphologic, pedologic, and vegetational mapping. The ability of direct-current (DC) resistivity profiling to complement and extend studies of the spatial distribution of subsurface flow was examined by making surface-based measurements ("soundings") along one transect normal to the depositional fabric in each of three geomorphologically distinct settings: a well-incised ephemeral channel system, a poorly incised (distributory) ephemeral channel system, and an interfluvial upland. Linear arrays of 32 to 80 electrodes were deployed with a uniform 2 to 5-m spacing between adjacent electrodes. A multiplexing 8-channel resistivity instrument made automated inverse-Schlumberger-array soundings along the deployed line, using up to 10 electrodes at a time. The line was shifted piecemeal until composite transects consisted of 168 to 232 electrode positions. This approach allowed rapid profiling of long transects at high resolution. Numerical inversions assumed horizontal constancy normal to the vertical slices being imaged, producing solution sets of optimized resistivity values for several thousand points within each modeled slice. Imaged slices were ˜30 to 80 m deep and ˜1 km wide. RMS errors between apparent resistivities in the model inversions and field-measured apparent resistivities were ˜10%. On the basis of borehole studies, inverted resistivity (? ) values denoted three categories of alluvium: (1) low-water-content coarse gravel and highly desiccated surface materials, with ? > ˜200 ? -m, (2) vertical plumes of moist alluvium in areas of active recharge, with ? < ˜20 ? -m, and (3) other low to low-medium water-content alluvium in areas without active recharge, with intermediate values of ? . The upland profile revealed a laterally extensive gravel layer (category 1 alluvium) at a depth of ˜25 m that intersects instrumented boreholes at the Amargosa Desert Research Site. This layer coincides with peak concentrations of radioactive gases and volatile organic compounds moving through the unsaturated zone from a nearby waste-disposal facility. DC-resistivity profiling appears useful for locating areas of active ground-water recharge as well as potential passageways for preferential gas transport in the Amargosa Desert and similar environments.

  2. Genetic profiles of fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae among cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Yukiko; Kimura, Kouji; Yamada, Keiko; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Jin, Wanchun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-04-01

    The rate of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance among the cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is considerably high, however, their genetic profiles have not been well investigated. We selected 61 ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates from 102 K. pneumoniae isolates judged to be "resistant" to some cephalosporins during 2009 and 2012 throughout Japan. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis excluded clonal isolates, and 29 isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), detection of the amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA and ParC, ?-lactamase typing, and identification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. PCR-based replicon typing was performed, after PMQR gene transfer. Four major sequence types (STs) or clonal complexes (CCs), that is, ST37, CC17 (consisting of ST17 and ST20), ST11, and CC528 (consisting of ST528 and ST1130), were found, and they accounted for 48.2% of the isolates tested. Amino acid substitutions in the QRDRs and the presence of PMQR genes were identified in 20 (68.9%) and 18 (62.0%) isolates, respectively. The replicon type of three PMQR-carrying plasmids was IncN, but others were nontypable. Fifteen (83.3%) of the 18 PMQR-harboring isolates coharbored blaCTX-M and/or blaDHA-1. Ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae clinical isolates demonstrating cephalosporin resistance often belong to the global epidemic lineages and possess PMQR and/or QRDR substitutions. PMID:25419619

  3. Electrical resistance measurements of highly inhibited SiC coated carbon-carbon laminates

    E-print Network

    Parker, Paul Albert

    1998-01-01

    The effect of oxidation damage at 900'C of highly inhibited, SiC coated carbon-carbon laminates on shear modulus, mass loss, and electrical resistance are studied. The approach taken enabled the interpretation of the shear modulus and electrical...

  4. In situ measurement of electrical resistivity of marine sediments, results from Cascadia Basin off Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Jansen; Bernd Heesemann; Marion Pfender; Andreas Rosenberger; Heinrich Villinger

    2005-01-01

    Electrical properties of sediments encompass information about other linked physical properties, such as porosity and thermal conductivity. In situ measurements of electrical resistivity offer a cost- and time effective method for obtaining a comprehensive overview of near surface sediment physical properties. They also provide a quality check for in situ measurements of related sediment properties or for data obtained from

  5. Application of electrical resistance tomography to detect deposition in hydraulic conveying systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Fangary; R. A. Williams; W. A. Neil; J. Bond; I. Faulks

    1998-01-01

    The use of electrical resistance tomography to monitor the extent of solids deposited during slurry conveying in a horizontal pipe is demonstrated. The method involves placing 16 electrodes around the inner bore of the pipe section, from which a two-dimensional electrical conductivity map within the cross-section can be deduced. The sensitivity of the method is quantified for static and flowing

  6. Statistical analysis of the Time Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lebourg; M. H. Hernandez; S. E. L. El Bedoui; H. J. Jomard

    2009-01-01

    A temporal imagery of water circulation in a landslide by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was conducted to analyses the electrical signal behaviour of the slope during 600 days of measurement. This work is based on an experimental approach applied on the \\

  7. Silicone oil contamination and electrical contact resistance degradation of low-force gold contacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2006-02-01

    Hot-switched low-force gold electrical contact testing was performed using a nanomechanical test apparatus to ascertain the sensitivity of simulated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contact to silicone oil contamination. The observed cyclic contact resistance degradation was dependent on both closure rate and noncontact applied voltage. The decomposition of silicone oil from electrical arcing was hypothesized as the degradation mechanism.

  8. RF MEMS electrical contact resistance calculation using mechanical contact simulations and analytical models

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RF MEMS electrical contact resistance calculation using mechanical contact simulations cedex 4, France ²NovaMEMS, CNES, DCT/AQ/LE, 18 av E. Belin, 31401 TOULOUSE CEDEX 9 - FRANCE 3 CNES - 18 appropriate electric contact model in diffusive or ballistic electron transport. MEM test structures with gold

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum. PMID:25144460

  10. Electrical resistance of CNT-PEEK composites under compression at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad; van Hoa, Suong

    2011-06-01

    Electrically conductive polymers reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have generated a great deal of scientific and industrial interest in the last few years. Advanced thermoplastic composites made of three different weight percentages (8%, 9%, and 10%) of multiwalled CNTs and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) were prepared by shear mixing process. The temperature- and pressure-dependent electrical resistance of these CNT-PEEK composites have been studied and presented in this paper. It has been found that electrical resistance decreases significantly with the application of heat and pressure.

  11. Effects of contact resistance on electrical conductivity measurements of SiC-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, G. E.; Thomsen, E. C.; Henager, C. H.

    2013-11-01

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance (Rc) and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from room temperature (RT) to ˜973 K. The Rc-values behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: Rc > ˜1000 ? cm2 at RT, decreasing continuously to ˜1-10 ? cm2 at 973 K. The temperature dependence of the inverse Rc indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ˜0.3 eV. For the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by about 50%.

  12. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tu?rul, Atiye; Özyal?n, ?enol; Halil Zarif, ?.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5?m utilizing a Wenner–Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner–Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  13. Monitoring strain and damage in multi-phase composite materials using electrical resistance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikos, S. A.; Gkikas, G.; Paipetis, A.

    2011-04-01

    The variation of the electrical properties of fiber reinforced polymers when subjected to load offer the ability of strain and damage monitoring. This is performed via electrical resistance and electrical potential measurements. On the other hand Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have proved to be an efficient additive to polymers and matrices of composites with respect to structural enhancement and improvement of the electrical properties. The induction of CNTs increases the conductivity of the matrix, transforming it to an antistatic or a conducting phase. The key issue of the structural and electrical properties optimization is the dispersion quality of the nano-scale in the polymer phase. Well dispersed CNTs provide an electrical network within the insulating matrix. If the fibers are conductive, the CNT network mediates the electrical anisotropy and reduces the critical flaw size that is detectable by the change in conductivity. Thus, the network performs as an inherent sensor in the composite structure, since every invisible crack or delamination is manifested as an increase in the electrical resistance. The scope of this work is to further exploit the information provided by the electrical properties with a view to identify strain variation and global damage via bulk resistance measurements. The aforementioned techniques were employed to monitor, strain and damage in fiber reinforced composite laminates both with and without conductive nanofillers.

  14. Spitzer or neoclassical resistivity: A comparison between measured and model poloidal field profiles on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Hatcher, R.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; LeBlanc, B.; McCune, D.C.; Paul, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Levinton, F.M. [Fusion Physics and Technologies, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Direct measurements of the radial profile of the magnetic field line pitch on PBX-M coupled with model predictions of these profiles allow a critical comparison with the Spitzer and neoclassical models of plasma parallel resistivity. The measurements of the magnetic field line pitch are made by Motional Stark Effect polarimetry, while the model profiles are determined by solving the poloidal field diffusion equation in the TRANSP transport code using measured plasma profiles and assuming either Spitzer or neoclassical resistivity. The measured field pitch profiles were available for only seven cases, and the model profiles were distinguishable from each other in only three of those cases due to finite resistive diffusion times. The data in two of these three were best matched by the Spitzer model, especially in the inner half of the plasma. Portions of the measured pitch profiles for these two cases and the full profiles for other cases, however, departed significantly from both the Spitzer and neoclassical models, indicating a plasma resistivity profile different from either model.

  15. PREDOMINANT PROPERTIES AFFECTING PROFILE SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN THE US MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available sensors for measuring apparent profile soil electrical conductivity (ECa) can provide an indirect indication of a number of soil physical and chemical properties helpful in characterizing within-field variability for precision agriculture. The objective of this research was to...

  16. Dependence of anisotropic myocardial electrical resistivity on cardiac phase and excitation frequency.

    PubMed

    Steendijk, P; van der Velde, E T; Baan, J

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of myocardial electrical resistivity is of interest because passive electrical properties govern the electrotonic spread of current through the myocardium and influence the shape and velocity of the excitation wave. In addition, measurements of myocardial resistivity may provide information about tissue structure and components. The aim of the present study was to determine the excitation frequency dependence and the changes during the cardiac cycle of anisotropic myocardial electrical resistivity. Longitudinal and transverse myocardial resistivity were measured using an epicardial sensor in four open-chest dogs with excitation frequencies in the range of 5-60 kHz. Mean longitudinal resistivity gradually decreased from 313 +/- 49 omega.cm at 5 kHz to 212 +/- 32 omega.cm at 60 kHz, transverse resistivity decreased from 487 +/- 49 to 378 +/- 53 omega.cm. To analyze the phasic changes, we compared mean resistivity (averaged over the full cardiac cycle) with resistivity during four cardiac phases: pre-ejection, ejection, early diastole and late diastole. Longitudinal resistivity was significantly higher during the ejection phase (+9.6 +/- 4.1 omega.cm) and lower during late diastole (-6.9 +/- 2.9 omega.cm). Transverse resistivity was significantly higher during late diastole (+4.0 +/- 2.3 omega.m). The values during the other cardiac phases were not significantly different from mean resistivity. The phasic changes in longitudinal and transverse resistivity during the cardiac cycle were independent of the excitation frequency. We speculate that these changes are related to geometrical changes, especially to changes in myocardial blood volume. PMID:7702534

  17. Electrical resistivity and hydrogen permeation of dip-coated Er 2O 3 on JLF-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongxun; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo

    2011-10-01

    Liquid blanket systems are very promising directions for future fusion reactors. A ceramic coating on the ducts would solve issues for the liquid blankets such as MHD pressure drop and tritium permeation through structure materials. In this study, an Er 2O 3 coating was fabricated on JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W based reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel), SUS430 (18Cr based commercial ferritic steel) by dip-coating method with metal organic decomposition (MOD) liquid followed by baking in air. XRD patterns indicated that good crystallinity of the Er 2O 3 coating was obtained for the baking temperature of 600 °C. The highest electrical resistivity was about 10 11 ? m. Below the coating, a substrate oxidation layer was also formed according to a XPS elemental depth profile. Hydrogen permeability of the coated sample was decreased only by 1/15 compared with bare JLF-1 sample. The reason might be oxidation of the substrate surface for degrading the coating barrier performance.

  18. Screening of Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery Using Electrical Resistance of Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Krishna Rachakonda; Krishna Mohan Yerramsetty; Sundararajan V. Madihally; Robert L. Robinson; Khaled A. M. Gasem

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  A novel technique is presented for identifying potential chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) based on changes in the electrical\\u000a resistance of skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Specifically, a multi-well resistance chamber was designed and constructed to facilitate more rapid determination of the effect\\u000a of CPEs on skin resistance. The experimental setup was validated using nicotine and decanol on porcine skin in vitro. The multi-well resistance

  19. Species distribution and resistance profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Ziegler, D; Johler, S

    2013-06-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of bovine intra-mammary infections. They can lead to chronic infections and were reported to significantly increase milk somatic cell counts. The goal of our study was to determine the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of CNS in bovine mastitis milk samples in Switzerland. Between March 2011 and February 2012, a total of 120 CNS were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 117 different animals at 77 farms. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequently tested for sensitivity to various antibiotic agents by disk diffusion. Antimicrobial agents were selected mainly based on their relevance to the treatment of bovine mastitis in Switzerland. MALDI-TOF MS assigned the 120 isolates to 12 different staphylococcal species - S. chromogenes (33 %), S. xylosus (28 %), S. sciuri (13 %), S. haemolyticus (9 %), S. epidermidis (4 %), S. simulans (4 %), S. warneri (3 %), S. equorum (2 %), S. hyicus (2 %), S. cohnii (1 %), S. succinus (1 %), and S. fleuretti (1 %). Resistance rates in CNS were high, with 39% of isolates exhibiting resistance to ampicillin and penicillin, 6% of isolates being resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cephalothin, and cefoxitin, and 5 % being resistant to erythromycin. In rare cases resistance to gentamicin (2 %), kanamycin (2 %), and kanamycin-cefalexin (1 %) was detected. PMID:23732379

  20. Young Men’s Condom Use Resistance Tactics: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that many men have used a variety of tactics to avoid using a condom when having sex with a woman. Guided by previous work demonstrating that men’s use of coercive condom resistance tactics was predicted by negative attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, and sexual sensation seeking, the current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether similar constructs were associated with a variety of resistance tactics. A community sample of 313 moderate drinking men participated, of whom 80% reported employing at least one condom use resistance tactic since adolescence. The LPA revealed three classes of men. In general, men with the least negative beliefs about women, low levels of sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, and positive beliefs about condoms (Condom Positive/Low Hostility) reported less use of resistance tactics than men with moderate sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, negative beliefs about condoms, and moderate (Condom Negative/Moderate Hostility) or high (Condom Negative/High Hostility) negative attitudes about women. The classes also differed in terms of their sexual behaviors. This study demonstrated that sexual risk behavior interventions should not only address the tactics through which men resist using condoms but also tailor these efforts to men’s individual characteristics. PMID:23548069

  1. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TECHNIQUE TO ASSESS THE INTEGRITY OF GEOMEMBRANE LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-dimensional electrical modeling of a liner system was performed using computer techniques. The modeling effort examined the voltage distributions in cross sections of lined facilities with different leak locations. Results confirmed that leaks in the liner influenced voltage ...

  2. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography: a powerful tool for landslide monitoring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.

    2011-12-01

    The extreme rainfall events and the quick snowmelt occurrences play an important role in the triggering of the landslides. The occurrence of one of these factors can determine the variation of water content in the first layers of the subsoil and as a consequence a quick soil saturation inducing both an increase in pore-water pressures and the overloaded of the slopes progressively collapsing. The electrical resistivity, self-potential, electromagnetic induction and GPR methods can be considered as the most appropriate for assessing the presence of water in the underground. Such methods allow us to study the behavior of water content over much wider and deeper areas than those offered by traditional methods (thermo-gravimetric, tensiometric, TDR, etc) based on spot measures and concerning small volumes. In particular, the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which has already proved to be a powerful tool both for the geometrical reconstruction of a landslide body (location of sliding surface, estimation of the thickness of the slide material) and the individuation of high water content areas, can be considered as an alternative tool to be employed for a qualitative and quantitative water content monitoring in the first layers of the subsoil. Indeed, time-lapse 2D ERT can be tested in order to gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of water infiltration processes and water content variation. This work reports the preliminary results from a new prototype system planned to obtain time-lapse 2D ERTs, TDR and precipitation measurements in two landslide areas located in the Southern Apennine chain (Italy). The system was planned with the aim to estimate the variation of the resistivity parameter on a long period considering the water content variation, the rain water infiltration and the seasonal changes. The prototype system, linked to a pc used for storing data and managing the time interval acquisition, consists of: a resistivimeter connected to a multichannel cable, 48 steel electrodes buried in the soil at a depth of about 0.5 m at a distance of 1 or 5 m; a TDR system linked to 4 probes 20 cm length, buried at different depths along the same profile of the geoelectrical one; while a weather station consists of a rain gauge to quantify the amount of rain falling on that area, one sensor to measure the temperature and another to determine the speed and direction of the wind. At the beginning the time-lapse ERT were analysed to verify the functionality and stability of the system and to decide the measurement time intervals. After that, the statistical analysis of the results obtained was performed with the aim to define the water content variation in the first layers of the subsoil, in particular in the vadose zone. The results were compared with the TDR ones and the piezometric measurements were performed in the area thanks to the presence of equipped boreholes. The correlation between the variation of the parameters measured (electrical resistivity, water content and piezometric level) and the rain-gauge measurements was also considered. The preliminary results seem to be encouraged also if the analysis of the data acquired on a longer period could better highlight the capability of the system.

  3. [Numerical simulation and application of electrical resistivity survey in heavy metal contaminated sites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-ling; Nai, Chang-xin; Wang, Yan-wen; Dong, Lu

    2013-05-01

    In order to analyze the effects of electrical resistivity in heavy metal contaminated sites, we established the resistivity model of typical contaminated sites and simulate the DC resistivity method with Wenner arrays using the finite element method. The simulation results showed that the electrical method was influenced by the contamination concentration and the location of pollution. The more serious the degree of pollution was, the more obvious the low resistivity anomaly, thus the easier the identification of the contaminated area; otherwise, if there was light pollution, Wenner array could not get obvious low resistivity anomalies, so it would be hard to judge the contaminated area. Our simulation results also showed that the closer the contaminated areas were to the surface, the more easily the pollution was detected and the low resistivity anomalies shown in the apparent resistivity diagram were influenced by the Layered medium. The actual field survey results using resistivity method also show that the resistivity method can correctly detect the area with serious pollution. PMID:23914547

  4. Specific features in the behavior of electrical resistivity of the pine biocarbon preform/copper composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, A. T.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.

    2010-11-01

    The electrical resistivity ?( T) of the novel type of composites prepared by infiltrating melted copper in vacuum in empty sap channels of white pine high-porosity biocarbon preforms has been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. Biocarbon preforms have been prepared by pyrolysis of tree wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures, 1000 and 2400°C. The electrical resistivity of the composites has been found to vary relatively weakly with temperature and to pass through a characteristic minimum near 40-50 K, which can be ascribed to iron and manganese impurities penetrating into copper from the carbon preform when liquid copper is infiltrated into it. It has been shown that the electrical resistivity ?( T) of the composites is governed primarily by the specific microstructure of the preform, which is made up of parallel channels with an average diameter of about 50 ?m interrupted by systems of thin capillaries. The small cross section of the copper-filled capillaries accounts for these regions providing the major contribution to the electrical resistivity of the composites. An increase in the wood carbonization temperature brings about a noticeable increase in the effective capillary cross section and a decrease in the electrical resistivity ?( T) of the composite.

  5. Electrical resistivity of rf-sputtered iron oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yu; Zhou, Zeng-Jun; Luo, H. L.

    1987-04-01

    The resistivities of as-sputtered Fe3O4, partially transformed Fe3O4/?-Fe2O3, and ?-Fe2O3 films were measured in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. A resistivity anomaly was observed in Fe3O4 films and can be identified with the Verwey transformation. For Fe3O4 as well as ?-Fe2O3 films, the conductivity follows a simple exponential law for 33-72 K and 44-300 K, respectively. The values of the activation energy were determined. For Fe3O4 films this energy is much smaller than that of the single crystals.

  6. Electrical resistivity of rf-sputtered iron oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Mei; Zeng-Jun Zhou; H. L. Luo

    1987-01-01

    The resistivities of as-sputtered Fe3O4, partially transformed Fe3O4\\/?-Fe2O3, and ?-Fe2O3 films were measured in the temperature range of 4.2–300 K. A resistivity anomaly was observed in Fe3O4 films and can be identified with the Verwey transformation. For Fe3O4 as well as ?-Fe2O3 films, the conductivity follows a simple exponential law for 33–72 K and 44–300 K, respectively. The values of

  7. Electric-Field-Induced Resistive Switching in a Family of Mott Insulators : towards Non-Volatile Mott-RRAM Memories

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Electric-Field-Induced Resistive Switching in a Family of Mott Insulators : towards Non.janod@cnrs-imn.fr [# ] these authors contributes equally to this work Keywords: resistive switching, non-volatile memory, Mott to switch back and forth between an initial high-resistance insulating state ("0" state) and a low-resistance

  8. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating 

    E-print Network

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01

    gO 190 170 160 170 1eo 120 00 IMP ERMEABL E (HEATED) P ERMEABLE lMP ERMEABLE (HEATED) PERMEABLE 0. 25' LOG(r) 640' FIG. 19 ? STEADY ? STATE TEMPERATURE PROFILE FOR CASE S ? 1 P ERMEABLE ~ U1 o cL- NM a5 $o ZP 4 1 170 190 20...

  9. Computational Analysis of HIV1 Resistance Based on Gene Expression Profiles and the Virus-Host Interaction Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Huang; Zhongping Xu; Lei Chen; Yu-Dong Cai; Xiangyin Kong

    2011-01-01

    A very small proportion of people remain negative for HIV infection after repeated HIV-1 viral exposure, which is called HIV-1 resistance. Understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 resistance is important for the development of HIV-1 vaccines and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) therapies. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-resistant individuals and HIV-susceptible

  10. The gene expression profiles of medulloblastoma cell lines resistant to preactivated cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S.M.; Johnson, S. P.; Bullock, N.S.; Colvin, M.; Bigner, D.D.; Friedman, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    The total expression profiles of two medulloblastoma cell lines resistant to the preactivated form of cyclophosphamide (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, 4-HC) were examined using the Affymetrix GeneChip U133A array. Our primary objective was to look for possible genes, other than the well-studied aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) that may be involved in cyclophosphamide (CP) resistance in medulloblastomas. We present here the lists of the most highly upregulated [30 for D341 MED (4-HCR); 20 for D283 MED (4-HCR)] and downregulated [19 for D341 MED (4-HCR); 15 for D283 MED (4-HCR)] genes which may be involved in conferring CP-resistance to the two medullobalstoma cell lines. The lists of genes from the two sublines almost had no overlap, suggesting different mechanisms of CP-resistance. One of the most noteworthy upregulated gene is TAP1 [90-fold increase in D341 MED (4-HCR) relative to D341 MED]. TAP1, a protein belonging to the ABC transporter family is normally involved in major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) antigen processing. This suggests the possible role of multidrug resistance (MDR), albeit atypical (which means it does not involve the usual MDR1 and MRP glycoproteins), in medulloblastoma’s CP-resistance. Apart from TAP1, a number of other genes involved in MHC1 processing were upregulated in D341 MED (4HCR). D341 MED (4-HCR) also had a 20-fold increase in the expression of the aldo-keto reductase gene, AKR1B10, which may deactivate the reactive cyclophosphamide metabolite, aldophosphamide. For D283 MED (4-HCR), the most notable increase in expression is that of ALDH1B1, a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family of proteins. PMID:18473730

  11. The gene expression profiles of medulloblastoma cell lines resistant to preactivated cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Bacolod, M D; Lin, S M; Johnson, S P; Bullock, N S; Colvin, M; Bigner, D D; Friedman, H S

    2008-05-01

    The total expression profiles of two medulloblastoma cell lines resistant to the preactivated form of cyclophosphamide (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, 4-HC) were examined using the Affymetrix GeneChip U133A array. Our primary objective was to look for possible genes, other than the well-studied aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) that may be involved in cyclophosphamide (CP) resistance in medulloblastomas. We present here the lists of the most highly upregulated [30 for D341 MED (4-HCR); 20 for D283 MED (4-HCR)] and downregulated [19 for D341 MED (4-HCR); 15 for D283 MED (4-HCR)] genes which may be involved in conferring CP-resistance to the two medullobalstoma cell lines. The lists of genes from the two sublines almost had no overlap, suggesting different mechanisms of CP-resistance. One of the most noteworthy upregulated gene is TAP1 [90-fold increase in D341 MED (4-HCR) relative to D341 MED]. TAP1, a protein belonging to the ABC transporter family is normally involved in major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) antigen processing. This suggests the possible role of multidrug resistance (MDR), albeit atypical (which means it does not involve the usual MDR1 and MRP glycoproteins), in medulloblastoma's CP-resistance. Apart from TAP1, a number of other genes involved in MHC1 processing were upregulated in D341 MED (4HCR). D341 MED (4-HCR) also had a 20-fold increase in the expression of the aldo-keto reductase gene, AKR1B10, which may deactivate the reactive cyclophosphamide metabolite, aldophosphamide. For D283 MED (4-HCR), the most notable increase in expression is that of ALDH1B1, a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family of proteins. PMID:18473730

  12. In vivo quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling identifies novel regulators of castration-resistant prostate cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N; Hjorth-Jensen, K; Hekmat, O; Iglesias-Gato, D; Kruse, T; Wang, C; Wei, W; Ke, B; Yan, B; Niu, Y; Olsen, J V; Flores-Morales, A

    2015-05-21

    Prostate cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide owing to our inability to treat effectively castration-resistant tumors. To understand the signaling mechanisms sustaining castration-resistant growth, we implemented a mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic approach and use it to compare protein phosphorylation in orthotopic xenograft tumors grown in either intact or castrated mice. This investigation identified changes in phosphorylation of signaling proteins such as MEK, LYN, PRAS40, YAP1 and PAK2, indicating the concomitant activation of several oncogenic pathways in castration-resistant tumors, a notion that was confirmed by tumor transcriptome analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that the activation of mTORC1, PAK2 and the increased levels of YAP1 in castration-resistant tumors can be explained by the loss of androgen inhibitory actions. The analysis of clinical samples demonstrated elevated levels of PAK2 and YAP1 in castration-resistant tumors, whereas knockdown experiments in androgen-independent cells demonstrated that both YAP1 and PAK2 regulate cell colony formation and cell invasion activity. PAK2 also influenced cell proliferation and mitotic timing. Interestingly, these phenotypic changes occur in the absence of obvious alterations in the activity of AKT, MAPK or mTORC1 pathways, suggesting that PAK2 and YAP1 may represent novel targets for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Pharmacologic inhibitors of PAK2 (PF-3758309) and YAP1 (Verteporfin) were able to inhibit the growth of androgen-independent PC3 xenografts. This work demonstrates the power of applying high-resolution mass spectrometry in the proteomic profiling of tumors grown in vivo for the identification of novel and clinically relevant regulatory proteins. PMID:25065596

  13. Transcriptional Profiles of the Response of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Pentacyclic Triterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pooi Yin; Chung, Lip Yong; Navaratnam, Parasakthi

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen in both hospital and the community that has demonstrated resistance to all currently available antibiotics over the last two decades. Multidrug-resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) exhibiting decreased susceptibilities to glycopeptides has also emerged, representing a crucial challenge for antimicrobial therapy and infection control. The availability of complete whole-genome nucleotide sequence data of various strains of S. aureus presents an opportunity to explore novel compounds and their targets to address the challenges presented by antimicrobial drug resistance in this organism. Study compounds ?-amyrin [3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-3-ol (AM)], betulinic acid [3?-hydroxy-20(29)-lupaene-28-oic acid (BA)] and betulinaldehyde [3?-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al (BE)] belong to pentacyclic triterpenoids and were reported to exhibit antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi, including S. aureus. The MIC values of these compounds against a reference strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300) ranged from 64 µg/ml to 512 µg/ml. However, the response mechanisms of S. aureus to these compounds are still poorly understood. The transcription profile of reference strain of MRSA treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of the three compounds was determined using Affymetrix GeneChips. The findings showed that these compounds regulate multiple desirable targets in cell division, two-component system, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, ribosome and ?-lactam resistance pathways which could be further explored in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of S. aureus infections. PMID:23437212

  14. Changes in multifractal parameters from profiles of soil penetration resistance obtained with increasing soil dryness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germán Wilson, Marcelo; Lado Liñares, Marcos; González, Antonio Paz

    2015-04-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is linked to basic soil physical properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, so that it has been extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management on soil physical quality. We analyzed multifractality of PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 80 cm depth at 1 cm intervals. Soil PR was recorded at 10 successive dates with decreasing soil water content in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, and 10 replicate PR profiles were obtained in each date. The scaling property of each depth-dependent PR profile was typified by the singularity spectrum, ?s versus f(?)s and the generalized dimension spectrum, estimated by the method of moments. Both, singularity and Rènyi spectra showed the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. The multifractality (scaling heterogeneity) in our data series decreased as the mean soil water content decreased. Overall, singularity spectra were asymmetrical and shifted to the right, which is compatible with a greater heterogeneity of the low values in the PR data sets studied. The entropy dimension, D1, increased with decreasing soil water content, and mean values ranged from 0.956 to 0.981; this means that the wetter the soil the more homogeneously is distributed the measure over a large range of scales. Multifractal analysis yielded information about changes with scale of the higher moments, which gives a deep insight into the inner structure of soil PR depth-dependent profiles.

  15. Fabrication of intermetallic coatings for electrical and corrosion resistance on high-temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cho, W.D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1994-10-01

    Several intermetallic films were fabricated to high-temperature alloys (V-alloys and 304 and 316 stainless steels) to provide electrical insulation and corrosion resistance. Alloy grain-growth behavior at 1000{degrees}C for the V-5Cr-5Ti was investigated to determine the stability of alloy substrate during coating formation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or metallic vapor processes at 800-850{degrees}C. Film layers were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and by electron-energy-dispersive and X-ray diffraction analysis and tested for electrical resistivity and corrosion resistance. The results elucidated the nature of the coatings, which provided both electrical insulation and high-temperature corrosion protection.

