Science.gov

Sample records for electricity savings potentials

  1. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

  2. Electricity savings potentials in the residential sector of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Morsy, M.G.; Al-Baharna, N.S.

    1996-08-01

    Electricity is the major fuel (over 99%) used in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in Bahrain. In 1992, the total annual electricity consumption in Bahrain was 3.45 terawatt-hours (TWh), of which 1.95 TWh (56%) was used in the residential sector, 0.89 TWh (26%) in the commercial sector, and 0.59 TWh (17%) in the industrial sector. Agricultural energy consumption was 0.02 TWh (less than 1%) of the total energy use. In Bahrain, most residences are air conditioned with window units. The air-conditioning electricity use is at least 50% of total annual residential use. The contribution of residential AC to the peak power consumption is even more significant, approaching 80% of residential peak power demand. Air-conditioning electricity use in the commercial sector is also significant, about 45% of the annual use and over 60% of peak power demand. This paper presents a cost/benefit analysis of energy-efficient technologies in the residential sector. Technologies studied include: energy-efficient air conditioners, insulating houses, improved infiltration, increasing thermostat settings, efficient refrigerators and freezers, efficient water heaters, efficient clothes washers, and compact fluorescent lights. We conservatively estimate a 32% savings in residential electricity use at an average cost of about 4 fils per kWh. (The subsidized cost of residential electricity is about 12 fils per kWh. 1000 fils = 1 Bahrain Dinar = US$ 2.67). We also discuss major policy options needed for implementation of energy-efficiency technologies.

  3. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be 1.7 thousand TWh or 21percent of the 2030 projected base case electricity demand. Electricity savings potential ranges from a high of 38percent in India to a low of 9percent in Korea for the two sectors. Lighting, fans, and TV sets and lighting and refrigeration are the largest contributors to residential and commercial electricity savings respectively. This work presents a first estimates of the savings potential of DSM programs in APP countries. While the resulting estimates are based on detailed end-use data, it is worth keeping in mind that more work is needed to overcome limitation in data at this time of the project.

  4. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  5. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  6. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  7. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  8. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  9. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  10. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  11. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  12. Electricity savings ``soon come'' to Jamaica -- Assessing the potential for air conditioning and refrigeration end-use DSM

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, T.; Hamzawi, E.; Campbell, V.

    1998-07-01

    With the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Global Environment Facility of the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation, the national electric utility in Jamaica (Jamaica Public Service Company) has begun an assessment of the technical, economic, and financial opportunities for achieving demand-side management (DSM) energy savings in the air conditioning and refrigeration end uses. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of specific measures is being assessed for both the residential and commercials segments. While structures as a traditional load-research-based market assessment, the project uses ethnographic data collection and analysis techniques and involves collaboration with local contractors. The skills of local experts are being taped to identify and interview the key market players, and to develop an understanding of the barriers to and opportunities for energy efficiency present in the evolving equipment markets. The paper outlines methods and presents preliminary case study results for the air conditioning market. The authors identify major groups of market players and dominant types of equipment, and provide an overview of market dynamics. The volume of sales passing through both formal and informal distribution channels is estimated and market barriers are identified. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations will be made for future program and policy initiatives designed to mitigate selected barriers in each of the supply chains.

  13. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  14. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  15. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  16. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jos; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H.; Sweeney, James L.; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in questionDr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  17. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Budnitz, Robert; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fisk, William J.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jos; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McAuliffe, Pat; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H.; Socolow, Robert H.; Sweeney, James L.; Verdict, Malcolm; von Meier, Alexandra; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Woodward, Jane; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-11-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in that effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction like billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this article we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500-megawatt existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in questionDr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  18. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  19. Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  20. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  1. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  2. Graphing Electric Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  3. Measurement of Electric Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the measurement of electric potentials by means of a flame probe. This method is used extensively in the new Nuffield Advanced Level Physics course, and provides a means of taking reliable quantitative results in an area of most school courses where the majority of the work is qualitative. (JR)

  4. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Cherry, Bryan; Eidson, Millicent

    2007-01-01

    Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV) are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS) in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP) (90.9%), animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%), and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%). The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529). Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits. PMID:17407559

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  6. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-11

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide. PMID:26766230

  7. Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-06-09

    Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

  8. Energy Saving in DC Electric Railways by Battery Substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    New rolling vehicles used in dc electric railways are of the regenerative type. At less busy time a part of regenerative power is not used for powering vehicles, and canceled by changed air brake. Recently, significant attention has been paid to the development of secondary batteries for hybrid and electric motorcars. The use of this battery enables reduction in electric power consumption. Because we can charge excess regenerative power and use for powering vehicles after. Before the fact we compared the actual and simulated effective coefficient of regenerative energy, we confirmed the suitability of the simulation model. In this simulation, we studied the energy-saving effect of the battery substations and determined the battery capacity at which maximum power saving is achieved. We found that the power consumption could be reduced remarkably by using a 15-20kWh battery substation.

  9. Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1988-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  11. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  12. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  13. Estimate of potential energy savings and impacts on health care financing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The relationship between energy and dollar savings is not a one to one relationship. Therefore this discussion first treats potential energy savings and subsequently the cost implications of these savings.

  14. Electric Water Heater Energy Retrofits-Safety and Energy Savings.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubury, C.Douglas; Ek, Calvin W.; Thor, Philip W.

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the relative energy savings associated with a number of water heater conservation measures are presented. These include water heater insulation wrap, pipe insulation, and three anticonvection devices for control of pipe losses. In addition, potential service-wiring overheating problems resulting from external tank insulation are examined. Estimates of the absolute and relative savings of each conservative measure are presented. The effect of partial wrapping due to close clearances is examined. Two anticonvection valve designs are compared with the use of a simle piping loop for control of heat loss through connected piping. Variables affecting service-wire temperature are examined and their sensitivities evaluated. Variables examined include: water temperature, ambient temperature, the use of cutouts in the insulation wrap, service-wire conductor size, severity of service cycle, and heating element size.

  15. Fuel savings potential of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.; Sievers, G. K.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) Program is directed at developing new technology for highly loaded, multibladed propellers for use at Mach 0.65 to 0.85 and at altitudes compatible with the air transport system requirements. Advanced turboprop engines offer the potential of 15 to 30 percent savings in aircraft block fuel relative to advanced turbofan engines (50 to 60 percent savings over today's turbofan fleet). The concept, propulsive efficiency gains, block fuel savings and other benefits, and the program objectives through a systems approach are described. Current program status and major accomplishments in both single rotation and counter rotation propeller technology are addressed. The overall program from scale model wind tunnel tests to large scale flight tests on testbed aircraft is discussed.

  16. Potential for Wind-Generated Electricity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Michael B.; Lu, Xi; Nielsen, Chris P.; Wang, Yuxuan

    2009-09-01

    Wind offers an important alternative to coal as a source of energy for generation of electricity in China with the potential for substantial savings in carbon dioxide emissions. Wind fields derived from assimilated meteorological data are used to assess the potential for wind-generated electricity in China subject to the existing government-approved bidding process for new wind farms. Assuming a guaranteed price of 0.516 RMB (7.6 U.S. cents) per kilowatt-hour for delivery of electricity to the grid over an agreed initial average period of 10 years, it is concluded that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030, about twice current consumption. Electricity available at a concession price as low as 0.4 RMB per kilowatt-hour would be sufficient to displace 23% of electricity generated from coal.

  17. Electrical potentials in stomatal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Saftner, R.A.; Raschke, K.

    1981-06-01

    Guard cells of several species, but predominantly Commelina communis, were impaled by micropipette electrodes and potential differences measured that occurred between cell compartments and the flowing bathing medium. The wall developed a Donnan potential that was between -60 and -70 millivolt in 30 millimolar KC1 at pH 7. The density of the fixed charges ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 molar; its dependence on pH was almost identical with the titration curve of authentic polygalacturonic acid. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of Commelina communis L., Zea mays L., Nicotiana glauca Graham, Allium cepa L., and Vicia faba L. was between -40 and -50 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl when stomata were open and about -30 millivolt when stomata were closed. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of C. communis was almost linearly related to stomatal aperture and responded to changes in the ionic strength in the bathing medium in a Nernstian manner. No specificity for any alkali ion (except Li/sup +/), ammonium, or choline appeared. Lithium caused hyperpolarization. Calcium in concentrations between 1 and 100 millimolar in the medium led to stomatal closure, also caused hyperpolarization, and triggered transient oscillations in the intracellular potential. Gradients in the electrical potential existed across stomatal complexes with open pores. When stomata closed, these gradients almost disappeared or slightly reverted; all epidermal cells were then at potentials near -30 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl.

  18. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future market, nor are our conclusions intended to have implications specific only to the California market. That said, some of the findings are unique to our underlying assumptions, as described further within the main body of the report, along with other key limitations.

  19. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  20. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  1. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  2. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  3. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  4. Cogeneration to save hospital $213K in electricity gas costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, M.

    1984-01-01

    High utility costs in San Diego have prompted a medical facility to join a growing group of user-cogenerators. The hospital will use all the power and steam it generates, and purchase the remaining 75% of its power demand. Steam demand dictated the size of the unit in order to maximize efficiency. The hospital anticipates a $203,000 saving the first year, and a 10-year savings of $2.2 to $2.7 million. (DCK)

  5. Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, John R.

    1985-11-01

    This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

  6. Potential Medicare savings through prevention and risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rula, Elizabeth Y; Pope, James E; Hoffman, Joel C

    2011-02-01

    Medicare is challenged to maintain solvency as enrollment climbs because of the aging baby boomers and costs increase as a result of the substantial disease burden present among seniors. In the present study, an actuarial model was developed to determine the present cost (2008) of Medicare-covered benefits for elderly individuals, and to test the impact on cost of health risk reduction that may be possible through population health and wellness interventions. In the model, beneficiaries were categorized by risk according to health status using 3 different indices, and baseline per month and lifetime expenditures were estimated. Changes in morbidity were tested via scenarios of modified transition rates between the risk categories that might result from population health and wellness initiatives, including increases in the proportion of low-risk individuals entering Medicare, and delayed or reduced rates of upward risk transitions. The model showed that the discounted total lifetime cost of Medicare benefits was $174,018 per person, from age 65 until death. Each risk-reduction scenario was associated with both annual and lifetime cost savings, which accounted for increased longevity associated with decreased risk profiles. In conclusion, a model has been developed that can predict the impact on Medicare costs of varying levels of risk reduction in the senior population and, therefore, the potential financial benefit of population health and wellness policy initiatives directed at improving health prior to and during the years of Medicare. The model shows that there are substantial opportunities for savings through modest improvements to the health of the Medicare population. PMID:21323619

  7. Potential cost savings from pill splitting of newer psychotropic medications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C I; Cohen, S I

    2000-04-01

    Many of the newer psychotropic medications have a pricing structure in which there are only small cost differences between pills of different strengths, affording an opportunity for cost saving by splitting pills. Twelve newer psychotropic medications were examined. Although savings varied for each drug, aggregate data indicated that splitting pills can produce an annual savings of up to $1.45 billion, which represents about 10 percent of the retail sales of these drugs. Such savings can benefit individuals, state Medicaid programs, community mental health centers, and managed care companies. The authors propose several strategies for encouraging the use of pill splitting. PMID:10737832

  8. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  9. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen M.

    2015-06-27

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  10. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  11. Possibilities of intense resource saving in electric furnace steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, I. V.; Kartavtsev, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    The application of a secondary energy resource in the form of the heat of liquid steel is considered for melting metal scrap used in a charge in electric furnace steelmaking. Temperature-heat curves are plotted for cooling of steel and melting of metal scrap. The possibilities of using melted scrap in electric furnace steel-making are analyzed.

  12. Estimates of achievable potential for electricity efficiency improvements in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard

    1993-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential for public policies to achieve electricity efficiency improvements in US residences. This estimate of achievable potential builds upon a database of energy-efficient technologies developed for a previous study estimating the technical potential for electricity savings. The savings potential and cost for each efficiency measure in the database is modified to reflect the expected results of policies implemented between 1990 and 2010. Factors included in these modifications are: the market penetration of efficiency measures, the costs of administering policies, and adjustments to the technical potential measures to reflect the actual energy savings and cost experienced in the past. When all adjustment factors are considered, this study estimates that policies can achieve approximately 45% of the technical potential savings during the period from 1990 to 2010. Thus, policies can potentially avoid 18% of the annual frozen-efficiency baseline electricity consumption forecast for the year 2010. This study also investigates the uncertainty in best estimate of achievable potential by estimating two alternative scenarios -- a

  13. Quantum electric field fluctuations and potential scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyun; Ford, L. H.

    2015-06-01

    Some physical effects of time averaged quantum electric field fluctuations are discussed. The one loop radiative corrections to potential scattering are approximately derived from simple arguments which invoke vacuum electric field fluctuations. For both above barrier scattering and quantum tunneling, this effect increases the transmission probability. It is argued that the shape of the potential determines a sampling function for the time averaging of the quantum electric field operator. We also show that there is a nonperturbative enhancement of the transmission probability which can be inferred from the probability distribution for time averaged electric field fluctuations. The same method should be useful in understanding the effects of large quantum stress tensor fluctuations, which cannot be treated in perturbation theory.

  14. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (< 30%) in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and highest values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing potential future transitions in these systems. Here presented opportunities associated with irrigation improvements are significant and suggest that they should be considered an important means on the way to sustainable food security.

  15. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  16. Electric potential microelectrode for studies of electrobiogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-09-01

    Spatially separated electron donors and acceptors in sediment can be exploited by the so-called "cable bacteria." Electric potential microelectrodes (EPMs) were constructed to measure the electric fields that should appear when cable bacteria conduct electrons over centimeter distances. The EPMs were needle-shaped, shielded Ag/AgCl half-cells that were rendered insensitive to redox-active species in the environment. Tip diameters of 40 to 100 µm and signal resolution of approximately 10 μV were achieved. A test in marine sediments with active cable bacteria showed an electric potential increase by approximately 2 mV from the sediment-water interface to a depth of approximately 20 mm, in accordance with the location and direction of the electric currents estimated from oxygen, pH, and H2S microprofiles. The EPM also captured emergence and decay of electric diffusion potentials in the upper millimeters of artificial sediment in response to changes in ion concentrations in the overlying water. The results suggest that the EPM can be used to track electric current sources and sinks with submillimeter resolution in microbial, biogeochemical, and geophysical studies.

  17. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  18. Improving air-conditioning and saving electricity in the spinning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chirarattananon, S.; Liu Bing; Quoc, N.H.; Wei, T.

    1996-09-01

    In the tropics, air-conditioning is used in the spinning industry to maintain the relative humidity and the air temperature in the factory at a required level. Most of the air is recycled for most of the year. This article reports on a study in a number of factories that use varying proportions of recycled air. The study concludes that, for most of the year, fresh air should be used to reduce the cooling requirement, which would help reduce electricity use in the chillers by up to 40%, or up to 6% of the factory total. A physical model of a factory and its air-conditioning system is constructed to test the concept, as well as to develop a workable control system. The control algorithm uses a simple proportional control for the air damper, which affects the relative humidity, and an on-off control for the chilled water supply to control the temperature. The results show an improvement in the control of the condition of the air in the factory, and confirm the expected potential for saving electricity.

  19. Energy saving potential of residential HVAC options at Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Stucky, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated heating and cooling system options for existing family housing at Fort Irwin, California. The purpose of this work was to quantify the energy conservation potential of alternative system types and to identify the most cost-effective technology available. The conventional residential heating/cooling systems at Fort Irwin are separate propane forced-air furnaces and central air conditioners. The options examined included air- and ground-source heat pumps, a natural gas furnace with central air conditioning, and a natural-gas-fired heat pump. The most cost-effective technology applicable to Fort Irwin was found to be the high-efficiency ground-source heat pumps. If all conventional units were replaced immediately, the net energy savings would be 76,660 MBtu (80.9 TJ) per year and a reduction in electrical demand of approximately 15,000 kW-month. The initial investment for implementing this technology would be approximately $7.1 million, with a savings-to-investment ratio of 1.74.

  20. Global potential for wind-generated electricity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2009-01-01

    The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States. Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3.6-MW turbines deployed in ocean waters with depths <200 m within 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) of closest coastlines. PMID:19549865

  1. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  2. Energy-saving and higher-electrical-insulation glass

    SciTech Connect

    Guorong, C. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports that to lower the glass melting temperature and at the same time improve the glass electrical-insulation properties, the effectiveness of the depressing effect, i.e., the effect of substituting alkaline- earth oxides for a part of the SiO{sub 2}, was studied using a previously established insulator-glass composition as a basis. The Lyon viscosity-predicting equation, combined with the orthogonal-design method, was used to optimize a new glass composition with lower high-temperature viscosities. Test results on both the glass specimens and toughened-glass insulators of two glass compositions were obtained. Comparisons highlight the new insulator-glass composition which has lower high-temperature viscosities than those of the old glass composition, as well as better electrical- insulation properties, such as lower dielectric loss, higher volume resistivity, and higher thermal puncture temperature.

  3. Electrical Monitoring Devices Save on Time and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the Solar Dynamics Observatory's instruments from blowing their fuses and being rendered unusable, Goddard Space Flight Center worked with Micropac Industries Inc., based in Garland, Texas, to develop solid-state power controllers, which can depower and then resupply power to an instrument in the event of an electric surge. The company is now selling the technology for use in industrial plants.

  4. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

  5. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting. PMID:26904062

  6. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting. PMID:26904062

  7. The potential cost savings of implementing an inter-utility NO{sub x} trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Kalagnanam, J.

    1995-12-31

    Technology based standards such as RACT, which require the installation of a Reasonably Available Control Technology on a boiler by boiler basis have been the dominant factor driving electric utility NO{sub x} compliance plans. In this paper, the authors examine the cost savings of implementing NO{sub x} trading, an alternative market based strategy for reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to achieve NO{sub x} reduction goals set under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act. In order to estimate the potential cost savings of inter-utility NO{sub x} trading, the authors have used a combinatorial optimization approach to identify boiler retrofits and operating parameters which yield efficient (i.e., the most cost effective) NO{sub x} abatement. In the formulation, annual emissions at individual boilers which are expensive to abate may exceed RACT levels by up to a factor of two thus allowing for trades with boilers which can abate in a more cost effective manner. The authors constrain total emissions in a trading region to be at or below the level obtained had all the boilers adopted RACT. Increasing the flexibility with which trades can occur has two main effects: (1) the cost effectiveness of meeting an aggregate reduction goal increases and (2) the spatial distribution of emissions shift relative to what it would have been under a strict RACT based compliance strategy. The authors estimate the magnitude of these effects for two Eastern electric utilities making intra and inter-utility NO{sub x} trades. Results indicate that the cost effectiveness of meeting RACT level reduction can be increased by as much as 38% under certain trading regimes.

  8. The potential cost savings of implementing an inter-utility NO{sub x} trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Kalagnanam, J.

    1995-10-01

    Technology based standards such as RACT, which require the installation of a (R)easonably (A)vailable (C)ontrol (T)echnology on a boiler by boiler basis have been the dominant factor driving electric utility NO{sub x} compliance plans. In this paper, the authors examine the cost savings of implementing NO{sub x} trading, an alternative market based strategy for reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to achieve NO{sub x} reduction goals set under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act. In order to estimate the potential cost savings of inter-utility NO{sub x} trading, they use a combinatorial optimization approach to identify boiler retrofits and operating parameters which yield efficient (i.e., the most cost effective) NO{sub x} abatement strategies. In their formulation, annual emissions at individual boilers which are expensive to abate may exceed RACT levels by up to a factor of two thus allowing for trades with boilers which can abate in a more cost effective manner. They constrain total emissions in a trading region to be at or below the level obtained had all the boilers adopted RACT. Increasing the flexibility with which trades can occur has two main effects: (1) the cost effectiveness of meeting an aggregate reduction goal increases and (2) the spatial distribution of emissions shift relative to what it would have been under a strict RACT based compliance strategy. They estimate the magnitude of these effects for two Eastern electric utilities making intra- and inter-utility NO{sub x} trades. Results indicate that the cost effectiveness of meeting RACT level reduction can be increased by as much as 38% under certain trading regimes.