  16. Electrical Resistivity of Silane Multiply Shock-Compressed to 106 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Cai, Ling-Cang; Xi, Feng; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Qi-Jun; Wang, Ya-Ping; Hao, Bin-Bin

    2014-12-01

    The liquid silane sample, prepared by liquifying pure silane gas at 88.5 K, is multiply shock-compressed to 106 GPa by means of a two-stage light-gas gun and a coolant target system. Electrical resistivity is measured for fluid silane during the period of multi-shock compression in the pressure range from 63.5 GPa to 106 GPa. It is shown that the electrical resistivity reduces to the order of 10?3–10?4 ohm·m after the second shock arrived, which is two orders higher than those of typical melt metals. Though the metallization transition could not be confirmed under the loading condition of our shock experiments, its resistivity drops sharply along with the pressure rise. The phenomenon might be caused by silane decomposed during the pressure loading, due to the fact that, above 100 GPa, we find that its resistivity is close to hydrogen under the same pressure.

  17. A digitally controlled system for effecting and presenting a selected electrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Ross, Walter L. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A digitally controlled resistance generator is described, in which resistors having values selected according to an expression 2(sup N-1)(R), where N is equal to the number of terms in the expression, and R is equal to the lowest value of resistance, are electrically inserted into a resistive circuit in accordance with a parallel binary signal provided by an analog-to-digital converter or a programmable computer. This binary signal is coupled via optical isolators which, when activated by a logical 1, provides a negative potential to some or all of the gate inputs of the normally on field effect transistors which, when on, shorts out the associated resistor. This applied negative potential turns the field effect transistors off and electrically inserts the resistor coupled between the source terminal and the drain terminal of that field effect transistor into the resistive circuit between the terminals.

  18. Electrical characteristics of metal oxide based multi-layer vertical resistive switching memories.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Hwan; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Dong Yoel; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-11-01

    The electrical properties of vertical resistive switching random access memories (VRRAMs) were investigated to enhance their device performance by using a stochastic method based on the generation and the rupture probability of the conductive filaments (CFs) together with a tunneling model. The carrier transport mechanisms were dominantly attributed to the tunneling current between the CFs and the electrode. Carrier transport mechanisms of the high resistance state current were dominantly attributed to the direct tunneling current between the electrode and the CFs locating at nearest the electrode. The simulated forming voltages of the VRRAMs were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The low resistance/high resistance state current ratio of the VRRAMs was improved due to an increase in the distance between the CFs and the electrode of the VRRAMs with a barrier material after a reset operation. These results can help understanding electrical characteristics and optimal structures of the VRRAMs. PMID:25958500

  19. High thermal stability and low electrical resistivity carbon-containing Cu film on barrierless Si

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, L. F.; Li, X. N.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams-Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chu, J. P. [Department of Polymer Engineering and Graduate Institute of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. H. [Department of Electronic Materials, Chin-Min Institute of Technology, Tou-Fen 35153, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-03

    Interfacial structures and electrical resistivities of a carbon-doped Cu film at different annealing temperatures and times were investigated. The film was prepared by magnetron sputtering on barrierless silicon. After annealing, grain growth was distinctly hindered and a carbon-containing nanometer thick passive amorphous layer was formed at the film/substrate interface. The film had a resistivity of about 2.7 muOMEGA cm after annealing at 400 deg. C for 1 h and maintained a low resistivity of 3.8 muOMEGA cm even after 9 h annealing at 400 deg. C. The low electrical resistivity in combination with the high thermal stability makes carbon doping a promising technique for future Cu interconnects on barrierless Si.

  20. Time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity tomographies for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata Region, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Raffaele; de Bari, Claudia; Calamita, Giuseppe; Loperte, Antonio; Perrone, Angela; Satriani, Antonio; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The rainwater infiltration into the soil and the increase of pore water pressure in the vadose zone can be considered the main causes of shallow landslides triggering. The standard techniques used to measure the water content of the soil and the piezometric levels in areas of potential instability are the TDR method and the piezometric measurements, respectively. These techniques, while allowing to obtain direct information of the considered parameter, provide a punctual information about the specific hydrological characteristics of the investigated soil. Recently, the literature reports many examples of applications of indirect methods for the study and the estimate of water content in the first layers of the subsoil. In particular, the 2D electrical resistivity tomography has been applied for obtaining information about the temporal and spatial patterns of water infiltration processes. This paper reports the results obtained in the area affected by the Picerno landslide (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), which represents one of the test sites of Morfeo project (Monitoraggio e Rischio da Frana mediante dati EO) funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The studied slope has been frequently involved in reactivation phenomena the most recent of which occurred on March 2006. In the area, we have installed a prototype system for time-dependent analysis of electrical resistivity images and TDR measurements. The geophysical results are opportunely integrated with the piezometric data. The system is composed of a 48-channel cable connected to the georesistivimeter Syscal Pro Switch 48, the electrodes are placed at a distance of 1 m. Two holes used to measure the piezometric level and another four equipped with TDR probes are located along the acquisition profile. The electrical resistivity tomographies and the water content measurements are performed with time intervals selected by considering the rainfall intensity and frequency. The first preliminary result of this experiment are presented and discussed.

  1. Electrical Resistivity of Gd(Al1-xCux)2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junji Sakurai; Tsutomu Ishimasa; Yukitomo Komura

    1977-01-01

    Electrical resistivity rho of the intermetallic compounds Gd(Al1-xCux)2 in the range of x having the C15 crystal structure was measured from room temperature to liquid He temperature. The resistivity contribution rhomag due to disordered magnetic moments of Gd above the ferromagnetic Curie temperature Tc was found to depend very much on x. This fact seems to give a strong evidence

  2. a Theoretical Investigation of the Anisotropic Electrical Resistivity of Zinc, Cadmium and Magnesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Peter Pepchinski

    1982-01-01

    The hexagonal close-packed metals, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, are noted for their highly anisotropic electrical resistivity. Recent experiments on pure crystalline samples have investigated both the resistivity parallel ((rho)(,(PARLL))) and perpendicular ((rho)(,(PERP))) to the hexagonal axis. The resulting anisotropy ratio, (alpha) = (rho)(,(PARLL))\\/(rho)(,(PERP)), in all three metals, displays the following characteristics: a rapid increase at low temperatures until it reaches

  3. Saline tracer visualized with three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Field-scale spatial moment analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamini Singha; Steven M. Gorelick

    2005-01-01

    Cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to monitor the migration of a saline tracer in a two-well pumping-injection experiment conducted at the Massachusetts Military Reservation in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. After injecting 2200 mg\\/L of sodium chloride for 9 hours, ERT data sets were collected from four wells every 6 hours for 20 days. More than 180,000 resistance measurements were

  4. Contact resistance and fretting corrosion of lead-free alloy coated electrical contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Wu; Michael G. Pecht

    2004-01-01

    As lead-free solders replace tin-lead solders in soldering, it is also expected that lead-free solder alloys will be used as contact finish materials for electrical contacts. In this study, the contact resistance and fretting corrosion of tin-silver-copper and tin-copper coatings were investigated and compared with tin-lead eutectic coating. The contact resistance before after different aging conditions, including mixed flowing gas,

  5. Contact resistance and fretting corrosion of lead-free alloy coated electrical contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Wu; Michael G. Pecht

    2006-01-01

    As lead-free solders replace tin-lead solders in soldering, it is also expected that lead-free solder alloys will be used as contact finish materials for electrical contacts. In this study, the contact resistance and fretting corrosion of tin-silver-copper and tin-copper coatings were investigated and compared with tin-lead eutectic coating. The contact resistance before and after different aging conditions, including mixed flowing

  6. Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermopower of aerospace alloys from 4 to 300 K.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hust, J. G.; Weitzel, D. H.; Powell, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermopower for several aerospace alloys: titanium alloy A110-AT, aluminum alloy 7039, Inconel 718, and Hastelloy X. Tables and graphs of the measured properties and Lorenz ratio are presented over the range from 4 to 300 K. Comparisons to other measurements and theoretical analysis of the data are included. The uncertainties of the property data are estimated as 0.7 to 2.5% for thermal conductivity, 0.25% in electrical resistivity, and about 0.1 microvolt/K in thermopower.

  7. In situ measurement of electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient simultaneously at high temperature and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bao; Tao, Qiang; Zhao, Xueping; Cao, Ke; Cui, Tian; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Pinwen

    2014-01-01

    A method for performing simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) in cubic multi-anvil apparatus is described. For high pressure and high temperature measurements, a four-probe arrangement is used to measure the electrical resistivity and two pairs of chromel-alumel type thermocouples are employed to determine the Seebeck coefficient, respectively. Results of an expected temperature-induced phase transition, pressure-induced metallization and enhancement of the thermoelectric properties were obtained in Ag2Te. This method can provide the necessary data of thermoelectric materials at HPHT. PMID:24517779

  8. Temperature dependence of the electron density of states and dc electrical resistivity of disordered binary alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, A.-B.; Weisz, G.; Sher, A.

    1972-01-01

    A model calculation of the temperature dependence of the electronic density of states and the electrical conductivity of disordered binary alloys, based on the coherent-potential approximation is made by introducing thermal disorder in the single-band model (Velicky and others). Thermal disorder is found to broaden and smear the static-alloy density of states. The electrical resistivity in weak-scattering alloys always increases with temperature. However, in the strong-scattering case, the temperature coefficient of resistivity can be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the location of the Fermi energy.-

  9. Magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements on CeCuAl3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klicpera, M.; Javorský, P.; Diviš, M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the electronic properties of CeCuAl3 studied by means of magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements in well characterized single crystal. CeCuAl3 crystallizes in the ordered non-centrosymmetric tetragonal BaNiSn3-type structure. The antiferromagnetic phase transition around 2.5 K was revealed by magnetization measurement. The clearly pronounced anomaly on electrical resistivity data was observed the same temperature. A relatively strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy with the magnetization easy-basal plane and hard c-axis was observed. The ferromagnetic correlation stronger along the c-axis than in the basal plane were found in paramagnetic state.

  10. Application of 4D resistivity image profiling to detect DNAPLs plume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Yang, C.; Tsai, Y.

    2008-12-01

    In July 1993, the soil and groundwater of the factory of Taiwan , Miaoli was found to be contaminated by dichloroethane, chlorobenzene and other hazardous solvents. The contaminants were termed to be dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The contaminated site was neglected for the following years until May 1998, the Environment Protection Agency of Miaoli ordered the company immediately take an action for treatment of the contaminated site. Excavating and exposing the contaminated soil was done at the previous waste DNAPL dumped area. In addition, more than 53 wells were drilled around the pool with a maximum depth of 12 m where a clayey layer was found. Continuous pumping the groundwater and monitoring the concentration of residual DNAPL contained in the well water samples have done in different stages of remediation. However, it is suspected that the DNAPL has existed for a long time, therefore the contaminants might dilute but remnants of a DNAPL plume that are toxic to humans still remain in the soil and migrate to deeper aquifers. A former contaminated site was investigated using the 2D, 3D and 4D resisitivity image technique, with aims of determining buried contaminant geometry. This paper emphasizes the use of resistivity image profiling (RIP) method to map the limit of this DNAPL waste disposal site where the records of operations are not variations. A significant change in resistivity values was detected between known polluted and non-polluted subsurface; a high resistivity value implies that the subsurface was contaminated by DNAPL plume. The results of the survey serve to provide insight into the sensitivity of RIP method for detecting DNAPL plumes within the shallow subsurface, and help to provide valuable information related to monitoring the possible migration path of DNAPL plume in the past. According to the formerly studies in this site, affiliation by excavates with pumps water remediation had very long time, Therefore this research was used iron nanoparticles with pumps water remediation ways. The survey lines use the same length and the same position of the different time observation. The survey lines monitors the iron nanoparticles and pollution flow direction with remediation effect. By used the iron nanoparticles and pumping water remediation ways, the DNAPL plumes had eminent changed. Iron nanoparticles granule is smaller than the micron iron, Therefore the reaction rate was quite quick at the iron nanoparticles and pumps, but the ferric oxide can cause the electronic resistivity to elevate produces after the response. Pumps water rectifies may remove the ferric oxide to cause the electronic resistivity to reduce. The iron nanoparticles and pollution response is extremely obviously of the Resistivity Image Profile.

  11. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ?90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ?20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ?15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p < 0.05). These results may be useful for improving the content of nutraceuticals, such as isoflavones, in soybeans. PMID:25394170

  12. Assessment of Continuous Resistivity Profiling for the Characterization of Paved Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouteau, M.; Vallieres, S.; Miralles, M.

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the continuous resistivity profiling method using towed arrays as a diagnostic NDT method for the evaluation of pavements. Whether the pavement consists of a sequence of asphalt, concrete slab and subgrade layer (rigid pavement) or a layer of asphalt overlying a subgrade and grade base layers (flexible pavement) defects within those different layers can cause pavement deterioration that must be identified. We first examine the response of the method to the various problems using numerical modeling. It is shown that with an optimally designed system the method allows the determination of the thickness and the location of cracks in the asphalt cover. It is also sensitive to the presence of cracks, internal defects and chloride ions (de-icing salt) within the concrete slab below. For reinforced concrete it is possible to estimate the concrete resistivity related directly to its composition (quality) and the thickness of the top coating over the level of rebars. A low resistivity of concrete will usually be diagnostic of advanced stage of rebar corrosion and delamination could occur. However it is shown that the rebars cause current channeling and the depth of investigation is limited then to the depth of the first row of rebars. Finally heterogeneities within the foundation reflecting subsidence, bad drainage, frost-defrost cycles or cavities can be mapped. The optimal design is based on a system with 10 to 20 receiver dipoles and one transmitter dipole (first or last of the array) with a dipole length typically of 10 cm that can be used in equatorial or in-line mode. Static resistivity measurements have been carried out at the laboratory scale over concrete slabs built to verify results obtained from the numerical modeling. Observed data fit very well the modeled data and validate the overall conclusions. Tests have been performed in December 2003 in some selected streets (6 visited, 3 re-visited) of Montreal using a CORIM system (Iris Instruments, France), a capacitively-coupled resistivity towed equatorial array that continuously record data collected with six receiver dipoles and one transmitter dipole. Typical acquisition sampling and velocity were 0,20-0,50 m and 1 to 2 km/h respectively. Although the system is not optimally designed for the applications described above it provides useful diagnostic information about the state of deterioration of pavement. Data have been imaged using 2D resistivity inversion. In general it shows a high resistivity for the shallow depth related to the asphalt layer and a decreasing resistivity with depth related to the concrete slab first and the granular foundation below. Lateral variations appear to be correlated with degradation of the concrete slab.

  13. Electric-pulse-induced resistive switching in Cr-doped Ti2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhongwen; Wu, Naijuan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The electrical-pulse-induced resistive switching effect is studied in (Ti0.85Cr0.15)2O3 (TCO) films grown on Ir-Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Such a TCO device exhibits bipolar switching behavior with an EPIR ratio as large as about 1000% and threshold voltages smaller than 2V. The resistive switching characteristics may be understood by resistance changes of a Schottky junction composed of a metal and an n-type semiconductor, and its nonvolatility is attributed to the movement of oxygen vacancies near the interface.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of heat-resistant strain Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3962 producing Maotai flavor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-29

    Although Maotai flavor liquor is exclusive due to its soy sauce flavor, knowledge of its key compound and production mechanism is still scarce until now. To gain insight into the production mechanism of soy sauce flavor, a soy sauce flavor producing strain with high efficiency and heat-resistant capability was obtained, and the metabolic mechanism of the strain was investigated with the technique of microarray profiling. Because high temperature was a key factor for soy sauce flavor production, the global gene expression of this heat-resistant strain fermented at 55 °C was analyzed. Except for the responsive increase of heat shock proteins, which maintained cell survival during heat stress, biosynthesis of cysteine was also up-regulated. In addition, some metabolites were significantly increased when cysteine was added to the fermentation medium, such as 2,3-butanediol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and tetramethylpyrazine, which were important flavor compounds in soy sauce flavor liquor and might be related with soy sauce flavor. The results indicated that cysteine might play an important role in the formation of soy sauce flavor compound, and it might act as an indirect precursor or stimulator of soy sauce flavor formation. This was the first use of the microarray profiling tool to investigate the fermentative strains for Chinese traditional liquor, which would allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of the formation of soy sauce flavor compound. PMID:22283589

  15. A Serum Protein Profile Predictive of the Resistance to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Breast Cancers*

    PubMed Central

    Hyung, Seok-Won; Lee, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Han; Shin, Byunghee; Jung, Hee-Jung; Park, Jong-Moon; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Kyung-Min; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Sang-Won; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Noh, Dong-Young

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of the responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) can improve the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. Genes and proteins predictive of chemoresistance have been extensively studied in breast cancer tissues. However, noninvasive serum biomarkers capable of such prediction have been rarely exploited. Here, we performed profiling of N-glycosylated proteins in serum from fifteen advanced breast cancer patients (ten patients sensitive to and five patients resistant to NACT) to discover serum biomarkers of chemoresistance using a label-free liquid chromatography-tandem MS method. By performing a series of statistical analyses of the proteomic data, we selected thirteen biomarker candidates and tested their differential serum levels by Western blotting in 13 independent samples (eight patients sensitive to and five patients resistant to NACT). Among the candidates, we then selected the final set of six potential serum biomarkers (AHSG, APOB, C3, C9, CP, and ORM1) whose differential expression was confirmed in the independent samples. Finally, we demonstrated that a multivariate classification model using the six proteins could predict responses to NACT and further predict relapse-free survival of patients. In summary, global N-glycoproteome profile in serum revealed a protein pattern predictive of the responses to NACT, which can be further validated in large clinical studies. PMID:21799047

  16. Spontaneous anisotropy of the electrical resistivity of Ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dedie

    1975-01-01

    The spontaneous resistivity anisotropy of bulk cylindrical single crystals of Ni, NiPt 0.55 (0.55 at% Pt), NiFe 0.5 and NiPd 4.0 is measured at several points in the temperature range 4.2K

  17. SIMS depth profiling analysis of electrical arc residues in fire investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Chen; Y. C. Ling; J. T. Wang; H. Y. Chen

    2003-01-01

    SIMS was used to distinguish the primary and secondary electrical short circuit (ESC) arc beads. A Cs+ primary ion was used to detect the 12C?, 63Cu?, 18O? and 37Cl? secondary ions formed during 0–3?m depth profiles. Thin surface layer enriched with C, Cl and O was observed in the primary arc beads, whereas a comparably thick layer of Cl was

  18. The influence of electric field and mobility profile on GaAs MESFET characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Hsu Chen; David K. Arch

    1989-01-01

    Analytical approximations for the drain I-V relationship, including the mobility profile and field distribution in the channel from the drain to the source, of GaAs MESFETs are derived. The model includes the extended depletion from the gate to the drain for nonself-aligned devices. The calculation of the electric field along the channel is in very good agreement with existing analytical

  19. Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Min-Wook; Lee, Seunghun; Cho, Yong Chan; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Geun Woo; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Park, Chul Hong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    Resistivity is an intrinsic feature that specifies the electrical properties of a material and depends on electron-phonon scattering near room temperature. Reducing the resistivity of a metal to its potentially lowest value requires eliminating grain boundaries and impurities, but to date few studies have focused on reducing the intrinsic resistivity of a pure metal itself. We could reduce the intrinsic resistivity of single-crystal Ag, which has an almost perfect structure, by impurity doping it with Cu. This paper presents our results: resistivity was reduced to 1.35???·cm at room temperature after 3?mol% Cu-doping of single-crystal Ag. Various mechanisms were examined in an attempt to explain the abnormal behavior. PMID:24965478

  20. Electrical resistance of metallic contacts on silicon and germanium during indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, G.M. (Department of Materials Science, Rice University, P. O. Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251 (United States)); Oliver, W.C. (Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)); Cook, R.F.; Kirchner, P.D.; Kroll, M.C.; Dinger, T.R. (IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)); Clarke, D.R. (Materials Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The effects of indentation on the electrical resistance of rectifying gold-chromium contacts on silicon and germanium have been studied using nanoindentation techniques. The DC resistance of circuits consisting of positively and negatively biased contacts with silicon and germanium in the intervening gap was measured while indenting either directly in the gap or on the contacts. Previous experiments showed that a large decrease in resistance occurs when an indentation bridges a gap, which was used to support the notion that a transformation from the semiconducting to the metallic state occurs beneath the indenter. The experimental results reported here, however, show that a large portion of the resistance drop is due to decreases in the resistance of the metal-to-semiconductor interface rather than the bulk semiconductor. Experimental evidence supporting this is presented, and a simple explanation for the physical processes involved is developed which still relies on the concept of an indentation-induced, semiconducting-to-metallic phase transformation.

  1. A study of the deposition of carbide coatings on graphite fibers. [to increase electrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suplinskas, R. J.; Henze, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of boron carbide and silicon carbide on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistance was studied. Silicon carbide coatings were applied without degradation of the mechanical properties of the filaments. These coatings typically added 1000 ohms to the resistance of a filament as measured between two mercury pools. When SiC-coated filaments were oxidized by refluxing in boiling phosphoric acid, average resistance increased by an additional 1000 ohms; in addition resistance increases as high as 150 K ohms and breakdown voltages as high as 17 volts were noted. Data on boron carbide coatings indicated that such coatings would not be effective in increasing resistance, and would degrade the mechanical properties.

  2. A theoretical study of electrical and thermal response in resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect

    Na, S.J.; Park, S.W. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Precision Engineering and Mechatronics

    1996-08-01

    The effect of contact resistance including constriction and contamination resistance has been a major hurdle for the thermoelectrical analysis of the resistance spot welding process. In this paper, a simple model was suggested and used for calculating the electrical and thermal response of the resistance spot welding process to investigate the influence of contacting forces on the formation of weld nuggets. The electrode surface of the contact interface was assumed to be axisymmetric and its microasperities to have a trapezoidal cross-section. These microasperities were considered as the one-dimensional contact resistance elements in the finite element formulation. The contamination film was assumed to be a nonconducting oxide layer, which is very brittle, so that it is broken to some number of pieces when a contacting pressure is being applied. The crushed films were assumed to be distributed at regular intervals and to conserve their size and number during the welding process. The simulation results revealed that the proposed model can be successfully used to predict the effect of the contact resistance on the electrical and thermal response of the resistance spot welding process.

  3. Influence of fixed electric charges on potential profile across the squid axon membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, C. M.; Cruz, F. A. O.; Silva, D.; Costa, L. F.

    2008-03-01

    The potential profile for a model of squid axon membrane has been determined for two physiological states: resting and action states. The non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation has been solved by considering the volumetric charge densities due to charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmatic proteins. Results showing the features of the potential profile along the outer electrolytic region are similar for both resting and action states. However, the potential fall along glycocalyx at action state is lower than at resting. A small variation in the Na + concentration drastically affects the surface membrane potentials and vice versa. We conclude that effects on the potential profile due to surface lipidic bilayer charge and contiguous electric double layers are more relevant than those provoked by fixed charges distributed along the cell cytoplasm.

  4. Electrical Resistivity Study of a Pleistocene Riverbed in Saltville, VA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. B.; Whisonant, R. C.

    2008-05-01

    A shallow capacitively coupled resistivity survey was performed in Saltville, VA, in an area of suspected buried Pleistocene river deposits. Previous excavations in the sediments beneath the Saltville valley floor had been performed to recover late Pleistocene megafaunal remains and possible Clovis-age human artifacts. These digs encountered a zone, one to two meters deep, of gravel-sized rock fragments, including some boulders up to 75 cm. in diameter. These large clasts are rounded, show some imbrication (shingle-like overlapping indicative of current flow), and have been interpreted as river channel deposits. Carbon 14 dates from the megafaunal bones within and just above the gravel bed yielded dates of 14,500 years BP. Resistivity signals in a number of locations were consistent with cobbles and boulders deposited in a river channel. These signals are generally bowl- shaped areas with large circular (2-d scans) anomalies near the center, and smaller circular anomalies tapering out towards both sides. The bowl-shaped anomalies are within 3 meters of the surface. With several lines imaged in this survey a rough path of the riverbed, along with a number of branchings is traceable in the survey area. An exploratory hole confirmed the presence of a layer of rounded cobbles and boulders 1.3 meters deep beneath one of the survey lines.

  5. The stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs with electrical resistance heating 

    E-print Network

    Baylor, Blake Allen

    1990-01-01

    recovery is the electric downhole heater, documented in an 1865 patent. The tool is used to heat fluids in the wellbore and the near vicinity. This process is called contact heating. The term electromagnetic heating, used herein, refers to a non.... ' "' The literature also reveals several patents that have been issued. In July 1969, Peeroleum Engineer told of a successful ERH project in the Little Tom field of Texas. In December 1969, the Oil and Gas Journal" revealed future plans for an ERH field test...

  6. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  7. Students' understanding of direct current resistive electrical circuits Paula Vetter Engelhardta)

    E-print Network

    Zollman, Dean

    Students' understanding of direct current resistive electrical circuits Paula Vetter Engelhardta Received 22 February 2002; accepted 1 August 2003 Both high school and university students' reasoning with a way of evaluating the progress and conceptual difficulties of their students. The analysis indicates

  8. Electrical resistivity sounding to study water content distribution in heterogeneous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical resistivity (ER) sounding is increasingly being used as non-invasive technique to reveal and map soil heterogeneity. The objective of this work was to assess ER sounding applicability to study soil water distribution in spatially heterogeneous soils. The 30x30-m study plot was located at ...

  9. High temperature electrical resistance of substrate-supported single walled carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Thomas Avedisian; Richard E. Cavicchi; Paul M. McEuen; Xinjian Zhou; Wilbur S. Hurst; Joseph T. Hodges

    2008-01-01

    We report the electrical characteristics of substrate-supported metallic single walled carbon nanotubes at temperatures up to 573 K over a range of bias voltages (Vb) for zero gate voltage in air under atmospheric pressure. Our results show a monotonic increase in resistance with temperature, with an I-Vb characteristic that is linear at high temperature but nonlinear at low temperature. A

  10. Anomaly of the electrical resistivity of polyvalent metal films with additions of Mn (and Fe)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    895 Anomaly of the electrical resistivity of polyvalent metal films with additions of Mn (and Fe) D'alliages de Mn et Fe dilués dans des métaux polyvalents sont déposés sur un substrat à 10 K. La résistivité électrique est mesurée au-dessous des différentes températures de recuit. Les alliages In + 1 at % Mn, Pb + 0

  11. 3D Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Predict Slope Failure in USM Campus, Penang, Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussein A. Moussa; Mohd M. N. Nawawi; Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    3D electrical resistivity imaging was carried out to monitor slope failure in the USM campus. The natural disasters that occur suddenly such as landslides can cause loss of life, and money by damaging roads and cars. The prediction of a landslide before it occurs will reduce or stop these hazards. Geophysical techniques can be used to image slopes and monitor

  12. Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion Potential and Electrical Resistance Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The electrical resistance and potential…

  13. High School Students' Understanding of Resistance in Simple Series Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegeois, Laurent; Mullet, Etienne

    2002-01-01

    Studies the understanding that 8-12 grade high school students were able to develop with regard to the interrelationships between resistance, potential difference, and current concepts (Ohm's law). Explores the immediate effects of exposure to electricity courses on the intuitive mastery of these relationships. (Contains 32 references.)…

  14. The Effectiveness of Electrical Resistivity Tomography In Monitoring Groundwater Flow In Fractured Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi You Zhou; Jun Shimada

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured rocks usually is highly preferential and limited to a few fractures. Traditional sampling method and monitoring using sensors installed at given positions are not enough to identify the groundwater flow in the fractured rocks. A new, noninvasive and promising method is electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of

  15. Cyclostationarity in electrical resistance tomography data from gas\\/liquid two-phase flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanbin Xu; Huaxiang Wang; Ziqiang Cui; Feng Dong; Wuliang Yin

    2010-01-01

    Cyclostationarity matches the rhythmic feature of the cycle exciting cycle measurement strategy of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and thus provides an effective signal processing for ERT data. This paper concerns with the effectiveness and application of cyclostationarity in analysing the ERT data and decribing the characteristic of multiphase flow. To this objective, basic theories on cyclostationarity analysis for signal feature

  16. Laser Fluorescence Measurements Compared to Electrical Resistance of Residual Dentine in Excavated Cavities in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Krause; A. Braun; J. Eberhard; S. Jepsen

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that laser fluorescence close to the dental pulp shows higher values than more distant measurements. The aim of this study was to assess fluorescence on the cavity floor and to correlate these measurements with electrical resistance as a measure of residual dentine thickness. Thirty carious lesions were excavated with a bur. The endpoint of caries removal

  17. Spatial focusing of electrical resistivity surveys considering geologic and hydrologic layering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Furman; Ty P. A. Ferre?; Gail L. Heath

    2007-01-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography ERT has shown great promise for monitoring transient hydrologic processes. One ad- vantage of ERT under those conditions is the ability of a user to tailor the spatial sensitivity of an ERT survey through selection of electrode locations and electrode combinations. Recent re- search has shown that quadripoles can be selected in a manner that improves the

  18. Inter-electrode tissue resistance is not affected by tissue edema when electrically

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    1 Inter-electrode tissue resistance is not affected by tissue edema when electrically stimulating develop edema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the edema would change inter electrodes. The protocol was administered to nine ICU patients with edema, eight surgical patients without

  19. The role of electrical resistance tomography in the U.S. nuclear waste site characterization program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W D Daily; A Ramirez

    1998-01-01

    Several tests are being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and thermo-hydrological behavior of this horizon and its suitability as a storage unit of the high level nuclear waste for the USA. One of the methods used to monitor the hydraulic response of the rockmass is electrical resistance tomography (ERT).

  20. Resistance buildup in electrical connectors due to fretting corrosion of rough surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Bryant

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive model to predict the contact resistance during the nth fretting cycle and the ultimate usable lifetime of the contact has been developed. This model incorporates contact wipe, fretting vibration amplitude and frequency, contaminant chemistry, material properties, plating thickness, asperity deformations, normal load, electrical load, and surface topography. It is assumed that fretting vibrations separate contacting asperities and expose

  1. Resistance buildup in electrical connectors due to fretting corrosion of rough surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Bryant

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive model to predict the contact resistance during the nth fretting cycle and the ultimate usable lifetime of the contact has been developed. This model incorporates contact wipe, fretting vibration amplitude and frequency, contaminant chemistry, material properties, plating thickness, asperity deformations, normal load, electrical load, and surface topography. It is assumed that fretting vibrations separate contacting asperities and expose

  2. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid Fe alloys at high P and T, and

    E-print Network

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid Fe alloys at high P and T, and heat flux is sustained by magnetohydrodynamic convection within the metallic liquid core. In a thermally advecting core, which depends sensitively on the thermal conductivity of liquid iron and its alloys with candidate light

  3. IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF LIQUID METALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Blake; A. R. Eames

    1963-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting impurities in liquid metals by means of ; changes in electrical resistivity is patented. The invention is particularly ; applicable to detecting impurities in reactor coolants and includes accurate ; compensation for changes in temperature. The apparatus consists of a means of ; comparing a test voltage, dependent upon the currert passing through liquid metal ;

  4. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Subterranean Void Space for Assessment of Endangered Species Habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Weissling; K. White

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of identifying and delineating subterranean habitat for endangered species in karst environments has been addressed through the application of near-surface geophysical techniques. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in both galvanic DC and capacitance-coupled modes has been applied to the problem of imaging subsurface voids, potentially conducive to karst invertebrate habitat, in two distinctly different geologic, geophysical, and environmental settings.