  9. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  10. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  12. Active control of electric potential of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for controlling the potential of a spacecraft by means of devices which release appropriate charged particles from the spacecraft to the environment. Attention is given to electron emitters, ion emitters, a basic electron emitter arrangement, techniques for sensing electric field or potential, and flight experiments on active potential control. It is recommended to avoid differential charging on spacecraft surfaces because it can severely affect the efficacy of emitters. Discharging the frame of a spacecraft with dielectric surfaces involves the risk of stressing the dielectric material excessively. The spacecraft should, therefore, be provided with grounded conductive surfaces. It is pointed out that particles released by control systems can return to the spacecraft.

  13. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  14. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  15. Potential water saving through changes in European diets.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Bidoglio, G

    2013-11-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets - the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) - for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural products (4265l per capita per day or lcd) accounts for 89% of the EU's total WFcons (4815lcd). The effect of diet has therefore an essential impact on the total WFcons. The current zonal WFcons regarding agricultural products is: 5875lcd (SOUTH), 4053lcd (EAST), 3761lcd (WEST) and 3197lcd (NORTH). These differences are the result of different consumption behaviours as well as different agricultural production methods and conditions. From the perspective of a healthy diet based on regional dietary guidelines, the intake of several product groups (sugar, crop oils, animal fats and meat) should be decreased and increased for others (vegetables, fruit). The WFcons regarding agricultural products for the alternative diets are the following: HEALTHY 4110lcd (-30%) and VEG 3476lcd (-41%) for SOUTH; HEALTHY 3606lcd (-11%) and VEG 2956lcd (-27%) for EAST; HEALTHY 2766lcd (-26%) and VEG 2208lcd (-41%) for WEST; HEALTHY 3091lcd (-3%) and VEG 2166lcd (-32%) for NORTH. Both the healthy and vegetarian diets thus result - consistent for all zones - in substantial WFcons reductions. The largest reduction takes place for the vegetarian diet. Indeed, a lot of water can be saved by EU citizens by a change in their diet. PMID:24096041

  16. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  17. A multisector analysis of urban irrigation and water savings potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N.; Kim, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban irrigation strains limited water supplies in semi-arid areas such as Orange County, CA, yet the quantity and controlling factors of urban irrigation are not well understood. The goals of this research are to (1) quantify and compare landscape irrigation applied by residential and commercial sectors in various retail agencies at a parcel scale (2) determine over- and under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County, CA representing a wide range of climatic and economic conditions. These agencies contributed between 3 and 13 years of water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Irrigation depth (mm) was estimated using the "minimum month method," and landscape evapotranspiration was calculated using the Hargreaves equation for 122,345 parcels. Multiple regressions of water use were conducted with climatic and socioeconomic variables as possible explanatory variables. Single family residences accounted for the majority of urban water use. Findings from 112,192 single family residences (SFRs) show that total and indoor water use declined, though irrigation did not significantly change. Average irrigation for SFRs was 94 L/day, and a large proportion (42%) of irrigation was applied in excess to landscapes. Air temperature was found to be the primary driver of irrigation. We mapped over-irrigation relative to plant water demand to highlight areas that can be targeted for water conservation efforts. We also show the water savings that would be gained by improving the efficiency of irrigation systems. The information gained in this study would be useful for developing water use efficiency policies and/or educational programs to promote sustainable irrigation practices at the individual parcel scale.

  18. Assessment of energy saving technologies with potential for applications in US industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate information on energy technologies displayed at international trade shows was assessed and evaluated. Technologies that had potential for saving energy in applications in US industries were identified. These technologies are identified and concise summaries on potential energy savings, economics, basic operational considerations, and potential applications are prepared. An objective of this study was to determine whether international trade shows can provide a convenient and useful forum for the identification of energy saving technologies which could have wider applications in US industry. Forty-four technologies were chosen for inclusion which are grouped into the following categories: heat recovery devices, heat exchangers, heat pumps, and various other technologies. Some of the technologies include: a low energy drying system, solid waste in cement manufacturing, boiler fuel optimization system, multifuel boiler plant and coal combustion efficiency improvements.

  19. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  20. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  5. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing three types of retail rates (a flat rate, a time-of-use rate, and real-time pricing) from these wholesale price profiles, I examine bill savings from PV generation for the ten wholesale market scenarios under net metering and an alternative to net metering where hourly excess PV generation is compensated at the wholesale price. Most generally, I challenge the common assertion that PV compensation is likely to stay constant (or rise) due to constant (or rising) retail rates, and find that future electricity market scenarios can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, in concert with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  6. Corning Inc.: Proposed Changes at Glass Plant Indicate $26 Million in Potential Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the Corning glass plant in Greenville, Ohio, consumed almost 114 million kWh of electricity and nearly 308,000 MMBtu of natural gas in its glassmaking processes for a total cost of approximately $6.4 million. A plant-wide assessment indicated that improvement projects could save nearly $26 million and reduce natural gas use by 122,900 MMBtu per year, reduce electrical use by 72,300,000 kWh per year, and reduce CO2 emissions by 180 million pounds per year.

  7. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant densities were approximately 20% to 30% of that called by ASHRAE 62.1. Formaldehyde was the most important contaminant of concern in retail stores investigated. Both stores exceeded the most conservative health guideline for formaldehyde (OEHHA TWA REL = 7.3 ppb). This study found that source removal and reducing the emission rate, as demonstrated in retail stores sampled in this study, is a viable strategy to meet the health guideline. Total volatile compound were present in retail stores at low concentrations well below health guidelines suggested by Molhave (1700microg /m 2) and Bridges (1000 microg /m2). Based on these results and through mass--balance modeling, different ventilation rate reduction scenarios were proposed, and for these scenarios the differences in energy consumption were estimated. Findings of all phases of this desertion have contributed to understanding (a) the trade-off between energy savings and ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality, and (b) the trade-off between energy savings and resets of indoor air temperature that do not compromise thermal comfort. Two models for retail stores were built and calibrated and validated against actual utility bills. Energy simulation results indicated that by lowering the ventilation rates from measured and minimum references would reduce natural gas energy use by estimated values of 6% to 19%. Also, this study found that the electrical cooling energy consumption was not significantly sensitive to different ventilation rates. However, increasing indoor air temperature by 3°C in summer had a significant effect on the energy savings. In winter, both energy savings strategies, ventilation reduction and decrease in set points, had a significant effect on natural gas consumption. Specially, when the indoor air temperature 21°C was decreased to 19.4°C with the same amount of ventilation rate of Molhaves guideline for both cases. Interestingly, the temperature of 23.8°C (75°F), which is the lowest value of ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort for sedentary people (cashiers) and the highest value for thermal comfort adjustments due to activity level (customers and workers) that are calculated by using empirical equation, was the optimum temperature for sedentary and active people in Retail store buildings.

  8. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  9. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  10. Potential for cost saving by recycling of drugs in hospital.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G; Hawe, P

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of recycling of drugs in hospital two studies were conducted. In the main study, 219 consecutively admitted medical and surgical patients were asked to surrender their drugs on admission to hospital. fifty six per cent of patients complied with the request and 79% of the drugs they brought in were suitable for redistribution within the hospital. Patients were given one months supply for all discharge medications. The cost of reusable drugs surrendered on entry corresponded to 36% of discharge medication costs. In the second study, a telephone survey of a random sample of hospitals in NSW, it was revealed that 31% of metropolitan hospitals and 21% of country hospitals recycle medications. It was concluded that the extension of the practice of recycling to remaining hospitals may substantially offset discharge medication costs and reduce the total bill for pharmaceuticals in hospitals in NSW. However, further discussion of acceptable standards for recycling and further investigation of the cost benefit equation of drug recycling is urged. PMID:10279175

  11. Energy aspects and potential energy savings of the new DASI process for milk sterilization

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, B.C.; Stewart, L.E.; Chandarana, D.; Wolfson, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the difference in total processing energy required by the DASI ultra-high temperature (UHT) system and a conventional high temperature short time (HTST) fluid milk system. Data available in the literature were used to develop an energy use profile for the current US fluid milk system from processor to consumer. The energy data measured and the profile developed were used to estimate the potential energy savings resulting from the introduction of sterile milk in the US fluid milk market. Savings of energy resulting from the introduction of sterile milk were estimated to be 12 million barrels of oil annually.

  12. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  13. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Kenneth W; Stovall, Therese K

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  14. Monitoring energy use of copiers to determine program design and potential savings for the Energy Star Copier program

    SciTech Connect

    Dandridge, C.B.; Norford, L.K.; Nordman, B.

    1996-08-01

    In the past five years, considerable attention has been focused on the electricity use of office equipment in commercial office buildings. Several groups have monitored energy use of PCs, monitors, printers and fax machines. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring energy use of copiers. Procedures for testing energy usage and usage profiles of copiers are needed to make valid comparisons between machines and to determine overall energy use and potential energy savings. In this paper, the authors present a method to analyze the energy use and usage profiles of copiers. This method is determined through long-term measurements from a Watt-hour meter connected to the copier and by measuring light flashes from the copier. Energy use from the copier can also be estimated by using a test procedure developed by Dandridge. Results from using the long term monitoring methods will be presented for several different sized copiers, and compared to the estimated energy use derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. After summarizing these results, the authors determine criteria for a program to recognize energy-efficient copiers. These criteria were submitted as an Energy Star Copier program to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The new Energy Star Copier Program was announced in July 1995, with criteria based on these suggestions. Using the final Energy Star Copier program criteria and this data, the authors determine potential future savings for the program. The ability to automatically turn the copier off at night is the greatest energy-saving feature most copiers can have. The best way to reduce overall office costs is to have the copier set automatically to make double-sided copies.

  15. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water. PMID:21621904

  16. [Research on carbon reduction potential of electric vehicles for low-carbon transportation and its influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Transportation is the key industry of urban energy consumption and carbon emissions. The transformation of conventional gasoline vehicles to new energy vehicles is an important initiative to realize the goal of developing low-carbon city through energy saving and emissions reduction, while electric vehicles (EV) will play an important role in this transition due to their advantage in energy saving and lower carbon emissions. After reviewing the existing researches on energy saving and emissions reduction of electric vehicles, this paper analyzed the factors affecting carbon emissions reduction. Combining with electric vehicles promotion program in Beijing, the paper analyzed carbon emissions and reduction potential of electric vehicles in six scenarios using the optimized energy consumption related carbon emissions model from the perspective of fuel life cycle. The scenarios included power energy structure, fuel type (energy consumption per 100 km), car type (CO2 emission factor of fuel), urban traffic conditions (speed), coal-power technologies and battery type (weight, energy efficiency). The results showed that the optimized model was able to estimate carbon emissions caused by fuel consumption more reasonably; electric vehicles had an obvious restrictive carbon reduction potential with the fluctuation of 57%-81.2% in the analysis of six influencing factors, while power energy structure and coal-power technologies play decisive roles in life-cycle carbon emissions of electric vehicles with the reduction potential of 78.1% and 81.2%, respectively. Finally, some optimized measures were proposed to reduce transport energy consumption and carbon emissions during electric vehicles promotion including improving energy structure and coal technology, popularizing energy saving technologies and electric vehicles, accelerating the battery R&D and so on. The research provides scientific basis and methods for the policy development for the transition of new energy vehicles in low-carbon transport. PMID:23487966

  17. Alcoa World Alumina: Plant-Wide Assessment at Arkansas Operations Reveals More than$900,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The plant-wide energy-efficiency assessment performed in 2001 at the Alcoa World Alumina Arkansas Operations in Bauxite, Arkansas, identified seven opportunities to save energy and reduce costs. By implementing five of these improvements, the facility can save 15,100 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 8.76 million kilowatt-hours per year in electricity. This translates into approximate annual savings of$925,300 in direct energy costs and non-fuel operating and maintenance costs. The required capital investment is estimated at$271,200. The average payback period for all five projects would be approximately 8 months.

  18. Energy-saving conditions for electric melting of prereduced pellets in the bath of an arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, E. E.; Chermenev, E. A.; Stepanov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The problems of increasing the efficiency of electric steelmaking under the application of tubular (hollow) electrodes for supplying iron ore prereduced pellets directly to the high-temperature zone on the surface of a liquid metal are considered. It is shown that the use of an energy-saving regime based on the developed algorithm for the new method of charging pellets makes it possible to decrease the metal losses and to increase the energy efficiency of electric steelmaking.

  19. Preliminary Study of the Fuel Saving Potential of Regenerative Turbofans for Commercial Subsonic Transports. [engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of regenerative turbofans was calculated and compared with that of a reference turbofan. At the design altitude of 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, the turbine-inlet-temperature of the regenerative turbofan was fixed at 1700 K while the overall pressure ratio was varied from 10 to 20. The fan pressure ratio was fixed at 1.6 and the bypass ratio varied from 8 to 10. The heat exchanger design parameters such as pressure drop and effectiveness varied from 4 to 8 percent and from 0.80 to 0.90, respectively. Results indicate a fuel savings due to regeneration of 4.1 percent and no change in takeoff gross weight.

  20. Pittsburgh as a High Risk Population: The Potential Savings of a Personalized Dental Care Plan

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Little evidence exists for the current standard of two annual preventative care visits. The purpose of this study was investigate this claim by modeling the potential savings of implementing a personalized care plan for high risk individuals in the Pittsburgh region. Methods. Using radiographs from 39 patients in the University of Pittsburgh Dental Registry and DNA Repository database, two models were created to analyse the direct savings of implementing a more aggressive preventative treatment plan and to view the longitudinal cost of increased annual yearly visits. Results. There is a significant decrease (p < 0.001) between original and modeled treatment cost when treatment severity is reduced. In addition, there is a significant decrease in adult lifetime treatment cost (p < 0.001) for up to four annual visits. Conclusions. Patients in high risk populations may see significant cost benefits in treatment cost when a personalized care plan, or higher annual preventative care visits, is implemented. PMID:27006657

  1. Study on residual oil Distribution Using Jointly Cross-well Electric Potential and Borehole-surface Electric Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, B.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical methods have been used widely in oil exploration and oilfield development, such as electric logging and borehole-surface potential. However, the application range of electric logging is narrow and limited around the well, and moreover, the resolution offered by borehole-surface potential is not valid for complex distribution of oil and water. In the middle and later periods of oilfield development, distribution of oil and water will become more and more complicated. It is therefore very crucial for oilfield development to examine accurately the place of the residual oil distribution. The purpose of this study is to determine exactly the location of oil and water distribution by combining cross-well electric potential and borehole-surface electric potential. In this study, a model is employed to simulate and clarify the real situation. We attempt to determine the horizontal distribution of residual oil on the ground surface by borehole-surface electric potential method, while the method of cross-well electric potential is employed to confirm the vertical depth of residual oil. The modeling results of two methods are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. From the modeling results we can confidently conclude that combining cross-well electric potential and borehole-surface electric potential can exactly ascertain the location of residual oil in 3-D geospace. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by a grant from the Global-Centre of Excellence in Novel Carbon Resource Sciences, Kyushu University.

  2. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. )

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  3. An improved ET control method to determine the water-saving potential for farmland in Baiyangdian Watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Aiping; Li, Chuihui; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-06-01

    Resource-based water-saving potential has been recognized as the reduction of evapotranspiration and water loss of inefficient irrigation systems. In this paper, an improved evapotranspiration control model is applied to calculate resource-based water-saving potential, considering the influences of effective rainfall (uncontrolled evapotranspiration) and irrigated water (controlled evapotranspiration). Farmland in Baiyangdian Watershed, a highly productive area in northern China, is analyzed to determine the water-saving potential of irrigation processes. The water-saving potential was zero, 163.90 × 106 m3, and 318.24 × 106 m3 in wet, normal, and dry years, respectively, and was greater in years with less rainfall. Under the combined effect of rainfall, crop water consumption, and crop water requirements, the water-saving potential showed obvious temporal and spatial variations. July and August comprised almost 98.6% of the annual potential. In the northeast and southwest corner of the study area, potential approached zero. The potential was 1.53 times greater in the north-central than in the south-central area. The model can furnish the appropriate timing and region to water managers for implementing water-saving strategies.

  4. Potential unintended pregnancies averted and cost savings associated with a revised Medicaid sterilization policy

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, Sonya; Zite, Nikki; Potter, Joseph E.; Trussell, James; Smith, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective Medicaid sterilization policy, which includes a mandatory 30-day waiting period between consent and the sterilization procedure, poses significant logistical barriers for many women who desire publicly-funded sterilization. Our goal was to estimate the number of unintended pregnancies and the associated costs resulting from unfulfilled sterilization requests due to Medicaid policy barriers. Study design We constructed a cost effectiveness model from the health care payer perspective to determine the incremental cost over a 1-year time horizon of the current Medicaid sterilization policy compared to a hypothetical, revised policy in which women who desire a post-partum sterilization would face significantly reduced barriers. Probability estimates for potential outcomes in the model were based on published sources; costs of Medicaid-funded sterilizations and Medicaid-covered births were based on data from the Medicaid Statistical Information System and The Guttmacher Institute, respectively. Results With the implementation of a revised Medicaid sterilization policy, we estimated that the number of fulfilled sterilization requests would increase by 45%, from 53.3% of all women having their sterilization requests fulfilled to 77.5%. Annually, this increase could potentially lead to over 29,000 unintended pregnancies averted and $215 million saved. Conclusion A revised Medicaid sterilization policy could potentially honor women's reproductive decisions, reduce the number of unintended pregnancies, and save a significant amount of public funds. Implication Compared to the current federal Medicaid sterilization policy, a hypothetical, revised policy that reduces logistical barriers for women who desire publicly-funded, post-partum sterilization could potentially avert over 29,000 unintended pregnancies annually and therefore lead to a cost savings of $215 million each year. PMID:24028751

  5. Part-load performance characterization and energy savings potential of the RTU challenge unit: Carrier weather expert

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.

    2015-09-29

    This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and there use with the EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from the use of WeatherExpert units compared to other standard options.

  6. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krömer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4 % (in EU) and 18.0 % (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained. PMID:25504806

  7. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  8. The reuse of hemodialyzers: an assessment of safety and potential savings.

    PubMed Central

    Baris, E; McGregor, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and potential cost savings of hemodialyzer reuse. DATA SOURCES: All English and French articles published from 1960 to 1991 related to hemodialyzer reuse (retrieved through an Index Medicus and MEDLINE search [corrected]), the indexes of eight North American journals from 1960 onward, conference proceedings, association guidelines, and US and Canadian laws and regulations. RESULTS: For health care personnel the reuse of hemodialyzers did not entail any increased risk of infection or exposure to toxic substances if proper control measures were taken. For patients there was no evidence to suggest any excess risk of complications or death as long as precise and appropriate procedures are observed. The "first-use syndrome" can be prevented and should no longer be considered as a reason to favour reuse. A cost-minimization analysis indicated that five uses might save up to $3629 per patient yearly. Thus, the adoption of a policy of reuse in Canada for all eligible patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis could result in direct savings of about $5.8 to $8.9 million per year. CONCLUSION: The health risks associated with hemodialyzer reuse can be reduced to acceptable levels through the rigorous observance of proper quality-assurance and quality-control measures and the use of automated reconditioning equipment. Such a policy could achieve modest savings for the health care system. A decision to reuse should be formally adopted by the institution and accompanied by a precise definition of the standards of quality assurance and control. PMID:8420655

  9. Correlation between electric potential and peristaltic behavior in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yutong; Jia, Ruonan; Qian, Yiqing; Ye, Yang; Liu, Changhong

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a model species of eukaryotic microorganisms for studying amoeboid movement. Plasmodium's natural movements are characterized by the rhythmic back-and-forth streaming of cytoplasm peristalsis, which results in the directed locomotion of plasmodium, and the periodic change of the electric potential on the surface of plasmodium. Although it was suggested the causal connection between the cytoplasmic streaming and the electric potential in P. polycephalum, the relationship between its plasmodium peristaltic behavior and the surface electric potential had not been statistically proven. In this study, based on the modern microscopic observation and the new electric potential measurement, we proved the consistence between the frequency spectrums of the electric potential wave and the peristaltic wave during the growth of plasmodium and the synchronization of their waveforms through cross-correlational analysis. And we concluded that the correlation exists between the peristaltic wave and the electric potential wave. This study added new evidence to the hypothesis of the sharing inner biological mechanism between plasmodium's peristaltic behavior and electric potential as previous studies indicated, and brought a new perspective towards the future research on amoeboid movement. PMID:25892288

  10. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  11. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  12. Streaming electrical potential anomaly along faults in geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Pezard, P. A.