  5. Evaluation of Cu:SC ratio measurements by chemical etching, electrical resistivity, and image analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pyon; W. H. Warnes; M. Siddall

    1993-01-01

    A comparison is made of the techniques for measuring the copper to superconductor ratio (Cu:SC) in a set of commercial laboratory composite superconducting wires produced for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The simplest and most straightforward technique, chemical etching, was found to display the best reproducibility. The electrical resistivity technique shows the most variation and sensitivity to measurement errors, as

  6. Corrosion behaviors of sputter-deposited steel thin film for electrical resistance sensor material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Geun Kim; SeonYeob Li; Sungwon Jung; Seong-Min Lee; Jiyoung Kim; Young-Tai Kho

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental approach for the study of electrochemical characteristics of the steel thin film with a thickness of 600 nm as an electrical resistance sensor material with an improved sensitivity for the corrosion rate measurement. The thin film was deposited onto the glass by magnetron-sputtering using carbon steel targets in an Ar atmosphere. The physical properties of fabricated

  7. Damage in cement-based materials, studied by electrical resistance measurement

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    detection. It can also be conducted after the damage by ultrasonic inspection, liquid penetrant inspectionDamage in cement-based materials, studied by electrical resistance measurement D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY

  8. Characterization and monitoring of subsurface processes using parallel computing and electrical resistivity imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Marble, Justin

    2011-12-01

    This newsletter discusses recent advancement in subsurface resistivity characterization and monitoring capabilities. The BC Cribs field desiccation treatability test resistivity monitoring data is use an example to demonstrate near-real time 3D subsurface imaging capabilities. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a method of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface. An ERT data collection system consists of an array of electrodes, deployed on the ground surface or within boreholes, that are connected to a control unit which can access each electrode independently (Figure 1). A single measurement is collected by injecting current across a pair of current injection electrodes (source and sink), and measuring the resulting potential generated across a pair of potential measurement electrodes (positive and negative). An ERT data set is generated by collecting many such measurements using strategically selected current and potential electrode pairs. This data set is then processed using an inversion algorithm, which reconstructs an estimate (or image) of the electrical conductivity (i.e. the inverse of resistivity) distribution that gave rise to the measured data.

  9. 3D Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Predict Slope Failure in USM Campus, Penang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Hussein A.; Nawawi, Mohd M. N.; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2010-07-01

    3D electrical resistivity imaging was carried out to monitor slope failure in the USM campus. The natural disasters that occur suddenly such as landslides can cause loss of life, and money by damaging roads and cars. The prediction of a landslide before it occurs will reduce or stop these hazards. Geophysical techniques can be used to image slopes and monitor slope failure. The geophysical technique that was used in this study is electrical resistivity imaging. The results from the resistivity sections show that there are two different regions made up of granite, and sand zone. The results show that there are two factors which make the landslide possible. The first factor is the subsurface boulders and the other factor is saturated sand which may results subsidence of the surface.

  10. Electrical Resistance of the Solder Connections for the Consolidation of the LHC Main Interconnection Splices

    E-print Network

    Lutum, R; Scheuerlein, C

    2013-01-01

    For the consolidation of the LHC 13 kA main interconnection splices, shunts will be soldered onto each of the 10170 splices. The solder alloy selected for this purpose is Sn60Pb40. In this context the electrical resistance of shunt to busbar lap splices has been measured in the temperature range from RT to 20 K. A cryocooler set-up has been adapted such that a test current of 150 A could be injected for accurate resistance measurements in the low n? range. To study the influence of the solder bulk resistivity on the overall splice resistance, connections produced with Sn96Ag4 and Sn77.2In20Ag2.8 have been studied as well. The influence of the Sn60Pb40 solder resistance is negligible when measuring the splice resistance in a longitudinal configuration over a length of 6 cm. In a transverse measurement configuration the splice resistance is significantly influenced by the solder. The connections prepared with Sn77.2In20Ag2.8 show significantly higher resistance values, as expected from the relatively high sol...

  11. Gene and cytokine profile analysis of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Fukuoka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data suggest that the prevalence of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MR-M. pneumoniae) is increasing rapidly worldwide. This study assessed the present status of M. pneumoniae infection in Japan and clinical end-points to distinguish children with MR-M. pneumoniae. Methods During an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infections in Fukuoka, Japan in 2010–11, a total of 105 children with clinically suspected M. pneumoniae infection were enrolled. M. pneumoniae was analyzed for macrolide resistance in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. Sixty -five patients with PCR positive for M. pneumoniae were analyzed with regard to clinical symptoms, efficacy of several antimicrobial agents and several laboratory data. Results Causative pathogens were detected in 81.0% (85 of 105) and M. pneumoniae was identified 61.9% (65 of 105). The resistance rate of M. pneumoniae was 89.2% (58 of 65) in this general pediatric outpatient setting. Patients infected with MR-M. pneumoniae showed longer times to resolution of fever and required frequent changes of the initially prescribed macrolide to another antimicrobial agent. We observed three different genotypes of M. pneumoniae including the rarely reported A2063T mutation (A2063G: 31 strains, A2063T: 27 strains, no mutation: 7 strains). Drug susceptibility testing showed different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for each genotype. Serum IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IP-10 levels were higher in patients with MR-genotypes than in those infected with no-mutation strains (p?resistance is more common than previously thought and a small epidemic of rarely reported A2063T mutation was observed in Fukuoka, Japan. Furthermore our results reveal the possibility that levels of certain inflammatory cytokines may be a candidate to predict MR-M.pneumoniae infection. PMID:24330612

  12. Global Transcriptional Profiling of Longitudinal Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exhibiting Rapid Accumulation of Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirvan; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Bhatter, Purva; Mistry, Nerges

    2013-01-01

    The identification of multidrug resistant (MDR), extensively and totally drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in vulnerable sites such as Mumbai, is a grave threat to the control of tuberculosis. The current study aimed at explaining the rapid expression of MDR in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) compliant patients, represents the first study comparing global transcriptional profiles of 3 pairs of clinical Mtb isolates, collected longitudinally at initiation and completion of DOTS. While the isolates were drug susceptible (DS) at onset and MDR at completion of DOTS, they exhibited identical DNA fingerprints at both points of collection. The whole genome transcriptional analysis was performed using total RNA from H37Rv and 3 locally predominant spoligotypes viz. MANU1, CAS and Beijing, hybridized on MTBv3 (BuG@S) microarray, and yielded 36, 98 and 45 differentially expressed genes respectively. Genes encoding transcription factors (sig, rpoB), cell wall biosynthesis (emb genes), protein synthesis (rpl) and additional central metabolic pathways (ppdK, pknH, pfkB) were found to be down regulated in the MDR isolates as compared to the DS isolate of the same genotype. Up regulation of drug efflux pumps, ABC transporters, trans-membrane proteins and stress response transcriptional factors (whiB) in the MDR isolates was observed. The data indicated that Mtb, without specific mutations in drug target genes may persist in the host due to additional mechanisms like drug efflux pumps and lowered rate of metabolism. Furthermore this population of Mtb, which also showed reduced DNA repair activity, would result in selection and stabilization of spontaneous mutations in drug target genes, causing selection of a MDR strain in the presence of drug pressures. Efflux pump such as drrA may play a significant role in increasing fitness of low level drug resistant cells and assist in survival of Mtb till acquisition of drug resistant mutations with least fitness cost. PMID:23355892

  13. Local Resistance Profiling of Ultra Shallow Junction Annealed with Combination of Spike Lamp and Laser Annealing Processes using Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Abo, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Kazuhisa; Ushigome, Naoya; Wakaya, Fujio; Takai, Mikio [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Oda, Hidekazu [Advanced Device Technology Department, Production and Technology Unit, Devices and Analysis Technology Division, Renesas Electronics Corporation, 751, Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, 312-8504 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Local resistance profiles of ultra shallow boron and arsenic implanted into silicon with energies of 2.0 and 4.0 keV and doses of 2.0x10{sup 15} and 1.0x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} activated by a combination of conventional spike lamp and laser annealing processes were measured by scanning spreading resistance microscope (SSRM) with a depth resolution of less than 10 nm. The lowest local resistance at the low resistance region in 2.0 keV boron implanted silicon with 1050 deg. C spike lamp annealing followed by 0.35 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing was half of that without laser annealing. The lowest local resistance at the low resistance region in the arsenic implanted silicon activated by 1050 deg. C spike lamp annealing followed by 0.39 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing was 74% lower than that followed by 0.36 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing. The lowest local resistances at the low resistance regions in the arsenic implanted silicon with 0.36 and 0.39 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing followed by 1050 deg. C spike lamp annealing were 41 and 33% lower than those with spike lamp annealing followed by laser annealing. Laser annealing followed by spike lamp annealing could suppress the diffusion of the impurities and was suitable for making the ultra shallow and low resistance regions.

  14. Antibiotic resistance profile and virulence genes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in relation to phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Adib, N; Ghanbarpour, R; Solatzadeh, H; Alizade, H

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) and belong to the large group of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. The purposes of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance profile, virulence genes and phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from UTI cases. A total of 137 E. coli isolates were obtained from UTI samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of confirmed isolates was determined by disk diffusion method against eight antibiotics. The isolates were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of selected virulence genes including iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly. ECOR phylo-groups of isolates were determined by detection of yjaA and chuA genes and fragment TspE4.C2. The antibiogram results showed that 71% of the isolates were resistant to cefazolin, 60.42% to co-trimoxazole, 54.16% to nalidixic acid, 36.45% to gentamicin, 29.18% to ciprofloxacin, 14.58% to cefepime, 6.25% to nitrofurantoin and 0.00% to imipenem. Twenty-two antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. Virulence genotyping of isolates revealed that 58.39% isolates had at least one of the four virulence genes. The iucD gene was the most prevalent gene (43.06%). The other genes including sfa/focDE, papEF and hly genes were detected in 35.76%, 18.97% and 2.18% isolates, respectively. Nine combination patterns of the virulence genes were detected in isolates. Phylotyping of 137 isolates revealed that the isolates fell into A (45.99%), B1 (13.14%), B2 (19.71%) and D (21.16%) groups. Phylotyping of multidrug resistant isolates indicated that these isolates are mostly in A (60.34%) and D (20.38%) groups. In conclusion, the isolates that possessed the iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly virulence genes mostly belonged to A and B2 groups, whereas antibiotic resistant isolates were in groups A and D. Escherichia coli strains carrying virulence factors and antibiotic resistance are distributed in specific phylogenetic background. PMID:24862040

  15. Resistance gene analogues identified through the NBS-profiling method map close to major genes and QTL for disease resistance in apple.

    PubMed

    Calenge, F; Van der Linden, C G; Van de Weg, E; Schouten, H J; Van Arkel, G; Denancé, C; Durel, C-E

    2005-02-01

    We used a new method called nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling to identify and map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple. This method simultaneously allows the amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS-encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. Ninety-four individuals belonging to an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple cultivars 'Discovery' and 'TN10-8' were studied. Two degenerate primers designed from the highly conserved P-loop motif within the NBS domain were used together with adapter primers. Forty-three markers generated with NBS profiling could be mapped in this progeny. After sequencing, 23 markers were identified as RGAs, based on their homologies with known resistance genes or NBS/leucine-rich-repeat-like genes. Markers were mapped on 10 of the 17 linkage groups of the apple genetic map used. Most of these markers were organized in clusters. Twenty-five markers mapped close to major genes or quantitative trait loci for resistance to scab and mildew previously identified in different apple progenies. Several markers could become efficient tools for marker-assisted selection once converted into breeder-friendly markers. This study demonstrates the efficiency of the NBS-profiling method for generating RGA markers for resistance loci in apple. PMID:15647920

  16. Relationships among low frequency (2 Hz) electrical resistivity, porosity, clay content and permeability in reservoir sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tongcheng; Best, Angus I.; Sothcott, Jeremy; North, Laurence J.; MacGregor, Lucy M.

    2015-01-01

    The improved interpretation of marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data requires knowledge of the inter-relationships between reservoir parameters and low frequency electrical resistivity. Hence, the electrical resistivities of 67 brine (35 g/l) saturated sandstone samples with a range of petrophysical properties (porosity from 2% to 29%, permeability from 0.0001 mD to 997.49 mD and volumetric clay content from 0 to 28%) were measured in the laboratory at a frequency of 2 Hz using a four-electrode circumferential resistivity method with an accuracy of ± 2%. The results show that sandstones with porosity higher than 9% and volumetric clay content up to 22% behave like clean sandstones and follow Archie's law for a brine concentration of 35 g/l. By contrast, at this brine salinity, sandstones with porosity less than 9% and volumetric clay content above 10% behave like shaly sandstones with non-negligible grain surface conductivity. A negative, linear correlation was found between electrical resistivity and hydraulic permeability on a logarithmic scale. We also found good agreement between our experimental results and a clay pore blocking model based on pore-filling and load-bearing clay in a sand/clay mixture, variable (non-clay) cement fraction and a shaly sandstone resistivity model. The model results indicate a general transition in shaly sandstones from clay-controlled resistivity to sand-controlled resistivity at about 9% porosity. At such high brine concentrations, no discernible clay conduction effect was observed above 9% porosity.

  17. In situ monitoring of electrical resistance of nanoferrite thin film irradiated by 190 MeV Au 14+ ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjukta Ghosh; P. Ayyub; N. Kumar; S. A. Khan; D. Banerjee

    2003-01-01

    A highly resistive nanocrystalline thin film of Li0.25Mg0.5Mn0.1Fe2.15O4, deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique on Si(100) substrate, is irradiated with 190 MeV Au14+ ions. To probe the swift heavy ion induced modifications in the electrical properties in the film an in situ measurement of electrical resistance using two-probe method is carried out. We observe the value of resistivity comes down

  18. Simulation of Fine Resist Profile Formation by Electron Beam Drawing and Development with Solubility Rate Based on Energy Deposition Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Komori, Takuya; Zhang, Yulong; Yin, You; Hosaka, Sumio

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a model for calculating the resist profile in electron beam drawing. The model predicts the solubility rate on the basis of the energy deposition distribution (EDD) for the development of latent patterns in the resist. By unifying the exposure dose D (via experiments) and EDDs (via calculations), we roughly determined solubility rates for three-dimensional EDDs, and established the proposed model. The development simulation was achieved by the sequential calculation method for solubility rates based on EDD which was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. By determining a suitable EDD region to achieve good patterning, we obtained a sharp nanodot pattern of the resist. This simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a combination of 2.3 wt % tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and 4 wt % NaCl as the developer. The model was demonstrated to be useful for predicting resist profiles with different experimental solubility rates of developers.

  19. Electrical resistivity (4K to 2100K) of annealed vapor growth carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Akhter U.; Rost, Martin C.; Meyer, Duane; Dillon, Rodney O.; Woollam, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon fibers have been grown from methane gas, on iron seeded substrates at 1370 K, and subsequently annealed to a series of temperatures between 2800 K and 3475 K. The subsequent measurement of the electrical resistivity are reported as a function of temperature from 4 K to 2100 K. The two band model for the resistivity of graphite is well fit to the data, and results in physically reasonable parameters of the fits. The resistivity vs temperature results for two boron doped fibers are reported as well. The product of the resistivity times density for these fibers is lower than that product for any refractory metal, for temperatures above about 1000 K, suggesting the usefulness of these fibers as high temperature materials in space applications.

  20. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  1. Investigating preferential flow processes in soils using anisotropy in electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hazaimay, S.; Huisman, J. A.; Zimmermann, E.; Kemna, A.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Macropores occupy a small volume fraction of the pore space in the vadose zone. Water and solutes can quickly bypass the vadose zone through these macropores in a process known as macropore preferential flow. In the last few decades, many efforts were made to improve understanding the macropore preferential flow processes because of their importance in transporting agrochemicals and contaminants to the groundwater. Unfortunately, very few measurement methods provide insights into these preferential flow processes. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate whether anisotropy in electrical resistivity can be used to identify the existence of flow in macropores and perhaps even to characterize the exchange between macropores and bulk soil. In a first step, infiltration into a soil column with an artificial macropore was simulated using the HYDRUS software package that solves the pseudo three-dimensional axisymmetric Richards equation. The simulated temporal development of the resistivity anisotropy was obtained by solving the Poisson equation in MATLAB after converting the simulated water content distributions to electrical resistivity distributions. At the beginning of the simulation, a small anisotropy ratio was simulated because of the presence of the empty ('deactivated') macropore in the moist matrix. As soon as the infiltration process started, macropore flow occurred and both the horizontal and vertical resistivity decreased strongly. However, the vertical and horizontal resistivity reacted differently because of the presence of the conductive ('activated') macropore, which led to anisotropy in the resistivity. As soon as infiltration into the macropore stopped, water re-distributed from the macropore to the matrix domain and contrasts in electrical resistivity decreased within the column. To verify the simulation results in the laboratory, we measured the temporal dynamics of the anisotropy in resistivity during water infiltration into a soil column of 9 cm diameter and 40 cm length with an artificial macropore of 2 cm diameter in the center of the column. The first experimental results confirmed that the anisotropy in electrical resistivity can indeed be used to identify and perhaps even quantify macropore flow.

  2. The application of electrical resistivity tomography and gravimetric survey as useful tools in an active tectonics study of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (Bohemian Massif, central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Št?pan?íková, Petra; Dohnal, Ji?í; Pánek, Tomáš; ?ój, Monika; Smolková, Veronika; Šilhán, Karel

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of two separate geophysical investigations undertaken across the Sudetic Marginal Fault zone in the Bohemian Massif. This fault zone represents one of the most important tectonic features in central Europe. The first, preliminary, investigation used electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to define the exact position of the main fault at two localities (Kameni?ka & Bílá Voda). Both profiles revealed a resistivity gradient that divided a complex of crystalline rocks with high resistivities from sedimentary deposits with low resistivities. From these data, sites were selected for palaeoseismic trenching. This trenching provided detailed information regarding the surveyed structures and lithologies. The second, more extensive, investigation used electrical resistivity tomography and gravimetric survey in order to extend the previously recognised features both laterally and to depth. The fault is displayed by the presence of an expressive resistivity gradient, even on profiles undertaken in more homogeneous lithologies. Finally, the most intensive investigations were conducted at Bílá Voda, where highly detailed ERT was undertaken on the floor of the trench. From this, it was possible to trace approximately logged geological structures to far greater depths and assess sedimentary thicknesses. A gravimetric survey was also undertaken adjacent to the trench. From modelling the gravitational effects of the fault zone, it is shown that the fault dips about 75° NE and that the vertical offset of Miocene vs. bedrock on the fault is approximately 200 m. The presented study has demonstrated the value of undertaking two phases of geophysical exploration separated by a trenching investigation. It is considered that this methodology is particularly suitable for the study of active tectonics in analogous intraplate settings where fault slip-rate is low.

  3. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    PubMed Central

    Ata?, Mustafa; Ba?kan, Burhan; Özköse, Ay?e; Mutlu Sar?güzel, Fatma; Demircan, Süleyman; Pangal, Emine

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections. METHODS Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI) group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME) or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4%) were male and twenty (55.6%) were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86). The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7%) of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5%) of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4%) of control eyes (P=0.03). Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0%) isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9%) of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes) (P=0.44). There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. CONCLUSION There was no difference in species of bacteria isolated from cultures, or in the frequency of resistance to antibiotics between eyes that had recurrent IVI followed by moxifloxacin exposure compared with control eyes. However, the number of eyes that had bacterial growth was higher in IVI group than in the control group. PMID:25349806

  4. Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Constraining a Hydrogeological Model in a Data Sparse Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Geological and hydrogeological data are often spatially limited in mountainous regions. In these settings, geophysical techniques can be used to constrain hydrogeological models by providing insight into the hydrostratigraphy and the continuity of units in the subsurface. This study we used electrical resistivity tomography coupled with a priori geological data from residential water wells to improve the accuracy and confidence of a hydrogeological model. The study area is situated within the mountainous Cowichan watershed in British Columbia, Canada. Throughout the watershed, unconsolidated deposits of variable thickness overlie bedrock. Based on available water well information, at high elevation, sediment thickness is on the order of a few metres, but within the valley bottom, sediment thickness can be up to 300 m. The unconsolidated deposits are heterogeneous due to a complex depositional environment that was controlled by glacial advances and recessions, most notably during the Fraser Glaciation. Six electrical resistivity transects of various lengths spanning 135 to 830 metres were conducted in an area of the watershed that is particularly data poor. The electrical resistivity transects were strategically placed, first, to make use of available lithology information from existing water wells in order to constrain the geophysical interpretation, and second, to contribute data to areas that lack subsurface lithological records. Electrical resistivity was measured using a AGI SuperSting R1 system, and data were processed using robust inversion software to identify stark geophysical contacts. The technique successfully delineated zones of conductive and resistive units that have been interpreted as aquitards (clay and till formations), aquifers (water bearing sand and gravel lenses), and bedrock based on dielectric contrast. Available surficial geology and bedrock geology maps, coupled with residential well drilling records, further assisted in mapping the continuity of the hydrogeological units at a larger scale, and the results were digitized and integrated to construct a three dimensional hydrogeological model of the watershed.

  5. Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

  6. Inspection of earthen embankment dams using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jared S.

    According to the National Inventory of Dams (NID), the number of dams across the United States is approximately 85,000. Many of these dams are more than 50 years old and need vast attention to ensure their safety. It is difficult to obtain a full assessment of the dam just by visual inspections alone. This is because many problems associated with dam failure occur internally, which makes it difficult to be observed by the dam inspectors. Examples of these flaws are piping and seepage (flow of water through or around dam walls). It is in this area where geophysical methods can aid in obtaining a more confident evaluation of a dam's integrity. Electrical resistivity is one geophysical technique that would be useful in detecting internal flaws associated with seepage and piping because it is sensitive to moisture changes. A study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to map and monitor internal compromised zones within earthen embankment dams. Two quarter-scaled earthen embankment dams were built at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Hydraulics and Engineering Research Unit (HERU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. These two dams were constructed with known internal compromised zones that are susceptible to seepage and piping. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted on the completed dams using a 56 electrode dipole-dipole array. The collected data was then processed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) imaging software and evidence of these two compromised zones was easily visible. Also, additional surveys were conducted in order to monitor the changes in electrical signatures associated with changes in these zones due to filling of the reservoir and environmental/climate changes.

  7. Stark Profiles In Plasmas Interacting With A Strong Oscillatory Quasi-Monochromatic Electric Field

    SciTech Connect

    Sauvan, P. [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dalimier, E.; Riconda, C. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses UMR 7605, CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris 6, case 128, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 and 91128 Palaiseau (France); Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Laboratory, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Renner, O. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences CR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Weber, S. [CELIA Universite Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence (France)

    2010-10-29

    This paper presents an advanced analysis of the spectroscopic signatures of the interaction of a strong oscillating Quasi-monochromatic Electric Field (QEF), generated by a high-power short-pulse laser, with a preformed laser-produced plasma. The computation of a synthetic spectrum emitted by such plasmas requires the calculation of the Stark line shape in the presence of a QEF and the evaluation of the QEF intensity profile throughout the line of sight in the plasma. As for the Stark profiles in hot dense plasmas submitted to a strong QEF, they are calculated using the so-called Floquet-Liouville formalism. In this formalism, the Liouville space, usually used for the calculation of Stark profiles in dense plasmas, and the Floquet theory, developed to solve time-periodic problems, have been joined together to solve the time-dependent Liouville equation. A second kind of simulations involving Particle-In-Cell PIC kinetic simulations is required for the calculation of the QEF inhomogeneous intensity and the exotic features exhibited in the spectroscopic diagnostic. The global synthetic profile is obtained integrating all individual contributions for every time and location in the plasma. Finally, a spectroscopic analysis of the experimental Al He {beta} line is performed using the tools presented in this work. The spectroscopic signatures of the QEF show up as prominent satellites, non symmetrical with respect to the unperturbed line and distinguishable from the di-electronic satellites.

  8. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of mercury-resistant oral bacteria from children with and without mercury amalgam fillings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pike; V. Lucas; P. Stapleton; M. S. Gilthorpe; G. Roberts; R. Rowbury; H. Richards; P. Mullany; M. Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Genes encoding resistance to mercury and to antibiotics are often carried on the same mobile genetic element and so it is possible that mercury-containing dental materials may select for bacteria resistant to mercury and to antibiotics. The main aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of Hg-resistant oral bacteria was greater in children with mercury amalgam fillings

  9. Evidence for an Oxygen Diffusion Model for the Electric Pulse Induced Resistance Change Effect in Transition-Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Nian; J. Strozier; N. J. Wu; X. Chen; A. Ignatiev

    2007-01-01

    Electric-pulse induced resistance hysteresis switching loops for Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 perovskite oxide films were found to exhibit an additional sharp ``shuttle tail'' peak around the negative pulse maximum for films deposited in an oxygen-deficient ambient. The resistance relaxation in time of this ``shuttle tail'' peak as well as resistance relaxation in the transition regions of the resistance hysteresis loop show evidence of

  10. Earthquake resistant construction of electric transmission and telecommunication facilities serving the Federal government report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, F.Y.

    1990-02-01

    The vulnerability of electrical transmission and telecommunication facilities to damage in past earthquakes, as well as available standards and technologies to protect these facilities against earthquake damage are reviewed. An overview is presented of measures taken by various Federal agencies to protect electrical transmission and telecommunication facilities against earthquake hazards. It is concluded that while most new facilities which are owned and operated by Federal agencies are presently designed to provide some, though not necessarily adequate, earthquake resistance, there generally is no effort to retrofit existing facilities. No evidence was found of requirements to protect electrical transmission and communication facilities which have major contractual obligations to serve the Federal Government and only limited seismic design requirements are stipulated for electrical transmission systems constructed with Federal funding.

  11. Monitoring the expression profiles of doxorubicin-resistant K562 human leukemia cells by serial analysis of gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikazu Ichikawa; Makoto Hirokawa; Namiko Aiba; Naohito Fujishima; Atsushi omatsuda; Hirobumi Saitoh; Masaaki Kume; Ikuo Miura; Ken-ichi Sawada

    2004-01-01

    We examined the expression profiles of doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to identify\\u000a novel and\\/or partially characterized genes that might be related to drug resistance in human leukemia. SAGE complementary\\u000a DNA (cDNA) libraries were constructed from K562 and doxorubicin-resistant K562 (K562\\/ADM) cells, and concatamer sequences\\u000a were analyzed with SAGE 2000 software.We used 9792 tags in

  12. Electron Beam Lithography Double Step Exposure Technique for Fabrication of Mushroom-Like Profile in Bilayer Resist System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornelia, Indykiewicz; Bogdan, Paszkiewicz; Tomasz, Szyma?ski; Regina, Paszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    The Hi/Lo bilayer resist system exposure in e-beam lithography (EBL) process, intended for mushroom-like profile fabrication, was studied. Different exposure parameters and theirs influence on the resist layers were simulated in CASINO software and the obtained results were compared with the experimental data. The AFM technique was used for the estimation of the e-beam penetration depth in the resist stack. Performed numerical and experimental results allow us to establish the useful ranges of the exposure parameters.

  13. Semiconductorlike Behavior of Electrical Resistivity in Heusler-type Fe2VAl Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Y.; Kato, M.; Asano, S.; Soda, K.; Hayasaki, M.; Mizutani, U.

    1997-09-01

    An anomalous negative temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been observed in \\(Fe1-xVx\\)3Al alloys with V compositions up to x = 0.35. In particular, the Heusler-type Fe2VAl compound is found to be on the verge of magnetic ordering and to exhibit a semiconductorlike behavior with the resistivity reaching 3000 ?? cm at 2 K, in spite of the possession of a clear Fermi cutoff as revealed in photoemission valence-band spectra. A substantial mass enhancement deduced from specific heat measurements suggests that Fe2VAl is a possible candidate for a 3d heavy-fermion system.

  14. Electrical Transport in Charge-Ordered Fe2OBO3: Resistive Switching and Pressure Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Akrap, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Complexe; Angst, M [Institut fur Festkorperforschung; Khalifah, Peter [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Mandrus, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Forro, Laszlo [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Complexe

    2010-01-01

    The pressure-temperature-electric field phase diagram of Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} is studied under ambient and high pressure using resistivity and thermoelectric power measurements. The onset of the incommensurate charge order at T{sub CO} = 340 K does not depend on pressure up to at least 2 GPa. The temperature of the transition to the commensurate charge order is increased by {approx}10 K/GPa. High pressure stabilizes the commensurate phase. We find evidence for resistive switching in the incommensurate phase, which may be linked to the dynamics of the charge-order domain boundaries.

  15. In Vitro Efficacies and Resistance Profiles of Rifampin-Based Combination Regimens for Biofilm-Embedded Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wu, Kuan-Ying; Lin, Yi-Chung; Zhang, Chun-Cheng; Weng, Tzu-Chieh; Yu, Wen-Liang; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Toh, Han-Siong; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Su, Bo An

    2013-01-01

    To compare the in vitro antibacterial efficacies and resistance profiles of rifampin-based combinations against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a biofilm model, the antibacterial activities of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, minocycline, linezolid, fusidic acid, fosfomycin, and tigecycline alone or in combination with rifampin against biofilm-embedded MRSA were measured. The rifampin-resistant mutation frequencies were evaluated. Of the rifampin-based combinations, rifampin enhances the antibacterial activities of and even synergizes with fusidic acid, tigecycline, and, to a lesser extent, linezolid, fosfomycin, and minocycline against biofilm-embedded MRSA. Such combinations with weaker rifampin resistance induction activities may provide a therapeutic advantage in MRSA biofilm-related infections. PMID:23959320

  16. Comparative analysis of virulence and resistance profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from poultry meat and foodborne outbreaks in northern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Abedel Hafiz, Leena; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Ababneh, Qotaibah O; Al Mousa, Waseem; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Osaili, Tareq M; Holley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry samples and compare their virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles to S. Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks in northern Jordan. Two hundred presumptive isolates were obtained from 302 raw poultry samples and were subjected to further analysis and confirmation. A phylogenic tree based on 16S rRNA sequencing was constructed and selected isolates representing each cluster were further studied for their virulence in normal adult Swiss white mice. The most virulent strains were isolated from poultry samples and had an LD50 of 1.55 × 105 CFU, while some of the outbreak isolates were avirulent in mice. Antibiotic resistance profiling revealed that the isolates were resistant to seven of eight antibiotics screened with each isolate resistant to multiple antibiotics (from two to six). Of the poultry isolates, 100%, 88.9%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 50% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoperazone, respectively. Two outbreak isolates were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 71.4% were resistant to cefoperazone and only 28.6% showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Salmonella outbreak isolates were genetically related to poultry isolates as inferred from the 16S rRNA sequencing, yet were phenotypically different. Although outbreak strains were similar to poultry isolates, when tested in the mouse model, some of the outbreak isolates were highly virulent while others were avirulent. This might be due to a variation in susceptibility of the mouse to different S. Enteritidis isolates. PMID:24780883

  17. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of amphenicol-resistant Campylobacter jejuni by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xia, Xi; Li, Xiaowei; Naren, Gaowa; Fu, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wu, Congming; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhang, Suxia; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, an important foodborne microorganism, poses severe and emergent threats to human health as antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly prevalent. The mechanisms of drug resistance are hard to decipher, and little is known at the metabolic level. Here we apply metabolomic profiling to discover metabolic changes associated with amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) resistance mutations of Campylobacter jejuni. An optimized sample preparation method was combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF/MS) and pattern recognition for the analysis of small-molecule biomarkers of drug resistance. UHPLC-triple quadrupole MS operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for quantitative analysis of metabolic features from UHPLC-TOF/MS profiling. Up to 41 differential metabolites involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were observed in a chloramphenicol-resistant mutant strain of Campylobacter jejuni. A panel of 40 features was identified in florfenicol-resistant mutants, demonstrating changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study shows that the UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics platform is a promising and valuable tool to generate new insights into the drug-resistant mechanism of Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:25491530

  18. Electric charging of dust particles: Impact on the variations of electric field and electric resistivity of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, Elena; Zakharov, Alexander; Godefroy, Michel; Dolnikov, Gennady

    Abstract. Short Dipole Antenna is proposed in the frame of the Dust Package onboard the ROSCOSMOS- ESA ExoMars Lander. The SDA is developed to measure the electric field from few ?V m-1 to few tens kV m-1 in the frequency range form DC to few kHz. The SDA concept and the model of its electric coupling with the air were tested and justified in the Nevada desert, in the conditions of dust devils generation. We illustrate our presentation with few examples of earth's observations, present simple models that explain the measured electric field and its correlation with the electric charge of the dust/sand particles, their density and motion. Comparative analysis between Earth and Mars cases is discussed.

  19. Research on geo-electrical resistivity observation system specially used for earthquake monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jialiu; Wang, Lanwei; Qian, Jiadong

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of the observational system of geo-electrical resistivity on the basis of the demands for exploring the temporal variations of electrical properties of Earth media in the fixed points of the networks, which would be associated with the earthquake preparation. The observation system is characterized by the high accuracy in measurement, long term stability in operation and high level of rejection to the environmental interference. It consists of three main parts, configuration system measurement system, the calibration and inspection system.

  20. Microwave electrical resistivity of moderately high Tc superconductor, Y 2C 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutagawa, Satoshi; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Kitano, Haruhisa; Maeda, Atsutaka; Akimitsu, Jun

    2007-09-01

    We performed the first electrical property study by measuring microwave complex surface impedance, Zs, of Y2C3 with Tc = 15.5 K. First of all, the resistivity was determined successfully in the normal state. We observed a typical behavior of the Drude metal in the Hargen-Rubens limit (?1 ? ?2) in the normal state, and we succeeded in observing the occurrence of superconductivity in the electrical property for the first time. We found that Y2C3 was a typical type-II clean superconductor.

  1. Effect of heat treatment, deoxidation procedure, and low temperatures on the crack resistance of full-profile rails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Georgiev; K. P. Zamula; N. Ya. Mezhova; V. A. Reikhart

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the crack resistance of nonthermally strengthened (NT), bulk hardened (BH), and surface hardened type R65 rails of quality groups I and II are presented. Results are summarized for tests on 616 full-profile rail samples from 57 different batches at 20, -20, and -60°C. It is shown that deoxidation of rail steel with master alloys which do not contain

  2. susceptibility profile of 16 Methicillin resistant StaphylococcuS aureuS (Mrsa) clinical isolates against Major antibiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mastura; Selangor Darul Ehsan

    Increased prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major threat to healthcare world wide. This study was therefore designed to assess susceptibility profile of 16 MRSA isolates acquired from two local hospitals with three reference isolates (acquired from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)) as comparison. Amikacin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin and vancomycin representing five major classes of antibiotics

  3. Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine max) to Japanese

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine japonica) was greater when plants were grown under elevated CO2, elevated O3 and the combination of elevated CO2 plus elevated O3 than when grown in ambient atmosphere. The effect of herbivory

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IN ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM SWINE, POULTRY, BEEF AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) profiles have been studied to identify sources of fecal pollution. However, research is needed to understand the geographical limitations in applying MAR. More than 2000 E. coli were isolated from swine, poultry, beef and dairy farms in south ...

  5. In Situ Electrical Resistivity and Hall Effect Measurement of ?-HgS under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ting-Jing; Cui, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xue-Fei; Wang, Jing-Shu; Yang, Jing-Hai; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    With in situ electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurement, the transport properties and carrier behavior of ?-HgS under high pressure are investigated up to 32.9 GPa. The electrical resistivity changes discontinuously at 5.4, 14.6, and 25.0 GPa. These discontinuities correspond to the phase transitions of ?-HgS from zinc blende to cinnabar, then to rock salt structure. For the zinc blende structure, the decrease of carrier concentration and the increase of mobility indicate that the originally overlapped valence band and conduction band separate with pressure. For the rock salt phase, the increase of ionized impurity concentration leads to the decrease of mobility with pressure.

  6. Low-temperature electrical resistivity of praseodymium at pressures up to 120 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlin, J. J.; Jeffries, J. R.; Samudrala, G.; Vohra, Y. K.; Weir, S. T.; Zocco, D. A.; Maple, M. B.

    2011-07-01

    Under ambient conditions, praseodymium metal possesses a localized 4f2-electron configuration. Near 20 GPa, the lattice volume collapses by ~10% into the ?-uranium crystal structure, and the electrical resistivity drops dramatically. This behavior is similar to that observed in cerium metal and has been taken as evidence for 4f delocalization, although the precise nature of such volume collapse transitions in rare-earth metals is still a matter of debate. Since cerium metal develops superconductivity in the collapsed phase, we undertook a search for superconductivity in praseodymium metal at high pressure. Using designer diamond anvils, we measured the electrical resistivity of high purity praseodymium metal to pressures above 1 Mbar and millikelvin temperatures. No evidence for superconductivity was found in any of the measurements. The lack of superconductivity may derive from magnetic pair-breaking effects related to incomplete screening/delocalization of the 4f-electron state.

  7. Electrical resistivity and TDR methods for soil moisture estimation in central Italy test-sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamita, G.; Brocca, L.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryIn this study, the feasibility of the resistivity method for the study of the spatial and temporal soil moisture variations in the Vallaccia catchment (central Italy), covering an area of about 56 km2, was investigated. Correlation and regression analyses were performed over a 1 year data set of simultaneous soil electrical resistivity and soil moisture measurements, acquired in eight different sites with a Resistivimeter Syscal Junior and a portable Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR), respectively. Measurements acquired in-time by continuous Frequency Domain Reflectometer (FDR) sensors were also used and compared with simultaneous resistivity measurements. The statistical analyses were conducted not only for the whole data set, but also separately for each sampling day, for each sampling site and considering spatially averaged data. Results showed a good correlation between resistivity and soil moisture measurements, revealing the capability of resistivity measurements to infer soil moisture spatial and temporal variability with a root mean square error equal, on average, to 4.4% vol/vol. In comparison with TDR, the resistivity method gives information integrated on a greater volume of soil and the measurements are easier and quicker to be carried out. Therefore, this method can be considered as an alternative tool to be employed for qualitative and quantitative soil moisture monitoring in small to medium catchments.

  8. Hillslope characterization in terms of geophysical units based on the joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feskova, Tatiana; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological conditions in a catchment depend on many factors such as climatic, geological, geomorphological, biological and human, which interact with each other and influence water balance in a catchment. This interaction leads to the subordination in the landscape structure, namely the weak elements subordinate to the powerful elements. Thereby, geological and geomorphological factors play an essential role in catchment development and organization. A hillslope consequently can be allocated to one class of the representative units because the important flow processes run at the hillslope. Moreover, a hillslope can be subdivided into stratigraphic subsurface units and significant hillslope areas based on the lithological change of contrasting interfaces. The knowledge of subsurface structures is necessary to understand and predicate complex hydrological processes in a catchment. Geophysical techniques provide a good opportunity to explore the subsurface. A complete geophysical investigation of subsurface in a catchment with difficult environmental conditions never will be achieved because of large time effort in the field, equipment logistic, and ambiguity in the data interpretation. The case study demonstrates how a catchment can be investigated using geophysical methods in an effective manner in terms of characterization of representative units with respect to a functional role in the catchment. This case study aims to develop combined resistivity and seismic velocity hillslope subsurface models for the distinction of representative functional units. In order to identify the contrasting interfaces of the hillslope, to localize significant hillslope areas, and to address the ambiguity in the geophysical data interpretation, the case study combined resistivity surveys (vertical electrical soundings and electrical resistivity tomography) with refraction seismic method, and conducted these measurements at one single profile along the hillslope transect and perpendicular to this transect. The measurements along the hillslope transect deliver the two-dimensional hillslope section of resistivity and seismic velocity distribution with contrasting stratigraphic interfaces, whereas the measurements perpendicular to the hillslope transect obtained from vertical electrical soundings survey localize significant hillslope areas indicating existence of two-dimensional features in the subsurface. To demonstrate the suitability of the suggested approach, resistivity and refraction seismic measurements were carried out at the forested gently inclined hillslope in the Weierbach catchment, which belongs to the hydrological observatory Attert Basin locating in the mid-western part of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. This hillslope is characterized by Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits, which plays an important role in the ecosystem functioning. The obtained resistivity and seismic hillslope models of the Weierbech catchment complement well one another. The hillslope models identify three significant hillslope areas along the hillslope called as elementary functional units, and four electrical vertical stratigraphic units and two seismic vertical stratigraphic units that agree with lithological stratigraphy of this study site. In conclusions, the suggested geophysical approach is suitable to characterise a hillslope as the representative unit only at a single transect in the efficient manner in contrast to the expensive 3D-measurements.

  9. Electrical resistivities of glass melts containing simulated SRP waste sludges. [For melter design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    One option for the long-term management of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant is to solidify the waste in borosilicate glass by using a continuous, joule-heated, ceramic melter. Electrical resistivities that are needed for melter design were measured for melts of two borosilicate, glass-forming mixtures, each of which was combined with various amounts of several simulated-waste sludges. The simulated

  10. Processing and properties of transparent super-hydrophobic polymer film with low surface electric resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sasaki; N. Kieda; K. Katayama; K. Takeda; A. Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Super-hydrophobic films with low electric resistance were prepared by coating the liquid containing both fluoro-acrylic resin and colloidal silica on an ITO-coated polymer film with the suitable repetition of a one-dimensional groove structure on the surface. The hydrophobicity was effectively enhanced by the roughness mixing effect. The formation of ITO layer on the surface of the base-film decreased the surface

  11. Limits on irradiation-induced thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity in silicon carbide materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Snead

    2004-01-01

    Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of SiC materials is given for fast neutron fluences up to 7.7×1025 n\\/cm2 at irradiation temperatures of 300, 500 and 800 °C. In situ radiation-induced conductivity is also measured for ionizing dose rates up to ?5 Gy\\/s (X-ray). Thermal conductivity degradation for CVD SiC is presented in detail exhibiting a substantial reduction from the non-irradiated

  12. Experimental validation of the influence of lamination defects in electrical resistance seam welded pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Gabriel Fazzini; Adrian Pablo Cisilino; José Luis Otegui

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results from seven strain gaged instrumented hydrostatic tests on ex-service tubes from a 350mm diameter, 6.3mm thickness electrical resistance seam welded oil pipeline are presented. Lamination defects had been detected in these sectors by means of transversal magnetic flow in-line inspection and the FAST ultrasonic technique. Five tubes failed in the weld, these yielded the lowest burst pressures. The

  13. Correlation of the electrical resistivity of fluid-saturated cores with water saturation and shaliness

    E-print Network

    Desai, Bhupendra Chhotabhai

    1966-01-01

    Professor of Petro- leum Engineering. As chairman of the author's graduate committee, he was ever available for consultation and offered many constructive criticisms. Special thanks are extended to the author's com- mittee members, Mr. R. L. Whiting... in Reservoir Rock as a Factor in Electrical Log Interpretation, " Journal of Petro- leum Technology (February, 1950), p. 120. 9. De Witte, L. : "The Relation between Resistivities and Fluid Contents of Porous Rocks, " Oil and Gas Journal (August 24, 1950...

  14. Tungsten carbide composites and their electroerosion resistance in electric-spark machining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Verkhoturov; R. V. Minakova; O. K. Teodorovich; A. A. Flis

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of composition, structure, and properties of tungsten carbide pseudoalloys on processing parameters in electric-spark machining. WC-base pseudo-alloys exhibit adequate ductility under operating conditions: Their tough-to-brittle transition takes place at subzero temperatures. This markedly increases the erosion resistance of the pseudoalloys compared with pure tungsten carbide. The structure of a heterogeneous composite promotes selective

  15. Resolving Large Preglacial Valleys Buried by Glacial Sediment Using Electric Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Schmitt; M. Welz; C. D. Rokosh; M.-C. Pontbriand; D. G. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional electric resistivity imaging (ERI) is the most exciting and promising geological tool in geomorphology and stratigraphy since development of ground-penetrating radar. Recent innovations in 2-D ERI provides a non-intrusive mean of efficiently resolving complex shallow subsurface structures under a number of different geological scenarios. In this paper, we test the capacity of ERI to image two large pre-late Wisconsinan-aged

  16. In-Situ Contact Electrical Resistance Technique for Investigating Corrosion Inhibitor Adsorption on Copper Electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Moretti; V. V. Molokanov; G. Quartarone; A. Zingales

    1998-01-01

    Traditional electrochemical tests and the contact electrical resistance technique (CER) were used to investigate the effect on corrosion of pure copper (99.999 wt%) of adding benzotriazole (BTA) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazone (1-OH-BTA) to acidic solutions (sulfuric acid [HâSOâ], pH = 1.7, and sodium sulfate [NaâSOâ] until total sulfate [SOâ²⁻] concentration = 0.1 M). This technique permitted growth of oxide and\\/or salt films

  17. FW2_5D: A MATLAB 2.5-D electrical resistivity modeling code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Pidlisecky; Rosemary Knight

    2008-01-01

    We present a 2.5-D forward modeling algorithm for electrical resistivity data. The algorithm incorporates a boundary condition and source singularity correction that greatly reduces the need to pad the model space. In addition, the algorithm includes an optimization method for estimating the appropriate Fourier coefficients to achieve an accurate 2.5-D approximation. The optimization scheme uses a gradient-based search to find

  18. Delamination monitoring of graphite\\/epoxy laminated composite plate of electric resistance change method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Todoroki; Yuuki Tanaka; Yoshinobu Shimamura

    2002-01-01

    The present paper employs the electric resistance change method for monitoring of location and size of a delamination crack of graphite\\/epoxy composite laminates. The method is applied to a plate-type specimen with an embedded delamination of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates. Ten electrodes made from copper foil are mounted on the specimen top surfaces. An embedded delamination crack is created by

  19. Electric resistance welded steels for normalized N-80 oil and gas well tubulars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Spon seller; T. B. Cox; E. J. Vineberg

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the development and successful commercialization of a manganese-molybdenum steel for use in the production of normalized electric resistance welded N-80 casing and tubing. The new steel, nominally a 0.33C, 1.4Mn, 0.23Mo grade, is easily formed and readily welded into pipe. The properties of the new steel are remarkably independent of the coiling temperature on the hot strip

  20. On the scaling of the subsolar magnetopause parallel electric field: Resistive MHD theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorelli, J.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, Cassak and Shay [Phys. Plasmas, 14, 2007] applied two-dimensional MHD conservation laws to derive an analytic expression for the reconnection rate at Earth's dayside magnetopause. Borovsky [JGR, in press, 2008] used the Cassak-Shay formula as a starting point to derive a first principles solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function. Based on 3D MHD numerical experiments (using the BATSRUS global MHD code), Borovsky argued that dayside reconnection is not driven by the solar wind. Rather, the reconnection rate is determined by the local plasma densities and magnetic field magnitudes on the two sides of the magnetopause current sheet, consistent with the Cassak-Shay formula. However, due to the three-dimensional nature of the subsolar magnetopause flow, the relevance of the Cassak-Shay formula to dayside magnetopause reconnection is questionable. In this talk, we revisit the problem of determining the subsolar magnetopause reconnection electric field in the context of the resistive MHD equations. We derive an analytic expression for the parallel electric field at Earth's subsolar magnetopause, demonstrating that neither the popular Sonnerup-Gonzalez expression [Sonnerup, B. U. O., JGR, 79, 1974; Gonzalez, W. D. and F. S. Mozer, JGR, 79, 1974] nor the Cassak-Shay formula is relevant in 3D resistive MHD. In particular, our expression predicts that if the plasma resistivity is constant, the subsolar parallel electric field should scale like the fourth root of the resistivity. In contrast, the Cassak-Shay formula predicts a square root scaling when the resistivity is constant. In principle, THEMIS could be used to address this question by determining the amount of magnetic flux pileup upstream of the magnetopause current sheet under various conditions.

  1. Evaluation of changes in microstructure and mechanical performance of metals via electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omari, Mohammad Ahmad

    This work focuses on experimental study of cross-property connections that link up effective linear elastic and electrical conductive properties of heterogeneous materials. Such connections are especially useful when one property (electrical conductivity) is easier to measure than the other (elastic constants). Also, take advantages from the easy of measure electrical resistance to study the microstructural changes, and then compare results with different methods like microscopy and other published methods. Mechanical and electrical properties of different specimens under both fatigue and quasi-static loading were investigated, combined with the analysis of microstructural changes produced by such loading. Two different types of metals (stainless steel 304 and Titanium CP-2) have been cut from sheets and then subjected to two different type of loading: cyclic loading (up to 80000 cycles) at several values of maximal stress sigmamax and then quasi-static loading. At low values of sigmamax as well as at the low number of cycles no significant changes in mechanical properties and mild decrease in electrical conductivity (approximately uniform over the specimen) have been observed. The latter can be explained by generation cluster of new dislocations that can be seen in photo images in the form of black dots. As the number of cycles and sigmamax grow up, reduction in Young's modulus and in ultimate strength of the specimens take place. This reduction is accompanied by local decrease in electrical conductivity due to formation of the microcracks. Changes in Young's modulus and electrical conductivity at high values of sigma max. (higher than the yield limit) follow the theoretically predicted cross-property connection for microcracked materials. Qualitative correlation between strength reduction and maximum value of local resistivity across the specimen has been observed at qualitative level.

  2. Rolling-resistance measurements with a piezo-electric measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dijks, A.

    1981-01-01

    Rolling resistance of tires has become an important factor in the energy system of an automobile. To reduce the rolling resistance forces of tires it is necessary to have a measuring system capable to distinguish small differences due to small variations in the tire itself and due to varying usage conditions. The Delft Vehicle Research Laboratory has designed and built a measuring system based on piezo electric multi component force transducers. The system has been mounted as a fifth wheel in a frontwheel driven car and may be used either in the laboratory or on the road. Results of measurements are presented for one representative steel belted radial tire type and influences of load, speed, inflation, toe-in, camber and tread depth are given. During the measurements the tread surface temperature, shoulder temperature, and inflation rise are registered. To indicate the meaning of differences in rolling resistance, the relation to the fuel consumption of a midsize European car is reported.

  3. Electric resistance welded pipe for use in chemical plants and petroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Isfeld, B.

    1984-02-01

    Cost effective material has been and will continue to be of increasing importance in the design and construction of chemical plants and petroleum refineries. A large percentage of the cost incurred in such projects may be attributed to the pipe required to transport numerous liquids and gases at a variety of temperatures and pressures. Pipe was first manufactured with a longitudinal seam some 150 years ago. Since then, the processes employed have progressed to the point where high frequency electric resistance welding has proved the most effective in the manufacture of pipe suitable for oil and gas transmission. To more readily understand the suitability and reliability of electric resistance welded pipe, a discussion relating to the processes involved in its manufacture was presented. Attention was focussed on the weld seam and inspections performed to confirm its integrity. Mechanical properties of the weld seam were compared to those of the pipe body. Using high frequency electric resistance welding and modern inspection techniques, it is possible to produce pipe with a longitudinal weld seam that is virtuously indistinguishable from the parent metal chemically, mechanically, and visually. Furthermore, ASME/ANSI B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping approves the use of ERW pipe for a variety of applications at temperatures up to and including 593 degrees Celsius.

  4. Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, John

    2012-12-31

    Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.

  5. Temporal relation of ovulation to salivary and vaginal electrical resistance patterns: implications for natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J E; Weitzman, G A; Doody, M C; Gibbons, W E; Besch, P; Goldzieher, J W

    1988-10-01

    An independent assessment of the CUE Monitor (Zetek, Aurora, Colorado) as an ovulation predictor was made with emphasis on its potential role in "natural family planning". The device provides a digital measurement of the electrical resistance of saliva and vaginal secretions. Twenty-nine menstrual cycles from 11 regularly cycling women were monitored with basal temperatures, urinary LH, pelvic ultrasound and the CUE monitor. Patterns of peak salivary electrical resistance were able to predict ovulation on average 5.3 (+/- 1.9 SD) days in advance. Despite variations in total length of the follicular phase from cycle to cycle, the within-subject variation of this predictive interval was quite small. Nadirs in the electrical resistance of vaginal secretions occurred within 2 days of ovulation in all but one patient. Variation in this interval from cycle-to-cycle was small as well. We propose an algorithm for the use of these intervals in "natural family planning" that could safely reduce the monthly abstinence period of present methods. The simplicity, objectivity and consistency of this device could result in their greater general acceptance. PMID:3208515

  6. Microgravity conditions and electrical resistivity of liquid alloys with critical mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Itami, T.; Masaki, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Kuribayashi, K.; Sato, E.; Hinada, M.; Yamashita, M. [Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Nissan Motor Company, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The phenomena of two-liquid phase separations are significantly influenced by the gravity on the ground because of the difference in the densities of the constituent components, particularly, in the case of liquid alloys with critical mixing. In this paper, experimental techniques and results ar reported for the measurements of the electrical resistivity for typical liquid alloys with critical mixing, such as Bi-Ga, under microgravity by the use of a rocket S520-19 belonging to ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan). It was found that the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity, on cooling of the homogeneous liquid phase, increases with the approach to the critical temperature. This trend under microgravity by the rocket experiment is more pronounced compared to the trend of the reference experiment on the ground. In addition, the supercooling of homogeneous liquids under microgravity is larger than that on the ground. These differences are explained by the difference in the degree of the growth of concentration fluctuations, the concentration fluctuations are far greater under microgravity than on the ground. Therefore, it is found to be very important to study the process and the critical phenomena of two-liquid phase separations under microgravity. Measurement of electrical resistivity is an effective method to obtain information about the process, the critical phenomena, and the supercooling of two-liquid phase separations in liquid alloys with critical mixing.

  7. Joining characteristics of beta-titanium wires with electrical resistance welding.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Isao; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of different conditions for electrical resistance welding of beta-titanium orthodontic wires. Three electrode types were used with a range of power settings on an electrical resistance welding machine to join beta-titanium wires (Resolve, GAC International). Forces that caused bond failures for joined specimens were obtained with tensile loading, and the values were compared using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). Metallurgical phases in the joint region were determined by micro-X-ray diffraction. Mean tensile forces for bond failure ranged from 5 to 20 kgf for the eight specimen groups and were dependent on electrode type and power setting. All X-ray diffraction peaks in the joint region were indexed to beta-titanium. Superior bond strength was achieved with the use of wide electrodes. The absence of phases other than beta-titanium in the joint area suggests that the electrical resistance welding may not adversely affect clinically important mechanical properties. Scanning microscope observations indicated that the localized permanent deformation and the formation of an undesirable equiaxed grain structure occurred with the use of narrow electrodes. PMID:17937410

  8. Electrical Resistivity Tomography Monitoring of Soil Remediation for a Garbage Dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shi, X.; Luo, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Fu, Q.; Xu, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey was firstly used to investigate the distribution of contaminated soil in a garbage dump area, Wuhan city, China. The result shows that sulfated soil resistivity is about 4 to 7 ohm-m, which is relatively lower than normal soil resistivity of about 15 to 25 ohm-m. The distribution of contaminated soil was delineated using ERT images. Then, ERT survey was carried out in this area for monitoring of remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. Werner measurements with 60 electrodes of 1 m spacing were taken during the 9-well oxygen injection and nutrition liquid injection period. The difference of apparent resistivity between before gas injection and after gas injection was used to delineate the channel of gas and the trace of gas migration in the porous garbage dump. The electrical resitivity changes between before and after nutrition liquid injection were used to analyze the liquid migration and distribution. The dynamic procedures of gas and water migration are outlined. The results suggest that ERT is a powerful technique for monitoring of soil remediation.

  9. Noncontact technique for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of electrostatically levitated materials.

    PubMed

    Rustan, G E; Spyrison, N S; Kreyssig, A; Prozorov, R; Goldman, A I

    2012-10-01

    We describe the development of a new method for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of high temperature liquids and solids. The technique combines a tunnel diode oscillator with an electrostatic levitation furnace to perform noncontact measurements on spherical samples 2-3 mm in diameter. The tank circuit of the oscillator is inductively coupled to the sample, and measurements of the oscillator frequency as a function of sample temperature can be translated into changes in the sample's electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Particular emphasis is given on the need to improve the positional stability of the levitated samples, as well as the need to stabilize the temperature of the measurement coil. To demonstrate the validity of the technique, measurements have been performed on solid spheres of pure zirconium and low-carbon steel. In the case of zirconium, while absolute values of the resistivity were not determined, the temperature dependence of the resistivity was measured over the range of 640-1770 K and found to be in good agreement with literature data. In the case of low-carbon steel, the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition was clearly observable and, when combined with thermal data, appears to occur simultaneously with the solid-solid structural transition. PMID:23126782

  10. Electron-phonon interactions and the intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol-Hwan; Bonini, Nicola; Sohier, Thibault; Samsonidze, Georgy; Kozinsky, Boris; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2014-03-12

    We present a first-principles study of the temperature- and density-dependent intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene. We use density-functional theory and density-functional perturbation theory together with very accurate Wannier interpolations to compute all electronic and vibrational properties and electron-phonon coupling matrix elements; the phonon-limited resistivity is then calculated within a Boltzmann-transport approach. An effective tight-binding model, validated against first-principles results, is also used to study the role of electron-electron interactions at the level of many-body perturbation theory. The results found are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data on graphene samples at high carrier densities and elucidate the role of the different phonon modes in limiting electron mobility. Moreover, we find that the resistivity arising from scattering with transverse acoustic phonons is 2.5 times higher than that from longitudinal acoustic phonons. Last, high-energy, optical, and zone-boundary phonons contribute as much as acoustic phonons to the intrinsic electrical resistivity even at room temperature and become dominant at higher temperatures. PMID:24524418

  11. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in (Fe1-xTix)3Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Nishino, Y.; Mizutani, U.; Watanabe, Y.; Asano, S.

    2000-10-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in (Fe1-xTix)3Al alloys with Ti compositions x = 0-0.33. Samples in the composition range 0?x?0.15 are found to exhibit ferromagnetism with the Curie temperature TC decreasing from 770 K for x = 0 to 145 K for x = 0.15. The electrical resistivity below about 400 K for these Ti-poor samples increases rapidly with increasing x, but a negative temperature derivative of resistivity (d?/dT) dominates above TC up to 1000 K and above. In contrast, samples in the range 0.20?x?0.33 are in a paramagnetic state, at least down to 2 K, and exhibit a rapid decrease in the low-temperature resistivity with increasing Ti composition x. In particular, the Heusler-type Fe2TiAl (x = 0.33) shows a large positive d?/dT with the residual resistivity of only about 20 µ? cm, in sharp contrast to a closely related system Fe2VAl reminiscent of a semiconductor-like behaviour with the resistivity reaching 3000 µ? cm at 2 K. This can be explained by the fact that Fe2TiAl possesses a much higher density of states at the Fermi level than Fe2VAl, as deduced from the low-temperature specific-heat measurements supplemented by the band calculations in literature. The reason for the possession of a large positive d?/dT in Fe2TiAl is discussed in relation to the Bloch-Grüneisen law.

  12. Direct-push hydrostratigraphic profiling: Coupling electrical logging and slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sellwood, S.M.; Healey, J.M.; Birk, S.; Butler, J.J., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can significantly affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. Conventional field methods, however, rarely provide a description of these variations at the level of detail necessary for reliable transport predictions and effective remediation designs. A direct-push (DP) method, hydrostratigraphic profiling, has been developed to characterize the spatial variability of both electrical conductivity (EC) and hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated formations in a cost-effective manner. This method couples a dual-rod approach for performing slug tests in DP equipment with high-resolution EC logging. The method was evaluated at an extensively studied site in the Kansas River floodplain. A series of profiles was performed on a surface grid, resulting in a detailed depiction of the three-dimensional distribution of EC and K. Good agreement was found between K estimates obtained from this approach and those obtained using other methods. The results of the field evaluation indicate that DP hydrostratigraphic profiling is a promising method for obtaining detailed information about spatial variations in subsurface properties without the need for permanent wells.