    Electrical potential anomalies are often measured associated with geothermal areas and volcanoes. In these systems, fluid flow is usually mostly restricted to faults and fracture networks. An equation describing electrical potential anomalies of electrokinetic nature associated with fluid upflow induced by a thermal source along faults is derived. The electrical potential anomaly is related to the depth of the thermal reservoir, the temperature difference between the surface and the reservoir of the geothermal area, the thermal expansion of water, and the streaming electrical potential coupling coefficient in the fault zone. A quantitative calculation of the electrokinetic anomaly is provided by comparing this model to a self-potential survey of the Cerro-Prieto geothermal field [Fitterman and Corwin, 1982]. The predictions of the model agree well with the field measurements.

  13. The potential for electricity efficiency improvements in the US Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.; Meier, A.; McMahon, J.E.; Boghosian, S.; Atkinson, B.; Turiel, I.; Levine, M.D.; Nordman, B.; Chan, P.

    1991-07-01

    This study represents the most elaborate assessment to date of US residential sector electricity improvements. Previous analyses have estimated the conservation potential for other countries, states, or individual utility service territories. As concern over greenhouse gas emissions has increased, interest has grown in estimates of conservation potential for the US residential sector as a whole. The earliest detailed estimate of US conservation potential is now out of date, while more recent estimates are less detailed than is desirable for engineering-economic estimates of the costs of reducing carbon emissions. In this paper, we first describe the methodology for creating supply curves of conserved energy, and then illustrate the subtleties of assessing the technical conservation potential. Next we present the data and forecasts used in this assessment, including costs, baseline thermal characteristics, energy use, and energy savings. Finally, we present the main results and conclusions from the analysis, and discuss future work. 102 refs., 7 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Remanufacturing and energy savings.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Boustani, Avid; Graves, Stephen C

    2011-05-15

    Remanufactured products that can substitute for new products are generally claimed to save energy. These claims are made from studies that look mainly at the differences in materials production and manufacturing. However, when the use phase is included, the situation can change radically. In this Article, 25 case studies for eight different product categories were studied, including: (1) furniture, (2) clothing, (3) computers, (4) electric motors, (5) tires, (6) appliances, (7) engines, and (8) toner cartridges. For most of these products, the use phase energy dominates that for materials production and manufacturing combined. As a result, small changes in use phase efficiency can overwhelm the claimed savings from materials production and manufacturing. These use phase energy changes are primarily due to efficiency improvements in new products, and efficiency degradation in remanufactured products. For those products with no, or an unchanging, use phase energy requirement, remanufacturing can save energy. For the 25 cases, we found that 8 cases clearly saved energy, 6 did not, and 11 were too close to call. In some cases, we could examine how the energy savings potential of remanufacturing has changed over time. Specifically, during times of significant improvements in energy efficiency, remanufacturing would often not save energy. A general design trend seems to be to add power to a previously unpowered product, and then to improve on the energy efficiency of the product over time. These trends tend to undermine the energy savings potential of remanufacturing. PMID:21513286

  15. The potential electricity generating capacity of BIPV in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Shijun, Y.; Hongxing, Y.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the analyzing results of the solar energy resource and potential electricity generating capacity from building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) systems in Hong Kong. The monthly average daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface and the daily sum distributions of solar radiation show that the solar radiation intensity is quite high in Hong Kong except the wet period from January to March. The mean annual global radiation is 4646.8 MJ/m{sup 2}. The potential electricity generating capacity from BIPV systems is estimated to be 10.5 TWh which is about 35% of the total annual electricity supply (29.9 TWh) in Hong Kong in 1995 if the shadow facades of the high-rise buildings are excluded. The BIPV electricity prices are estimated and compared with the local grid electricity prices. The results illustrate a bright future for BIPV applications in the next century in Hong Kong.

  16. A Perinatal Care Quality and Safety Initiative: Hospital Costs and Potential Savings

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Sommerness, Samantha; Rauk, Phillip; Gams, Rebecca; Hirt, Charles; Davis, Stanley; Miller, Kristi K.; Landers, Daniel V.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing national focus on hospital initiatives to improve obstetric and neonatal outcomes. While costs of providing care may decrease with improved quality, the accompanying reduced adverse outcomes may impact hospital revenues. The purpose of this study was to estimate, from a hospital perspective, the financial impacts of implementing a perinatal quality and safety initiative. Methods In 2008, a Minnesota-based health system (Fairview Health Services) launched the Zero Birth Injury (ZBI) initiative, which uses evidence-based care bundles to guide management of obstetric services. We conducted a pre-post analysis of financial impacts of ZBI, using hospital administrative records to measure costs and revenues associated with changes in maternal and neonatal birth injuries before (2008) and after (2009–11) the initiative. Results After adjusting for relevant covariates, implementation of ZBI was associated with an 11% decrease in the rate of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes between 2008 and 2011 (AOR=0.89, p=0.076). As a result of the adverse events avoided, the hospital system saved $284,985 in costs but earned $324,333 less revenue, which produced a net financial decrease of $39,348 (or a $305 net financial loss per adverse event avoided) in 2011, compared with 2008. Conclusions Adoption of a perinatal quality and safety initiative that reduced birth injuries had little net financial impact on the hospital. ZBI produced better clinical results at a lower cost, which represents potential savings for payers, but the hospital system offering increased quality reaped no clear financial rewards. These results highlight the important role for shared-savings collaborations (among patients, providers, government and third-party payers, and employers) to incentivize quality improvement. Widespread adoption of perinatal safety initiatives combined with innovative payment models may contribute to better health at reduced cost. PMID:23991507

  17. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  18. Central role of the observable electric potential in transport equations.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J; Compañ, V; López, M L

    2001-07-01

    Nonequilibrium systems are usually studied in the framework of transport equations that involve the true electric potential (TEP), a nonobservable variable. Nevertheless another electric potential, the observable electric potential (OEP), may be defined to construct a useful set of transport equations. In this paper several basic characteristics of the OEP are deduced and emphasized: (i) the OEP distribution depends on thermodynamic state of the solution, (ii) the observable equations have a reference value for all other transport equations, (iii) the bridge that connects the OEP with a certain TEP is usually defined by the ion activity coefficient, (iv) the electric charge density is a nonobservable variable, and (v) the OEP formulation constitutes a natural model for studying the fluxes in membrane systems. PMID:11461346

  19. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance. Architects, professional engineers, and commercial real estate developers will benefit from the availability of information that quantifies energy savings, first cost construction differences, and additional operating costs created when office space must be reconfigured to accommodate new tenants.

  20. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  1. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  2. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-09

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

  3. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,…

  4. Electrical impedance potential mammography for visualization of objects (electrochemical tests)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, A.; Korotkova, M.; Tsofin, Yu; Tsyplyonkov, V.; Machin, M.

    2010-04-01

    The article presents the result of the electrochemical testing of the potential electric impedance mammograph "MEIK" (version 5.6) which reconstructs the image using the reciprocal projection method. The testing was carried out on several categories: biological objects visualization, definition size, location, depth and shape of the biological objects, concentration and electrical conductivity, resolution capability. The research has been conducted in the original tank filled with homogeneous and heterogeneous medium. The research of the visualization of abiological and bialogical objects, objects dimensions, objects location, objects structure. According to the data of the electrochemical testing, the resolution capability of the objects with high electrical conductivity ranges from 1 to 3 mm and of the objects with low electrical conductivity - from 3 to 5 mm. Due to the given electrochemical testing results potencial electric impedance mammograph "MEIK" (version 5.6) can be rated as the medical visualization device.

  5. Remote monitoring of biodynamic activity using electric potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harl, C. J.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work in applying the electric potential sensor to the monitoring of body electrophysiological signals has shown that it is now possible to monitor these signals without needing to make any electrical contact with the body. Conventional electrophysiology makes use of electrodes which are placed in direct electrical contact with the skin. The electric potential sensor requires no cutaneous electrical contact, it operates by sensing the displacement current using a capacitive coupling. When high resolution body electrophysiology is required a strong (capacitive) coupling is used to maximise the collected signal. However, in remote applications where there is typically an air-gap between the body and the sensor only a weak coupling can be achieved. In this paper we demonstrate that the electric potential sensor can be successfully used for the remote sensing and monitoring of bioelectric activity. We show examples of heart-rate measurements taken from a seated subject using sensors mounted in the chair. We also show that it is possible to monitor body movements on the opposite side of a wall to the sensor. These sensing techniques have biomedical applications for non-contact monitoring of electrophysiological conditions and can be applied to passive through-the-wall surveillance systems for security applications.

  6. Light-induced electrical potential changes and motility in desmids.

    PubMed

    Häder, D P; Wenderoth, K

    1986-04-01

    Motility of the desmid Cosmarium cucumis depends on light: switching the light on induces a large fraction of previously immotile cells to start moving, and switching it off causes many motile cells to stop. Turning light on or off causes light-induced electrical potential changes which can be measured with internal microelectrodes. The electrical gradient within the cell is not correlated with the light gradient. Consequently, the cell cannot obtain information concerning the spatial distribution of the incident light, e.g. for phototactic orientation. However, light-induced potential changes could serve as signals for photokinesis, since switching the light on causes a transient increase and switching the light off a transient decrease in the electrical potential of the front half as compared to the rear half or the extracellular space. PMID:3792819

  7. Office technology energy use and savings potential in New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A., Cramer, M., Eto, J., Koomey, J.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses energy use by office equipment in New York State and the energy savings potential of energy-efficient equipment. A model containing equipment densities and energy-use characteristics for major categories of office equipment has been developed. The model specifies power requirements and hours of use for three modes of average operation for each device: active, standby, and suspend. The energy-use intensity for each device is expressed as a function of the average device density (number of units/1,000 sq ft), the hours of operation in each mode, and the average power requirements in each mode. Output includes an estimate of total energy use (GWh) for each device by building type. Three scenarios are developed. First is a business-as-usual efficiency baseline. Second is a future with increased use of power-managed devices projected under the current Energy Star Computers program sponsored by the US EPA. Third is a scenario that examines energy savings from greater use of products that go well beyond the standard Energy Star products. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore uncertainties in model inputs. The business-as-usual baseline forecast confirms that office equipment energy use has been rising over the past decade, and may continue to increase for the next decade and beyond. Office equipment currently consumes about 2,900 GWh/year in the State of New York. Under the business-as-usual baseline forecast, this load may increase to 3,300 GWh/year by the year 2000, and approximately double again before 2010. Widespread use of power management technologies adopted with the promotion of the Energy Star program could reduce this load growth by about 30% by the year 2000. Use of more advanced energy-efficient technology could reduce total energy use by office equipment to about 1,900 GWh/year in 2010, which is less than current consumption.

  8. Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor

    Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damaged as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem: men surrounded by physical fields including ones of cosmic origination. Magnetic storms’ influence had been observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old, Moscow). To control the main functional systems of the examinees, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. All of these characteristics, save for the EEG, were within the normal range for all of the examinees during measurements. According to the EEG investigations by implementation of the computer proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal-polar and occipital areas of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.8] for all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with electromagnetic geophysical researches and geomagnetic storms). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm frontal - occipital coherence function of all of the students of the group under consideration decreased by a factor of two or more, including the zero coherence function value. The similar result was obtained for another basic low-frequency electro-neurophysiological rhythm delta (f = 0.5 - 3.9 Hz, A = 20 μV). The usual coherence function values from the interval [0.3, 0.8] were being registered, typically, about 48 hours after the magnetic storm end. The result about decreasing of the coherence of the brain low frequency bioelectric oscillations under a magnetic storm influence was obtained by two methods: 1) comparison of the time series of bioelectric oscillations of a given person without a magnetic storm and under its influence; 2) comparison of two sets of time series of oscillations: a) the set A of time series measured without a magnetic storm and b) the set B of time series measured under its influence, regardless to an individual. Surely, the total number of the EEGs available for the investigation by the set’s approach, i.e. without personification, is more than the number of the EEGs available by the individual approach because there were ones investigated without a magnetic storm only as well as ones investigated under its influence only. By the EEG measurements with closed or open eyes, but without a functional load on the brain in the form of the proof-reading test, a distinctive decrease of the coherence function was not observed during a magnetic storm as well as for pairs of points from other parts of the head (see above) or other rhythms.

  9. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, .

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  10. Electrical mapping of microtubular structures by surface potential microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Cantiello, Horacio F.

    2009-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal polymers that play an essential role in cell division and transport in all eukaryotes and information processing in neurons. MTs are highly charged polyelectrolytes, composed of hollow cylindrical arrangements of αβ-tubulin dimers. To date, there is little information about electrical properties of MTs. Here, we deposited and dried MTs onto a gold-plated surface to image their topology by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and determined their electrical mapping with surface potential microscopy (SPM). We found a strong linear correlation between the magnitude of relative surface potential and MT parameters, including diameter and height. AFM images confirmed the cylindrical topology of microtubular structures, and the presence of topological discontinuities along their surface, which may contribute to their unique electrical properties.

  11. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  16. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  17. Electrical potentials of restorations in subjects without oral complaints.

    PubMed

    Muller, A W; Van Loon, L A; Davidson, C L

    1990-09-01

    The electrical potentials of 183 amalgam and 11 precious metal restorations, and one set of brackets, were measured. None of the 28 subjects had galvanism, leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, or toxic or allergic reactions to restorations. The potentials of the amalgam restorations increased with age, from about -350 mV NHE at 30 days, to about +100 mV NHE after more than 1000 days. In most subjects potential differences of more than 50 mV were present between restorations; this phenomenon is therefore assumed to be common in healthy populations. PMID:2231160

  18. The Future is Green: Tribal College Saving Water, Electricity--and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    2005-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities around the country are harnessing natural sources of energy on their campuses. Renewable energy and sustainable building design have many advantages--they save money and provide healthier learning and working environments while allowing people to live in greater harmony with the earth. This article discusses…

  19. The Future is Green: Tribal College Saving Water, Electricity--and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    2005-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities around the country are harnessing natural sources of energy on their campuses. Renewable energy and sustainable building design have many advantages--they save money and provide healthier learning and working environments while allowing people to live in greater harmony with the earth. This article discusses

  20. A time-saving method for recording chemosensory event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Friederike; Damm, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce the recording duration of chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) and thereby to make the method more suitable for routine clinical use. Measurements were performed in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the university hospital of Cologne. Two protocols with different sequences [inter-stimulus intervals (ISI)-standard sequence: 30 s; PRS-15: pseudo-randomized sequence, mean ISI of 15 s] were applied to 40 volunteers to record CSERPs. To compare CSERP recordings under optimal and adverse test conditions, 20 younger/normosmic adults and 20 older/hyposmic participants were included in this study. Olfactory function was gauged using the "Sniffin'Sticks" test. For CSERP recordings, phenylethyl alcohol, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were used for olfactory or trigeminal stimulation, respectively. Both ISI protocols allowed recording CSERPs under optimal and adverse test conditions and distinguishing both groups by latencies (p ≤ 0.015). The time requirement for the recording of CSERPs with the PRS-15 sequence was less than 30 min. The pseudo-randomized sequence allowed the recording of diagnostically conclusive CSERPs in both groups and saved approximately 40% of the measuring time. This seems to be especially useful in cases where a yes/no answer (e.g., medical reports, exclusion of anosmia) is required. Shortening the time requirement significantly allows applying CSERPs to larger populations of patients with olfactory impairment. PMID:22249833

  1. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.

  2. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAEmore » 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.« less

  3. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  4. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  5. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  6. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  7. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex combination of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. In this paper we provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  8. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex mix of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. This presentation will provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  9. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Kriner, Scott; Manlove, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  10. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  11. Dark Energy:. the Absolute Electric Potential of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L.

    Is there an absolute cosmic electric potential? The recent discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe could be indicating that this is certainly the case. In this essay we show that the consistency of the covariant and gauge-invariant theory of electromagnetism is truly questionable when considered on cosmological scales. Out of the four components of the electromagnetic field, Maxwell's theory contains only two physical degrees of freedom. However, in the presence of gravity, one of the "unphysical" states cannot be consistently eliminated, thus becoming real. This third polarization state is completely decoupled from charged matter, but can be excited gravitationally, thus breaking gauge invariance. On large scales the new state can be seen as a homogeneous cosmic electric potential, whose energy density behaves as a cosmological constant.

  12. Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2013-02-01

    We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.

  13. The soil electric potential signature of summer drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outcalt, S. I.; Hinkel, K. M.

    1990-03-01

    During the period from late April to early August, a timeseries of soil electric potential measurements in the upper 15 cm of mineral soil were collected daily at the University of Michigan Botanical Gardens using an automatic data collection system. These data, after conversion to a surrogate measure of electrolyte concentration, provide a unique record of the 1988 summer drought in a continental location. The effects of rainfall-dewfall electrolyte dilution, evaporation-induced electrolyte concentration and upward-downward soil water advection are well-illustrated in the data. These observations demonstrate that soil electric potential is an easily measured variable of high information content, especially when collected with other system-linked environmental data.

  14. Chemically induced electric field: flat band potential engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, T.; Guo, Z.; Li, W.; Atanacio, A. J.; Nowotny, J.

    2012-10-01

    The present work considers engineering of the flat band potential, FBP, of metal oxides in a controlled manner. The aim is to minimise the energy losses related to recombination. The related experimental approaches include imposition of a chemically-induced electric field using the phenomena of segregation, diffusion and the formation of multilayer systems. This paper considers several basic phenomena that allow the modification of the surface charge and the space charge at the gas/solid and solid/liquid interfaces.

  15. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing fleet of power plants, the results also provide insights to the sitting of future power plants to support the long-term transmission planning.

  16. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological sensor and the EP electrodes connected to the Keithley voltmeter in each irrigation stage. Also, both sensors show a daily cyclical signal (circadian cycle). PMID:25826257

  17. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological sensor and the EP electrodes connected to the Keithley voltmeter in each irrigation stage. Also, both sensors show a daily cyclical signal (circadian cycle). PMID:25826257

  18. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable potential analyses in Xiamen, a residential energy consumption (REC) projection model specifically tailored for southern China is developed. This computational model builds on the Kastovich (1982) adoption-decision theory and the general logic used in the U.S. EIA's (2003) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Base on this projection model, Xiamen's REC from the base year 2011 to 2020 is projected. This model can be used as a policy analysis tool to quantitatively evaluate the real-world impact of diverse policy incentives on residential energy use in southern China. The projection results show that the MAP of residential energy savings in Xiamen will be about only 8.3-8.4% in 2020 from a business-as-usual projection. Ten current appropriate and feasible policy interventions are evaluated for analyzing the PAP in Xiamen, which reveals that only about one-fourth to one-half of Xiamen's MAP will possibly be achieved in 2020. Based on the potential analysis for the Xiamen case, a discussion on promoting energy-saving incentive policies for the residential buildings in southern China is given. It suggests that more new, innovative and market-based policies need to be introduced in China in order to realize larger achievable potential for residential energy savings.

  19. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  20. Electrical/optical dual-function redox potential transistor.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunpu; Wang, Wensi; Xu, Ju; Chu, Daping; Shen, Z John; Roy, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new type of transistors, the electrical/optical "dual-function redox-potential transistors", which is solution processable and environmentally stable. This device consists of vertically staked electrodes that act as gate, emitter and collector. It can perform as a normal transistor, whilst one electrode which is sensitised by dye enables to generate photocurrent when illuminated. Solution processable oxide-nanoparticles were used to form various functional layers, which allow an electrolyte to penetrate through and, consequently, the current between emitter and collector can be controlled by the gate potential modulated distribution of ions. The result here shows that the device performs with high ON-current under low driving voltage (<1 V), while the transistor performance can readily be controlled by photo-illumination. Such device with combined optical and electrical functionalities allows single device to perform the tasks that are usually done by a circuit/system with multiple optical and electrical components, and it is promising for various applications. PMID:24310311

  1. Electrical/optical dual-function redox potential transistor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shunpu; Wang, Wensi; Xu, Ju; Chu, Daping; Shen, Z. John; Roy, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new type of transistors, the electrical/optical “dual-function redox-potential transistors”, which is solution processable and environmentally stable. This device consists of vertically staked electrodes that act as gate, emitter and collector. It can perform as a normal transistor, whilst one electrode which is sensitised by dye enables to generate photocurrent when illuminated. Solution processable oxide-nanoparticles were used to form various functional layers, which allow an electrolyte to penetrate through and, consequently, the current between emitter and collector can be controlled by the gate potential modulated distribution of ions. The result here shows that the device performs with high ON-current under low driving voltage (<1 V), while the transistor performance can readily be controlled by photo-illumination. Such device with combined optical and electrical functionalities allows single device to perform the tasks that are usually done by a circuit/system with multiple optical and electrical components, and it is promising for various applications. PMID:24310311

  2. Literature Review of the Potential Energy Savings and Retention Water from Green Roofs in Comparison with Conventional Ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselekis, Kyriakoulis

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is the comparison of green roof systems with conventional isolated and non-isolated ones in order to identify the potential energy savings of green roofs and the benefits provided in comparison with the cost of construction to the buildings. The region of interest is the Watergraafsmeer area in the city of Amsterdam. The method evaluates literature reports - mostly from 2003 to 2010 - that present the advantages of green roofs. Examples in real implementation of green roofs in USA, UK and Germany, retention of rainfall and a Life Cycle Assessment from a residential construction in Madrid will be introduced, showing the energy savings from insulation and heating/cooling that can be gained. All the reports have shown a reduction in energy costs and in runoff of water. Hence, costs and retrofitting potential completes the research. The age of buildings and the absence of insulation make green roofs an ideal alternative project for the retrofit of Watergraafsmeer.

  3. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (< 30 %) in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and the highest values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing potential future transitions in these systems. In this paper, presented opportunities associated with irrigation improvements are significant and suggest that they should be considered an important means on the way to sustainable food security.

  4. Electric potential distributions at the interface between plasmasheet clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. S.; Roth, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1987-01-01

    At the interface between two plasma clouds with different densities, temperatures, and/or bulk velocities, there are large charge separation electric fields which can be modeled in the framework of a collisionless theory for tangential discontinuities. Two different classes of layers were identified: the first one corresponds to (stable) ion layers which are thicker than one ion Lamor radius; the second one corresponds to (unstable) electron layers which are only a few electron Larmor radii thick. It is suggested that these thin electron layers with large electric potential gradients (up to 400 mV/m) are the regions where large-amplitude electrostatic waves are spontaneously generated. These waves scatter the pitch angles of the ambient plasmasheet electron into the atmospheric loss cone. The unstable electron layers can therefore be considered as the seat of strong pitch angle scattering for the primary auroral electrons.

  5. Impacts of Potential Future Droughts on Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tidwell, V. C.; King, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the state of Texas experienced the worst single-year drought on record. This recent extreme climate event raised questions as to how future droughts might impact ERCOT operations. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential future droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and power plants within the context of long-term transmission planning. The study identified three potential drought scenarios (single- and multiple-year droughts) based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Texas-Gulf river basin. The Texas-Gulf hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and 125 reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and cooling water for power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds (such as evapotranspiration, soil water, water yield from watersheds, stream flow, and water storage in reservoirs) provide a bases to assess if power plants potentially at risk of being of derated and watersheds are vulnerable to droughts. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of power plants at risk and vulnerable watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation. Beyond impacts to the existing fleet of power plants, the results also provide insights to the sitting of future power plants to support the ERCOT long-term transmission planning.

  6. Coarse-grained simulations for organic molecular liquids based on Gay-Berne and electric multipole potentials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peijun; Shen, Hujun; Yang, Lu; Ding, Yang; Li, Beibei; Shao, Ying; Mao, Yingchen; Li, Guohui

    2013-02-01

    Coarse-grained studies of CH(3)SH, CH(3)CHO and CHCl(3) liquids, based on anisotropic Gay-Berne (GB) and electric multipole potentials (EMP), demonstrate that the coarse-grained model is able to qualitatively reproduce the results obtained from the atomistic model (AMOEBA polarizable force field) and allows for significant saving in computation time. It should be pointed out that the accuracy of the coarse-grained model is very sensitive to how well the anisotropic GB particle is defined and how satisfactorily the EMP sites are chosen. PMID:22961621

  7. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  8. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school

  9. Testing Potential Cost Saving and Controversial Actions: Community, Staff and Student Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, L. E.; And Others

    In 1980, the Lake Washington School District in Kirkland (Washington) undertook a needs assessment of district activities and policies. One component of this assessment was a survey of community, staff, and student opinion concerning cost-saving or controversial actions or programs being considered for implementation in the future. Questionnaires…

  10. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    SciTech Connect

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  11. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify transmission corridors from the generation areas to the demand centers in the target regions, using a GIS-based transmission algorithm that minimizes economic, social and environmental costs. Third, we use the multi-scale energy system model Calliope to specify the optimal configuration and operation of the CSP fleet to reliably follow the demand every hour of the year in the target regions, and to calculate the levelized cost of doing so, including both generation and transmission costs. The final output will show whether and how much reliable renewable electricity can be supplied from CSP fleets in deserts to demand centers in adjacent regions, at which costs this is possible, as well as a detailed description of the routes of HVDC transmission links. We expect to find that the potential for deserts to supply reliable CSP to the regions in focus is very large in all cases, despite the long distances.

  12. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  15. Ion separations based on electrical potentials nanoporous and microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jason

    This dissertation examines several types of ion separations in nanometer to micrometer pores in membranes. Membranes provide an attractive platform for ion separations, primarily because they operate continuously (i.e. not in a batch mode), and small pores offer the potential for ion separation based on charge and electrophoretic mobility differences. Initial studies employed charged, nanoporous membranes to separate monovalent and divalent ions. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers in nanoporous membranes afforded control over the surface charge and pore radii in track-etched membranes, and electrostatic ion-exclusion, particularly for divalent ions, occurred in these membranes because the electrical double layer filled the entire nanopore. Initial experiments employed adsorption of (PSS/PAH) multilayers in the 50-nm diameter pores of PCTE membranes to give a K+/Mg2+ selectivity of ~10 in pressure-driven dead-end filtration. Adsorption of (PSS/PAH) 1 films in 30-nm pores gave a similar K+/Mg2+ selectivity with a simpler modification procedure. Separations utilizing (PSS/PAH)1 films in 30-nm pores showed the lowest ion rejections with high ion concentrations, consistent with enhanced screening of the electrical double layer at high ionic strength. However, solutions with < 5 mM ionic strength exhibited essentially 100% Mg2+ rejections (the Mg2+ concentration in the permeate was below the method detection limit). Moreover, K+ rejections increased in the presence of Mg2+, which may stem from Mg2+-adsorption within the PEM and increased surface charge. Finally, separation of Br- and SO42- with a PSS1-modified, 30-nm PCTE membrane validated the exclusion mechanism for anions. The average Br-/SO42- selectivity was 3.4 +/- 0.8 for a solution containing 0.5 mM NaBr and 0.5 mM Na2SO4. The low selectivity in this case likely stems from a relatively large pore. The membranes used for the separation of monovalent and divalent ions also facilitated separation of monovalent ions (e.g. Li+ and Cs+), via a streaming-potential mechanism. In these separations, flow through a negatively charged membrane yields a positive (permeate minus feed) streaming potential, which retards the transport of a more mobile cation to a greater extent than transport of a less mobile cation. Thus, (PSS)1-modified, 30-nm PCTE membranes enabled Li+ and Cs+ separation, whereas (PSS-PAH)1-modified membranes separated acetate- and Br-. Cation selectivities were ~3 for solutions containing 1.5 mM Li2SO 4 and 1.5 mM Cs2SO4, whereas anion selectivities were ~6 for 0.5 mM Mg(Acetate)2, 0.5 mM MgBr2. The streaming potential method gave only modest selectivities, however, and required low ion concentrations. Electrical potentials applied across microporous glass membranes also facilitate separation of monovalent ions with different electrophoretic mobilities. This dissertation describes a filtration cell with porous electrodes to enable cross-flow filtration with an applied potential. With the appropriate potentials, the cell afforded some separation of K+ and Li+, but the average selectivities were ~3. Moreover, the rejection of both ions plateaued near 90% at sufficiently high current to flow rate ratios. Buffer depletion or nonuniform cross-flow and electric fields may lead to membrane areas with low rejection and prevent high selectivities. Fabrication of a dual cross-flow cell (cross-flow on feed and permeate sides) limits buffer depletion issues and may provide higher monovalent ion selectivities.

  16. Pole-potential mapping and synthetic arrays in electrical exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Roderick John

    2001-10-01

    Many interesting geological features can be characterized by the electrical resistivity Consequently, the resistivity and induced polarization methods are extensively applied to map subsurface electrical properties and often provide a suggestive outline of geological structure. Standard survey methods collect data using linear configurations and, in 1d or 2d environments, survey and interpretation methods are well developed. However, in the complex geological settings often encountered the responses of most linear array configurations suffer from an extreme sensitivity to near-surface structure which can obscure the more desirable response from deeper structure. Furthermore, linear profiles and sections can be ambiguous when coarse sampling intervals are used, a problem compounded by the lack of information from between survey lines. Improving the accuracy of electrical prospecting methods requires that a more complete map of field measurements be taken over a two dimensional set of source and receiver positions. I suggest a 3d mapping method using a 2d surface grid, a method I name pole-potential mapping. To interpret the data from such a survey, I suggest several approaches to defining apparent resistivity in terms of gridded potential maps about a distributed grid of current poles. This approach significantly improves our ability to resolve subsurface features. Sensitivity analysis, numerical and analytic model studies clearly show the sensitivity of circular arrays to be more localized in one region in the earth than traditional configurations and the location and depth extent of the high sensitivity region is easily controlled by varying the location and dimension of the synthetic arrays. Finally, to show that systematic pole-potential mapping could practically be carried out on a regular basis with an efficient field methodology, I designed and constructed suitable instrumentation. From practical tests in a scale modelling tank and in a small scale field experiment at Fort York, I show measurement error in synthetic data can be made low enough to exploit the improved signal of deep targets to surficial noise. A roll-along approach, analogous to that used in seismic surveying, is a very efficient field methodology. The results are consistent with predictions from the numerical studies indicating the utility of pole-potential mapping.

  17. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  18. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Frank A. Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  19. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. PMID:24953314

  20. Efficient motor saves power costs by trading electricity for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Casinghead gas provides inexpensive energy to drive the PowerPac pumpjack motor at a lower cost than an electric power plant. The PowerPAc is a 454-cubic-inch General Motors V-8 modified to run on natural gas. The engine will push 500 to 600 pound/feet of torque at low revolutions per minute. Engine efficiency, air emissions, and cost are discussed.

  1. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, Argo; Moller, Taavi; Lehtla, Madis; Hoimoja, Hardi

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.

  2. Dimensional Analysis and Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Dimensional analysis, superposition principle, and continuity of electric potential are used to study the electric potential of a uniformly charged square sheet on its plane. It is shown that knowing the electric potential on the diagonal and inside the square sheet is equivalent to knowing it everywhere on the plane of the square sheet. The…

  3. Field-Aligned Electric Potential in the Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, S.; Hildebrand, L.

    2014-12-01

    Reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the dayside magnetosphere opens the previously closed Earth's field line, allowing solar wind particles to enter the magnetosphere, some of which precipitate into the ionosphere. As the open-field line ExB convects to the nightside, fewer ions can enter the magnetosphere. As a result, field-aligned (parallel) electric potential increases with latitude to prevent more electrons from entering, in order to maintain charge quasi-neutrality. The APL open-field line model predicts that the parallel potential drop increases from cusp to mantle to polar rain. This trend has been confirmed in a study that compared phase space densities of ACE solar wind electrons to those of DMSP precipitating electrons. However, the same study also found that sometimes there is an anomaly: the parallel potential drop would have the opposite polarity such that solar wind electrons are accelerated downward in the afternoon polar cap. Using DMSP magnetometer and particle precipitation data, we show that this accelerating potential drop can be found often in the poleward upward field-aligned current region. The velocity shear at the magnetopause boundary leads to a voltage drop across the boundary, which drives the upward field-aligned currents. At higher latitude or further away from noon, the field line maps to the magnetopause location that is further down the magnetotail where the magnetosheath velocity shear is higher and density is lower. When the velocity shear and hence field-aligned current density (J//) is too high or density too low, parallel potential develops to accelerate more electron downward, in accordance with Knight relation.

  4. Anisotropic Coarse-Grained Model for Proteins Based On Gay–Berne and Electric Multipole Potentials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gay–Berne anisotropic potential has been widely used to evaluate the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained particles being described as elliptical rigid bodies. In this paper, we are presenting a coarse-grained model for twenty kinds of amino acids and proteins, based on the anisotropic Gay–Berne and point electric multipole (EMP) potentials. We demonstrate that the anisotropic coarse-grained model, namely GBEMP model, is able to reproduce many key features observed from experimental protein structures (Dunbrack Library), as well as from atomistic force field simulations (using AMOEBA, AMBER, and CHARMM force fields), while saving the computational cost by a factor of about 10–200 depending on specific cases and atomistic models. More importantly, unlike other coarse-grained approaches, our framework is based on the fundamental intermolecular forces with explicit treatment of electrostatic and repulsion-dispersion forces. As a result, the coarse-grained protein model presented an accurate description of nonbonded interactions (particularly electrostatic component) between hetero/homodimers (such as peptide–peptide, peptide–water). In addition, the encouraging performance of the model was reflected by the excellent correlation between GBEMP and AMOEBA models in the calculations of the dipole moment of peptides. In brief, the GBEMP model given here is general and transferable, suitable for simulating complex biomolecular systems. PMID:24659927

  5. Elimination of Potential Electrical Stress During EMC (CS01) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Kenneth P.; Whittlesey, Albert C.; Vorperian, Vatche

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews possible ways to eliminate electrical stress during Electromagneticic Compatibility (EMC) testing. The presentation reviews tests that have had problems due to electrical stress. On December 5, 1995 Cassini Radar instrument failed a functional test in preparation for EMC conducted susceptibility (CSO 1 ) testing. The instrument power supply did not turn on as required, and failure occurred prior to injection of CS test stimulus. A investigation of the failure was conducted. A PSPICE simulation of Cassini Radar 30V line using the EMC test setup was performed; the result of the simulation was an oscillation on the 30V input of the power supply. In another case: on December 28, 1999 an oscillation occurred on the input power line of the SlRTF Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) while preparing to perform CSOI testing, Resulted in damage to flight hardware. Subsequent to failure, JPL provided GSFC history and corrective action from Cassini Radar CSOI test failure GSFC implemented the same corrective action as JPL, except that the value of the resistor connected across the isolation transformer primary winding is 2.5 ohms instead of 50 ohms. Three recommendations are made: (1) Make EMC test community aware of the problem and potential solutions by presenting papers at major environmental test conferences (2) Include warnings and safeguards in EMC test requirements and procedures (3) Try to convince EMC test equipment suppliers to design a CSOl test fixture similar to fixture shown in the diagram

  6. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  7. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  8. Motor system electricity consumption and conservation potential in the manufacturing sector

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, R.N.

    1995-06-01

    Motors account for about 70 percent of the electricity consumer in the manufacturing sector. A recent study by ACEEE estimates 18-49 percent of this energy could be saved through improved motor management practices and orderly change-out of equipment at time of equipment failure, modernization or new construction. This savings is realized from both the motor-drive system and from more efficient motor driven equipment. The specific opportunities will vary by industry because of different end-use Profiles. Pumps, fans and compressors represent the greatest opportunity for efficiency improvements in motor-driven equipment.

  9. Weyerhaeuser Company: Longview Mill Conducts Energy and Water Assessment that Finds Potential for $3.1 Million in Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2004-06-01

    Weyerhaeuser completed a plant-wide energy assessment at its pulp and paper manufacturing facility in Longview, Washington, in 2002. The assessment identified nine projects for improving energy efficiency and reducing water consumption. Implementing these projects will save an estimated $3.1 million annually in natural gas costs. These measures will also reduce site water consumption by 3,600 gallons per minute. The estimated cost of these improvements is estimated at $5 million to $11 million. Aside from the nine projects discussed above, the assessment team also identified the potential to increase onsite power generation by up to 15 megawatts.

  10. ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIALS IN RESIDENTIAL AND SMALL COMMERCIAL THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS - AN UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-10-31

    This is an update of a report (Andrews and Modera 1991) that quantified the amounts of energy that could be saved through better thermal distribution systems in residential and small commercial buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling from the space-conditioning equipment to the conditioned space. This update involves no basic change in methodology relative to the 1991 report, but rather a review of the additional information available in 2003 on the energy-use patterns in residential and small commercial buildings.

  11. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  12. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  13. Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Butler, D; Memon, F A; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L; Jefferson, B

    2010-01-01

    Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been addressed. In this paper, performance of a constructed wetland based grey water recycling system was analysed by taking the constraint of residence time during storage into account using an object based household water cycle model. Two indicators, water saving efficiency (WSE) and residence time index (RTI), are employed to reflect the system's performance and residence time during storage respectively. Results show that WSE and RTI change with storage tank volumes oppositely. As both high WSE and RTI cannot be achieved simultaneously, it is concluded that in order to achieve the most cost-effective and safe solution, systems with both small grey and green tanks are needed, whilst accepting that only relatively modest water saving efficiency targets can be achieved. Higher efficiencies will only be practicable if water quality deterioration in the green water tank can be prevented by some means (e.g. disinfection). PMID:19796787

  14. Ionospheric potential variability in global electric circuit models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareev, E.; Volodin, E. M.; Kalinin, A.; Sllyunyaev, N.