  13. Electric potential profile of a spherical soft particle with a charged core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Anh D.; Tracy, Dustin A.; Nguyen, T. L. Hoai; Viet, N. A.; Phan, The-Long; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-12-01

    The electrostatic potential profile of a spherical soft particle is derived by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations on a spherical system both numerically and analytically. The soft particle is assumed to consist of an ion-permeable charged outer layer and a non-permeable charged core with constant charged density. The contribution of the core to the potential profile is calculated for different charges and dielectric constants. Our results show that the charged core heavily influences the local potential within the soft particle. By contrast, the potential distribution outside the particle in the salt solution is found to be weakly dependent on the core features. These findings are consistent with previous experiments showing the minor impact of the core of the MS2 virus on its overall electrical properties. Our studies also indicate that while a change in temperature from 290 K to 310 K only slightly varies the potential, the ionic strength in the range of 1-600 mM has a significant effect on the potential profile. Our studies would provide good understanding for experimental research in the field of biophysics and nanomedicine.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baozhu; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Chen, Xiaoping; Wan, Chun-Hua; Wang, Wei; Nierman, William C.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering. PMID:22069737

  15. Electrical passivation of B-doped Si through thin films used in VLSI fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Tsukamoto; Satoru Iwasaki; Taizoh Sadoh; Yukinori Kuroki

    1996-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen diffusion through the thin films used in VLSI fabrication is investigated by measuring the electrically passivated boron (B) profile in silicon (Si) substrate under the films. After hydrogen plasma treatment, carrier concentration profiles in Si are measured using a spreading resistance profiler, and translated to the electrically passivated B profiles. The CVD oxide gave rather small hydrogen diffusivity

  16. Interplay between interaction and chiral anomaly: Anisotropy in the electrical resistivity of interacting Weyl metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jho, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2013-05-01

    We predict that long-range interactions give rise to anisotropy in the electrical resistivity of Weyl metals at low temperatures, where the electrical resistivity becomes much reduced when electric fields are applied to the direction of the momentum vector to connect two paired Weyl points. Performing the renormalization group analysis, we find that the distance between two Weyl points becomes enhanced logarithmically at low temperatures although the coupling constant of such interactions vanishes inverse-logarithmically. Considering the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, scattering between these two Weyl points becomes suppressed to increase electrical conductivity in the “longitudinal” direction, counter intuitive in the respect that interactions are expected to reduce metallicity. We also propose that the anomalous contribution in the Hall effect shows the logarithmic enhancement as a function of temperature, originating from the fact that the anomalous Hall coefficient turns out to be proportional to the distance between two paired Weyl points. Correlations with topological constraints allow unexpected and exotic transport properties.

  17. Geometry and faults tectonic activity of the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Evidence from magnetotelluric and electrical resistivity tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufford, Kelsey Mosley; Atekwana, Estella A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Shemang, Elijah; Atekwana, Eliot A.; Mickus, Kevin; Moidaki, Moikwathai; Modisi, Motsoptse P.; Molwalefhe, Loago

    2012-04-01

    We used Magnetotelluric (MT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to investigate the geometry and nature of faults activity of the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in Botswana, an incipient rift at the southern tip of the Southwestern Branch of the East African Rift System. The ORZ forms a subtle topographic depression filled with Quaternary lacustrine and fluvio-deltaic sediments and is bounded by NE-trending normal faults that are more prominent in the southeastern portion of the rift basin. An MT model from a regional (˜140 km) NW-SE trending MT transect shows that much of the rift basin is underlain by a broad asymmetrical low resistivity anomaly that slopes gently (˜1°) from NW to SE reaching a depth of ˜300 m. This anomaly suggests that faults in the southeastern part of the rift form a NW-dipping border fault zone and that the lacustrine and fluvio-deltaic sediments contain brackish to saline water filling the broad half-graben structure. Furthermore, MT and ERT models from detailed (4-13 km long) MT transects and resistivity profiles show that one border fault (Thamalakane) and two within-basin faults (Lecha and Tsau) in the southeastern part of the ORZ are characterized by a localized high conductivity anomaly while another border fault (Kunyere) lacks such an anomaly. These localized anomalies are attributed to channelized fresh surface water and saline groundwater percolating through these faults forming "fault zone conductors" and suggest actively displacing faults. The lack of a "fault zone conductor" in the Kunyere fault is interpreted as indicating diminishing displacement on this fault, and that strain was transferred to the Thamalakane fault further to the east. The fluids provide lubricant for the ORZ faults, hence preventing infrequent large magnitude earthquakes, but favoring frequent micro-seismicity.

  18. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  19. Delineating a road-salt plume in lakebed sediments using electrical resistivity, piezometers, and seepage meters at Mirror Lake,

    E-print Network

    Toran, Laura

    , New Hampshire, U.S.A. A combination of bottom-cable and floating-cable electrical-resistivity surveys the distribution of seepage to and from lakes is im- portant in determining water budgets, predicting contaminant

  20. Virulence and resistance gene profiles of staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Andreas; Niederhauser, Isabel; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. Oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins from food can result in emesis and diarrhea and can be fatal in children and the elderly. Few data have been available on the characteristics and sources of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In this study, we used a DNA microarray to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of S. aureus from RTE foods. A total of 267 S. aureus strains isolated from 244 RTE foods were investigated. The isolates originated from precooked foods (41% of isolates), meat and fish products (17%), cheese (13%), delicatessen salads (8%), sandwiches and canapés (8%), confectionery and bakery products (6%), and various other RTE foods (7%). Eleven samples (5%), of which 9 were raw milk cheeses, contained > 10(5) CFU/g, which is considered a health risk. Four S. aureus strains were associated with intoxications; three cases were linked to consumption of cheese and one case was linked to consumption of potato salad. DNA microarray results revealed that one-third of the tested strains had at least one major enterotoxin gene (sea through see). We also detected the toxic shock syndrome gene (18% of isolates) and various genes conferring antimicrobial resistance, including genes involved in resistance to beta-lactams (blaZ, 72% of isolates), methicillin (mecA, 1% of isolates), and vancomycin (vanB, 1% of isolates). S. aureus strains were most frequently assigned to clonal complex (CC) 30 (17% of isolates), CC8 (12%), CC15 (11%), and CC45 (10%), which are commonly detected in humans colonized or infected with S. aureus. Although a large proportion of the tested food items contained milk, we did not detect CC705, the most prevalent clonal complex among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk. Our results suggest that S. aureus isolates from RTE foods do not commonly originate from animals but more likely come from food handlers who contaminate foods. PMID:24988036

  1. Three dimensional modeling and inversion of Borehole-surface Electrical Resistivity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, D.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.

    2013-12-01

    After a long time of exploration, many oil fields have stepped into the high water-cut period. It is sorely needed to determining the oil-water distribution and water flooding front. Borehole-surface electrical resistivity tomography (BSERT) system is a low-cost measurement with wide measuring scope and small influence on the reservoir. So it is gaining more and more application in detecting water flooding areas and evaluating residual oil distribution in oil fields. In BSERT system, current is connected with the steel casing of the observation well. The current flows along the long casing and transmits to the surface through inhomogeneous layers. Then received electric potential difference data on the surface can be used to inverse the deep subsurface resistivity distribution. This study presents the 3D modeling and inversion method of electrical resistivity data. In an extensive literature, the steel casing is treated as a transmission line current source with infinite small radius and constant current density. However, in practical multi-layered formations with different resistivity, the current density along the casing is not constant. In this study, the steel casing is modeled by a 2.5e-7 ohm-m physical volume that the casing occupies in the finite element mesh. Radius of the casing can be set to a little bigger than the true radius, and this helps reduce the element number and computation time. The current supply point is set on the center of the top surface of the physical volume. The homogeneous formation modeling result shows the same precision as the transmission line current source model. The multi-layered formation modeling result shows that the current density along the casing is high in the low-resistivity layer, and low in the high-resistivity layer. These results are more reasonable. Moreover, the deviated and horizontal well can be simulated as simple as the vertical well using this modeling method. Based on this forward modeling method, the inversion procedure can be implemented by using open source software R3t (Lancaster University, UK). First, establish triangular prism meshes for the BSERT model by using the freeware gmsh (Geuzaine and Remacle, 2009). Second, transform the mesh data file into R3t required format and set the inversion areas in the mesh. Third, attach resistivity to the elements in the mesh according to the local geology analysis and resistivity logging results. Fourth, assign the field measured electric potential data to electrodes. Finally, set the inversion parameters and solve the inversion problem. Inversion results of synthetic modeling data can match well with the positions of anomalies and validate that the method works on the inversion of the borehole-surface electric resistivity data. Then filed example of Changqing oil field in China is carried out using the inversing method.

  2. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ?3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circum­ference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treat­ment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970

  3. Influence of processing history on the mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of polycarbonate - multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, Gabriel Y. H.; De Focatiis, Davide S. A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigate the effects of compounding temperature and secondary melt processing on the mechanical response and electrical behaviour of polycarbonate filled with 3 wt% carbon nanotubes. The nanocomposites were melt compounded in an industrial setting at a range of temperatures, and subsequently injection moulded or compression moulded. The surface hardness, uniaxial tensile properties and electrical resistivity were measured. Secondary melt processing is found to be the dominant process in determining the final mechanical properties and resistivity of these materials.

  4. A quantitative evaluation of effective shale content and its influence on electrical resistivity and permeability of reservoir rocks

    E-print Network

    Menon, Parayath Eravi Bhaskara

    1965-01-01

    A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS A Thesis By PARAYATH E. B. MENON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial... fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, f965 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS...

  5. The Use of Electrical Resistivity as NDT Method for the Specification of the durability of Reinforced Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen ANDRADE; Angel CASTILLO; Marta CASTELLOTE

    The specification of service life of reinforced concrete structures by means a no- destructive parameter is being a subject of increasing interest. In present communication a proposals is made on using the electrical resistivity to estimate the service life of structures, whether new or existing, taking into account both the initiation and propagation periods. The main advantage is that resistivity

  6. Changes in lipopolysaccharide profile of Porphyromonas gingivalis clinical isolates correlate with changes in colony morphology and polymyxin B resistance.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Leonor; Hoare, Anilei; Soto, Cristopher; Bugueño, Isaac; Silva, Nora; Dutzan, Nicolás; Venegas, Darna; Salinas, Daniela; Pérez-Donoso, José Manuel; Gamonal, Jorge; Bravo, Denisse

    2015-06-01

    Virulence factors on the surface of Porphyromonas gingivalis constitute the first line of interaction with host cells and contribute to immune modulation and periodontitis progression. In order to characterize surface virulence factors present on P. gingivalis, we obtained clinical isolates from healthy and periodontitis subjects and compared them with reference strains. Colony morphology, aggregation in liquid medium, surface charge, membrane permeability to bactericidal compounds, novobiocin and polymyxin B resistance, capsule presence and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles were evaluated. By comparing isolates from healthy and periodontitis subjects, differences in colony morphology and aggregation in liquid culture were found; the latter being similar to two reference strains. These differences were not a consequence of variations in bacterial surface charge. Furthermore, isolates also presented differences in polymyxin B and novobiocin resistance; isolates from healthy subjects were susceptible to polymyxin B and resistant to novobiocin and, in contrast, isolates from periodontitis subjects were resistant to polymyxin B and susceptible to novobiocin. These changes in antimicrobial resistance levels correlate with variations in LPS profiles, since -unlike periodontitis isolates-isolates from healthy samples synthesize LPS molecules lacking both O-antigen moieties and anionic polysaccharide. Additionally, this phenotype correlated with the absence of O-antigen ligase activity. Altogether, our results reveal novel variations on surface components of P. gingivalis isolates obtained from healthy and periodontitis subjects that could be associated with differences in bacterial virulence and periodontitis progression. PMID:25638398

  7. Novel laboratory methods for determining the fine scale electrical resistivity structure of core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, E. P.; Gunn, D. A.; Jackson, P. D.; Lovell, M. A.; Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Watson, P.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution electrical resistivity measurements are made on saturated rocks using novel laboratory instrumentation and multiple electrical voltage measurements involving in principle a four-point electrode measurement but with a single, moving electrode. Flat, rectangular core samples are scanned by varying the electrode position over a range of hundreds of millimetres with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. Two approaches are tested involving a contact electrode and a non-contact electrode arrangement. The first galvanic method uses balanced cycle switching of a floating direct current (DC) source to minimise charge polarisation effects masking the resistivity distribution related to fine scale structure. These contacting electrode measurements are made with high common mode noise rejection via differential amplification with respect to a reference point within the current flow path. A computer based multifunction data acquisition system logs the current through the sample and voltages along equipotentials from which the resistivity measurements are derived. Multiple measurements are combined to create images of the surface resistivity structure, with variable spatial resolution controlled by the electrode spacing. Fine scale sedimentary features and open fractures in saturated rocks are interpreted from the measurements with reference to established relationships between electrical resistivity and porosity. Our results successfully characterise grainfall lamination and sandflow cross-stratification in a brine saturated, dune bedded core sample representative of a southern North Sea reservoir sandstone, studied using the system in constant current, variable voltage mode. In contrast, in a low porosity marble, identification of open fracture porosity against a background very low matrix porosity is achieved using the constant voltage, variable current mode. This new system is limited by the diameter of the electrode that for practical reasons can only be reduced to between 0.5 and 0.75 mm. Improvements to this resolution may be achieved by further reducing the electrode footprint to 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm using a novel high-impedance, non-contact potential probe. Initial results with this non-contact electric potential sensor indicate the possibility for generating images with grain-scale resolution.

  8. 3-D Time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Monitoring of Injected CO2 in a Shallow Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetsch, J.; Vest Christiansen, A.; Auken, E.; Fiandaca, G.; Graham Cahill, A.

    2013-12-01

    Contamination of potable groundwater by leaking CO2 is a potential risk of carbon sequestration. With the help of a field experiment, we investigate if surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can detect dissolved CO2 in a shallow aquifer. For this purpose, we injected CO2 at a depth of 5 and 10 m and monitored its migration using 320 electrodes on a 126 m × 20 m surface grid. A fully automated acquisition system continuously collected data and uploaded it into an online database. The large amount of data allows for time-series analysis using geostatistical techniques for noise estimation and data interpolation to compensate for intermittent instrument failure. We estimate a time-dependent noise level for each ERT configuration, taking data variation and measurement frequency into account. A baseline inversion reveals the geology at the site consisting of aeolian sands near the surface and glacial sands below 5 m depth. Directly following the injection, we image the CO2 gas phase in the aquifer as an increase in resistivity and the higher water saturation in the unsaturated zone as a decrease in resistivity. At later times, the 2-D and 3-D time-lapse inversions clearly image the dissolved CO2 plume with decreased electrical resistivity values. We can image the geochemical changes induced by the dissolved CO2 until the end of the acquisition, 120 days after the injection start. During these 120 days, the CO2 migrates about 40 m in the expected groundwater flow direction (towards south-west). Water electrical conductivity (EC) sampling using 68 sensors in 31 wells allows for very good verification of the ERT results. Water EC and ERT results generally agree very well, with the water sampling showing some fine scale variations that cannot be resolved by the ERT. The ERT images have their strength in outlining the plume's shape in three dimensions and in being able to image the plume outside the well field. These results highlight the potential for imaging dissolved CO2 using non-intrusive surface electrical resistivity tomography.

  9. An electrical resistivity logging study of the marine sediments at the offshore dredge disposal site, Galveston, Texas

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gerhard William

    1976-01-01

    This work attempts to give a quantitative perspective to the study of electrical resistivity logging in unconsolidated sediments. An in situ, focused current probe for measuring resistances of sedi- ments at the sediment-water interface was used. Through.... The author wishes to present the in situ resistivity probe as an economically beneficial and scientifically useful tool in working with variations in physical parameters of sediments in a shallow marine environment. ACKNOWI EDGMENTS I wish to thank Dr...

  10. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  11. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  12. Time-lapse electrical resistivity investigations for imaging the grouting injection in shallow subsurface cavities.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Park, Samgyu; Kim, Jung Ho; Song, Young Soo; Amjad Sabir, Mohammad; Umar, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohammad; Muhammad, Said

    2014-01-01

    The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5?15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway. PMID:24578621

  13. Assessment of integrated electrical resistivity data on complex aquifer structures in NE Nuba Mountains - Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, N. E.; Yaramanci, U.; Kheiralla, K. M.; Abdelgalil, M. Y.

    2011-07-01

    Two geophysical techniques were integrated to map the groundwater aquifers on complex geological settings, in the crystalline basement terrain in northeast Nuba Mountains. The water flow is structurally controlled by the northwest-southeast extensional faults as one of several in-situ deformational patterns that are attributed to the collision of the Pan-African oceanic assemblage of the Nubian shield against the pre-Pan African continental crust to the west. The structural lineaments and drainage systems have been enhanced by the remote sensing technique. The geophysical techniques used are: vertical electrical soundings (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), in addition to hydraulic conductivity measurements. These measurements were designed to overlap in order to improve the producibility of the geophysical data and to provide a better interpretation of the hydrogeological setting of the aquifer complex structure. Smooth and Block inversion schemes were attempted for the observed ERT data to study their reliability in mapping the different geometries in the complex subsurface. The VES data was conducted where ERT survey was not accessible, and inverted smoothly and merged with the ERT in the 3D resistivity grid. The hydraulic conductivity was measured for 42 water samples collected from the distributed dug wells in the study area; where extremely high saline zones were recorded and have been compared to the resistivity values in the 3D model.

  14. Analytical model for the dynamic resistivity of electrically-exploded conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.S.

    1986-10-10

    A detailed model for the dynamic resistivity of an exploding conductor presents many difficulties. An electrically-exploded conductor undergoes significant hydrodynamic expansion as it is heated. Resistivity is a function of both the temperature and density of a conductor and realistic models for resistivity over the range of parameter space experienced by an exploding conductor are quite complex. See for example, the model of Lee and More (1984). Calculation of the hydrodynamic expansion of the conductor during and subsequent to the explosion is likewise dependent on detailed knowledge of the equation of state for the conductor in a range where few experimental data exist. A further complication is the strong magnetic field which couples the hydrodynamic expansion to the currents flowing in the expanding material. In spite of the difficulties, progress is being made on detailed modeling of fuses and exploding conductors (Lidemuth and co-workers, 1985). A simpler approach has proved to be quite useful for modeling the electrical behavior of exploding bridgewire and slapper detonators and for modeling the explosionss of large conductors exploded with large capacitor banks. In the work described here, a simple, empirical model was developed which can be expressed as a closed-form algebraic expression involving four parameters. This model has been used in a computer code which will calculate the burst times and burst currents for up to 15 conductors exploded in series in a capacitor-discharge circuit.

  15. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Kim, Jung Ho; Song, Young Soo; Amjad Sabir, Mohammad; Umar, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohammad; Muhammad, Said

    2014-01-01

    The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5?15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway. PMID:24578621

  16. Four-point probe electrical resistivity scanning system for large area conductivity and activation energy mapping.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Keller, David A; Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Zaban, Arie

    2014-05-01

    The electrical properties of metal oxides play a crucial role in the development of new photovoltaic (PV) systems. Here we demonstrate a general approach for the determination and analysis of these properties in thin films of new metal oxide based PV materials. A high throughput electrical scanning system, which facilitates temperature dependent measurements at different atmospheres for highly resistive samples, was designed and constructed. The instrument is capable of determining conductivity and activation energy values for relatively large sample areas, of about 72 × 72 mm(2), with the implementation of geometrical correction factors. The efficiency of our scanning system was tested using two different samples of CuO and commercially available Fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. Our high throughput tool was able to identify the electrical properties of both resistive metal oxide thin film samples with high precision and accuracy. The scanning system enabled us to gain insight into transport mechanisms with novel compositions and to use those insights to make smart choices when choosing materials for our multilayer thin film all oxide photovoltaic cells. PMID:24880411

  17. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography of a water infiltration test on Johannishus Esker, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, ?nan; Dahlin, Torleif; Bergman, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an efficient way to remove organic matter from raw water and, at the same time, reduce temperature variation. Two MAR sites were constructed by Karlskrona municipality on Johannishus Esker in Sweden. One of these sites, Vång, was monitored for electrical conductivity and electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography - ERT) during a 9-week tracer infiltration test. The aim of the monitoring was to map the pathways of the infiltrated water, with the overall goal to increase the efficiency of the MAR. ERT proved useful in determining both the nature of the esker formation and the water migration pathways. In Vång, the esker ridge follows a tectonically controlled paleo-valley. The fault/fracture zone in the bedrock along this paleo-valley was mapped. During the tracer test, the infiltrated water was detected in the area close to the infiltration ponds, whereas far-situated observation wells were less affected. For sequential infiltration and recharge periods in MAR, the timing of the well pumping is another important factor. Natural groundwater flow direction was a determinant in the infiltration process, as expected. ERT measurements provide supplementary data for site selection, for monitoring the functionality of the MAR sites, and for revealing the geological, hydrogeological and structural characteristics of the site.

  18. Electrical resistance change method for delamination monitoring of CFRP plates: effect of plate scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoroki, A.; Hirai, Nobuo; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke

    2008-03-01

    Since delamination is invisible or difficult to detect visually, the delamination causes low reliability of laminated composites for primary structures. To improve the low reliability, smart systems of delamination identifications in-service are desired. Recently, many researchers have employed an Electrical Resistance Change Method (ERCM) to detect the internal damages of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) laminates. The ERCM does not require expensive instruments. Author's group has already experimentally investigated the applicability of the ERCM for monitoring delamination crack and matrix cracks. In the present paper, therefore, these results performed in the previous papers are briefly explained. These successful results enable us to monitor a lot of information of the CFRP laminates by means of the electrical resistance changes in many applications. In these previous papers, the plate type specimens are small. The effect of plate scale on ERCM is investigated in the present paper. 3-D FEM analyses are conducted to calculate the electrical potential changes caused by delamination for CFRP plates of different sizes and the applicability of ERCM to large CFRP structures is investigated.

  19. Wear resistance of hot-pressed composites based on reprocessed ??15 steel in friction at electrical contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Aleutdinova; V. V. Fadin; A. G. Mel’nikov

    2010-01-01

    When mechanical and electrical energy is intro? duced in a system with normal friction, all the pro? cesses are localized in a thin surface layer, with the for? mation of secondary structures (1). Secondary struc? tures provide protection against deformation and failure, and their properties determine the wear resis? tance of the frictional contact. A lubricantfree wear? resistant slipping electrical

  20. Investigation of karst by combined analysis of seismic and electrical resistivity anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, Jan; Zeyen, Hermann; Sénéchal, Guy; Rousset, Dominique; Gaffet, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    Seismic and electrical resistivity anisotropy of a fractured karstic limestone massif in sub-parallel underground galleries of the LSBB (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit; Low Noise Underground Laboratory, Rustrel, France) have been studied in a massif composed of a rather homogeneous sub-horizontal thick sedimentary layer of limestone (100m) with vertically oriented fractures. If such fractures are oriented in a predominant direction, physical properties are dependent on the direction of measurements, producing seismic and electric anisotropy. Due to the dominantly vertical orientation of the fractures in the studied site, the resulting anisotropy is approximated by a horizontal transverse isotropic (- HTI) body. In addition, fractured limestone rock is prone to exhibit physical properties differing during seasonal changes which are connected with different sub-surface water contents. Two geophysical methods are sensible to the variations of water content. Acoustic waves have different propagation velocities in fractures filled with water than in those filled with air. Similarly, the rock resistivity is dependent on water content. Dry limestone has higher resistivities than limestone containing mineralised water within the fractures. Several data treatment methods and programs were applied to datasets of first arrival seismic travel-times (qP-wave and qS-wave) and resistivities. The applied seismic methods include: isotropic tomography, homogeneous Monte-Carlo anisotropic inversion for horizontal transverse isotropic body and anisotropic tomography for tilted transverse isotropic bodies. The applied resistivity method is azimuthal Monte-Carlo anisotropy resistivity fit. All methods lead to the conclusion that there is indeed an anisotropy present in the rock massif and all coincide on the calculated (inverted) values of searched parameters (such as maximum and minimum velocity, angle deviation of symmetry axis, variation of resistivities with respect to the angle). Strong seismic anisotropy of about 15-20% is present in the studied area. data from two different years show that this anisotropy varies over time. This variation is interpreted as being due to water content changes, being 10% larger for seismic properties in dry period than wet period of the year.

  1. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites for electrical-resistance-based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daojun

    This dissertation has advanced the science and technology of electrical-resistance-based sensing of strain/stress and damage using continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for aircraft structures. In particular, it has extended the technology of self-sensing of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites from uniaxial longitudinal loading and flexural loading to uniaxial through-thickness loading and has extended the technology from structural composite self-sensing to the use of the composite (specifically a one-lamina composite) as an attached sensor. Through-thickness compression is encountered in the joining of composite components by fastening. Uniaxial through-thickness compression results in strain-induced reversible decreases in the through-thickness and longitudinal volume resistivities, due to increase in the fiber-fiber contact in the through-thickness direction, and minor-damage-induced irreversible changes in these resistivities. The Poisson effect plays a minor role. The effects in the longitudinal resistivity are small compared to those in the through-thickness direction, but longitudinal resistance measurement is more amenable to practical implementation in structures than through-thickness resistance measurement. The irreversible effects are associated with an increase in the through-thickness resistivity and a decrease in the longitudinal resistivity. The through-thickness gage factor is up to 5.1 and decreases with increasing compressive strain above 0.2%. The reversible fractional change in through-thickness resistivity per through-thickness strain is up to 4.0 and decreases with increasing compressive strain. The irreversible fractional change in through-thickness resistivity per unit through-thickness strain is around -1.1 and is independent of the strain. The sensing is feasible by measuring the resistance away from the stressed region, though the effectiveness is less than that at the stressed region. A one-lamina carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composite is an effective attached flexural sensor, with effectiveness comparable to a commercially manufactured self-sensing 24-lamina quasi-isotropic carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composite. In the one-lamina sensor, the arrangement of the fibers is such that adjacent fibers make contact with one another at points along their length, as shown by the substantial conductivity in the transverse direction. The surface resistance of the sensor attached to the tension surface of the beam increases upon flexure, due to decrease in the degree of current penetration within thickness of the sensor. The surface resistance of the sensor attached to the compression surface of the beam decreases upon flexure, due to increase in the degree of current penetration. The sensing effectiveness is superior for the tension surface than the compression surface. Minor/major/catastrophic damage and damage evolution during flexure are indicated by characteristic increases in the surface resistance of the one-lamina sensor; the characteristics are simpler and easier to interpret than those of previously reported 24-lamina quasi-isotropic carbon fiber composites without glass fiber.

  2. Measurement system of the Seebeck coefficient or of the electrical resistivity at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouleau, O.; Alleno, E.

    2013-10-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient or electrical resistivity apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure sample with typical size ˜10 × 1 × 1 mm3. It can measure both transport properties from 300 K to 1000 K in argon atmosphere. The sample lies transversely on top of two metallic half-cylinders, which contain heating cartridges and allow temperature and thermal gradient control and reversal. The temperature gradient is measured by two type N thermocouples pressed against the upper surface of the sample. The key feature of this apparatus is the disk-shaped junction of each type N thermocouple which strongly improves the thermal contact with the sample. The Seebeck coefficient is obtained by averaging over two measured values with opposite thermal gradient directions (˜±2 K). For the resistivity measurements, the temperature is stabilized and the temperature gradient is actively reduced below 0.2 K to make negligible any spurious thermal voltage. Uncertainties of ˜3% for the Seebeck coefficient and 1% for the resistivity were obtained on Ni samples. The Seebeck coefficient and resistivity have also been measured on a skutterudite sample as small as ˜7 × 1.5 × 0.5 mm3 with very good agreement with literature.

  3. Measurement system of the Seebeck coefficient or of the electrical resistivity at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, O; Alleno, E

    2013-10-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient or electrical resistivity apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure sample with typical size ~10 × 1 × 1 mm(3). It can measure both transport properties from 300 K to 1000 K in argon atmosphere. The sample lies transversely on top of two metallic half-cylinders, which contain heating cartridges and allow temperature and thermal gradient control and reversal. The temperature gradient is measured by two type N thermocouples pressed against the upper surface of the sample. The key feature of this apparatus is the disk-shaped junction of each type N thermocouple which strongly improves the thermal contact with the sample. The Seebeck coefficient is obtained by averaging over two measured values with opposite thermal gradient directions (~±2 K). For the resistivity measurements, the temperature is stabilized and the temperature gradient is actively reduced below 0.2 K to make negligible any spurious thermal voltage. Uncertainties of ~3% for the Seebeck coefficient and 1% for the resistivity were obtained on Ni samples. The Seebeck coefficient and resistivity have also been measured on a skutterudite sample as small as ~7 × 1.5 × 0.5 mm(3) with very good agreement with literature. PMID:24182159

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH; MYERS DA

    2009-11-05

    Highly industrialized areas pose significant challenges for surface based electrical resistivity characterization and monitoring due to the high degree of metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically several orders of magnitude more conductive than the desired targets, preventing the geophysicist from obtaining a clear picture of the subsurface. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes in a complex nuclear waste facility to monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank. The leak was simulated by injecting high conductivity fluid in a perforated well and the resistivity measurements were made before and after the leak test. The data were processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The results showed a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site. The time lapsed regularization parameter had a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post datasets, potentially making calibration of the results to specific hydrogeologic parameters difficult.

  5. Effect of donor (Nb) concentration on the bulk electrical resistivity of Nb-doped barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Hwan

    2002-07-01

    The behavior of the bulk electrical resistivity of donor-doped BaTiO3 with the increase of donor concentration was investigated. A series of coarse-grained specimens with different donor concentrations were prepared by adjusting the oxygen partial pressure during sintering. Then they were heat treated in air for an extended period in order to reach the equilibrium defect distribution corresponding to each heating temperature, which was followed by fast cooling. The critical donor concentrations, beyond which the bulk resistivity increases abruptly, were experimentally evaluated and they were found to decrease with a decrease in the equilibrium temperature in air. Each defect and electron concentrations as a function of donor concentration were theoretically calculated based on the model that the resistivity anomaly is caused by the partially ionized cation vacancies (VTi)''' at high temperature, which trap electrons, and become fully ionized cation vacancies (VTi)'''' as specimens are cooled to room temperature. The results calculated could explain the experimentally observed behavior of the bulk resistivity versus donor concentration.

  6. Increasing resistivity of electrically conductive ceramics by insulating grain boundary phase.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Takafumi; Sekino, Tohru

    2014-02-26

    Increasing resistivity of electrically conductive nonoxide ceramics was investigated by insulating conductive pathways through conductive grains in a sintered body by addition of an insulating grain boundary phase, which was produced by the reaction of sintering additives in liquid phase sintering. When SiC was hot pressed with an additive of 10 vol % of Al2O3 and Y2O3, the resistivity decreased as sintering temperature increased owing to contact between SiC grains during densification. However, by hot pressing at 1750°C, a high resistivity of greater than 1 × 10(11) ? cm was achieved because of the penetration of an insulating grain boundary phase between the SiC grains. It is possible to fabricate high-resistivity SiC ceramics without losing their excellent mechanical properties by introduction of an insulating grain boundary phase, the volume of which is approximately 1/7 that of the insulating phase incorporated in conventional ceramic composites. PMID:24499527

  7. High Pressure Structure and Electrical Resistance Measurements on Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, J. M.; Stemshorn, A. K.; Stanishevsky, A.; Vohra, Y. K.; Weir, S. T.

    2010-03-01

    Room-temperature four-probe electrical resistance and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements have been performed on dried and aqueous suspensions of CdS nanoparticles (25 nm in diameter) to 35 GPa. Nanoparticles used in these experiments were synthesized using the reaction between a cadmium salt and thiourea under hydrothermal conditions without using any surfactants. While the x-ray structure data confirms the irreversible wurtzite -> rocksalt transition seen at 2.5 GPa in bulk CdS, the corresponding resistance drop was not observed in the measured range, indicating that the nanoparticle boundaries may prevent electronic communication between particles. Further studies on dry and aqueous 10 nm nano-spheres and 9 nm diameter nano-rods are planned, and the results of these experiments will be presented.

  8. Strain-Induced Electrical Resistivity and Magnetic Behavior of Paramagnetic Inconel Alloy 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shing Hoa; Chan, Feng Shiu; Yao, Yeong Der

    2005-07-01

    The magnetization and electrical resistivity of a commercial Inconel alloy 600 (alloy of Ni72Cr16Fe8) were studied as functions of plastic deformation. The magnetization (M) versus magnetic field (H) relationships for Inconel 600 take the form of curves. At a slow strain rate of 10-3/s, the slopes of the M-H curves are in order of the as-received material being the largest, following by strain at about 13%, the strain at ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (about 21%), and the fracture strain at about 26% as the smallest. It is evident that the strain rate does not affect the magnetic behavior of this material. Specimens deformed with a high strain rate of 10-1/s exhibit a higher resistivity than those deformed with a low strain rate of 10-3/s.

  9. Eradication of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in burn wounds by antiseptic pulsed electric field

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Vecchio, Daniela; Khan, Saiqa; Hamblin, Michael R.; Austen, William G.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging bacterial resistance to multiple drugs is an increasing problem in burn wound management. New non-pharmacologic interventions are needed for burn wound disinfection. Here we report on a novel physical method for disinfection: antiseptic pulsed electric field (PEF) applied externally to the infected burns. In a mice model, we show that PEF can reduce the load of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii present in a full thickness burn wound by more than four orders of magnitude, as detected by bioluminescence imaging. Furthermore, using a finite element numerical model, we demonstrate that PEF provides non-thermal, homogeneous, full thickness treatment for the burn wound, thus, overcoming the limitation of treatment depth for many topical antimicrobials. These modeling tools and our in vivo results will be extremely useful for further translation of the PEF technology to the clinical setting, as they provide the essential elements for planning of electrode design and treatment protocol. PMID:25089285

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from subclinic bovine mastitis by protein patterns, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma ÖZTÜRK; Leyla AÇIK

    Summary: A total of 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Hatay region were characterized by protein patterns, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles. SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell protein extracts belong to S. aureus strains produced patterns containing 17-49 discrete bands with molecular weights of >14.4-<116 kDa. S. aureus strains clustered into two cluster on the basis of

  11. Epikarstic storage and doline structural characterization with time-lapse geophysics (seismic refraction & electrical resistivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valois, R.; Galibert, P.; Guérin, R.; Mendes, M.; Plagnes, V.

    2011-12-01

    Karst formations are one of the most challenging environments in terms of groundwater, engineering and environmental issues. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information in karst regions concerning groundwater vulnerability assessment, exploitation or hazard estimation. First, dolines are studied as preferential pathways for the protection of karstic aquifer in south France. Geophysics helps to characterize lateral and underground morphologies of such objects and is able to detect doline hidden by the soil cover too. Electrical resistivity and seismic refraction tomographies provide information about dolines filling and could help to propose a genesis scenario. Time-lapse resistivity measurements show that the studied doline is more vulnerable to infiltration on its sides than at its centre. The epikarst could be defined as a perched aquifer above the massive carbonate rocks; it constitutes a highly fractured zone, which water stock capacities. So, the epikarst was investigated with 3D seismic refraction and results show an important velocity anisotropy linked to the fracturing and weathering of the dolostone. The 3D model presents also some large heterogeneities: a corridor with highly weathered dolostone and an unweathered pinnacle. The corridor is probably situated on vertical joints, which have conducted aggressive water. The associated weathering with residual weathered-rock keeping its initial volume could create a "ghost-rock" corridor. So, the epikarst in the dolostones of the Causse du Larzac (France) seems to be composed by "ghost-rock" developed around a specific direction of fractures. Time-lapse electrical resistivity and seismic refraction velocity were carried out on this epikarst to observe the influence of water saturation on the measurements. The results show important variations for both seismic and electrical methods and are localized in the first 6 m: in the weathered zone. So, time-lapse measurements could more easily identify the storage of the epikarst and its bottom than one-time measurements; and with some calibration, semi-quantitative estimation of water saturation could be realized.

  12. Mild Electrical Stimulation with Heat Shock Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Enhanced Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Adachi, Hironori; Suico, Mary Ann; Sekimoto, Erika; Matsuda, Tomoko; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Araki, Eiichi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    Low-intensity electrical current (or mild electrical stimulation; MES) influences signal transduction and activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Because insulin resistance is characterized by a marked reduction in insulin-stimulated PI3K-mediated activation of Akt, we asked whether MES could increase Akt phosphorylation and ameliorate insulin resistance. In addition, it was also previously reported that heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) alleviates hyperglycemia. Thus, we applied MES in combination with heat shock (HS) to in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance. Here we show that 10-min treatment with MES at 5 V (0.1 ms pulse duration) together with HS at 42°C increased the phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt in HepG2 cells maintained in high-glucose medium. MES (12 V)+mild HS treatment of high fat-fed mice also increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor ? subunit (IR?) and Akt in mice liver. In high fat-fed mice and db/db mice, MES+HS treatment for 10 min applied twice a week for 12–15 weeks significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity. The treated mice showed significantly lower weight of visceral and subcutaneous fat, a markedly improved fatty liver and decreased size of adipocytes. Our findings indicated that the combination of MES and HS alleviated insulin resistance and improved fat metabolism in diabetes mouse models, in part, by enhancing the insulin signaling pathway. PMID:19114996

  13. A microarray based expression profiling of paclitaxel and vincristine resistant MCF7 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meltem Demirel Kars; Özlem Darcansoy I?eri; Ufuk Gündüz

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to the broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cell lines and tumors has been called multiple drug resistance (MDR). In this study, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to two anticancer agents (paclitaxel and vincristine) in mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 were investigated. Drug resistant sublines to paclitaxel (MCF-7\\/Pac) and vincristine (MCF-7\\/Vinc) that were developed from sensitive MCF-7 cells

  14. Electrical Resistivity Methods to Characterize Sediment Deformation; Examples from Large-scale Glaciotectonic Structures in Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    An outcrop at the western edge of a large NW-SE trending ridge along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan south of Ludington contains Late Wisconsin deformation structures. Differential loading associated with a glacial re-advance caused glaciolacustrine loamy material to deform into several narrow anticlinal structures that rise from below beach level to near the top of the ~50 m high cliff. The anticlines separate ~100 m broad synclines that control local ground water flow and impact cliff stability. The objective of this study was to characterize the orientation and lateral extent of the structures below the ridge using different galvanic electrical resistivity methods. These methods exploit the large electrical contrast between the glaciolacustrine loams and overlying sandy outwash material. Electrical resistivity methods have long been part of the geophysical tool set. Recent advances, including the availability of multi-electrode systems and advanced data processing software, have made electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) a popular tool to obtain 2D models of subsurface resistivity. In this study, vertical electrical soundings (VES) were combined with borehole logs and lab-derived petrophysical relationships to characterize the site stratigraphy. Constant-spread traverses (CST) and ERT data were used to map the spatial extent of deformation structures. Field, lab, and modeling results presented in this work identify various strengths and limitations of electrical resistivity methods for the characterization of deformation structures in general and glaciotectonic structures in particular.

  15. Magnetization, electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements of NaxCo2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Morikuni, E.; Fujiwara, K.; Takeuchi, J.

    2004-05-01

    DC magnetic susceptibility (?), electrical resistivity (?) and specific heat (C) have been investigated for layered compound NaxCo2O4 as a function of temperature (T) using high purity specimens melted and grown in a floating-zone furnace. A broad maximum of ?(T) at ~14K, a behavior of ?(T) obeying ?(T)=?0+AT2 at low temperatures and a large ?(=C/T) value of ~60mJ/molK2 at 2K are found. These behaviors are qualitatively similar to those of a d-electron heavy fermion compound LiV2O4.

  16. Measurement of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Borup, Kasper A; Toberer, Eric S; Zoltan, Leslie D; Nakatsukasa, George; Errico, Michael; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Iversen, Bo B; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the van der Pauw (VDP) technique for combined high temperature measurement of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient is described. The VDP method is convenient for use since it accepts sample geometries compatible with other measurements. The technique is simple to use and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. Three instruments utilizing the VDP method for measurement of heavily doped semiconductors, such as thermoelectrics, are discussed. PMID:23278000

  17. In-situ electric resistance measurements and annealing effects of graphite exposed to swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Pellemoine, Frederique; Tomut, Marilena; Avilov, Mikhail; Bender, Markus; Boulesteix, Marine; Krause, Markus; Mittig, Wolfgang; Schein, Mike; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2013-11-01

    To study the suitability of using graphite as material for high-power targets for rare isotope production at the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) in the USA and at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Germany, thin foils of polycrystalline graphite were exposed to 8.6-MeV/u Au ions reaching a maximum fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2. Foil irradiation temperatures of up to 1800 °C were obtained by ohmic heating. In-situ monitoring of the electrical resistance of the graphite foils during and after irradiation provided information on beam-induced radiation damage.

  18. Internal Structure of Periglacial Landforms: Assessment using 3D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Adrian; Kneisel, Christof

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of internal heterogeneities within periglacial landforms (e.g. frost table topography or varying ice content) is in most cases not inferable from the surface. Hence, to develop an enhanced understanding of the interaction between surface and subsurface processes, it is necessary to analyse the internal structure of different periglacial landforms and landform elements. The assessment of the internal structure is provided by the application of three-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI). ERI is the technique of merging datum points from several parallel and perpendicular performed two-dimensional ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) measurements and inverting the data set with a 3D inversion algorithm (sometimes also referred to as quasi-3D ERT). The application of this method has proven to be a valuable tool for mapping the spatial extent of isolated permafrost bodies and associated subsurface conditions. In this contribution, we present results from four ERI measurements, carried out in summer 2014 at different investigation sites in the Swiss Alps: Three measurements were performed on pebbly rockglaciers of different size and topographical position and one measurement was performed on a solifluction slope. Each of the 3D survey grids consists of 17 to 32 single 2D ERT surveys (Dipol-Dipol or Wenner-Schlumberger array) and covers an area of between 6000 m² and 7000 m², depending on the specific survey grid set-up. The inversions of the data sets were performed using the two different inversion algorithms of the software products "RES3DINV" and "BERT" (Boundless Electrical Resistivity Tomography) for a comparative analysis and to further support the geomorphological interpretation of the geophysical models. Each of the resulting resistivity models shows strong small-scale spatial heterogeneities between the investigated landforms but also within landform elements. For the investigated rockglacier sites, these structures include anomalies referred to as embedded snowbanks and ice remnants of sedimentary origin. According to our results, we presume that these structures also influence rockglacier hydrology. With another measurement grid which was stretched over parts of two adjacent pebbly rockglaciers, we could detect a strong contrast between their specific resistivity regimes. This is probably caused by their material composition as the sources of rock fall are from different geological layers. At the investigated solifluction slope, the survey grid contained several solifluction lobes and the resulting model reveals that some of them are influenced by contemporary permafrost occurrences while adjacent lobes do not show any signs of frozen ground in the shallow subsurface.

  19. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling in Entamoeba histolytica reveal costs to fitness and adaptive responses associated with metronidazole resistance

    PubMed Central

    Penuliar, Gil M.; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemotherapy is critical in the fight against infectious diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Among the drugs available for the treatment of amebiasis, metronidazole (MTZ) is considered the drug of choice. Recently, in vitro studies have described MTZ resistance and the potential mechanisms involved. Costs to fitness and adaptive responses associated with resistance, however, have not been investigated. In this study we generated an HM-1 derived strain resistant to 12 ?M MTZ (MTZR). We examined its phenotypic and transcriptional profile to determine the consequences and mRNA level changes associated with MTZ resistance. Our results indicated increased cell size and granularity, and decreased rates in cell division, adhesion, phagocytosis, cytopathogenicity, and glucose consumption. Transcriptome analysis revealed 142 differentially expressed genes in MTZR. In contrast to other MTZ resistant parasites, MTZR did not down-regulate pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, but showed increased expression of genes for a hypothetical protein (HP1) and several iron-sulfur flavoproteins, and downregulation of genes for leucine-rich proteins. Fisher's exact test showed 24 significantly enriched GO terms in MTZR, and a 3-way comparison of modulated genes in MTZR against those of MTZR cultured without MTZ and HM-1 cultured with MTZ, showed that 88 genes were specific to MTZR. Overall, our findings suggested that MTZ resistance is associated with specific transcriptional changes and decreased parasite virulence. PMID:25999919

  20. Electrical Resistivity of Y2C3 Investigated by Microwave Surface Impedance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutagawa, Satoshi; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Kitano, Haruhisa; Maeda, Atsutaka; Akimitsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Y2C3 is a superconductor whose Tc changes from 6 to 18 K depending on the synthesis conditions. Since its electronic properties were unknown, we performed the electrical-property study by measuring the microwave complex surface impedance, Zs, of Y2C3 for different Tc’s (13.9 and 15.5 K), and the resistivity and mean free path were determined in the normal state. We observed the typical behavior of a Drude metal in the Hagen-Rubens limit (?1 ? ?2) in the normal state. We succeeded in observing the occurrence of superconductivity in the electrical property. Furthermore, we found that Y2C3 is a clean superconductor.

  1. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    DOEpatents

    Ramirez, A.L.; Cooper, J.F.; Daily, W.D.

    1996-02-27

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination. 1 fig.

  2. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    DOEpatents

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination.

  3. Electric-Field-Driven Resistive Switching in the Dissipative Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiajun; Aron, Camille; Kotliar, Gabriel; Han, Jong E.

    2015-06-01

    We study how strongly correlated electrons on a dissipative lattice evolve out of equilibrium under a constant electric field, focusing on the extent of the linear regime and hysteretic nonlinear effects at higher fields. We access the nonequilibrium steady states, nonperturbatively in both the field and the electronic interactions, by means of a nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory in the Coulomb gauge. The linear response regime, limited by Joule heating, breaks down at fields much smaller than the quasiparticle energy scale. For large electronic interactions, strong but experimentally accessible electric fields can induce a resistive switching by driving the strongly correlated metal into a Mott insulator. We predict a nonmonotonic upper switching field due to an interplay of particle renormalization and the field-driven temperature. Hysteretic I -V curves suggest that the nonequilibrium current is carried through a spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator mixed state.

  4. Changes in electrical transport and density of states of phase change materials upon resistance drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Daniel; Bachmann, Tobias; Jonnalagadda, Prasad; Dellmann, Laurent; Raoux, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Phase-change memory technology has become more mature in recent years. But some fundamental problems linked to the electrical transport properties in the amorphous phase of phase-change materials still need to be solved. The increase of resistance over time, called resistance drift, for example, poses a major challenge for the implementation of multilevel storage, which will eventually be necessary to remain competitive in terms of high storage densities. To link structural properties with electrical transport, a broader knowledge of (i) changes in the density of states (DoS) upon structural relaxation and (ii) the influence of defects on electrical transport is required. In this paper, we present temperature-dependent conductivity and photo-conductivity measurements on the archetype phase change material GeTe. It is shown that trap-limited band transport at high temperatures (above 165 K) and variable range hopping at low temperatures are the predominating transport mechanism. Based on measurements of the temperature dependence of the optical band gap, modulated photo-conductivity and photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy, a DoS model for GeTe was proposed. Using this DoS, the temperature dependence of conductivity and photo-conductivity has been simulated. Our work shows how changes in the DoS (band gap and defect distributions) will affect the electrical transport before and after temperature-accelerated drift. The decrease in conductivity upon annealing can be explained entirely by an increase of the band gap by about 12%. However, low-temperature photo-conductivity measurements revealed that a change in the defect density may also play a role.

  5. A numerical study of the influence of interconnected conductive paths in electrically resistive rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, E.; Moorkamp, M.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Several electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods focus on the EM properties of rocks and sediments to determine a reliable image of the subsurface, while the same electromagnetic properties are measured in the laboratory with a wide range of instruments and techniques. None of these measurements return an unequivocal result. The hypothesis related to the presence of interconnected pathways of electrically conductive materials in resistive hosts has been studied with increasing interest in recent years, and the comprehension of phenomena that scale from the microstructures of the rocks up to field electrical conductivity measurements represents the boundary that prevents the direct comparison between laboratory data and field data. In recent years some numerical approaches have been investigated to understand the effects of interconnected pathways of conductors on field measurements, usually restricting the studies to direct current (DC) sources. Bearing in mind the time-variating nature of natural electromagnetic sources that take a role in field measurements, we numerically simulated the effects of such EM sources on the conductivity measured on the surface of a three-dimensional realistic body embedded in an uniform host by using electromagnetic induction equations. Since most real rocks are poor conductors, we modeled a two-phase mixture of rock and interconnected conductive elements (representing melts, saline fluids, sulphidic, carbonitic, or metallic sediments, etc.), randomly generated within the background host. We compared the electrical conductivity measured from a sample of randomly generated models with the electrical conductivity limits predicted by Hashin-Shtrikman bounds.

  6. Measuring the through-plane electrical resistivity of bipolar plates (apparatus and methods)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nicolas; Lefèvre, Michel; Lebrun, Guy; Dodelet, Jean-Pol

    In this paper, we will describe an apparatus for measuring the through-plane electrical conductivity and also discuss its calibration. This paper describes operating procedures that were used and their effects on conductivity measurements. The following factors were found to affect the measurements accuracy and reproducibility: (i) the method used to polish the copper electrodes, (ii) the nature of the disk used to ensure a good electrical contact between the electrodes and the sample and (iii) whether these disks were reused or not. A 2 ?ohm drift was observed in the resistance measurements on a 24-h period. Two calibration methods were studied. The first calibration method was developed to calibrate the conductivity apparatus using power resistors and we were able to determine that a systematic error of 60 ?ohm was present. A second calibration method was then used to measure the electrical conductivity of two Poco graphite samples. Using our apparatus, the electrical conductivity of AXF-5Q and DFP-2 Poco graphite samples were both (60-210 ?ohm cm) lower than their reported statistical value of 1470 and 1500 ?ohm cm, respectively.

  7. A One-Dimensional Model of the Electrical Resistance Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, J. M.; Cuevas, F. G.; Cintas, J.; Urban, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a theoretical model for the processing technique usually known as electrical resistance sintering (ERS) under pressure is proposed and validated. This technique consists of the consolidation of a metallic powder mass under compression by means of a high-intensity electrical current that passes through the aggregate. The electrical current heats the powder mass by the Joule effect. The model is numerically solved by the finite differential method, in which the added difficulty of the thermal-mechanical coupling of the process has been taken into account. To simplify the numerical resolution, a one-dimensional scheme has been considered for both the powder densification mechanical problem and the heat generation and transmission problem. Furthermore, the theoretical predictions obtained after solving the model are compared with the data recorded by the ERS equipment sensors during electrical consolidation experiments with iron and titanium powders. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental curves suggests that the model, despite its simplifications, reproduces the main characteristics of the process.

  8. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  9. Permafrost Changes along the Alaska Highway Corridor, Southern Yukon, from Ground Temperature Measurements and DC Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, M. A.; Lewkowicz, A. G.; Smith, S.

    2011-12-01

    A natural gas pipeline running across permafrost terrain from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, through Canada to US markets was first proposed more than 30 years ago. In the intervening period, mean annual air temperatures in the region have risen by 0.5-1.0°C and it is probable that the ground has also warmed. Renewed interest in the pipeline has meant that information on permafrost and geotechnical conditions within the Alaska Highway Corridor of the southern Yukon must be updated for engineering design and the assessment of environmental impacts. To accomplish this goal, results from 1977-1981 drilling and ground temperature monitoring programs within the proposed pipeline corridor were used in combination with air photo analysis to select sites potentially sensitive to climate change. The sites are distributed across the extensive and sporadic discontinuous permafrost zones over a distance of 475 km between Beaver Creek and Whitehorse. To date, 11 targeted boreholes with permafrost have been found and cased to permit renewed ground temperature monitoring. By the end of summer 2011, it is expected that another 7 will have been instrumented. Measurable temperature increases relative to the 1970s are expected, except where values were previously just below 0°C. In the latter case, if the sites are still in permafrost, latent heat effects may have substantially moderated the temperature increase. Electrical resistivity tomography surveys are also being conducted to characterize the local permafrost distribution and geotechnical conditions. These 2D resistivity profiles will be used with the ground temperatures to examine current conditions and response to climate change and vegetation disturbance.

  10. Discovery of genes implicated in whirling disease infection and resistance in rainbow trout using genome-wide expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Baerwald, Melinda R; Welsh, Amy B; Hedrick, Ronald P; May, Bernie

    2008-01-01

    Background Whirling disease, caused by the pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis, afflicts several salmonid species. Rainbow trout are particularly susceptible and may suffer high mortality rates. The disease is persistent and spreading in hatcheries and natural waters of several countries, including the U.S.A., and the economic losses attributed to whirling disease are substantial. In this study, genome-wide expression profiling using cDNA microarrays was conducted for resistant Hofer and susceptible Trout Lodge rainbow trout strains following pathogen exposure with the primary objective of identifying specific genes implicated in whirling disease resistance. Results Several genes were significantly up-regulated in skin following pathogen exposure for both the resistant and susceptible rainbow trout strains. For both strains, response to infection appears to be linked with the interferon system. Expression profiles for three genes identified with microarrays were confirmed with qRT-PCR. Ubiquitin-like protein 1 was up-regulated over 100 fold and interferon regulating factor 1 was up-regulated over 15 fold following pathogen exposure for both strains. Expression of metallothionein B, which has known roles in inflammation and immune response, was up-regulated over 5 fold in the resistant Hofer strain but was unchanged in the susceptible Trout Lodge strain following pathogen exposure. Conclusion The present study has provided an initial view into the genetic basis underlying immune response and resistance of rainbow trout to the whirling disease parasite. The identified genes have allowed us to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms implicated in salmonid immune response and resistance to whirling disease infection. PMID:18218127

  11. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw meat: A research for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pesavento; B. Ducci; N. Comodo; A. Lo Nostro

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a risk factor for patients in general population and particularly in immunocompromised patients. As a matter of fact, it can produce serious infections that may then evolve in septicaemia. However, transmission of MRSA from food to people can represent a serious problem only for immunocompromised people. Vancomycin is the elective antimicrobial commonly used

  12. Can we use Electrical Resistivity Tomography to measure root zone moisture dynamics in fields with multiple crops?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garre, S.; Coteur, I.; Wongleecharoen, C.; Diels, J.; Vanderborght, J.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture on shallow or steep soils in the humid tropics often leads to low resource use efficiency. Contour hedgerow intercropping systems have been proposed to reduce run-off and control soil erosion. However, competition for water and nutrients between crops and associated hedgerows may reduce the overall performance of contour hedgerow systems. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a valuable technique to assess the distribution and dynamics of soil moisture non-invasively. Root water uptake is a spatially variable and small-scale process, which requires at least decimeter resolution and a high sensitivity in order to be able to monitor changes in time and space. Careful experimental design is of uttermost importance in order to maximize the information content of the ERT survey and to gain insights in the possibilities and limitations of the survey. Virtual experiments in combination with absolute and spatial performance measures provide a way to optimize the information that can be retrieved from an ERT experiment. We used this approach to identify a suitable measurement methodology to monitor water fluxes in a contour hedgerow intercropping system in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The virtual experiment showed that there are important differences between the tested measurement configurations. We saw that the optimal ERT array was capable of recognizing distinct water depletion zones under the different crops. However, sharp contrasts in the 1-D water depletion profile are smoothened. ERT measurements conducted in Thailand showed that the soils of our experimental plots were very heterogeneous both along the slope as with depth. This observation highlighted some constraints of the ERT method for soil moisture monitoring in the field, such as the difficulty to define a relationship between electrical conductivity and soil moisture in very heterogeneous soils. Nevertheless, the data indeed revealed contrasting water depletion patterns under monocropping and intercropping systems. ERT allowed us to access information about the vadose zone moisture dynamics that would be unavailable with classical soil moisture measurements.

  13. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-01

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60°C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60°C for 3.5min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60°C for 3.5min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the highest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 81%, and also the lowest concentration of stearic acid. This data represents the first steps in determining whether Salmonella contamination in pasteurized egg products may be the result of either thermally-resistant isolates or post-processing contamination. Contamination of LWE by Salmonella strains with higher heat resistance, (e.g., isolate #'s 2, 6, 10 and 12) may indicate the ability of Salmonella to survive pasteurization, while contamination of LWE strains with lower heat resistance (e.g., isolate #'s 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, and 15) may indicate post-processing contamination of LWE by this foodborne pathogen. PMID:26001379

  14. Electric-resistance furnace for melting ash from municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, Tsuyoshi; Nakahara, Keisuke [NKK Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Akashi, Tetsuo [NKK Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Environmental Plant Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Existing landfill capacity is dwindling in Japan and it is difficult to find new landfill sites because of strong opposition from residents. Under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law in 1991 in Japan, fly ashes from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator have to be treated by one of the four methods: (1) vitrification, (2) solidification by cement, (3) stabilization using chemical agents, or (4) extraction with acid or other solvent. In these four technologies, the vitrification technology has some advantages: decreasing ash volume which can solve the landfill problem, de-taxiing ash, and utilization of its products from residues. NKK has developed an electric resistance furnace for melting MSW incineration residues and built a demonstration plant (24t/d). The performance test results showed as follows; (1) Si, Al, and Ca tended to become the molten slag. Cu, P, and Fe tended to become the molten metal. Pb, Zn, and Cd tended to become the molten fly ash. (2) HCl from the slag resistance electric furnace was 60 ppm and very low compared with other melting systems. (3) Decomposition rate of dioxins was 99 % in the melting furnace. (4) Concentration of heavy metals in the molten slag was low and leaching of heavy metals was below Japanese regulation.

  15. High Temperature Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnane, Lhacene; Dirisaglik, Faruk; Akbulut, Mustafa; Zhu, Yu; Lam, Chung; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2012-02-01

    Phase-change memory (PCM) is a promising memory technology in which a small volume of a chalcogenide material can be reversibly and rapidly switched between amorphous and crystalline phases by an electrical pulse that brings it above crystallization (˜ 150-200 C) or melting (˜ 700 C) temperature. The large temperature levels involved and small dimensions of PCM devices give rise to very large temperature gradients (˜ 10 K/nm and higher) which result in strong thermoelectric effects. High-temperature characterization of the temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties of these materials is therefore critical to understand for the operation of these devices but to date there is only limited experimental data available. We have performed simultaneous measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistance of thin films of GST with different thicknesses, deposited on silicon dioxide, from room temperature to ˜ 600 C, under small temperature gradients. Two-point current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The resistance of the material and the Seebeck voltage (open-circuit voltage) are calculated from the slope and intercept of the I-V characteristics. The details of the measurements and S(T) and R(T) results for the GST thin film samples will be presented and discussed.

  16. Nanocrystalline SmCo5 magnets with laminated structure and increased electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, A. M.; Marinescu-Jasinski, M.; Li, W. F.; Liu, J. F.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetically isotropic Sm-Co permanent magnets with anisotropic electrical conductivity were produced by hot-pressing SmCo5 ultrathin flakes with or without insulating additions of mica, MoS2, CaF2, and B2O3. The laminated structures of the magnets were assured by the natural packing of the flakes in the die. In the additive-free magnets, the resistivity is increased due to oxidized flake boundaries. Additives with platelet-shaped particles (mica, MoS2) and especially those with low-melting temperature (B2O3) form more continuous insulating layers. On the other hand, the CaF2 additive does not react with the magnetic Sm-Co phase. The characteristic values of the maximum energy product and electrical resistivity, measured in orthogonal directions, were 9.7 MG Oe and 130 ?? cm for the additive-free magnet, 5.7 MG Oe and 640 ?? cm for the magnet made with 2 wt. % B2O3 and 5.7 MG Oe and 330 ?? cm for the magnet made with 10 wt. % CaF2.

  17. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of ? and t were obtained.

  18. Monitoring freshwater salinization in analog transport models by time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Florian M.; Möller, Marcus; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Kempka, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2013-02-01

    Deep saline aquifers are target formations both for the geological storage of carbon dioxide as well as for geothermal applications. High pressure gradients, resulting from fluid or gas injection processes, provide a potential driving force for the displacement of native formation waters, implicating a potential salinization of shallow freshwater resources. Geoelectrical monitoring techniques are sensitive to compositional changes of groundwater resources, and hence capable to detect salinization processes at an early stage. In this context, numerical simulations and analog modeling can provide a valuable contribution by identifying probable salinization scenarios, and thereby guiding an optimum sensor network layout within the scope of an early warning system. In this study, coupled numerical flow and transport simulations of a laterally uniform salinization scenario were carried out and used to support a subsequent realization in a laboratory sandbox model. During the experiment, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was applied in a practical surface-borehole setup in order to determine the spatio-temporal variations of electrical properties influenced by saltwater intrusion. Inversion results of different electrode configurations were evaluated and compared to numerical simulations. With regard to surface-borehole measurements, good results were obtained using crossed bipoles, while regular bipole measurements were more susceptible to noise. Within the scope of a single-hole tomography, the underlying resistivity distribution was best reproduced using the Wenner configuration, which was substantiated by synthetic modeling.