    2013-12-01

    The ionospheric potential (IP) represents the electric voltage between the Earth's surface and the lower ionosphere and may be measured with a sufficient accuracy using the balloon soundings over the lowest 15-20 km. This parameter can serve as a global index relating the state of the global electric circuit (GEC) to the planetary climate. Exploring the GEC as a diagnostic tool for climate studies requires an accurate modeling of the IP stationary state and its dynamics, while a question of secular trend of the IP is still under discussion (Markson, 2007; Williams, 2009; Williams and Mareev, 2013). This paper addresses a possibility of correct calculation of the IP in 3D models of the GEC and its adequate parameterization to be used in General Circulation Models (GCM). Our approach is based on the use the integral representation for the contribution of charging currents, supporting the generators (in particular, electrified clouds) in the GEC, into the ionospheric potential (Kalinin et al., 2011; Mareeva et al., 2011). Simple enough analytical expressions for IP induced by the charging electric currents are suggested, including the contribution of the Austausch generator. We have developed also the spherical numerical model of the GEC and applied it for IP calculation for different-type cloud contribution into the circuit. A suggested IP parameterization is appropriate for the use in climate-model simulations (Mareev and Volodin, 2011). We use a high-resolution GCM of the atmosphere and ocean INMCM4.0 for the modeling the GEC. The main characteristics of the model are: atmosphere - 2x1.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, 21 levels; ocean - 1x0.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, 40 levels. We have taken into account quasi-stationary currents of electrified clouds as principal contributors into the DC global circuit. One of the most important aspects of this approach is an account for all the electrified clouds- both thunderstorms and electrified shower cloud. The results have shown that many of the calculated parameters are consistent with measurements on the global circuit, in particular, the diurnal and seasonal variability of the GEC. We found that the inter-annual variability of the IP is low and does not exceed 1% from the mean value. It should be emphasized however that it is correlated tightly with the mean SST in the Pacific ocean (180W-100W, 5S-5N - El-Nigno area). As to long-term trend, mumerical simulations suggest the IP decrease by about 10% for the XXI century if the global warming follows an assumed greenhouse gas emission scenario RCP 8.5. It is interesting that, using Price&Rind parameterizations, it was found that a mean flash rate is increasing by about 20% for the century (from 60 to 72 fl/s) for the same scenario. We conclude that the use of GCM with respective IP parameterizations allows us to study the influence of different factors on the GEC state, including convection intensity and its trends in a warmer climate. Some generalizations of the modeling related to the conductivity perturbations should lead to better description of the electrical generators in the global circuit.

  15. Review of Innovative Energy Savings Technology for the Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baek; Sohn, Il

    2014-09-01

    A review of the energy innovations for the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking route is discussed. Preheating of scrap using vertical and horizontal shafts that have been commercially successful in lowering the energy consumption to as much as 90 kWh/t reaching almost the operational limit to heating input scrap materials into the EAF is discussed. Bucket-type and twin-shell preheaters have also shown to be effective in lowering the overall power consumption by 60 kWh/t, but these have been less effective than the vertical shaft-type preheaters. Beyond the scrap preheating technologies, the utilization of waste heat of the slags from the laboratory scale to the pilot scale has shown possible implementation of a granulation and subsequent heat exchange with forced air for energy recovery from the hot slags. Novel techniques to increase metal recovery have shown that laboratory-scale testing of localized Fe concentration into the primary spinel crystals was possible allowing the separation of an Fe-rich crystal from an Fe-depleted amorphous phase. A possible future process for converting the thermal energy of the CO/CO2 off-gases from the EAF into chemical energy was introduced.

  16. The potential of magneto-electric nanocarriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development and design of personalized nanomedicine for better health quality is receiving great attention. In order to deliver and release a therapeutic concentration at the target site, novel nanocarriers (NCs) were designed, for example, magneto-electric (ME) which possess ideal properties of high drug loading, site-specificity and precise on-demand controlled drug delivery. Areas covered This review explores the potential of ME-NCs for on-demand and site-specific drug delivery and release for personalized therapeutics. The main features including effect of magnetism, improvement in drug loading, drug transport across blood-brain barriers and on-demand controlled release are also discussed. The future directions and possible impacts on upcoming nanomedicine are highlighted. Expert opinion Numerous reports suggest that there is an urgent need to explore novel NC formulations for safe and targeted drug delivery and release at specific disease sites. The challenges of formulation lie in the development of NCs that improve biocompatibility and surface modifications for optimum drug loading/preservation/transmigration and tailoring of electrical–magnetic properties for on-demand drug release. Thus, the development of novel NCs is anticipated to overcome the problems of targeted delivery of therapeutic agents with desired precision that may lead to better patient compliance. PMID:24986772

  17. Electrical properties of sheep Purkinje strands. Electrical and chemical potentials in the clefts.

    PubMed Central

    Levis, R A; Mathias, R T; Eisenberg, R S

    1983-01-01

    The impedence of sheep Purkinje strands, measured to 3-5 kHz, is interpreted with circuit models based on morphology. The strand is described as a one-dimensional electrical cable. Clefts between myocytes of the strand allow radial current to flow in parallel with current across the outer membrane. A lumped model of the clefts, in which all the cleft membrane is in series with 100 omega-cm2, fits only below 20 Hz. Two distributed models, pie and disk, fit at all frequencies with somewhat different (31%) luminal resistivities, but with similar membrane parameters. Series resistance representing the endothelial sheath is small. Simulations of voltage clamp experiments include measured linear parameters and nonlinear membrane channels, as well as radial variation of cleft concentration, membrane flux, voltage, and current. Cleft potential is drastically nonuniform when sodium current flows. Cleft potential is reasonably uniform when calcium and potassium currents flow, but the calcium and potassium concentrations change markedly, enough to turn off the calcium current, even if the calcium channel did not inactivate. We conclude that physiological current flows produce significant nonuniformities in electrochemical potentials in the clefts of this cardiac preparation. PMID:6360228

  18. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy giants', a phenomenon that is expected to continue, accelerate and spread to other countries. This paper explores the potential for slowing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector in developing countries and evaluates the potential of energy savings and emissions mitigation through market transformation programs such as, but not limited to Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L). The bottom-up methodology used allows one to identify which end uses and regions have the greatest potential for savings.

  19. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  20. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0.93/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.55/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.46/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, $0.30/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.16/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3. At the high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are even higher with a NPV $1.37/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.86/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.84/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.82/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, and $0.65/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 6. DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 28 cfm per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 14 and 16. Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case.

  1. Effect of low electrical potentials on the microhardness of metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, D. V.; Danilov, V. I.; Zuev, L. B.; Staskevich, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low (<5 V) electrical potentials on the microhardness of metallic materials has been studied experimentally. It has been revealed that this effect does depend on the sign of the electric field potential. It has been found that the microhardness of aluminum, cobalt, and zinc decreases and the microhardness of zirconium and iron increases when an electrical potential is applied. It has been argued that the degree of microhardness change under an electric field depends on the magnitude of applied potential, the magnitude of the Hall coefficient of a metal, and its physicochemical properties.

  2. Role of the clean energy potential for energy savings and air pollution control in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kaygusuz, K.; Kargi, H.; Kaygusuz, A.

    1996-12-01

    This article begins with a brief review of the technical potential, the regional distribution, and the air pollution effects of all fossil energy sources as well as of all clean and renewable energy sources that could be used in Turkey. Air pollution levels due to fossil fuel consumption are examined. In this context, the role of clean energy sources is indicated.

  3. Potential advantages of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G.; Atkins, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Past studies of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters have generally emphasized the advantages of flight time reduction and payload increases. However, several subtle advantages exist, which may become important in an environment of increasingly difficult requirements as ways to extend current technology are sought. These advantages accrue primarily because of the inherent capability, unique to electric propulsion, to efficiently shape a trajectory while enroute. Stressed in this paper are: the ability to meet orbital constraints due to assumed radiation belts, science flexibility in a dual launch program, increased numbers of observational passes, and the lengthening of launch periods. These are examined for years representative of relatively easy and difficult ballistic missions. The results indicate that an early investment in solar electric technology will provide a strong performance foundation for a long range outer planet exploration program which evolves from current spacecraft technology.

  4. What's in a bin: A case study of dental clinical waste composition and potential greenhouse gas emission savings.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Grose, J; Manzi, S; Mills, I; Moles, D R; Mukonoweshuro, R; Nasser, M; Nichols, A

    2016-01-22

    Background Dental practices have a unique position as dental staff use a high number of dental materials and instruments on a daily basis. It is unclear how dentists' and dental care professionals' choices and behaviours around selecting and using materials impact on the amount of unnecessary waste production. Although there are a number of articles exploring the quality and quantity of waste in dental practices, there are no studies on organisational strategies to decrease unnecessary waste. There is no clear economic analysis of the impact on associated cost to dental practices which consequently can affect the access of dental care for disadvantaged groups.Methods This study used an audit approach to explore the potential for sustainability in dental practice by measuring the nature and quantity of dental clinical waste, and assessing the feasibility of measuring the financial costs and potential carbon savings in the management of dental clinical waste.Conclusions The data from our study would appear to support the view that it is possible to reduce carbon emissions and increase profitability. Successful implementation of an environmentally sustainable approach to waste management will be dependent on the practicalities involved and the financial incentives for adopting such practices. PMID:26794110

  5. Functions and potential applications of glycolipid biosurfactants--from energy-saving materials to gene delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    2002-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) produced by various microorganisms show unique properties (e.g., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared to their chemical counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in environmental protection and energy-saving technology as well. Glycolipid BS are the most promising, due to high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid BS produced by a yeast Candida antarctrica, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells. MEL also show a potential anti-agglomeration effect on ice particles in ice slurry used for cold thermal storage. Recently, the cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BS should broaden its applications in new advanced technologies. The current status of research and development on glycolipid BS, especially their function and potential applications, is discussed. PMID:16233292

  6. Expert system to determine energy-saving retrofit potential of public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gatton, T.M.; Lee, Y.; Beaudry, M.A.; Jaeger, S.

    1995-12-31

    Due to economic and environmental constraints, it is important to maintain good and efficient working standards for building energy systems. A building`s potential for decreased energy consumption can be assessed by a building energy systems audit or by hiring an experienced energy engineer. These methods are costly to appraise the possibility of energy use reduction and the results are often inconsistent. This paper summarizes the research effort in the development of an expert system for energy use evaluation of buildings. It examines the particular characteristics of the predetermination of energy inefficient buildings and cost-effective energy retrofit alternatives, and how they may be solved by the use of an expert system. The system interacts with the user and aids in the determination of suitability for a full energy audit by simulating energy experts` decisions making processes. The project illustrates that expert systems are capable of performing preliminary energy audit tasks with greater consistency, lower costs, and higher accuracy.

  7. Membrane potential perturbations induced in tissue cells by pulsed electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Pulsed electric fields directly influence the electrophysiology of tissue cells by transiently perturbing their transmembrane potential. To determine the magnitude and time course of this interaction, electronic cable theory was used to calculate the membrane potential perturbations induced in tissue cells by a spatially uniform, pulsed electric field. Analytic solutions were obtained that predict shifts in membrane potential along the length of cells as a function of time in response to an electrical pulse. For elongated tissue cells, or groups of tissue cells that are couple electronically by gap junctions, significant hyperpolarizations and depolarizations can result form millisecond applications of electric fields with strengths on the order of 10--100 mV/cm. The results illustrate the importance of considering cellular cable parameters in assessing the effects of transient electric fields on biological systems, as well as in predicting the efficacy of pulsed electric fields in medical treatments.

  8. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  9. Cost and Energy Savings Opportunities with Heating, Air Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Great potential exists for saving energy and operating costs with a wide variety of heat conservation systems. Two major electric services--space conditioning and lighting--afford cost and energy savings opportunities. These services are detailed in checklist fashion in this brochure, with the suggestions included under space conditioning…

  10. Anomalous electrostatic potential properties in carbon nanotube thin films under a weak external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, U.; Thanh Cuong, Nguyen; Okada, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    Using density functional theory, we studied the electronic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin films under an electric field. The carrier accumulation due to the electric field depends strongly on the CNT species forming the thin films. Under a low electron concentration, the injected electrons are distributed throughout the CNTs, leading to an unusual electric field between CNTs, the direction of which is opposite to that of the applied field. This unusual field response of CNT thin films to an external electric field is ascribed to the internal electric field arising from the electrostatic potential difference between the constituent CNTs.

  11. Potential of an electric prosthesis for dynamic facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2011-09-01

    Chronic facial paralysis is a devastating condition with severe functional and emotional consequences. The current surgical armamentarium permits the predictable reestablishment of a protective blink as well as good resting symmetry. Yet the ultimate goal of symmetric, spontaneous emotional expression remains elusive despite significant progress in the areas of peripheral nerve grafting and free tissue transfer. This commentary explores the possibility of an implantable electrical prosthesis for facial reanimation. It reviews animal studies supporting this concept as well as recent human data suggesting that such an implant could rescue denervated facial musculature, thus overcoming a major hurdle for existing reanimation techniques. PMID:21636836

  12. Biosensor regeneration via substrate electric potential: A physical mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rui-Bin; Lei, U.

    2010-06-01

    Literatures showed that the immune type biosensors can be regenerated by applying a voltage (??) across the combined macromolecules but the underlying physics was not clarified. By incorporating an electric double layer force and a van der Waals force into a weight-ensemble Brownian dynamics simulation, we found that the dissociation rate constant for biotin-streptavidin increases exponentially with ??, and reaches 418-fold when ?? equals 1 V. Macroscopic diffusion simulations using such enhanced dissociation rate constants agree with the previous experiments, and explain quantitatively the finding that the regeneration using square-wave voltage is superior to that using saw-tooth voltage.

  13. Mapping of electrical potential distributions with charged particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for measuring electrostatic potentials on and near dielectric surfaces charged to several kilovolts are studied. Secondary emission from those charged dielectrics is measured. Candidates for potential measurement include the induced charge, from which potential is calculated; the trajectory endpoints of either high or low energy particles traversing the region near the surface; trajectory impact on the surface; and creating ions at points of interest near the surface. Some of the methods require computer simulations and iterative calculation if potential maps are to be generated. Several approaches are described and compared. A method using a half-cylinder as a test chamber and low-energy probing beams is adapted for the measurement of seconary emission.

  14. Burden of unintended pregnancy in the United States: Potential savings with increased use of long-acting reversible contraception

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, James; Henry, Nathaniel; Hassan, Fareen; Prezioso, Alexander; Law, Amy; Filonenko, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the total costs of unintended pregnancy (UP) in the United States from a third -party health care payer perspective and explored the potential role for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in reducing UP and resulting health care expenditure. Study Design An economic model was constructed to estimate direct costs of UP as well as the proportion of UP costs that could be attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. The model considered all US women requiring reversible contraception: the pattern of contraceptive use and rates of UP were derived from published sources. The costs of UP in the United States and the proportion of total cost that might be avoided by improved adherence through increased use of LARC were estimated. Results Annual medical costs of UP in the United States were estimated to be $4.5 billion, and 53% of these were attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. If 10% of women aged 2029 years switched from oral contraception to LARC, total costs would be reduced by $288 million per year. Conclusions Imperfect contraceptive adherence leads to substantial unintended pregnancy and high, avoidable costs. Improved uptake of LARC may generate health care cost savings by reducing contraceptive non-adherence. PMID:22959904

  15. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  16. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  17. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

    1997-08-26

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

  18. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  19. Remote energetic neutral atom imaging of electric potential over a lunar magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Lue, C.; Wurz, P.; Vorburger, A.; Bhardwaj, A.; Asamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The formation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> over lunar magnetized regions is essential for understanding fundamental lunar science, for understanding the lunar environment, and for planning human exploration on the Moon. A large positive <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> was predicted and detected from single point measurements. Here, we demonstrate a remote imaging technique of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> mapping at the lunar surface, making use of a new concept involving hydrogen neutral atoms derived from solar wind. We apply the technique to a lunar magnetized region using an existing dataset of the neutral atom energy spectrometer SARA/CENA on Chandrayaan-1. Electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> larger than +135 V inside the Gerasimovic anomaly is confirmed. This structure is found spreading all over the magnetized region. The widely spread <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> can influence the local plasma and dust environment near the magnetic anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830033157&hterms=geo+transfer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgeo%2Btransfer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830033157&hterms=geo+transfer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgeo%2Btransfer"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion systems for orbit transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, R. M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> propulsion concepts are compared on the basis of trip time for the low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) mission. Resistojet, arcjet, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), pulsed inductive, and ion engine thruster concepts are included. The optimum (minimum trip time) value of specific impulse is found to be dependent upon the specific mission and system being considered. As expected, the devices which can deliver good efficiency at low specific impulses promise the fastest trip times. The solution for trip time and propellant mass for the constant power, continuous low acceleration orbit transfer problem (one way and round trip) is presented in nomograph form. The influences of mission Delta V, thruster efficiency, specific impulse, power, power and propulsion system mass, and payload mass are clearly illustrated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..0CM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..0CM"><span id="translatedtitle">The photon: EM fields, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, and AC charge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and <span class="hlt">potentials</span> lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862333','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862333"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of Key<span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Products: The Case of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.</p> <p>2005-12-20</p> <p>The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major <span class="hlt">electrical</span> products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, <span class="hlt">electric</span> motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would <span class="hlt">save</span> billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/941496','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/941496"><span id="translatedtitle">Plug-in hybrid <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles : How does one determine their <span class="hlt">potential</span> for reducing U.S. oil dependence?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Estimation of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of plug-in hybrid <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day <span class="hlt">electric</span> rates (d) seasonal <span class="hlt">electric</span> rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-<span class="hlt">electric</span> range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel <span class="hlt">savings</span> of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9128C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9128C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> Mars: The first direct measurement of an upper limit for the Martian "polar wind" <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collinson, Glyn; Mitchell, David; Glocer, Alex; Grebowsky, Joseph; Peterson, W. K.; Connerney, Jack; Andersson, Laila; Espley, Jared; Mazelle, Christian; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Fedorov, Andrei; Ma, Yingjuan; Bougher, Steven; Lillis, Robert; Ergun, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>An important mechanism in the generation of polar wind outflow is the ambipolar <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> which assists ions in overcoming gravity and is a key mechanism for Terrestrial ionospheric escape. At Mars, open field lines are not confined to the poles, and outflow of ionospheric electrons is observed far into the tail. It has thus been hypothesized that a similar <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> may be present at Mars, contributing to global ionospheric loss. However, no direct measurements of this <span class="hlt">potential</span> have been made. In this pilot study, we examine photoelectron spectra measured by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer instrument on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars Scout to put an initial upper bound on the total <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop in the ionosphere of Mars of Φ♂ ≾⊥ 2V , with the possibility of a further ≾4.5 V <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop above this in the magnetotail. If the total <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop was close to the upper limit, then strong outflows of major ionospheric species (H+, O+, and O2+) would be expected. However, if most of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop is confined below the spacecraft, as expected by current theory, then such a <span class="hlt">potential</span> would not be sufficient on its own to accelerate O2+ to escape velocities, but would be sufficient for lighter ions. However, any <span class="hlt">potential</span> would contribute to atmospheric loss through the enhancement of Jeans escape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011805','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011805"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of ISS <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Variations with Mission Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Orbiting approximately 400 km above the Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) is a unique research laboratory used to conduct ground-breaking science experiments in space. The ISS has eight Solar Array Wings (SAW), and each wing is 11.7 meters wide and 35.1 meters long. The SAWs are controlled individually to maximize power output, minimize stress to the ISS structure, and minimize interference with other ISS operations such as vehicle dockings and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). The Solar Arrays are designed to operate at 160 Volts. These large, high power solar arrays are negatively grounded to the ISS and collect charged particles (predominately electrons) as they travel through the space plasma in the Earth's ionosphere. If not controlled, this collected charge causes floating <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations which can result in arcing, causing injury to the crew during an EVA or damage to hardware [1]. The environmental catalysts for ISS floating <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations include plasma density and temperature fluctuations and magnetic induction from the Earth's magnetic field. These alone are not enough to cause concern for ISS, but when they are coupled with the large positive <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the solar arrays, floating <span class="hlt">potentials</span> up to negative 95 Volts have been observed. Our goal is to differentiate the operationally induced fluctuations in floating <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the environmental causes. Differentiating will help to determine what charging can be controlled, and we can then design the proper operations controls for charge collection mitigation. Additionally, the knowledge of how high power solar arrays interact with the environment and what regulations or design techniques can be employed to minimize charging impacts can be applied to future programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8865428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8865428"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> measured, concentration reported: how to get mmols from mV.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lewenstam, A</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The interdependence between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of a galvanic cell and concentration of electrolytes will be analyzed in order to show how a clinically relevant report can be obtained. The use of SI units is emphasized. PMID:8865428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22049677','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22049677"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Savings</span> in its sights for Somerset Trust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russell, Colin</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider <span class="hlt">Electric</span> (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can <span class="hlt">potentially</span> <span class="hlt">save</span> the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers. PMID:22049677</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505080"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrokinetic characterization of porous plugs from streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> coupled with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymczyk, A; Fievet, P; Foissy, A</p> <p>2002-11-15</p> <p>The zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of mixed nickel-iron oxide particles is evaluated by a new laboratory instrument. This latter allows the measurement of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> together with the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance of porous plugs. The conductivity of electrolyte inside plug (pore conductivity) is deduced from <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance measurements and is used together with streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> to evaluate the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> by accounting for the surface conduction phenomenon. It is shown that neglecting the surface conduction phenomenon leads to a substantial underestimation of the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The coupled measurements of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plug <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance yield zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> values that are in very good agreement with those obtained by electrophoresis. The densification of the porous plug with increasing pressure increments is put in evidence by the decrease in measured streaming <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistance measurements make it possible to account for the increase in surface conductivity resulting from the more compacted structure of the plug. By doing so, the calculated zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> is found to be virtually independent of the pressure difference involved in streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> experiments, whereas the negligence of surface conduction phenomenon leads to a decrease in the apparent zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> with increasing pressure level. PMID:12505080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1702s0025A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1702s0025A"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel numerical meshless approach for <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> estimation in transcranial stimulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ala, Guido; Fasshauer, Gregory E.; Francomano, Elisa; Ganci, Salvatore; McCourt, Michael J.; Vitabile, Salvatore</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, a first application of the method of fundamental solutions in estimating the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the spatial current density distribution in the brain due to transcranial stimulation, is presented. The coupled boundary value p roblems for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> are solved in a meshless way, so avoiding the use of grid based numerical methods. A multi-spherical geometry is considered and numerical results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130634"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Existing All <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gordon, A.; Lubliner, M.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Salzberg, E.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128612"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in All-<span class="hlt">Electric</span> Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest, Tacoma, Washington (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..883..177M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..883..177M"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis Of Shifts In Students' Reasoning Regarding <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Field And <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meltzer, David E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Students' reasoning regarding the relationships among <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields, forces, and equipotential line patterns was explored using pre- and post-test responses to selected multiple-choice questions on the Conceptual Survey of <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> and Magnetism. Students' written explanations of their reasoning, provided both pre- and post-instruction, allowed additional assessment of the changes in their thinking. In particular, the data indicate that although students largely abandon an initial tendency to associate stronger fields with wider equipotential line spacing, many of them persist in incorrectly associating <span class="hlt">electric</span> field magnitude at a point with the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> at that point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983506','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983506"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED162888.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED162888.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy: <span class="hlt">Save</span> Money!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eccli, Eugene; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790047968&hterms=sites+transports&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsites%2Btransports','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790047968&hterms=sites+transports&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsites%2Btransports"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparent cooperativity of amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium - Effect of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lanyi, J. K.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Active serine accumulation in cell envelope vesicles from Halobacterium halobium proceeds by co-transport with Na(+) and can be induced by either transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> or transmembrane Na(+) concentration difference. It was shown earlier that in the former case the initial transport rate is a fourth-power function of the magnitude of the electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference of sodium ions, and in the latter, a second-power function. A possible interpretation of this finding is cooperativity of sodium-transporting sites in the transport carrier. When both kinds of driving force are imposed simultaneously on the vesicles, fourth-power dependence on the total <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference of sodium ions is obtained, suggesting that the transport carrier is regulated by the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Heat treatment of the vesicles at 48 C partially inactivates transport and abolishes this effect of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19354262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19354262"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractal growth kinetics and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations during electropolymerization of pyrrole.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Ishwar; Agrawal, Namita R; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Gupta, Sujeet Kumar; Rastogi, R P</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Fractal growth, growth kinetics, and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity of aggregates obtained during electropolymerization in the systems (A) pyrrole-4-toluene sulfonic acid silver salt (4-TSS)-acetonitrile, (B) pyrrole-4-TSS-ZnSO(4)-acetonitrile, and (C) pyrrole-4-TSS-aniline-acetonitrile were investigated. In the case of system (A), effect of [4-TSS], [pyrrole], field intensity, and solvents H(2)O and CH(3)OH on morphology, fractal character, and growth kinetics was also studied. Fractal growth data were examined in detail. During studies on system (A), <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations were observed and subjected to detailed study. The results indicate that fractal growth pattern and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations are inter-related. The mechanism of development of fractal growth, dendritic structure, and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations is discussed in terms of diffusion-limited aggregation and modified Diaz's mechanism, which explains the random movement of radical cations. PMID:19354262</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24659927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24659927"><span id="translatedtitle">An Anisotropic Coarse-Grained Model for Proteins Based On Gay-Berne and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Multipole <span class="hlt">Potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Hujun; Li, Yan; Ren, Pengyu; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Guohui</p> <p>2014-02-10</p> <p>Gay-Berne anisotropic <span class="hlt">potential</span> has been widely used to evaluate the non-bonded interactions between coarse-grained particles being described as elliptical rigid bodies. In this paper, we are presenting a coarse-grained model for twenty kinds of amino acids and proteins, based on the anisotropic Gay-Berne and point <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole (EMP) <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. We demonstrate that the anisotropic coarse-grained model, namely GBEMP model, is able to reproduce many key features observed from experimental protein structures (Dunbrack Library) as well as from atomistic force field simulations (using AMOEBA, AMBER and CHARMM force fields) while <span class="hlt">saving</span> the computational cost by a factor of about 10~200 depending on specific cases and atomistic models. More importantly, unlike other coarse-grained approaches, our framework is based on the fundamental intermolecular forces with explicit treatment of electrostatic and repulsion-dispersion forces. As a result, the coarse-grained protein model presented an accurate description of non-bonded interactions (particularly electrostatic component) between hetero-/homo-dimers (such as peptide-peptide, peptide-water). In addition, the encouraging performance of the model was reflected by the excellent correlation between GBEMP and AMOEBA models in the calculations of the dipole moment of peptides. In brief, the GBEMP model given here is general and transferable, suitable for simulating complex biomolecular systems. PMID:24659927</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192456"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems and the <span class="hlt">potential</span> direction of reforms for the current individual medical <span class="hlt">savings</span> accounts in the Chinese health care system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Xiangjin; Yang, Yang; Gong, Fuqing; Zhao, Mingjie</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Individual health <span class="hlt">savings</span> accounts are an important part of the current basic medical insurance system for urban workers in China. Since 1998 when the system of personal medical insurance accounts was first implemented, there has been considerable controversy over its function and significance within different social communities. This paper analyzes the main problems in the practical implementation of individual medical insurance accounts and discusses the social and cultural foundations for the establishment of family health <span class="hlt">savings</span> accounts from the perspective of Chinese Confucian familism. Accordingly, it addresses the direction of the reform and the development of the current system of individual health insurance accounts in China. PMID:23192456</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215982"><span id="translatedtitle">Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Annual <span class="hlt">Savings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> of $930,000 and annual energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B53A0980G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B53A0980G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Variations on a Poplar: Beyond Electrokinetic Effects Associated With Sap Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibert, D.; Le Mouël, J.; Lambs, L.; Nicollin, F.; Conil, F.; Perrier, F.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> has been monitored since December 2003 in the roots and at two circumferences and one vertical profile in a standing poplar (Populus incognitus). <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is sampled using 5 mm diameter stainless steel rods, inserted 5 mm deep in the cambium, and is referenced to an unpolarizable Petiau electrode installed 80 cm deep in the soil. Various types of signals are observed. Transient signals with long relaxation times affecting some electrodes simultaneously, may be contact <span class="hlt">potentials</span> triggered by condensation and evaporation. Diurnal variations are observed which present a seasonal variation. During winter, diurnal variations depend on the measurement point, with variable amplitudes and sometimes anticorrelations between electrodes. By contrast, a stable and coherent organization is established in the spring, with larger amplitudes, and lasts during summer. Such signals have been reported previously (Koppan et al., 2000; Morat et al., 1994; Fensom, 1963), have been interpreted as electrokinetic effects associated with sap flow. However, a comparison of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals with a measurement of the sap flow by a heat flow method, shows that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> variation, although clearly correlated to sap flow, is not simply proportional to it. In a living system, electrokinetic effects, in addition to thermoelectrical effects, are probably modified significantly by additional electrochemical effects, such as membrane diffusion <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, ion active transport by proteins, and action <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. Such effects have been evidenced in laboratory experiments with plants (e.g., Fromm and Hei, 1998). <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations in trees may thus reveal mechanisms not accessible by other methods, and maybe reveal new aspects of the physics of living systems. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> response of trees to meteorological, chemical or biological forcing may improve the knowledge of transfer processes between the soil and the atmosphere. This is important for the modeling of water and carbon balance in relation to climate change, as well as of the contribution of trees to the migration, retention and dispersion of contaminants. Fensom, D. S., The bioelectric <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of plants and their functional significance : V. Some daily and seasonal changes in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and resistance of living trees, Canadian J. Botany, 41, 831-851, 1963. Fromm, J., and H. Fei, <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> signaling and gas exchange in maize plants of drying soil, Plant Science, 132, 203-213, 1998. Koppan, A., L. Szarka, and V. Wesztergom, Annual fluctuation in amplitudes of daily variations of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals measured in the trunk of a standing tree, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 323, 559-563, 2000. Morat, P., J.-L. Le Mouël, and A. Granier, <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on a tree. A measurement of the sap flow ?, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 317, 98-101, 1994.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+liquids&id=EJ1016959','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+liquids&id=EJ1016959"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Resistance Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shlyonsky, Vadim</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion <span class="hlt">potentials</span> is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance and <span class="hlt">potential</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.359..316Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.359..316Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical and symmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells with applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Zou, LiLi; Guo, Kang-Xian; Yuan, Jian-Hui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A detailed investigation of nonlinear optical rectification (OR) of asymmetrical and symmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells (QWs) under the influence of applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field by using the compact-density-matrix approach is presented. We find that the approximation of the asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> QWs is extremely unreasonable in the previous works, some new and reliable results are obtained by us. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions of the asymmetrical and symmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> QWs are calculated with the differential method. According to the results obtained from the present work, we find that the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and the geometry factors have great influence on the nonlinear OR in these system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412670','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412670"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of microstructure and water on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.</p> <p>2015-02-16</p> <p>The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3704T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3704T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of microstructure and water on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.; Matsukawa, M.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED426822.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED426822.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Rural Public School Non-Instructional Costs through Shared Services Arrangements: A Regional Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>ECM, Inc., Williamsville, NY.</p> <p></p> <p>A study was undertaken in 16 rural New York school districts to determine the feasibility of sharing noninstructional services as an avenue to achieving cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> and enhanced services. The districts involved were within the Delaware/Chenango/Madison/Otsego BOCES (Board of Cooperative Educational Services) in a rural mountainous region of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2017C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2017C"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the Global <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Circuit coupled to local <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conceição, R.; Silva, H. G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>There are several models describing the Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit of the Earth's atmosphere. Here it is used the common model and parameters of Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit to couple it with a local circuit less studied in literature. The first objective is to test different voltage sources describing thunderstorm activity and compare the output, <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient, with the known Carnegie Curve. Two sets of parameters are used, the first one from values found in literature and the second one from values tweaked to get the best agreement between the simulated <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient and the Carnegie Curve. This study is a first step in simulations regarding the coupling of the Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit (primary) to local <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit (secondary). One of the main objectives is to estimate the aerosol load on the local resistor in case of aerosol events, e.g. fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107s3701R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107s3701R"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using <span class="hlt">electric</span> field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000894"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Model of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> in Localized Collisionless Plasma Structures under Steady Quasi-gyrotropic Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schindler, K.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Localized plasma structures, such as thin current sheets, generally are associated with localized magnetic and <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields. In space plasmas localized <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields not only play an important role for particle dynamics and acceleration but may also have significant consequences on larger scales, e.g., through magnetic reconnection. Also, it has been suggested that localized <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields generated in the magnetosphere are directly connected with quasi-steady auroral arcs. In this context, we present a two-dimensional model based on Vlasov theory that provides the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for a large class of given magnetic field profiles. The model uses an expansion for small deviation from gyrotropy and besides quasineutrality it assumes that electrons and ions have the same number of particles with their generalized gyrocenter on any given magnetic field line. Specializing to one dimension, a detailed discussion concentrates on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> shapes (such as "U" or "S" shapes) associated with magnetic dips, bumps, and steps. Then, it is investigated how the model responds to quasi-steady evolution of the plasma. Finally, the model proves useful in the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> taken from two existing particle simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823141','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823141"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">potential</span> and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in the cochlear outer hair cell membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harland, Ben; Lee, Wen-han; Brownell, William E.; Sun, Sean X.; Spector, Alexander A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Outer hair cell electromechanics, critically important to mammalian active hearing, is driven by the cell membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The membrane protein prestin is a crucial component of the active outer hair cell’s motor. The focus of the paper is the analysis of the local membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field resulting from the interaction of <span class="hlt">electric</span> charges involved. Here the relevant charges are the ions inside and outside the cell, lipid bilayer charges, and prestin-associated charges (mobile-transferred by the protein under the action of the applied field and stationary-relatively unmoved by the field). The <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> across and along the membrane are computed for the case of an applied DC-field. The local amplitudes and phases of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> under different frequencies are analyzed for the case of a DC+AC-field. We found that the effect of the system of charges alters the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and internal field, which deviate significantly from their traditional linear and constant distributions. Under DC+AC conditions, the strong frequency dependence of the prestin mobile charge has a relatively small effect on the amplitude and phase of the resulting <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The obtained results can help in a better understanding and experimental verification of the mechanism of prestin performance. PMID:25687712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088080','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088080"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue for grid connected <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage : arbitrage and regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The valuation of an <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two <span class="hlt">potential</span> sources of income for an <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when <span class="hlt">electricity</span> prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when <span class="hlt">electricity</span> prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating <span class="hlt">potential</span> trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3701G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3701G"><span id="translatedtitle">Converting external <span class="hlt">potential</span> fluctuations into nonzero time-average <span class="hlt">electric</span> currents using a single nanopore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomez, Vicente; Ramirez, Patricio; Cervera, Javier; Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Mafe, Salvador</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The possibility of taking advantage of a fluctuating environment for energy and information transduction is a significant challenge in biological and artificial nanostructures. We demonstrate here directional <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transduction from fluctuating external signals using a single nanopore of conical shape immersed in an ionic aqueous solution. To this end, we characterize experimentally the average output currents obtained by the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> rectification of zero time-average input <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The transformation of external <span class="hlt">potential</span> fluctuations into nonzero time-average responses using a single nanopore in liquid state is of fundamental significance for biology and nanophysics. This energy and information conversion constitutes also a significant step towards macroscopic scaling using multipore membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10143731','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10143731"><span id="translatedtitle">A critical review of the genotoxic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCann, J.; Dietrich, F.M.; Martin, A.