  19. Electrical resistivity imaging of hydrologic changes in an anthropogenically modified arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Bedford, D.; Miller, D. M.; Sandquist, D. R.; Horowitz, C.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic landscape modification, such as the emplacement of highways and railroads, has altered the natural hydrologic system by influencing surface-water flow paths, as well as the composition and distribution of biotic communities within the Mojave National Preserve, California, USA. Water sprinkling experiments along with electrical resistance imaging were conducted at two sites to evaluate changes in hydrology in terms of plant water availability and use. Previous studies have shown that plants on alluvial fans are more abundant near undisturbed ephemeral channels compared to channels where upslope catchments have been diverted by transportation corridor construction. During the sprinkling experiments, water was applied in one active channel upslope and another abandoned channel down slope from a railroad built less than 100 years ago. The abandoned channel is still evident, but has been disconnected from major runoff derived from higher elevations. Excavation at both sites showed weak soil development with fewer plant roots present beneath the abandoned channel. Electrical resistance imaging results indicate that water infiltrated rapidly at both sites and spread laterally throughout the 6-day monitoring period following the single sprinkling application. More water appears to be present beneath the abandoned channel after 6 days of redistribution. Hence we infer that plants do not preferentially root toward abandoned stream channels to exploit the enhanced infiltration as extensively as they do above the railroad where flow in ephemeral channels is an additional water source.

  20. Electrical Resistance of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for Damage Detection and Life-Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory; Xia, Zhenhai

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are suitable for high temperature structural applications such as turbine airfoils and hypersonic thermal protection systems due to their low density high thermal conductivity. The employment of these materials in such applications is limited by the ability to accurately monitor and predict damage evolution. Current nondestructive methods such as ultrasound, x-ray, and thermal imaging are limited in their ability to quantify small scale, transverse, in-plane, matrix cracks developed over long-time creep and fatigue conditions. CMC is a multifunctional material in which the damage is coupled with the material s electrical resistance, providing the possibility of real-time information about the damage state through monitoring of resistance. Here, resistance measurement of SiC/SiC composites under mechanical load at both room temperature monotonic and high temperature creep conditions, coupled with a modal acoustic emission technique, can relate the effects of temperature, strain, matrix cracks, fiber breaks, and oxidation to the change in electrical resistance. A multiscale model can in turn be developed for life prediction of in-service composites, based on electrical resistance methods. Results of tensile mechanical testing of SiC/SiC composites at room and high temperatures will be discussed. Data relating electrical resistivity to composite constituent content, fiber architecture, temperature, matrix crack formation, and oxidation will be explained, along with progress in modeling such properties.

  1. Nearly Constant Electrical Resistance over Large Temperature Range in Cu3NMx (M = Cu, Ag, Au) Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Nianpeng; Ji, Ailing; Cao, Zexian

    2013-01-01

    Electrical resistance is a material property that usually varies enormously with temperature. Constant electrical resistivity over large temperature range has been rarely measured in a single solid. Here we report the growth of Cu3NMx (M = Cu, Ag, Au) compound films by magnetron sputtering, aiming at obtaining single solids of nearly constant electrical resistance in some temperature ranges. The increasing interstitial doping of cubic Cu3N lattice by extra metal atoms induces the semiconductor-to-metal transition in all the three systems. Nearly constant electrical resistance over 200?K, from room temperature downward, was measured in some semimetallic Cu3NMx samples, resulting from opposite temperature dependence of carrier density and carrier mobility, as revealed by Hall measurement. Cu3NAgx samples have the best performance with regard to the range of both temperature and doping level wherein a nearly constant electrical resistance can be realized. This work can inspire the search of other materials of such a quality. PMID:24169599

  2. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Background Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. Methods We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 ?M) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 ?A) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Results By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed that AC not only decreases MDR1 expression but also changes its cellular distribution from the plasma membrane to the cytosol. These effects synergistically contributed to the loss of drug extrusion ability and increased chemo-sensitivity. Conclusion In the present study, we demonstrate that low frequency, low intensity alternating current electrical stimulation drastically enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy in MDR1 drug resistant malignant tumors. This effect is due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Our data strongly support a potential clinical application of electrical stimulation to enhance the efficacy of currently available chemotherapeutic protocols. PMID:16545134

  3. Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Resistivity of FeTe1-xSx Sintered Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikegawa, Takako; Sato, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Keisuke

    The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and the temperature and magnetic field dependence of electrical resistivity have been measured for FeTe1-xSx polycrystalline samples. The samples were prepared by solid state reaction with a three-step procedure. For FeTe0.8S0.2 and FeTe0.7S0.3, zero resistivity due to the superconducting transition was observed not only in oxygen post-annealed samples but also in as-grown ones. These samples include the certain amount of impurities FeTe2 and Fe3O4. The formation of these ion compounds reduces the excess Fe atoms leading to the appearance of the zero resistivity in as-grown samples. Positive magnetoresistivity and/or negative magnetoresistivity, which were extremely small, were observed for FeTe and S-doped samples. The magnetoresistivity curves show B2 dependence. It was observed that the thermal conductivity ? of FeTe exhibits a hump structure below 72 K which corresponds to the crystal structural and magnetic transitions. The enhancement of ? due to the superconducting transition could not be detected for as-grown FeTe0.8S0.2 and FeTe0.7S0.3 because of the absence of the bulk superconductivity in the as-grown samples and the extremely small ratio of the electronic contribution to ?.

  4. Small scale monitoring of a bioremediation barrier using miniature electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentenac, Philippe; Hogson, Tom; Keenan, Helen; Kulessa, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, in the laboratory, the efficiency of a barrier of oxygen release compound (ORC) to block and divert a diesel plume migration in a scaled aquifer model using miniature electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as the monitoring system. Two plumes of contaminant (diesel) were injected in a soil model made of local sand and clay. The diesel plumes migration was imaged and monitored using a miniature resistivity array system that has proved to be accurate in soil resistivity variations in small-scaled models of soil. ERT results reflected the lateral spreading and diversion of the diesel plumes in the unsaturated zone. One of the contaminant plumes was partially blocked by the ORC barrier and a diversion and reorganisation of the diesel in the soil matrix was observed. The technique of time-lapse ERT imaging showed that a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant like diesel can be monitored through a bioremediation barrier and the technique is well suited to monitor the efficiency of the barrier. Therefore, miniature ERT as a small-scale modelling tool could complement conventional techniques, which require more expensive and intrusive site investigation prior to remediation.

  5. Characterization of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature in the Mo-Si-B system

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, Sarah E.

    1999-12-10

    Measurements of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature from 25 to 1,500 C were conducted on polycrystalline samples in the Mo-Si-B system. Single phase, or nearly single phase, samples were prepared for the following phases: Mo{sub 3}Si, Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}, Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub x}, MoB, MoSi{sub 2}, and Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. Thesis materials all exhibit resistivity values within a narrow range(4--22 x 10{sup {minus}7}{Omega}-m), and the low magnitude suggests these materials are semi-metals or low density of states metals. With the exception of MoSi{sub 2}, all single phase materials in this study were also found to have low temperature coefficient of resistivity(TCR) values. These values ranged from 2.10 x 10{sup {minus}10} to 4.74 x 10{sup {minus}10}{Omega}-m/{degree} C, and MoSi{sub 2} had a TCR of 13.77 x 10{sup {minus}10}{Omega}-m/{degree} C. The results from the single phase sample measurements were employed in a natural log rule-of-mixtures model to relate the individual phase resistivity values to those of multiphase composites. Three Mo-Si-B phase regions were analyzed: the binary Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-MoSi{sub 2} system, the ternary phase field Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub x}MoB-MoSi{sub 2}, and the Mo{sub 3}Si-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-Mo{sub 5} Si{sub 3}B{sub x} ternary region. The experimental data for samples in each of these regions agreed with the natural log model and illustrated that this model can predict the electrical resistivity as a function of temperature of multi-phase, sintered samples within an error of one standard deviation.

  6. Electrical membrane potential and resistance in photoautotrophic suspension cells of Chenopodium rubrum L.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, T A; Köhler, K; Bentrup, F W

    1981-01-01

    On photoautotrophically grown, suspension-cultured cells of Chenopodium rubrum L. the electrical potential difference V mand the electrical resistance across plasmalemma and tonoplast have been measured using one or two intracellular micro-electrodes. In a mineral test-medium of 5.8 mM ionic strength V mvalues between 100 and 250 mV, 40% thereof between 170 and 200 mV, and a mean value (±S.E.M.) of 180.6±3.4 mV have been recorded. The average membrane input resistance R mwas 269±36 M?, corresponding to an average membrane resistivity r mof 3.0 ?m(2). V mand r mare sensitive to light, temperature, and addition of cyanide, suggesting the presence of an electrogenic hyperpolarizing ion pump, and are ascribed essentially to the plasmalemma. A hexose-specific saturable electrogenic membrane channel is identified through a decrease of V mand r mupon addition of hexoses. The hexoseconcentration-dependent depolarization ?V msaturates at 92 mV and returns half-saturating concentrations (apparent k mvalues) of 0.16 mM galactose, 0.28 mM glucose, and 0.48 mM fructose. The magnitude of V mand r mwell agrees with pertinent data from mesophyll cells in situ (where only V mdata are available) and from photoautotrophic lower plant cells. However, V mis markedly higher than reported for heterotrophically grown suspension cells of different higher plants (with which r mdata have not been reported so far). It is concluded from the present study and a companion paper on water transport (Büchner et al., Planta, in press) that photoautotrophically grown Chenopodium suspension cells closely resemble mesophyll cells as to cell membrane transport properties. PMID:24301675

  7. A microarray based expression profiling of paclitaxel and vincristine resistant MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kars, Meltem Demirel; I?eri, Ozlem Darcansoy; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2011-04-25

    Resistance to the broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cell lines and tumors has been called multiple drug resistance (MDR). In this study, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to two anticancer agents (paclitaxel and vincristine) in mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 were investigated. Drug resistant sublines to paclitaxel (MCF-7/Pac) and vincristine (MCF-7/Vinc) that were developed from sensitive MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/S) were used. cDNA microarray analysis was performed for the RNA samples of sensitive and resistant cells in duplicate experiments. GeneSpring GX 7.3.1 Software was used in data analysis. The results indicated that the upregulation of MDR1 gene is the dominating mechanism of the paclitaxel and vincristine drug resistance. Additionally the upregulation of the genes encoding the detoxifying enzymes (i.e. GSTP1) was observed. Significant downregulation of apoptotic genes (i.e. PDCD2/4/6/8) and upregulation of some cell cycle regulatory genes (CDKN2A, CCNA2 etc.) was seen which may be in close relation to MDR in breast cancer. Drug resistant cancer cells exhibit different gene expression patterns depending on drug treatment, and each drug resistance phenotype is probably genetically different. Further functional studies are needed to demonstrate the complete set of genes contributing to the drug resistance phenotype in breast cancer cells. PMID:21320484

  8. Characterizations of 21-4N to 4Cr9Si2 stainless steel dissimilar joint bonded by electric-resistance-heat-aided friction welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Ya Li; Min Yu; Jinglong Li; Guifeng Zhang; Shiyuan Wang

    2009-01-01

    A new welding process, electric-resistance-heat-aided friction welding (ERHAFW), was introduced in this study. To further improve the joint quality and energy-saving, electric resistance welding was combined with the conventional continuous-drive friction welding. 21-4N (austenitic stainless steel) and 4Cr9Si2 (martensitic stainless steel) valve steel rods of 4mm diameter were used as base metals. The results show that electric-resistance-heat-aided friction welding can

  9. Transcription profile of soybean-root-knot nematode interaction reveals a key role of phythormones in the resistance reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root-knot nematodes (RKN– Meloidogyne genus) present extensive challenges to soybean crop. The soybean line (PI 595099) is known to be resistant against specific strains and races of nematode species, thus its differential gene expression analysis can lead to a comprehensive gene expression profiling in the incompatible soybean-RKN interaction. Even though many disease resistance genes have been studied, little has been reported about phytohormone crosstalk on modulation of ROS signaling during soybean-RKN interaction. Results Using 454 technology to explore the common aspects of resistance reaction during both parasitism and resistance phases it was verified that hormone, carbohydrate metabolism and stress related genes were consistently expressed at high levels in infected roots as compared to mock control. Most noteworthy genes include those encoding glycosyltransferases, peroxidases, auxin-responsive proteins and gibberellin-regulated genes. Our data analysis suggests the key role of glycosyltransferases, auxins and components of gibberellin signal transduction, biosynthesis and deactivation pathways in the resistance reaction and their participation in jasmonate signaling and redox homeostasis in mediating aspects of plant growth and responses to biotic stress. Conclusions Based on this study we suggest a reasonable model regarding to the complex mechanisms of crosstalk between plant hormones, mainly gibberellins and auxins, which can be crucial to modulate the levels of ROS in the resistance reaction to nematode invasion. The model also includes recent findings concerning to the participation of DELLA-like proteins and ROS signaling controlling plant immune or stress responses. Furthermore, this study provides a dataset of potential candidate genes involved in both nematode parasitism and resistance, which can be tested further for their role in this biological process using functional genomics approaches. PMID:23663436

  10. Microgravity and Electrical Resistivity Techniques for Detection of Caves and Clandestine Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, N. C.; Croft, L. A.; Cesin, G. L.; Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    The Center for Cave and Karst Studies, CCKS, has been using microgravity to locate caves from the ground's surface since 1985. The geophysical subsurface investigations began during a period when explosive and toxic vapors were rising from the karst aquifer under Bowling Green into homes, businesses, and schools. The USEPA provided the funding for this Superfund Emergency, and the CCKS was able to drill numerous wells into low-gravity anomalies to confirm and even map the route of caves in the underlying limestone bedrock. In every case, a low-gravity anomaly indicated a bedrock cave, a cave with a collapsed roof or locations where a bedrock cave had collapsed and filled with alluvium. At numerous locations, several wells were cored into microgravity anomalies and in every case, additional wells were drilled on both sides of the anomalies to confirm that the technique was in fact reliable. The wells cored on both sides of the anomalies did not intersect caves but instead intersected virtually solid limestone. Microgravity also easily detected storm sewers and even sanitary sewers, sometimes six meters (twenty feet) beneath the surface. Microgravity has also been used on many occasions to investigate sinkhole collapses. It identified potential collapse areas by detecting voids in the unconsolidated material above bedrock. The system will soon be tested over known tunnels and then during a blind test along a section of the U.S. border at Nogales, Arizona. The CCKS has experimented with other geophysical techniques, particularly ground penetrating radar, seismic and electrical resistivity. In the late 1990s the CCKS started using the Swift/Sting resistivity meter to perform karst geophysical subsurface investigations. The system provides good depth to bedrock data, but it is often difficult to interpret bedrock caves from the modeled data. The system typically used now by the CCKS to perform karst subsurface investigations is to use electrical resistivity traverses followed by microgravity over suspect areas identified on the modeled resistivity data. Some areas of high resistivity indicate caves, but others simply indicate pockets of dry limestone, and the signatures looks virtually identical. Therefore, the CCKS performs microgravity over all suspect areas along the resistivity traverses. A low-gravity anomaly that corresponds with a high-resistivity anomaly indicates a cave location. A high-resistivity anomaly that does not also have a low- gravity anomaly indicates a pocket of dry limestone. Numerous cored wells have been drilled both into the anomalies and on both sides to confirm the cave locations and to establish that the technique is accurate. The September 11, 2001 World Trade Center catastrophe was the catalyst for the formation of a program within the CCKS to use the techniques for locating bedrock caves and voids in unconsolidated materials for search and rescue and for locating clandestine tunnels. We are now into our third year of a grant from the Kentucky Science and Technology Center to develop a robot that will measure microgravity and other geophysical techniques. The robot has the potential for detecting clandestine tunnels under the U.S. border as well as military applications. The system will soon be tested over known tunnels and then during a blind test along a section of the U.S. border at Nogales, Arizona.

  11. Electrical stimulation improves microbial salinity resistance and organofluorine removal in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huajun; Zhang, Xueqin; Guo, Kun; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Shen, Dongsheng; Long, Yuyang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Meizhen

    2015-06-01

    Fed batch bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) based on electrical stimulation were used to treat p-fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) wastewater at high salinities. At a NaCl concentration of 40 g/liter, p-FNB was removed 100% in 96 h in the BES, whereas in the biotic control (BC) (absence of current), p-FNB removal was only 10%. By increasing NaCl concentrations from 0 g/liter to 40 g/liter, defluorination efficiency decreased around 40% in the BES, and in the BC it was completely ceased. p-FNB was mineralized by 30% in the BES and hardly in the BC. Microorganisms were able to store 3.8 and 0.7 times more K(+) and Na(+) intracellularly in the BES than in the BC. Following the same trend, the ratio of protein to soluble polysaccharide increased from 3.1 to 7.8 as the NaCl increased from 0 to 40 g/liter. Both trends raise speculation that an electrical stimulation drives microbial preference toward K(+) and protein accumulation to tolerate salinity. These findings are in accordance with an enrichment of halophilic organisms in the BES. Halobacterium dominated in the BES by 56.8% at a NaCl concentration of 40 g/liter, while its abundance was found as low as 17.5% in the BC. These findings propose a new method of electrical stimulation to improve microbial salinity resistance. PMID:25819966

  12. Dynamic Inversion for Hydrological Process Monitoring with Electrical Resistance Tomography Under Model Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lehikoinen, A.; Huttunen, J.M.J.; Finsterle, S.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Kaipio, J.P.

    2009-08-01

    We propose an approach for imaging the dynamics of complex hydrological processes. The evolution of electrically conductive fluids in porous media is imaged using time-lapse electrical resistance tomography. The related dynamic inversion problem is solved using Bayesian filtering techniques, that is, it is formulated as a sequential state estimation problem in which the target is an evolving posterior probability density of the system state. The dynamical inversion framework is based on the state space representation of the system, which involves the construction of a stochastic evolution model and an observation model. The observation model used in this paper consists of the complete electrode model for ERT, with Archie's law relating saturations to electrical conductivity. The evolution model is an approximate model for simulating flow through partially saturated porous media. Unavoidable modeling and approximation errors in both the observation and evolution models are considered by computing approximate statistics for these errors. These models are then included in the construction of the posterior probability density of the estimated system state. This approximation error method allows the use of approximate - and therefore computationally efficient - observation and evolution models in the Bayesian filtering. We consider a synthetic example and show that the incorporation of an explicit model for the model uncertainties in the state space representation can yield better estimates than a frame-by-frame imaging approach.

  13. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of common mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Keefe, G P; Scholl, D T; Morck, D W; Barkema, H W

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria has clinical and public health significance. The present study determined prevalence of AMR in common mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA; n=1,810), Escherichia coli (n=394), and Klebsiella species (n=139), including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and Klebsiella species, isolated from milk samples on 89 dairy farms in 6 Canadian provinces. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) and a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System gram-negative panel containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Denim blue chromogenic agar and real-time PCR were used to screen and confirm MRSA, respectively. Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for cephalothin and oxacillin to 8.8% for penicillin in Staph. aureus isolates, and 15% of the resistant Staph. aureus isolates were multidrug resistant. One MRSA isolate was confirmed (prevalence: 0.05%). Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin to 14.8% for tetracycline in E. coli, and 0% for amikacin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid to 18.6% for tetracycline in Klebsiella species isolates. Further, 62.8 and 55% of the resistant E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were multidrug resistant, respectively. Resistance to >5 and >2 antimicrobials was most common in E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates, respectively, and no ESBL producers were found. Prevalence of AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was low. Most gram-negative udder pathogens were multidrug resistant; MRSA was rarely found, and ESBL E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were absent in Canadian milk samples. PMID:22818446

  15. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Surveys at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, the USGS collected direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity data and shear- (S) and compressional- (P) wave seismic data to provide new detail of previously mapped, overlapping fault splays at two administrative areas in the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In NTS Area 7, we collected two-dimensional DC resistivity data along a transect crossing the Yucca Fault parallel to, and between, two transects along which resistivity data were collected in a previous study in 2006. In addition, we collected three-dimensional DC resistivity data in a grid that overlies part of the 2007 transect. The DC resistivity data show that the fault has a footwall that is more conductive than the hanging wall and an along-strike progression of the fault in a location where overlapping splays are present. Co-located with the northernmost of the two 2006 DC resistivity transects, we acquired S- and P-wave seismic data for both reflection and refraction processing. The S-wave data are corrupted by large amounts of converted (P-wave) energy likely due to the abundance of fractured caliche in the shallow subsurface. The P-wave data show minimal reflected energy, but they show clear refracted first arrivals. We have inverted these first arrival times to determine P-wave seismic velocity models. The seismic model for the transect in Area 7 shows low velocities extending to the base of the model at the location of the Yucca Fault, as well as low velocities at the eastern end of the transect, in the vicinity of the adjacent crater. These new surveys provide further detail about the geometry of the Yucca Fault in this location where it shows two overlapping splays. We collected P- and S-wave seismic data along a transect in the southern part of NTS Area 2, corresponding with the location of a 2006 DC resistivity transect that targeted a set of small faults identified with field mapping. Again, the S-wave data are difficult to interpret. The P-wave data show clear first arrivals that we inverted, yielding a velocity model that shows lateral heterogeneity similar to the 2006 DC resistivity models. Finally, we collected P-wave data along a second transect in Area 2, located north of the first line and in an area of a very minor fault that was targeted by another 2006 DC resistivity survey. The P-wave refraction velocity model shows generally high velocities, with a zone of somewhat lower velocities in the central part of the transect. The position of the low velocity zone corresponds with the location of a minor fault, though it is unclear whether the two are related. Together, these results demonstrate the value of geophysical data for mapping the subsurface extent of faults. The 2007 DC resistivity data complement the 2006 data and provide important new detail of the overlapping fault splays. The seismic data demonstrate the ability of P-wave refraction methods to identify the damage zones at faults, and they show the difficulties associated with S-wave methods in areas with caliche. Combining all of the geophysical data from the Area 7 studies, we are able to develop a coherent interpretation of the relation between the site geology, the fault, and the observations.

  16. Multiple pulse-heating experiments with different current to determine total emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical total emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at different temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and total emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results. PMID:22299976

  17. Multiple pulse-heating experiments with different current to determine total emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical total emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at different temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and total emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results.

  18. Heterogeneous reactive transport under unsaturated transient conditions characterized by 3D electrical resistivity tomography and advanced lysimeter methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrer, Markus; Slater, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to predict flow and transport processes in the unsaturated critical zone is considerably limited by two characteristics: heterogeneity of flow and transience of boundary conditions. The causes of heterogeneous flow and transport are fairly well understood, yet the characterization and quantification of such processes in natural profiles remains challenging. This is due to current methods of observation, such as staining and isotope tracers, being unable to observe multiple events on the same profile and offering limited spatial information. In our study we demonstrate an approach to characterize preferential flow and transport processes applying a combination of geoelectrical methods and advanced lysimeter techniques. On an agricultural soil profile, which was transferred undisturbed into a lysimeter container, we systematically applied a variety of input flow boundary conditions, resembling natural precipitation events. We measured breakthroughs of a conservative tracer and of nitrate, originating from the application of a slow release fertilizer and serving as a reactive tracer. Flow and transport in the soil column were observed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), tensiometers, water content probes and a multicompartment suction plate (MSP). These techniques allowed a direct validation of water content dynamics and tracer breakthrough under transient boundary conditions characterized noninvasively by ERT. We were able to image the advancing infiltration front and the advancing front of tracer and nitrate using time lapse ERT. Water content changes associated with the advancing infiltration front dominated over pore fluid conductivity changes during short term precipitation events. Conversely, long-term displacement of the solute fronts was monitored during periods of constant water content in between infiltration events. We observed preferential flow phenomena through ERT and through the MSP, which agreed in general terms. The preferential flow fraction was observed to be independent of precipitation rate. This suggests the presence of a fingering process driven by textural heterogeneities. As a consequence, preferential transport of the conservative and the reactive tracer also occurred. We found that 3D ERT can serve to quantitatively characterize shape measures of both tracer breakthroughs and water content dynamics. In particular, shape measures influenced by the advective propagation of the tracer peak, like mean velocity and normalized first central moment, are highly correlated between ERT data and validation data (consisting of tracer measurements in seepage water samples). Using shape measures proved to be advantageous over interpretation of ERT data with spatially uncertain petrophysical functions for the characterization of heterogeneous flow and transport. Consequently, for future applications of ERT in soil hydrological modeling, the use of temporal moments is recommended.

  19. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, S.; Shibata, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohno, N.; Isayama, A.; Takizuka, T.; Kawano, Y.; Okamoto, M.

    2013-11-01

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  20. Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Shao-Ping Weng; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Ke Xing; Siu-Ming Chan; Jian-Guo He

    2007-01-01

    In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point)

  1. Association between the methicillin resistance of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, their staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec) subtype classification, and their toxin gene profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Seok Kim; Wonkeun Song; Han-Sung Kim; Hyoun Chan Cho; Kyu Man Lee; Myung-Sik Choi; Eui-Chong Kim

    2006-01-01

    Virulence and antimicrobial resistance are important determinators of the clinical manifestations and of the treatments of bacterial infections. Here, we studied the associations between the methicillin resistance of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates, their classifications as particular staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) subtypes, and their toxin gene profiles. In total, 252 S. aureus isolates were collected from 13 healthcare facilities in

  2. Shallow subsurface imaging of the Piano di Pezza active normal fault (central Italy) by high-resolution refraction and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Fabio; Tulliani, Valerio; Fierro, Elisa; Sapia, Vincenzo; Civico, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The Piano di Pezza fault is the north-westernmost segment of the >20 km long Ovindoli-Pezza active normal fault-system (central Italy). Although existing paleoseismic data document high vertical Holocene slip rates (~1 mm/yr) and a remarkable seismogenic potential of this fault, its subsurface setting and Pleistocene cumulative displacement are still poorly known. We investigated for the first time by means of high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements the shallow subsurface of a key section of the Piano di Pezza fault. Our surveys cross a ~5 m-high fault scarp that was generated by repeated surface-rupturing earthquakes displacing some Late Holocene alluvial fans. We provide 2-D Vp and resistivity images which clearly show significant details of the fault structure and the geometry of the shallow basin infill material down to 50 m depth. We can estimate the dip (~50°) and the Holocene vertical displacement of the master fault (~10 m). We also recognize in the hangingwall some low-velocity/low-resistivity regions that we relate to packages of colluvial wedges derived from scarp degradation, which may represent the record of several paleo-earthquakes older than the Late Holocene events previously recognized by paleoseismic trenching. Conversely, due to the limited investigation depth of seismic and electrical tomography, the estimation of the cumulative amount of Pleistocene throw is hampered. Therefore, to increase the depth of investigation, we performed 7 TDEM measurements along the electrical profile using a 50 m loop size both in central and offset configuration. The recovered 1-D resistivity models show a good match with 2-D resistivity images in the near surface. Moreover, TDEM inversion results indicate that in the hangingwall, ~200 m away from the surface fault trace, the carbonate pre-Quaternary basement may be found at ~90-100 m depth. The combined approach of electrical and seismic data coupled with TDEM measurements provides a robust constraint to the Piano di Pezza fault cumulative offset. Our data are useful for better reconstructing the deep structural setting of the Piano di Pezza basin and assessing the role played by extensional tectonics in its Quaternary evolution.

  3. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Saltwater and Freshwater Along the Coast of Monterey Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, R. J.; Pidlisecky, A.; Moran, T.; Goebel, M.

    2014-12-01

    A coastal region represents a dynamic interface where the processes of saltwater intrusion and freshwater flow create complex spatial and temporal changes in water chemistry. These changes in water chemistry affect both human use of coastal groundwater aquifers and the functioning of coastal ecosystems. Mapping out the subsurface distribution of saltwater and freshwater is a critical step in predicting, and managing, changes in water chemistry in coastal regions. Our research is focused on California's Monterey Bay region where agriculturally-intensive land meets the sensitive marine environment of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Along the coast of Monterey Bay extensive groundwater extraction (groundwater provides more than 80% of the area's water supply) has led to saltwater intrusion into aquifers at various locations. To date, the mapping of saltwater intrusion has relied on measurements of changing water chemistry in monitoring wells. But it is challenging with wells to capture the spatially complex hydrostratigraphy resulting from changing depositional environments and numerous faulting events. We suggest that geophysical methods be used to map and monitor the distribution of saltwater and freshwater by acquiring non-invasive, high-resolution continuous images of the subsurface. In a pilot study conducted over the past four years, we used electrical resistivity imaging to successfully identify regions of saltwater and freshwater 150 m below sea level along a 7 km stretch of the southern Monterey Bay coast. We employed large-offset electrical resistance tomography using a 96-electrode system with an overall array length of 860 m. The results showed excellent agreement with measurements in nearby monitoring wells. The large-scale image provided by the geophysical measurements revealed the hydrostratigraphic controls on the spatial distribution of the saltwater/freshwater interface. In October 2014 we will expand this study, using large-offset electrical resistance tomography to image to a depth of 300 m along a 40 km stretch of the Monterey Bay coast. The acquisition of this continuous dataset will provide an improved understanding of the biophysical and human factors controlling the processes of saltwater intrusion and freshwater flow in this coastal region.

  4. Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography applications for optimizing water use in irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriani, A.; Loperte, A.; Catalano, M.

    2012-04-01

    This abstract deals with the joint use of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) for soil moisture monitoring and spatial distribution estimation in agriculture. In fact, an effective use of irrigation water for a sustainable agriculture helps to cut irrigation cost and the exploitation of technologies for water resource monitoring and management can help to achieve this objective. The work has regarded a flat experimental vegetable area of about 1000 m2 with the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L), which was an subdivided in two adjacent plots of land five meters distant each from other. From sowing and for the whole cultural cycle, irrigation monitoring was performed by using non-invasive surveys, based on measurements of physical properties of the soil, as the dielectric constant and the electrical resistivity. A drip irrigation system was used with the water pumped by a nearby water reserve, represented by a small artificial lake, but a different irrigation treatment was performed for each plot. In the plot A, the irrigation water supply was managed by the farmer, with an intensive irrigation treatment. Differently, in the plot B, the irrigation water supply was decided on the basis of the results of the TDR and ERT surveys. In particular, the amount and the time of irrigation were determined on the basis of the measurements of physical properties of the soil using TDR and ERT, with a specific focus to the soil moisture content estimation and spatial distribution . In fact, during the crop cycle, the soil moisture was measured weekly before and after irrigation, by a 20 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probe located at the center and at the ends of the bean rows. Moreover, the soil water distribution was determined by an electrical resistivity tomography using a multielectrode method. On the basis of the TDR and ERT results, a reduced water supply was performed, which did not affect the bean yield, and moreover improved the environmental sustainability of crop. Therefore, the use of non-invasive technologies opens interesting perspectives for the optimization of water use in irrigation practice for its sustainable management.