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Fifty five published articles were identified which reported results of tests of ELF (extremely low frequency) or static <span class="hlt">electric</span> or magnetic fields for genotoxic effects. An additional 35 articles involving microwave or radiofrequency exposures were also identified. Primary emphasis was given to the <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic field studies. The analysis of microwave and radio frequency studies is presented in Appendix A. The biological assays used spanned a wide range, including microbial systems, plants, Drosophila, mammalian and human cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental results were grouped into four exposure categories: ELF <span class="hlt">Electric</span>; ELF Magnetic; Static <span class="hlt">Electric</span>; and Static Magnetic. The internal <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields present in media (for in vitro experiments) and in the torso and extremities (for in vivo experiments) were estimated, providing an index of comparison. All experiments were critically analyzed with respect to basic data quality criteria. Experiments within each exposure category were then compared to determine if results reinforced or contradicted one another. The preponderance of evidence suggests that neither ELF or static <span class="hlt">electric</span> or magnetic fields have a clearly demonstrated <span class="hlt">potential</span> to cause genotoxic effects. However, there may be weak genotoxic activity from exposure under conditions where phenomena auxiliary to an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, such as spark discharges, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> shocks, or corona can occur. In addition, two unconfirmed reports suggest the genotoxic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of certain chemical mutagens or ionizing radiation may be weakly affected by co-exposure to <span class="hlt">electric</span> or magnetic fields. Certain exposure categories are not represented or are under-represented by tests in some genotoxicity test systems that are usually included in minimal test batteries as specified by EPA for chemicals. It is suggested that consideration be given to whether additional genotoxicity testing is warranted to fill these gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ889225.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ889225.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Encouraging <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in a University Residential Hall through a Combination of Feedback, Visual Prompts, and Incentives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bekker, Marthinus J.; Cumming, Tania D.; Osborne, Nikola K. P.; Bruining, Angela M.; McClean, Julia I.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This experiment investigated the combined use of visual prompts, daily feedback, and rewards to reduce <span class="hlt">electricity</span> consumption in a university residential hall. After a 17-day baseline period, the experimental intervention was introduced in the intervention hall, and no change was made in the control hall. Energy usage decreased in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22182789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22182789"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method for in vitro stent fracture monitoring and detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Yun, Yeoheung; Kim, Cheol Sang</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a preliminary investigation and prototype fabrication of a novel <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method to continuously monitor vascular stent fractures. A <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement system consisting of Wheatstone bridge circuit and signal conditioning circuit was designed for the cardiovascular stent durability and fatigue test. Each end of a bare and polyurethane-covered Nitinol vascular stent was <span class="hlt">electrically</span> connected to the <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement system and then immersed either in simulated body fluid (SBF) media or distilled water at 36.4 ± 1 °C. When the stent experienced fracture (i.e., a cut), its <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> decreased with an increase in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance. This method successfully measured fractures in the stent regardless of location. Furthermore, the number of cycles at the onset of stent fracture was accurately detected and continuously monitored using this technique. Thus, the present fracture detection method, which to our knowledge is the first ever report to use <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement for stent durability test, gives a fast, real-time, accurate and efficient detection of fractures in stent during in vitro fatigue and durability test. PMID:22182789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......110G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......110G"><span id="translatedtitle">An economic analysis of the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation <span class="hlt">potential</span> from biogas resources in the state of Indiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giraldo, Juan S.</p> <p></p> <p>Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate <span class="hlt">electricity</span>. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large <span class="hlt">potential</span> for biogas production and use for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation <span class="hlt">potential</span> from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas <span class="hlt">electricity</span> projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas <span class="hlt">electricity</span> project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation <span class="hlt">potential</span> is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of <span class="hlt">potential</span> generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions and incentives are likely needed to encourage investment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMNS34A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMNS34A..04K"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-<span class="hlt">Potential</span> (SP) and Active <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Geophysical Assessment of Bioremediation at a Contaminated Gasworks Plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulessa, B.; Kalin, R.; Doherty, R.; Phillips, D.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We have surveyed a former gasworks site in Portadown, Northern Ireland, using self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP), <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity, induced polarisation (IP), and ground conductivity (EM-31, EM-34, EM-61). Site lithology and hydrogeology were mapped in numerous trial pits, and groundwater redox conditions together with a host of associated biogeochemical and microbiological parameters have been monitored in several boreholes. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) together with groundwater flow control (slurry wall) and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) are used for remediation of the complex site contamination, including hydrocarbon and heavy metals. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> geophysical surveys mapped the foundations of former infrastructure at the site and detected a formerly unknown tar well and a pit filled with mixed waste. In the contaminated regions of the site the total, measured SP signal is comprised of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and electrochemical components; in the uncontaminated regions the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> is dominant and electrochemical <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are negligible. The streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> coupling coefficient is estimated by relating the hydraulic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from borehole monitoring and groundwater flow modelling to the total SP signal measured in the uncontaminated regions. Residual SP is determined by subtracting the calculated streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> component from the total SP data, and the impact of spatially variable, bulk ground conductivity on streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> is elucidated. We investigate the relationship between residual SP and redox <span class="hlt">potential</span> measured in several successive, contaminated aquifer layers separated by aquitards. The SP and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> geophysical signatures of microbial processes naturally degrading the subsurface contaminants are examined. Preliminary findings from SP and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> geophysical monitoring of artificially disturbed microbial processes and subsurface redox conditions are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043761','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043761"><span id="translatedtitle">Microscopic Measurements of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Yan, B.; Yue, G.; Sivec, L.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.; Tong, X.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We report on a direct measurement of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and field profiles across the n-i-p junction of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells, using the nanometer-resolution <span class="hlt">potential</span> imaging technique of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). It was observed that the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is nonuniform across the i layer. It is much higher in the p/i region than in the middle and the n/i region, illustrating that the i layer is actually slightly n-type. A measurement on a nc-Si:H cell with a higher oxygen impurity concentration shows that the nonuniformity of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is much more pronounced than in samples having a lower O impurity, indicating that O is an electron donor in nc-Si:H materials. This nonuniform distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field implies a mixture of diffusion and drift of carrier transport in the nc-Si:H solar cells. The composition and structure of these nc-Si:H cells were further investigated by using secondary-ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of impurity and structural properties on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution and solar cell performance are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5137708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5137708"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> load monitoring to support a shared energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159437"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> load monitoring to support a shared energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number_sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..6P10M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..6P10M"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) Measurements of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Field and Plasma <span class="hlt">Potential</span> on TEXT-Upgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McLaren, P. E.; Demers, D. R.; Schoch, P. M.; Ouroua, A.; Connor, K. A.; Crowley, T. P.; Hickok, R. L.; Yang, X. Z.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes have been made with the 2 MeV HIBP on TEXT-Upgrade for a variety of plasma conditions. Scan lines from plasma center to edge give radial profiles of these characteristics and their temporal evolution. Changes with the addition of 500 kW of ECH power are noted, with an increase in the central <span class="hlt">potential</span> of 600 Volts. <span class="hlt">Potential</span> changes with sawtooth cycles are examined showing a variation of up to 100 Volts in the core. Associated with the sawtooth crash are large, rapidly decaying <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations at approximately 100 kHz. Variations in <span class="hlt">electric</span> field are examined with particular emphasis on the region around the q=1 rational surface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21501302','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21501302"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact solution for a noncentral <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole ring-shaped <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the tridiagonal representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huangfu Guoqing; Zhang Mincang</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>The Schroedinger equation with noncentral <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole ring-shaped <span class="hlt">potential</span> is investigated by working in a complete square integrable basis that supports an infinite tridiagonal matrix representation of the wave operator. The three-term recursion relations for the expansion coefficients of both the angular and radial wavefunctions are presented. The discrete spectrum for the bound states is obtained by the diagonalization of the radial recursion relation. Some <span class="hlt">potential</span> applications of this system in different fields are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5282779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5282779"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">potential</span> and existing problems concerning interface between <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities and cogenerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> and existing problems concerning the interface between US <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities and cogenerators are considered by region. Also considered are regulatory barriers, rates and contracts, economic feasibility, and impact on system planning. Finally, the impact of the National Energy Act on the marketability <span class="hlt">potential</span> of cogeneration is reviewed. The three appendixes summarize the utility meetings on cogeneration held in Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+liquid&id=EJ1016959','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+liquid&id=EJ1016959"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Resistance Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shlyonsky, Vadim</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion <span class="hlt">potentials</span> is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance and potential…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=4&id=EJ817704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=4&id=EJ817704"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Polarizability of a Particle Bound by a Double Delta <span class="hlt">Potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maize, M. A.; Smetanka, J. J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we derive an expression for the dynamic <span class="hlt">electric</span> polarizability of a particle bound by a double delta <span class="hlt">potential</span> for frequencies below and above the absolute value of the particle's ground state energy. The derived expression will be used to study some of the fundamental features of the system and its representation of real systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=143685','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=143685"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ELECTRICAL</span> <span class="hlt">POTENTIALS</span> OF PLANT CELL WALLS IN RESPONSE TO THE IONIC ENVIRONMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in cell walls (yWall) and at plasma membrane surfaces (yPM) are determinants of ion activities in these phases. The yPM plays a demonstrated role in ion uptake and intoxication, but a comprehensive theory of plant-ion interactions will require further understanding of yWall. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-part72-appD.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-part72-appD.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Appendix D to Part 72 - Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity D Appendix D to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. D Appendix D to Part 72—Calculation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=molecular+AND+dynamics&pg=7&id=EJ817704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=molecular+AND+dynamics&pg=7&id=EJ817704"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Polarizability of a Particle Bound by a Double Delta <span class="hlt">Potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maize, M. A.; Smetanka, J. J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we derive an expression for the dynamic <span class="hlt">electric</span> polarizability of a particle bound by a double delta <span class="hlt">potential</span> for frequencies below and above the absolute value of the particle's ground state energy. The derived expression will be used to study some of the fundamental features of the system and its representation of real systems.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43135&keyword=magnetic+AND+fiels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57479781&CFTOKEN=16453925','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43135&keyword=magnetic+AND+fiels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57479781&CFTOKEN=16453925"><span id="translatedtitle">A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON <span class="hlt">POTENTIAL</span> REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">ELECTRIC</span> AND MAGNETIC FIELDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields to adversely affect the health of the human population is an issue which continues to receive a great deal of attention in both public and scientific forums. ne of the critical issues is the possibility that such fields may adversely ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1236307','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1236307"><span id="translatedtitle">Dielectrophoretic forces and <span class="hlt">potentials</span> induced on pairs of cells in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Foster, K R; Sowers, A E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A combined numerical/experimental study is reported of the membrane <span class="hlt">potentials</span> and dielectrophoretically induced forces between cells, membrane pressures, and velocity of attraction of cells under the influence of an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. This study was designed to explore <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and mechanical effects produced by a field on cells in close proximity or undergoing <span class="hlt">electrically</span> induced fusion. Laplace's equation for pairs of membrane-covered spheres in close proximity was solved numerically by the boundary element method, and the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> induced forces on the cells and between cells were obtained by evaluating the Maxwell stress tensor. The velocity of approach of erythrocyte ghosts or fused ghosts in a 60-Hz field of 6 V/mm was measured experimentally, and the data were interpreted by using Batchelor's theory for hydrodynamic interaction of hard spheres. The numerical results show clearly the origin of the dielectrophoretic pressures and forces in fused and unfused cells and the effects of a nearby cell on the induced membrane <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The experimental results agree well with predictions based on the simple <span class="hlt">electrical</span> model of the cell. The analysis shows the strong effect of hydrodynamic interactions between the cells in determining their velocity of approach. PMID:8519978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222902"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive View of Global <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for Hydro-generated <span class="hlt">Electricity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yuyu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Li, Hongyi; Clarke, Leon E.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this study, we assess global hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> using runoff and stream flow data, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental considerations. The results provide the first comprehensive quantification of global hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> including gross, technical, economic, and exploitable estimates. Total global <span class="hlt">potential</span> of gross, technical, economic, and exploitable hydropower are estimated to be approximately 128, 39, 32, and 27 petawatt hours per year, respectively. The economic and exploitable <span class="hlt">potential</span> of hydropower are calculated at less than 9 cents/kWh. We find that hydropower has the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this <span class="hlt">potential</span> varies substantially by region. Globally, hydropower can <span class="hlt">potentially</span> supply about 1.5 times the total <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand in 2005. Estimated hydropower resources in a number of countries are sufficient to accommodate their demand for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> in 2005, e.g., Brazil (5.6 times), Russia (4.6 times), and Canada (3.5 times). A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower estimates are not highly sensitive to five key parameters: design flow (varying by -2% to +1% at less than 9 cents/kWh), cost and financing options (by -7% to +6%), turbine efficiency (by -10% to +10%), stream flow (by -10% to +10%), and fixed charge rate (by -6% to 5%). This sensitivity analysis emphasizes the reliable role of hydropower for future energy systems, when compared to other renewable energy resources with larger uncertainty in their future <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JSMME...2..718T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JSMME...2..718T"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Matrix Crack Density of CFRP using an <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Change Method with Multiple Probes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todoroki, Akira; Omagari, Kazuomi</p> <p></p> <p>Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminates are adopted for fuel tank structures of next generation space rockets or automobiles. Matrix cracks may cause fuel leak or trigger fatigue damage. A monitoring system of the matrix crack density is required. The authors have developed an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance change method for the monitoring of delamination cracks in CFRP laminates. Reinforcement fibers are used as a self-sensing system. In the present study, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> method is adopted for matrix crack density monitoring. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the possibility of monitoring matrix crack density using multiple electrodes mounted on a single surface of a specimen. The FEA reveals the matrix crack density increases <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance for a target segment between electrodes. Experimental confirmation was also performed using cross-ply laminates. Eight electrodes were mounted on a single surface of a specimen using silver paste after polishing of the specimen surface with sandpaper. The two outermost electrodes applied <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current, and the inner electrodes measured <span class="hlt">electric</span> voltage changes. The slope of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance during reloading is revealed to be an appropriate index for the detection of matrix crack density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531234','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531234"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-of-illness analysis reveals <span class="hlt">potential</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">savings</span> with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the <span class="hlt">potential</span> annual <span class="hlt">savings</span> in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related <span class="hlt">savings</span> of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million <span class="hlt">savings</span> for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million <span class="hlt">savings</span> for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID:26321953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129375','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129375"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of Multiple Gastric <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Wave Fronts Using <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Based Inverse Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to reconstruct gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity (termed slow waves) non-invasively from <span class="hlt">potential</span> field measurements made on the torso surface would be a useful tool to aid in the clinical diagnosis of a number of gastric disorders. This is mathematically akin to the inverse problem of electrocardiography. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stomach model were used to simulate <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity. Gaussian noise was added to the torso <span class="hlt">potentials</span> to represent experimental signal noise. The stomach <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, activation profiles and gastric slow wave velocities were inversely reconstructed from the torso <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, using the Tikhonov-Greensite inverse method with regularisation determined using an L-curve method. The inverse solutions were then compared with the known input solutions. The reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of multiple propagating wave fronts, determine average activation times to within 5 s and average velocities to within 1 mm/s. When more virtual body surface electrodes were used in the inverse calculations, the accuracy of the reconstructed activity improved. PMID:22254568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26034699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26034699"><span id="translatedtitle">A class of Fourier integrals based on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of an elongated dipole.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skianis, Georgios Aim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the present paper the closed expressions of a class of non tabulated Fourier integrals are derived. These integrals are associated with a group of functions at space domain, which represent the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of a distribution of elongated dipoles which are perpendicular to a flat surface. It is shown that the Fourier integrals are produced by the Fourier transform of the Green's function of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the dipole distribution, times a definite integral in which the distribution of the polarization is involved. Therefore the form of this distribution controls the expression of the Fourier integral. Introducing various dipole distributions, the respective Fourier integrals are derived. These integrals may be useful in the quantitative interpretation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> anomalies produced by elongated dipole distributions, at spatial frequency domain. PMID:26034699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.5205K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.5205K"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of multiple gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> wave fronts using <span class="hlt">potential</span>-based inverse methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stomach model were used to simulate <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..105J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..105J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> Current Filamentation at a Non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> Magnetic Null-point Due to Pressure Perturbation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.; Murawski, K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>An increase of <span class="hlt">electric</span> current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> current in a non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the <span class="hlt">electric</span> current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of <span class="hlt">electric</span> current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.1589D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.1589D"><span id="translatedtitle">New fully kinetic model for the study of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, plasma, and dust above lunar landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyadechkin, S.; Kallio, E.; Wurz, P.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We have developed a new fully kinetic electrostatic simulation, HYBes, to study how the lunar landscape affects the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plasma distributions near the surface and the properties of lifted dust. The model embodies new techniques that can be used in various types of physical environments and situations. We demonstrate the applicability of the new model in a situation involving three charged particle species, which are solar wind electrons and protons, and lunar photoelectrons. Properties of dust are studied with test particle simulations by using the <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields derived from the HYBes model. Simulations show the high importance of the plasma and the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> near the surface. For comparison, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> gradients near the landscapes with feature sizes of the order of the Debye length are much larger than those near a flat surface at different solar zenith angles. Furthermore, dust test particle simulations indicate that the landscape relief influences the dust location over the surface. The study suggests that the local landscape has to be taken into account when the distributions of plasma and dust above lunar surface are studied. The HYBes model can be applied not only at the Moon but also on a wide range of airless planetary objects such as Mercury, other planetary moons, asteroids, and nonactive comets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/893117','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/893117"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiling the Built-In <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in III-V Multijunction Solar Cells (Poster)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C.-S.; Friedman, D. J.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We have observed three <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at the top, tunneling, and bottom junctions of GnInP{sub 2}/GaAs tandem-junction solar cells, by performing the UHV-SKPM measurement. The effect of laser illumination was avoided by using GaAs laser with photon energy of 1.4 eV for the AFM operation. We also observed higher <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at the atomic steps than on the terraces for both p-type GaInP{sub 2} epitaxial layer and p-type GaAs substrate, and found that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> at steps of GaAs substrate depends on the step directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...88..389Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...88..389Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells with applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hai</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A detailed investigation of the second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells under the influence of applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field by using the compact-density-matrix approach and the finite difference method. The results show that the second-harmonic generation susceptibility obtained in two cases can reach the magnitude of 10-4 m/V, which depend dramatically on the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and the structural parameters. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...85..385Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...85..385Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> field effect on the nonlinear optical properties in asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Zou, LiLi; Liu, Chenglin; Yuan, Jian-Hui</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In the present work, the optical absorption coefficients (OACs) and the changes in the refractive index (RI) in asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells (QWs) with the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field are studied in detail. We find both energy and wavefunction for low-lying state are wrong in the previous work (Guo and Du, 2013; Wu et al., 2014; Zhai, 2014). Simultaneously, we obtain new and reliable results via the differential method. Finally, the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, well width, and well depth have great influence on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in this system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3541002','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3541002"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of Acupuncture Points: Use of a Noncontact Scanning Kelvin Probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gow, Brian J.; Cheng, Justine L.; Baikie, Iain D.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Zhao, Min; Smith, Stephanie; Ahn, Andrew C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective. Acupuncture points are reportedly distinguishable by their <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties. However, confounders arising from skin-to-electrode contact used in traditional electrodermal methods have contributed to controversies over this claim. The Scanning Kelvin Probe is a state-of-the-art device that measures <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> without actually touching the skin and is thus capable of overcoming these confounding effects. In this study, we evaluated the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profiles of acupoints LI-4 and PC-6 and their adjacent controls. We hypothesize that acupuncture point sites are associated with increased variability in <span class="hlt">potential</span> compared to adjacent control sites. Methods. Twelve healthy individuals were recruited for this study. Acupuncture points LI-4 and PC-6 and their adjacent controls were assessed. A 2 mm probe tip was placed over the predetermined skin site and adjusted to a tip-to-sample distance of 1.0 mm under tip oscillation settings of 62.4 Hz frequency. A 6 × 6 surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> scan spanning a 1.0 cm × 1.0 cm area was obtained. Results. At both the PC-6 and LI-4 sites, no significant differences in mean <span class="hlt">potential</span> were observed compared to their respective controls (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P = 0.73 and 0.79, resp.). However, the LI-4 site was associated with significant increase in variability compared to its control as denoted by standard deviation and range (P = 0.002 and 0.0005, resp.). At the PC-6 site, no statistical differences in variability were observed. Conclusion. Acupuncture points may be associated with increased variability in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. PMID:23320033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PSST...22d5020L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PSST...22d5020L"><span id="translatedtitle">Space charge, plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field distributions in HiPIMS discharges of varying configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liebig, B.; Bradley, J. W.