  5. Virulence and antimicrobial-resistance gene profiles determined by PCR-based procedures for Salmonella isolated from samples of animal origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A del Cerro; S. M Soto; M. C Mendoza

    2003-01-01

    The virulence (V) and antimicrobial resistance (R) gene profiles of Salmonella isolates collected from samples of animal origin in a Spanish Region were determined by PCR-based procedures, and compared with V and R gene profiles of clinical strains from the same region. Some V-profiles were serotype-specific, i.e. S. Panama carried all the V-genes tested (invE\\/A, phoP\\/Q, stn, iroB, slyA, hin\\/H2,

  6. Experimental and numerical modeling study of the electrical resistance of gas diffusion layer-less polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shudo, Toshio

    2015-03-01

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL)-less fuel cell composed of a corrugated-mesh shows low flooding performance even in the high current density region, since the gases are supplied more uniformly to the catalyst layer (CL) compared with the conventional fuel cells that utilize GDLs. On the other hand, the internal electrical resistance of the GDL-less fuel cell is higher than that of the conventional fuel cell, because the corrugated-mesh and the underlying microporous layer (MPL) have a low contact area with point contacts. This can greatly increase the resistance at the interface between the corrugated-mesh and MPL as well as that between the MPL and CL, compared to the conventional fuel cell where GDL can make a good contact with the MPL. In this study, the conductivities and the contact resistances of each material in the GDL-less fuel cell were measured under various mechanical compression pressures, and a coupled mechanical-electric-electrochemical model was developed to investigate the effect of electrical resistance on the fuel cell performance. We found that our model can simulate the GDL-less fuel cell well and the electric resistance contributes significantly to the polarization performance in the GDL-less fuel cell.

  7. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Floris Y. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  8. A study of the electrical resistivity of the perylene-iodine complex for various ratios of perylene to iodine

    E-print Network

    Miller, Bruce Melville

    1964-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF THE PERYLENE-IODINE COMPLEX FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF PERYLENE TO IODINE A Thesis Bruce Melville Miller Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AlkN University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1964 Ma5or Subjects Physics A STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF THE PERYLENE-IODINE COMPLEX FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF PERYLENE TO IODINE A Thesis By Bruce Melville Miller roved as style and content bye 'rman...

  9. Electrical Resistance as a NDE Technique to Monitor Processing and Damage Accumulation in SiC/SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are suitable for high temperature structural applications such as turbine airfoils and hypersonic thermal protection systems. The employment of these materials in such applications is limited by the ability to process components reliable and to accurately monitor and predict damage evolution that leads to failure under stressed-oxidation conditions. Current nondestructive methods such as ultrasound, x-ray, and thermal imaging are limited in their ability to quantify small scale, transverse, in-plane, matrix cracks developed over long-time creep and fatigue conditions. Electrical resistance of SiC/SiC composites is one technique that shows special promise towards this end. Since both the matrix and the fibers are conductive, changes in matrix or fiber properties should relate to changes in electrical conductivity along the length of a specimen or part. Initial efforts to quantify the electrical resistance of different fiber and different matrix SiC/SiC composites will be presented. Also, the effect of matrix cracking on electrical resistivity for several composite systems will be presented. The implications towards electrical resistance as a technique applied to composite processing, damage detection, and life-modeling will be discussed.

  10. Electrical resistivity of Cu films deposited by ion beam deposition: Effects of grain size, impurities, and morphological defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Isshiki, M.

    2006-05-01

    Cu films deposited by ion beam deposition with or without a negative substrate bias voltage were found to have different states of dependence of electrical resistivity on film thickness. We have attempted to evaluate the effects of the film thickness, average grain size, impurities, and morphological defect on the resistivity increase of Cu films in addition to the surface scattering of the Fuch-Sondheimer model and the grain boundary scattering of the Mayadas-Shatzkes model. When the theoretical model was fit to the experimental data, the Cu films deposited at a substrate bias voltage of -50 V showed that the electrical resistivity was in good agreement with the theoretical curve under the condition that the film thickness was 2.3 times larger than the average grain size and when p=0 and R=0.24. For the Cu films deposited without a substrate bias voltage, however, there was a slight deviation between the theoretical curve and the measured resistivity below a 100 nm thickness, even at the condition of the film thickness that was six times larger than the average grain size, which is considered to result from the effect of solute impurities in the Cu films. Therefore it was found that the impurity effect on the electrical resistivity could not be neglected. It was also confirmed that the morphological defect, such as a columnar structure with noticeable gaps in the Cu films deposited without the substrate bias voltage, caused a great increase in resistivity even above the 100 nm thickness.

  11. Temperature profile detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  12. Temperature profile detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Candida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Lischewski, A; Ruhnke, M; Tennagen, I; Schönian, G; Morschhäuser, J; Hacker, J

    1995-01-01

    Thirty Candida isolates obtained from the oropharynxes of three AIDS patients were genotypically characterized. In vitro fluconazole MIC determination revealed increasing fluconazole resistances during treatment, thereby confirming the in vivo situation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis karyotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and hybridizations with Candida albicans repetitive element 2 were used to determine possible genotypic changes. The isolates from two patients showed genetic homogeneity, suggesting the selection for resistant variants. One patient experienced a strain switch to Candida krusei. Horizontal spread of identical strains between the patients could be excluded. However, the molecular methods used might not be sufficient to detect the underlying genetic basis of resistance to fluconazole. PMID:7751395

  14. Effects of the resistivity profile on the formation of a reversed configuration and single helicity states in compressible simulations of the reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Onofri, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Malara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. Previous simulations of the RFP, including density and pressure evolution, showed that a stationary state with a reversed toroidal magnetic field could not be obtained, contrary to the results produced with numerical codes neglecting density and pressure dynamics. The simulations described in the present paper show that including density and pressure evolution, a stationary RFP configuration can be obtained if the resistivity has a radial profile steeply increasing close to the wall. Such resistivity profile is more realistic than a uniform resistivity, since the temperature at the wall is lower than in the plasma core.

  15. Isolation of environmental bacteria from surface and drinking water in mafikeng, South Africa, and characterization using their antibiotic resistance profiles.

    PubMed

    Mulamattathil, Suma George; Bezuidenhout, Carlos; Mbewe, Moses; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify environmental bacteria from various raw water sources as well as the drinking water distributions system in Mafikeng, South Africa, and to determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. Water samples from five different sites (raw and drinking water) were analysed for the presence of faecal indicator bacteria as well as Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species. Faecal and total coliforms were detected in summer in the treated water samples from the Modimola dam and in the mixed water samples, with Pseudomonas spp. being the most prevalent organism. The most prevalent multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype observed was KF-AP-C-E-OT-K-TM-A. All organisms tested were resistant to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. to neomycin and streptomycin. Cluster analysis based on inhibition zone diameter data suggests that the isolates had similar chemical exposure histories. Isolates were identified using gyrB, toxA, ecfX, aerA, and hylH gene fragments and gyrB, ecfX, and hylH fragments were amplified. These results demonstrate that (i) the drinking water from Mafikeng contains various bacterial species and at times faecal and total coliforms. (ii) The various bacteria are resistant to various classes of antibiotics. PMID:25105027

  16. Marine electrical resistivity imaging of submarine groundwater discharge: sensitivity analysis and application in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rory D. Henderson; Frederick D. Day-Lewis; Elena Abarca; Charles F. Harvey; Hanan N. Karam; Lanbo Liu

    2010-01-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging has been used in coastal settings to characterize fresh submarine groundwater discharge and\\u000a the position of the freshwater\\/salt-water interface because of the relation of bulk electrical conductivity to pore-fluid\\u000a conductivity, which in turn is a function of salinity. Interpretation of tomograms for hydrologic processes is complicated\\u000a by inversion artifacts, uncertainty associated with survey geometry limitations, measurement errors,

  17. Plasma Metabolomic Profiling Suggests Early Indications for Predisposition to Latent Insulin Resistance in Children Conceived by ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Margeli, Alexandra; Mantzou, Emilia; Konsta, Maria; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Mastorakos, George; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Klapa, Maria I.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Chrousos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been increasing indications about an epigenetically-based elevated predisposition of assisted reproductive technology (ART) offspring to insulin resistance, which can lead to an unfavorable cardio-metabolic profile in adult life. However, the relevant long-term systematic molecular studies are limited, especially for the IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) method, introduced in 1992. In this study, we carefully defined a group of 42 prepubertal ICSI and 42 naturally conceived (NC) children. We assessed differences in their metabolic profile based on biochemical measurements, while, for a subgroup, plasma metabolomic analysis was also performed, investigating any relevant insulin resistance indices. Methods & Results Auxological and biochemical parameters of 42 6.8±2.1 yrs old ICSI-conceived and 42 age-matched controls were measured. Significant differences between the groups were determined using univariate and multivariate statistics, indicating low urea and low-grade inflammation markers (YKL-40, hsCRP) and high triiodothyronine (T3) in ICSI-children compared to controls. Moreover, plasma metabolomic analysis carried out for a subgroup of 10 ICSI- and 10 NC girls using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated clear differences between the two groups, characterized by 36 metabolites linked to obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Notably, the distinction between the two girl subgroups was accentuated when both their biochemical and metabolomic measurements were employed. Conclusions The present study contributes a large auxological and biochemical dataset of a well-defined group of pre-pubertal ICSI-conceived subjects to the research of the ART effect to the offspring's health. Moreover, it is the first time that the relevant usefulness of metabolomics was investigated. The acquired results are consistent with early insulin resistance in ICSI-offspring, paving the way for further systematic investigations. These data support that metabolomics may unravel metabolic differences before they become clinically or biochemically evident, underlining its utility in the ART research. PMID:24728198

  18. Effect of Void Volume and Silver Loading on Strain Response of Electrical Resistance in Silver Flakes/Polyurethane Composite for Stretchable Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Teppei; Sugahara, Tohru; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2012-11-01

    Silver flakes/polyurethane composites have been reported as promising materials for stretchable conductors that can be easily fabricated by wet spinning or printing and yet have low electrical resistance. However, it is also important to control the effects of strain on electrical resistance: for example, stable electrical resistance over a range of strains would be useful for flexible displays or solar cells, whereas a positive or negative correlation between electrical resistance and strain would be useful for pressure or strain sensors. Here, we show that by controlling the void volume and silver loading, the electrical resistance is kept stable at a low value under deformation or is made to increase or decrease with strain. Cyclic tensile tests confirmed that these three behaviors were repeatable. This simple method for realizing three types of electrical behaviors could be very useful in stretchable electronics.

  19. Focusing Sources on Induced Polarization and Electrical Resistivity Method Applied to Soil Pollution Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, A.; Lopez, A.; Induced Polarization Team

    2013-05-01

    In recent years the problems of soil contamination have been increasing and geophysical methods, particularly electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) have struggled to find and monitor cases of contamination. Moreover, Induced Polarization (IP) has shown promise in mapping contaminant plumes, although both techniques (ERT and IP) have problems like noise, inductive coupling, effects of electrodes, etc. limiting the precision and accuracy of the data. To overcome these problems, this paper introduces a novel technique of focusing sources. This technique reduces the effects of adjacent vertical formations and contacts due to the flowing of current in a vertical way at the zone where the electrode potentials have been deployed. This fact allows obtaining cleaner data of ERT and IP. In order to introduce the proposed technique a vertical contact synthetic model is studied and after to a cultivar area in Hidalgo State, México which presents different types of

  20. Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.

    PubMed

    Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-07-01

    Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content. PMID:24949810

  1. Evaluation of salivary and vaginal electrical resistance for determination of the time of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Fazleabas, A T; Segraves, M M; Khan-Dawood, F S

    1990-01-01

    The usefulness of changes in salivary and vaginal electrical resistance (SER and VER) measurements for timing ovulation was evaluated in 15 cycles. A peak in mean SER was observed seven to eight days before the LH peak (five to nine days before the thermal nadir). The nadir of mean VER coincided with the day of maximum LH and was significantly correlated with the day of the thermal nadir. Use of SER peak and the rise of VER from its nadir in a protocol for timing insemination yielded correct timing in 93.3% (14/15) of cycles. These findings substantiate earlier reports indicating that there is a useful relationship between SER and VER trends and ovulation, which may be employed for accurate scheduling of inseminations and other procedures. PMID:1970978

  2. Microstructural characterization and hardness properties of electric resistance welding titanium joints for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Ceschini, Lorella; Boromei, Iuri; Morri, Alessandro; Nardi, Diego; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Degidi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The electric resistance welding procedure is used to join a titanium bar with specific implant abutments in order to produce a framework directly in the oral cavity of the patient. This investigation studied the effects of the welding process on microstructure and hardness properties of commercially pure (CP2 and CP4) Ti components. Different welding powers and cooling procedures were applied to bars and abutments, normally used to produce the framework, in order to simulate the clinical intraoral welding procedure. The analyses highlighted that the joining process did not induce appreciable changes in the geometry of the abutments. However, because of unavoidable microstructural modifications in the welded zones, the hardness decreased to values lower than those of the unwelded CP2 and CP4 Ti grades, irrespective of the welding environments and parameters. PMID:26045042

  3. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Angel; Khan, Kamran A.; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Method for reducing formation of electrically resistive layer on ferritic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Rakowski, James M.

    2013-09-10

    A method of reducing the formation of electrically resistive scale on a an article comprising a silicon-containing ferritic stainless subjected to oxidizing conditions in service includes, prior to placing the article in service, subjecting the article to conditions under which silica, which includes silicon derived from the steel, forms on a surface of the steel. Optionally, at least a portion of the silica is removed from the surface to placing the article in service. A ferritic stainless steel alloy having a reduced tendency to form silica on at least a surface thereof also is provided. The steel includes a near-surface region that has been depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the steel.

  5. Electrical resistivity tomography for early vadose leak detection under single shell storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-12

    This document describes planned testing with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). It is prepared in support of TTP RL46WT51 Rev. 1, funded by the Tank Focus Area through the Office of Technology Integration. The primary goal of the testing for fiscal year 1996 (FY96) is to develop and demonstrate the ability to place vertical electrode arrays (VEA) with the cone penetrometer technology (CPT) to depths below existing single shell tanks (SST) at the DOE Hanford Site. It is desirable to have the capability to use CPT for this application for obvious reasons. First, current methods of emplacement, drilled boreholes, are expensive with respect to the rest of the ERT operation. Cone penetrometer VEA emplacements offer the opportunity to significantly reduce installation costs. Second, use of CPT will reduce emplacement time from weeks or months to just several days depending on the number of VEAs and the depth of placement. ERT is preferable to other monitoring methods since operation costs and turn around time are less than the current baselines of either groundwater sampling networks or borehole logging techniques. ERT cost savings can be substantial and will continue into the future. ERT can also provide complete coverage under a tank or other facility which is an important supplement to existing monitoring methods. Groundwater sampling provides one data point per well and borehole logging provides data along a line in the ground. Neither provide information from beneath a facility and thus, are not able to locate release points. These electrode arrays are used to acquire subsurface electrical resistance data in a manner appropriate for tomographic inversion. The resulting tomograms can then be used to detect, monitor and track contaminated moisture plumes leaking from underground storage tanks during waste retrieval operations.

  6. In-situ contact electrical resistance technique for investigating corrosion inhibitor adsorption on copper electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, G.; Quartarone, G.; Zingales, A. [Univ. of Venice (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Molokanov, V.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-02-01

    Traditional electrochemical tests and the contact electrical resistance technique (CER) were used to investigate the effect on corrosion of pure copper (99.999 wt%) of adding benzotriazole (BTA) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazone (1-OH-BTA) to acidic solutions (sulfuric acid [H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}], pH = 1.7, and sodium sulfate [Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}] until total sulfate [SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}] concentration = 0.1 M). This technique permitted growth of oxide and/or salt films as well as adsorption of the organic inhibitors on the copper surface to be evaluated. Formation of copper oxide ([Cu{sub 2}O]{sub 2})., sulfate (CuSo{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O), thiocyanate (CuSCN), and halogenyde (CuI, CuBr, and CuCl) films on copper electrodes was followed in situ in sulfate solutions at various pH values under low overpotentials. Effects of pH, solution anion content, and/or the amount of BTA or 1-OH-BTA on electrical resistance (R) of the surface films formed on pure copper electrodes were treated. BTA acted as a more efficient corrosion inhibitor than 1-OH-BTA, reaching inhibition percentages (IP) of {approximately}90% compared to those of 1-OH-BTA, which reached a maximum of {approximately}76% in 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M solutions. It was possible to distinguish between maximum R of the surface film, found in solutions containing BTA, associated with the adsorption of neutral inhibitor molecules, and the sharp rise in R attributable to [Cu(BTA)]{sub n} complex formation.

  7. Identification of a putative protein profile associating with tamoxifen therapy resistance in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, Arzu; Kang, Hyuk; Timmermans, A. M.; Look, Maxime P.; Meijer-van Gelder, M. E.; den Bakker, Michael A.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Martens, John W.; Luider, Theo M.; Foekens, John A.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2009-06-01

    Tamoxifen-resistance is a major cause of death in patients with recurrent breast cancer. Current clinical factors can correctly predict therapy response in only half of the treated patients. Identification of proteins that associate with tamoxifen-resistance is a first step towards better response prediction and tailored treatment of patients. In the present study we intended to identify putative protein biomarkers indicative of tamoxifen therapy-resistance in breast cancer, using nanoLC coupled with FTICR MS. Comparative proteome analysis was performed on ~5,500 pooled tumor cells (corresponding to ~550 ng protein lysate/analysis) obtained through laser capture microdissection (LCM) from two independently processed data sets (n=24 and n=27) containing both tamoxifen therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant tumors. Peptides and proteins were identified by matching mass and elution time of newly acquired LC-MS features to information in previously generated accurate mass and time tag (AMT) reference databases.

  8. A profile of enzalutamide for the treatment of advanced castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greasley, Rosa; Khabazhaitajer, Mohammad; Rosario, Derek J

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer from androgen-sensitive prostate cancer have provided new avenues exploring efficacious therapies in a disease which is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the western world. In the evolution of second generation anti-androgens, enzalutamide, a novel androgen-receptor signaling inhibitor, has emerged targeting multiple steps within the androgenic stimulation pathway. This review discusses what is currently known of the mechanisms surrounding castration resistant prostate cancer development and the current human clinical trials to determine whether enzalutamide presents a new hope for men with advanced prostate cancer. The issues of therapy resistance, withdrawal effects and cross-resistance are briefly touched upon. PMID:26109877

  9. Electric-field-ratio profiling at the Silsilah tin-bearing greisen deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamilli, R.J.; Zablocki, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Buried, possibly mineralized granite cupolas at the Silsilah tin deposit in Saudi Arabia have been successfully located using a closely spaced electric-field-ratio profiling technique. In this study electrical fields at 27 and 270 Hz across grounded electrodes spaced 50m apart were measured along six traverses. The technique allowed the authors to identify and distinguish among unroofed granite cupolas, cupolas with their aplite-pegmatite apical contact zones intact, strong and weak greisens, dikes, faults, and pervasively argillized rocks. -from Authors

  10. Susceptibility-resistance profile of micro-organisms isolated from herbal medicine products sold in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ceporex (cephalexin) 80%, cefuroxime 100%), chloramphenicol (66.7%), nitrofurantoin (100%) and cotrimoxazole (93.3%). Most of the fungal isolates were resistant to griseofulvin (67.3%) but susceptible to nystatin (73.1%), ketoconazole (98.1%), tioconazole (100%), clotrimazole (78.9%) and miconazole (88.5%). A significant proportion of bacteria and fungi isolated from these HMPs demonstrated resistance to conventional antibiotics. The present study therefore reveals that HMPs may

  11. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ashok Kumar; Jamila Patterson; P. Karpagam

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: In this study, the patterns of resistance to 10 antibiotics by 730 Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non- O139 species isolated from both environmental and seafood samples were investigated. Susceptibility to different antimicrobial agents was assessed by the disc diffusion technique. The frequencies of resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents--ampicillin, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, penicillin, and neomycin--were 88,

  12. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence determinants and genetic profiles of clinical and nonclinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C R; Kariyawasam, S; Borst, L B; Frye, J G; Barrett, J B; Hiott, L M; Woodley, T A

    2015-02-01

    Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry. However, the characteristics that contribute to pathogenesis of Ent. cecorum in poultry have not been defined. In this study, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (n = 75) and diseased broilers and broiler breeders (n = 30) were compared based upon antimicrobial resistance phenotype, the presence of virulence determinants and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 16 antimicrobials tested, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates and clinical cases were resistant to ten and six of the antimicrobials, respectively. The majority of Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates was resistant to lincomycin (54/75; 72%) and tetracycline (46/75; 61.3%) while the highest level of resistance among clinical Ent. cecorum was to tetracycline (22/30; 73.3%) and erythromycin (11/30; 36.7%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ?2 antimicrobials) was identified in Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (53/75; 70.7%) and diseased poultry (18/30; 60%). Of the virulence determinants tested, efaAfm was present in almost all of the isolates (104/105; 99%). Using PFGE, the majority of clinical isolates clustered together; however, a few clinical isolates grouped with Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates. These data suggest that distinguishing the two groups of isolates is difficult based upon the characterization criteria used. PMID:25470229

  13. Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Heloisa da Silveira Paro; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Pereira, Maria Izabel Ferreira; Oliveira, Rosângela Siqueira; Suffys, Philip Noel; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Finardi, Amanda Juliane; de Moraes, Eloise Brasil; Baptista, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Castiglioni, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more resistant to TB drugs compared to other individuals (p < 0.05). Approximately half of the individuals received supervised treatment, but most drug-resistant cases were positive for pulmonary TB and exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli smears, which are complicating factors for TB control programs. Primary healthcare is the ideal level for early disease detection, but tertiary healthcare is the most common entry point for patients into the system. These factors require special attention from healthcare managers and professionals to effectively control and monitor the spread of TB drug-resistant cases. PMID:25946248

  14. Identification, Typing, Antifungal Resistance Profile, and Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans Isolates from Lebanese Hospital Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Ibrahim; Khalaf, Roy A.; Harastani, Houda; Tokajian, Sima

    2014-01-01

    As leading opportunistic fungal pathogens identification and subtyping of Candida species are crucial in recognizing outbreaks of infection, recognizing particularly virulent strains, and detecting the emergence of drug resistant strains. In this study our objective was to compare identification of Candida albicans by the hospitals through the use of conventional versus identification based on the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) and to assess biofilm forming capabilities, drug resistance patterns and correlate these with MLST typing. ITS typing revealed a 21.2% hospital misidentification rate. Multidrug resistance to three drugs out of four tested was detected within 25% of the isolates raising concerns about the followed treatment regimens. Drug resistant strains as well as biofilm formers were phylogenetically related, with some isolates with significant biofilm forming capabilities being correlated to those that were multidrug resistant. Such isolates were grouped closely together in a neighbor-joining tree generated by MLST typing indicating phylogenetic relatedness, microevolution, or recurrent infection. In conclusion, this pilot study gives much needed insight concerning C. albicans isolates circulating in Lebanese hospitals and is the first study of its kind correlating biofilm formation, antifungal resistance, and evolutionary relatedness. PMID:24982915

  15. Sputtering pressure influence on growth morphology, surface roughness, and electrical resistivity for strong anisotropy beryllium film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bing-Chi; Li, Kai; Kang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ji-Qiang; He, Yu-Dan; Luo, Jiang-Shan; Wu, Wei-Dong; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2014-06-01

    The strong anisotropy beryllium (Be) films are fabricated at different sputtering pressures by direct current magnetron sputtering. With the increase of pressure, the deposition rate of Be film first increases, and when the pressure exceeds 0.8 Pa, it gradually descends. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that Be film is of ?-Be phase, its surface always reveals the (101) crystal plane possessing the low surface energy. As for the growth morphology of Be film, the surface is mainly characterized by the fibrous grains, while the cross section shows a transition from a columnar grain to a mixed grain consisting of a cone-shaped grain and a columnar grain as the sputtering pressure increases. The large grain fraction decays exponentially from 75.0% to 59.3% with the increase of sputtering pressure p, which can improve the grain size uniformity. The surface roughness increases due to the insufficient atom diffusion, which is comparable to its decrease due to the etching effect at p < 0.8 Pa, while it increases drastically at p > 0.8 Pa, and this increase is dominated by the atom diffusion. The electrical resistivity values of Be films range from 1.7 ??·m to 2.7 ??·m in the range 0.4 Pa-1.2 Pa, which is 50 times larger than the bulk resistivity.

  16. Electrical resistance of arterioles and venules in the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Olesen, S P

    1985-01-01

    The electrical resistance of the vascular endothelium was determined on single microvessels in the hamster cheek pouch in order to obtain information about this variable in a mammalian preparation. So far, the technique has only been applied to frog microvessels. The technique consists of injection of current into the vascular lumen via a microelectrode and recording of the ensuing intravascular potential distribution by a second microelectrode. Cable theory was used for the analysis. The average diameter of the vessels under study was 41 micron for arterioles and 28 micron for venules. The average resistance of the vessel wall at 37 degrees C was 19 omega cm2 and 3.3 omega cm2, respectively. For the venules this is somewhat lower than what has been recorded on muscle capillaries (Olesen & Crone 1983) in the frog at room temperature, whilst the values on arterioles are rather similar. The calculated sodium permeabilities, PNa+, were for arterioles 4 X 10(-5) cm X s-1 and for venules 23 X 10(-5) cm X s-1. The high permeability values for arterioles and venules indicate that the vascular exchange function may not be limited to capillaries only. PMID:3969831

  17. Three dimensional electrical resistivity for monitoring cracking in an expansive clay soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerson, J. P.; McInnes, K. J.; Morgan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Information about the exchange of water between the atmosphere, hydrosphere and the Earth's critical zone is vitally important for proper land management and predicting local and regional water availability. Understanding this exchange requires knowledge on the hydraulic properties of the soil. In expansive clay soils, such knowledge is difficult to obtain because changes in water content result in changes in soil hydraulic properties. In particular, as expansive clay soils dry, vertically oriented voids (cracks) form and facilitate rapid movement of storm or irrigation water into the critical zone. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used to measure soil water content in the Vadose zone and may be valuable in monitoring soil cracking. When cracks are present, they increase soil resistivity and an image of them can be computed by ERT. Three-dimensional ERT surveys were conducted on clay soil in central Texas after it was wet by irrigation and during subsequent drying. As the soil dried, the effect of cracking could be detected in 3-D images computed by ERT. Monitoring of cracking through ERT and photographic analysis along with concurrent monitoring of soil water content through neutron thermalization provided new insights into the temporal dynamics of soil cracking.

  18. Effect of praseodymium on the electrical resistance of Y??2?u3?7-? single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Vovk, N. R.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Goulatis, I. L.; Chroneos, A.

    2014-07-01

    The electrical resistivity in the ab-plane of the Y1-yPry??2?u3?7-? single crystals with high degree of perfection in the interval of ?c - 300 K was investigated. The increasing of praseodymium content leads to the reduction of the critical temperature (Tc) from 92 to 30 K. The experimental results can be approximated by the expression, taking into account the scattering of electrons by phonons, defects, the fluctuation conductivity in the 3D Aslamazov-Larkin model, as well as the transition to a "semiconductor" type behavior of the resistivity at the high praseodymium concentrations. The concentration dependences of all fitting parameters indicate a structural transition in the region 0.35???0.43. In particular, the Debye temperature changes in this range from 350 to 550 K, and the transverse coherence length passes through a maximum ??(0)?5 Å. The concentration dependence of the critical temperature testifies the d-pairing of the BCS model.

  19. An integration of aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity methods in dam site investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Aina, A. [Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics] [Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Olorunfemi, M.O. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Geology] [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Geology; Ojo, J.S. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Geophysics] [Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Geophysics

    1996-03-01

    Aeromagnetic map and electrical resistivity sounding data obtained along eight traverses were examined at two sites across the Katsina-Ala River. The principal goals of this exercise were to define depths to the bedrock, bedrock relief, geologic structures, define the nature of the superficial deposit, and select probable minor and major axes for hydroelectric power dams. The aeromagnetic map shows that the basement rocks trend roughly northeast-southwest, which correlates with the strike of foliation measurements made on rock outcrops along the river channel. A network of cross cutting lineaments, suspected to be faults/fractures that trend approximately northeast/southwest and northwest/southeast, was also delineated from the magnetic map. The depths to the bedrock estimated from resistivity depth sounding data at site 1 generally vary from 1--53.1 m. Depths to the bedrock estimated at site 2 range from 1.9--19.5 m. The superficial deposit varies from clay to sandy clay, to clayey sand (with boulders in places), and to sand and laterite. The bedrock relief is relatively flat and gently undulates along most of the traverses, with an overall dip towards the river channel. Traverses E-F or I-J at site 1 and K-L at site 2 are probable dame axes. These traverses are characterized by relatively thin overburden thicknesses and rock heads dipping toward the river channel, thereby reducing the likelihood of water seepages from the flanks of the proposed dam axes.

  20. Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Aydogan, Cemal; Lipowicz, Hubert-Seweryn; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Lenk, Steve; Ahmad, Ahmad; Angelov, Tihomir; Reum, Alexander; Ishchuk, Valentyn; Atanasov, Ivaylo; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Hofer, Manuel; Holz, Mathias; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2015-03-01

    The routine "on demand" fabrication of features smaller than 10 nm opens up new possibilities for the realization of many novel nanoelectronic, NEMS, optical and bio-nanotechnology-based devices. Based on the thermally actuated, piezoresistive cantilever technology we have developed a first prototype of a scanning probe lithography (SPL) platform able to image, inspect, align and pattern features down to single digit nano regime. The direct, mask-less patterning of molecular resists using active scanning probes represents a promising path circumventing the problems in today's radiation-based lithography. Here, we present examples of practical applications of the previously published electric field based, current-controlled scanning probe lithography on molecular glass resist calixarene by using the developed tabletop SPL system. We demonstrate the application of a step-and-repeat scanning probe lithography scheme including optical as well as AFM based alignment and navigation. In addition, sequential read-write cycle patterning combining positive and negative tone lithography is shown. We are presenting patterning over larger areas (80 x 80 ?m) and feature the practical applicability of the lithographic processes.