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>An electron-emitting (emissive) probe has been used to study the temporal and spatial distribution of the plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> during high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges with various substrate and magnetic field configurations. The average power was 700 W, with a repetition frequency of 100 Hz and pulse duration of 100 µs. Strongly negative plasma <span class="hlt">potentials</span> exceeding -300 V and <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields up to 10 kV m-1, caused by strong separation of charges with net charge carrier densities Δn of about 1014 m-3, were observed during the ignition of the discharge. The spatial distribution of the plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the stable stage of the discharge showed values consistently 5 V more negative for a floating substrate compared with a grounded one, so enhancing electron transport around the insulated substrate to grounded walls. However, this change in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> configuration of the plasma does not alter significantly the fraction of ionized sputtered particles (of about 30%) that can <span class="hlt">potentially</span> reach the substrate. By changing the degree of unbalance of the sputtering source, we find a strong correlation between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field strength in the magnetic trap (created through charge separation) and the absolute value (and shape) of the magnetic field. For the more unbalanced magnetron, a flattening of the plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> structure (decrease in the axial <span class="hlt">electric</span> field) was observed close to the target. Our findings show in principle that manipulation of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> barrier close to the target through changing the magnetic field can regulate the proportion of sputtered and ionized species reaching the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........71H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........71H"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the performance and energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrmann, Lesley Anne</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> options are then presented as recommendations for <span class="hlt">potential</span> improvements to current China building energy codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22225151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22225151"><span id="translatedtitle">Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Cost <span class="hlt">Savings</span> at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067358"><span id="translatedtitle">Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Cost <span class="hlt">Savings</span> At The Defense Waste Processing Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.</p> <p>2013-01-09</p> <p>At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+field&id=EJ830489','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+field&id=EJ830489"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Effects of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Fields and <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> on Electron Motion: An Introduction to Theoretical and Practical Aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Matteucci, G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the so-called <span class="hlt">electric</span> Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6692869','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6692869"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of the literature on <span class="hlt">potential</span> reproductive and developmental toxicity of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chernoff, N.; Rogers, J.M.; Kavet, R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields to adversely affect the health of the human population is an issue which continues to receive a great deal of attention in both public and scientific forums. One of the critical issues is the possibility that such fields may adversely affect the reproductive process. The studies are ordered in broad categories based upon both classification of the species studied (i.e. submammalian, mammalian exclusive of man, and human) and the agent used (i.e. extremely low frequency <span class="hlt">electric</span>, very low frequency <span class="hlt">electric</span>, and magnetic fields). From our review, we conclude that laboratory experimental and epidemiological results to date have not yielded conclusive data to support the contention that such fields induce adverse reproductive effects under the conditions studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhA.112..919P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhA.112..919P"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated in vitro durability testing of nonvascular Nitinol stents based on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D.; Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Amarjargal, Altangerel; Kim, Han Joo; Kim, Cheol Sang</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report an evaluation of the performance of a new stent durability tester based on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method through accelerated in vitro testing of six different nonvascular Nitinol stents simulating physiological conditions. The stents were subjected to a pulsatile loading of 33 Hz for a total of 62,726,400 cycles, at constant temperature and pressure of 35±0.5 °C and 120±4 mmHg, respectively. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of each stent was measured in real-time and monitored for any changes in readings. After conducting test-to-fracture tests, the stents were visually checked, and by scanning electron microscopy. A sudden <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop in the readings suggests a fracture has occurred, and the only two instances of fracture in our present results were correctly determined by our present device, with the fractures confirmed visually after the test. The excellent performance of our new method shows good <span class="hlt">potential</span> for a highly reliable and applicable in vitro durability testing for different kinds and sizes of metallic stents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........94B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........94B"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Household Travel: Methodological and Empirical Considerations of Vehicle Capability Constraints and Multi-day Activity Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolon, Kevin M.</p> <p></p> <p>The lack of multi-day data for household travel and vehicle capability requirements is an impediment to evaluations of energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> strategies, since (1) travel requirements vary from day-to-day, and (2) energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> transportation options often have reduced capability. This work demonstrates a survey methodology and modeling system for evaluating the energy-<span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of household travel, considering multi-day travel requirements and capability constraints imposed by the available transportation resources. A stochastic scheduling model is introduced---the multi-day Household Activity Schedule Estimator (mPHASE)---which generates synthetic daily schedules based on "fuzzy" descriptions of activity characteristics using a finite-element representation of activity flexibility, coordination among household members, and scheduling conflict resolution. Results of a thirty-household pilot study are presented in which responses to an interactive computer assisted personal interview were used as inputs to the mPHASE model in order to illustrate the feasibility of generating complex, realistic multi-day household schedules. Study vehicles were equipped with digital cameras and GPS data acquisition equipment to validate the model results. The synthetically generated schedules captured an average of 60 percent of household travel distance, and exhibited many of the characteristics of complex household travel, including day-to-day travel variation, and schedule coordination among household members. Future advances in the methodology may improve the model results, such as encouraging more detailed and accurate responses by providing a selection of generated schedules during the interview. Finally, the Constraints-based Transportation Resource Assignment Model (CTRAM) is introduced. Using an enumerative optimization approach, CTRAM determines the energy-minimizing vehicle-to-trip assignment decisions, considering trip schedules, occupancy, and vehicle capability. Designed to accept either actual or synthetic schedules, results of an application of the optimization model to the 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey data show that U.S. households can reduce energy use by 10 percent, on average, by modifying the assignment of existing vehicles to trips. Households in 2009 show a higher tendency to assign vehicles optimally than in 2001, and multi-vehicle households with diverse fleets have greater <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, indicating that fleet modification strategies may be effective, particularly under higher energy price conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326883','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326883"><span id="translatedtitle">College's shared <span class="hlt">savings</span> exceed expectations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Springer, N.</p> <p>1985-12-02</p> <p>A shared-<span class="hlt">savings</span> contract at a Massachusetts community college with all-<span class="hlt">electric</span> facilities may reduce <span class="hlt">electricity</span> consumption as much as 50% instead of the estimated 39%. Maintenance and repair of existing timeclocks, relays, and pneumatic controls for building equipment and a lighting retrofit in the swimming pool area are equipment and a lighting retrofit in the swimming pool area are responsible for the <span class="hlt">savings</span>. The college was one of four state-owned institutions to participate in a pilot shared-<span class="hlt">savings</span> program, under which the college will receive 20% of the <span class="hlt">savings</span> until the Hospital Efficiency Corp. recovers 123% of its costs. At that point, the college will receive all the <span class="hlt">savings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3807258','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3807258"><span id="translatedtitle">VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> and generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to achieve energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. This smart window combines energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> and generation in one device, and offers <span class="hlt">potential</span> to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24157625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24157625"><span id="translatedtitle">VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> and generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to achieve energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. This smart window combines energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> and generation in one device, and offers <span class="hlt">potential</span> to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029407"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages: Existing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casey, S.; Booten, C.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>This document presents the most cost effective Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all <span class="hlt">electric</span> homes to achieve 15% and 30% <span class="hlt">savings</span> for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> are typically found between 30% and 50% energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual <span class="hlt">savings</span> varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21049448','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21049448"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Approach for Response of Infinite Periodic Systems to <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kirtman, Bernard; Springborg, Michael</p> <p>2007-12-26</p> <p>A detailed study of the vector <span class="hlt">potential</span> approach (VPA) for the response of periodic systems to a finite <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is carried out using a parameterized model self-consistent field (SCF) polymer Hamiltonian. Specific issues discussed include 'smoothing' of crystal orbitals, convergence and accuracy of SCF solutions as a function of field and number of k points, Zener tunneling, field-dependent band structure, determination of (non)linear susceptibilities, and nuclear relaxation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26242755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26242755"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Retrieval of Living Microorganisms from Cryopreserved Marine Sponges Using a <span class="hlt">Potential</span>-Controlled Electrode.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koyama, Sumihiro; Nishi, Shinro; Tokuda, Maki; Uemura, Moeka; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Seya, Takeshi; Chow, Seinen; Ise, Yuji; Hatada, Yuji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop a novel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> retrieval method (ER method) for living sponge-associated microorganisms from marine sponges frozen at -80 °C. A -0.3-V vs. Ag/AgCl constant <span class="hlt">potential</span> applied for 2 h at 9 °C induced the attachment of the sponge-associated microorganisms to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) or a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass (GZO) working electrode. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> attached microorganisms from homogenized Spirastrella insignis tissues had intact cell membranes and showed intracellular dehydrogenase activity. Dead microorganisms were not attracted to the electrode when the homogenized tissues were autoclaved for 15 min at 121 °C before use. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> attached microorganisms included cultivable microorganisms retrieved after detachment from the electrode by application of a 9-MHz sine-wave <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Using the ER method, we obtained 32 phyla and 72 classes of bacteria and 3 archaea of Crenarchaeota thermoprotei, Marine Group I, and Thaumarchaeota incertae sedis from marine sponges S. insignis and Callyspongia confoederata. Employment of the ER method for extraction and purification of the living microorganisms holds <span class="hlt">potential</span> of single-cell cultivation for genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses of bioactive compounds producing sponge-associated microorganisms. PMID:26242755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JAP....57.2640B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JAP....57.2640B"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produced by frog heart muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burstein, Deborah; Cohen, David</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>A comparison is made here between the magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produced by a thin strip of frog heart muscle. An experimental test is made of the theory which states that the wave front of a single fiber (or parallel bundle of fibers as in this strip) can be represented, for both the magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, by the same single-current dipole. First, an experimental measurement is made of the ratio of magnetic field/<span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produced by an actual current dipole in an electrolytic tank. Then the dipole is replaced by the muscle strip and a measurement is again made of the ratio; this is done for three muscle strips at eight different source-to-detector distances ranging from 1 to 5 cm. It is found, in all cases, that the muscle ratios are equal to those of the actual dipole to within the experimental uncertainty of ±10%. Therefore, to this extent the theory is verified for this case of a thin strip of frog heart tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARZ26003J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARZ26003J"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of Macroions between the Limits of Small Ions and Charged Nanocolloids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Y. Elaine</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of macroions in the size of 1-10 nm in aqueous solutions is critical to understand the supramolecular assembly involving biomacromolecules, charged nanoparticles and nanoclusters and their resulting material properties. However, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of these macroions could not be accurately determined because their sizes fall in between the limits of small ions and plain charged nanocolloids, while solving the non-linear Possion-Boltzmann equation remains a grand challenge to date. In this work, we investigate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with 8 amine terminal groups as a model macroion. We employ a single molecule fluorescence technique, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), combined with photon counting histogram (PCH) to quantitatively measure the local proton concentration, which is the local co-ion concentration in vicinity of POSS with 1.5 nm in diameter. By changing the ionic strength of aqueous solution and the distance between pH-sensitive fluorescence probe and POSS, we quantitatively determine the proton concentration gradient. The distance dependent local pH can be simply analyzed to obtain the surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the POSS macroion without the necessity to solve the non-linear Possion-Boltzmann equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414743"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus frequency during self-paced exercise and recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G; Jensen, Jørgen; Millet, Guillaume Y; Noakes, Timothy David</p> <p>2014-09-29</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> on stimulation-induced muscle function during and after an intense bout of self-paced dynamic exercise. Ten active subjects performed a time trial involving repetitive concentric extension-flexion of the right knee using a Biodex dynamometer. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation before and after a 5 s maximal isometric voluntary contraction was performed before the start of the time trial and immediately (< 5 s) after each 20% of the time trial as well as 1, 2, 4 and 8 min after time trial termination. <span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> was observed before the time trial and as early as 1-2 min after the time trial, but no <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> was detected during or immediately after the time trial for neither single or paired stimuli. At termination of the time trial, "<span class="hlt">potentiated</span>" peak torque was significantly more reduced than "unpotentiated" peak torque for single stimulus (-65 ± 10% and -42 ± 18%, respectively) and paired stimuli at 100 Hz (-51 ± 10% and -33 ± 15%, respectively). Faster recovery for "<span class="hlt">potentiated</span>" compared to "unpotentiated" peak torque indicate that <span class="hlt">potentiate</span> peak torque measurements or delay the post-exercise measurements more than a few seconds, will underestimate peripheral fatigue. In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> after maximal contraction disappears during intense exercise. Whether the muscle is already <span class="hlt">potentiated</span> during intense contraction or fatiguing mechanisms inhibits <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> remains to be clarified. PMID:25414743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/reports/smartmetering/pdf/assessment.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/reports/smartmetering/pdf/assessment.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Interval Data and Their <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Application to Residential <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> End-Use Modeling, An</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is investigating the <span class="hlt">potential</span> benefits of incorporating interval <span class="hlt">electricity</span> data into its residential energy end use models. This includes interval smart meter and submeter data from utility assets and systems. It is expected that these data will play a significant role in informing residential energy efficiency policies in the future. Therefore, a long-term strategy for improving the RECS end-use models will not be complete without an investigation of the current state of affairs of submeter data, including their <span class="hlt">potential</span> for use in the context of residential building energy modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441951"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effect of the initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation in microbial fuel cell].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Ming-Zhi; Liang, Peng; Cao, Xiao-Xin; Huang, Xia</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) was changed by additional circuit in the anode chamber, and the influence of the initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the electricigens was studied. When the initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> was 350 mV (vs Hg/Hg2 Cl2), the growth of microorganisms was much slower than that of the microorganisms which grew on the anode with an initial <span class="hlt">potential</span> of -200 mV or 200 mV (vs Hg/Hg2 Cl2). After stable <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation, the anode resistances of the three MFCs, which had initial anode <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of 350 mV, 200 mV and -200 mV respectively, were 71 Omega, 43 Omega and 80 Omega. The community structures in MFCs, before and after the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation, were also studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Clostridium sticklandii, Pseudomonas mendocina and Paenibacillus taejonensis were the three most enriched strains on the anode. PMID:18441951</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891539','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891539"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiling the Built-in <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in III-V Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C.-S.; Friedman, D. J.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We report on a direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on cross-sections of GaInP2/GaAs multiple-junction solar cells by using an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning Kelvin probe microscope (UHV-SKPM). The UHV-SKPM allows us to measure the <span class="hlt">potential</span> without air molecules being adsorbed on the cross-sectional surface. Moreover, it uses a GaAs laser with photon energy of 1.4 eV for the atomic force microscope (AFM) operation. This eliminated the light-absorption-induced bottom-junction flattening and top-junction enhancement, which happened in our previous <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement using a 1.85-eV laser for the AFM operation. Three <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were measured at the top, tunneling, and bottom junctions. Values of the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are smaller than the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the bulk. This indicates that the Fermi level on the UHV-cleaved (110) surface was pinned, presumably due to defects upon cleaving. We also observed higher <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at atomic steps than on the terraces for both GaInP2 epitaxial layer and GaAs substrate. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and SKPM measurements, we found that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> height at steps of the GaAs substrate depends on the step direction, which is probably a direct result of unbalanced cations and anions at the steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/943989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/943989"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiling the Built-In <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in III-V Multijunction Solar Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C.-S.; Friedman, D. J.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We report on a direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on cross-sections of GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs multiple-junction solar cells by using an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning Kelvin probe microscope (UHV-SKPM). The UHV-SKPM allows us to measure the <span class="hlt">potential</span> without air molecules being adsorbed on the cross-sectional surface. Moreover, it uses a GaAs laser with photon energy of 1.4 eV for the atomic force microscope (AFM) operation. This eliminated the light-absorption-induced bottom-junction flattening and top-junction enhancement, which happened in our previous <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement using a 1.85-eV laser for the AFM operation. Three <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were measured at the top, tunneling, and bottom junctions. Values of the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are smaller than the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the bulk. This indicates that the Fermi level on the UHV-cleaved (110) surface was pinned, presumably due to defects upon cleaving. We also observed higher <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at atomic steps than on the terraces for both GaInP2 epitaxial layer and GaAs substrate. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and SKPM measurements, we found that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> height at steps of the GaAs substrate depends on the step direction, which is probably a direct result of unbalanced cations and anions at the steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206937"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> impacts of the Energy Policy Act on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and natural gas provider fleets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vyas, A.D.; Wang, M.Q.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Section 501 of the 1992 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPACT) mandates that alternative-fuel providers who may sell such fuels for transportation uses acquire alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs). The <span class="hlt">potential</span> impacts of this mandate on the two largest groups of alternative-fuel providers--<span class="hlt">electricity</span> and natural gas (NG) providers--are presented. Nationwide, 166 <span class="hlt">electric</span>-only utility companies, 127 NG-only utility companies, and 55 dual-utility companies will be covered by EPACT. Together, these companies own/operate nearly 122,000 light-duty vehicles in the EPACT-defined metropolitan areas. Some 63 natural gas producers and transporters, which have 9700 light-duty vehicles, are also covered. We project that covered fuel providers will purchase 2710 AFVs in 1996 and 13, 650 AFVs by 2001. We estimate that natural gas companies already have 19.4% of their existing light-duty vehicle stocks as AFVs, dual companies have 10.0%, natural gas producers and transporters have 7. 0%, and <span class="hlt">electric</span> companies have only 1.6%. If the existing AFVs count toward meeting the Section 501 requirements, NG providers (NG utilities, dual utilities, and NG producers and transporters) will need to make little additional effort, but <span class="hlt">electric</span> companies will have to make substantial commitments to meet the requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54b1504S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54b1504S"><span id="translatedtitle">New porous medium Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for strongly oscillating <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmuck, M.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We consider the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system which is well-accepted for describing dilute electrolytes as well as transport of charged species in homogeneous environments. Here, we study these equations in porous media whose <span class="hlt">electric</span> permittivities show a strong contrast compared with the <span class="hlt">electric</span> permittivity of the electrolyte phase. Our main result is the derivation of convenient low-dimensional equations, that is, of effective macroscopic porous media Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, which reliably describe ionic transport. The contrast in the <span class="hlt">electric</span> permittivities between liquid and solid phase and the heterogeneity of the porous medium induce strongly oscillating <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (fields). In order to account for this specific physical scenario, we introduce a modified asymptotic multiple-scale expansion which takes advantage of the nonlinearly coupled structure of the ionic transport equations. This allows for a systematic upscaling resulting in a new effective porous medium formulation which shows a new transport term on the macroscale. Solvability of all arising equations is rigorously verified. The emergence of a new transport term indicates promising physical insights into the influence of the microscale material properties on the macroscale. Hence, systematic upscaling strategies provide a source and a prospective tool to capitalize intrinsic scale effects for scientific, engineering, and industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967295','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967295"><span id="translatedtitle">Therapeutic management of uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease in france in 2005: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> of omeprazole substitution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mouly, Stéphane; Charlemagne, Agnès; Lejeunne, Philippe; Fagnani, Francis</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) cost the French health care system >€1 billion in 2005, and ~50% of PPI prescriptions were for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Objectives: This study aimed to describe the current use of PPIs for GERD, to estimate the total annual costs of treatment, and to evaluate the economic impact of the various possible substitutions among PPIs available for this indication in France. Methods: Data from a sample of patients aged ≥20 years who visited their general practitioner (GP) at least once in 2005 for uncomplicated, symptomatic GERD were retrieved from the Thales database (a group of 1200 representative GPs connected to a computerized network). Costs of the prescriptions presented for reimbursement and costs of those reimbursed by the French health care insurance system were analyzed. We then evaluated the economic consequences of replacing full-dose generic omeprazole (after substitution from brand-name omeprazole by the pharmacists) with other compounds that are indicated for mild symptoms at half dose (ie, lansoprazole 15 mg, pantoprazole 20 mg, rabeprazole 10 mg, and esomeprazole 20 mg). The results were adjusted to account for the proportions of patients who had full health care coverage and the treatment duration as reported in the database. Results are presented from the perspective of the French health care insurance system. Results: In 2005, a total of 122,571 patients (mean age, 55.7 years; 45.5% men; 13.8% with a history of at least 1 gastrointestinal disorder) met the inclusion criteria. Extrapolated to the French population, this sample corresponded to ≈5.7 million people (ie, 13% of the adult population who visited a GP during the year). PPIs were prescribed as first-line treatment for GERD in 84.1% of the consultations (14.3% in association with other antiulcer drugs). Omeprazole, as a proprietary or generic drug, was prescribed most often (78.9%) and at full dose (20 mg), while other compounds (lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, and esomeprazole) were prescribed at half dose in 64.3% of cases. The extrapolated annual cost of PPIs reimbursed for this indication was €465.02 million at a mean reimbursement level of 72.7%. Brand-name omeprazole still accounted for ≈11% of the total cost reimbursed. Complete replacement of brand-name omeprazole with its generic counterpart would have reduced costs by €18.35 million (a decrease of 4.3% in the total reimbursed expenditure). The switch from generic full-dose omeprazole to a half dose of other PPIs would have allowed further <span class="hlt">savings</span> ranging from €2.59 million (with lansoprazole) to €13.19 million (with pantoprazole). Conclusion: In accordance with recent recommendations for the treatment of uncomplicated GERD and based on the 2006 PPI pricing, switching from branded full-dose omeprazole to generic omeprazole or to the use of half doses of other PPIs may allow cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> in France. PMID:24683238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6502225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6502225"><span id="translatedtitle">(Assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of Yunnan Province, China to grow and convert biomass to <span class="hlt">electricity</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perlack, R.D.</p> <p>1990-10-15</p> <p>The purpose of the trip was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of biomass energy development in Yunnan Province, China. The evaluation included an assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to grow and convert biomass to <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, and an evaluation of the institutional relationships, which would be critical to the establishment of a collaborative biomass energy development project. This site visit was undertaken to evaluate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of an integrated biomass energy project, including the growing and handling of biomass feedstocks and its conversion to <span class="hlt">electricity</span>. Based on this site visit, it was concluded that biomass production risks are real and further research on species screening and experiments is necessary before proceeding to the conversion phase of this project. The location of <span class="hlt">potential</span> sites inspected and the logistics required for handling and transporting biomass may also be a concern. The commitment of support (labor and land) and leadership to this project by the Chinese is overwhelming exceeding all pre-site visit expectations. In sum, there is a definite opportunity in Yunnan for an integrated biomass energy project and a <span class="hlt">potential</span> market for US technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR41B..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR41B..01L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Observed During Frictional Stick-Slip - A Semiconductor Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leeman, J.; Scuderi, M.; Marone, C.; Saffer, D. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Electromagnetic phenomena are commonly reported during and after large earthquakes. Various lines of evidence including charring of plant roots, magnetic remnant signatures in pseudotachylite, and visible earthquake lights indicate a strong <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> separation during co-seismic rupture. Suggested explanations have included triboelectricity, piezoelectricity, and streaming <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The 'semiconductor effect', or migration of electron holes, has been proposed as an alternative explanation and studied extensively in solids. We present evidence of a similar migration effect in a granular material that exhibits repeated frictional stick-slip events under a variety of conditions. Soda-lime glass beads were sheared in a double-direct shear configuration in a biaxial loading frame. Glass beads exhibit consistent, repetitive stick-slip and rate/state friction effects that are similar to rock. Layers of 5 mm thickness were sheared under a constant normal load of 4MPa, at load point velocities of 1, 30, and 100 μm/s. This was done for mono-disperse particle size distributions of 100-150 μm and 420-500 μm. Tests were conducted at room humidity, at 100% humidity, and under submerged conditions. During shearing, the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the surface was monitored relative to the system ground with a non-contact electrostatic volt meter (ESVM) manufactured by Trek Incorporated. During stick-slip events, we observe <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> anomalies that appear to be related to failure of force chains supporting the shear load. Two distinct types of behavior are delineated by the attainment of steady state frictional sliding. In the pre-steady state phase, as shear stress is increasing, layers are observed to charge during stick-slip and the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the entire system rises. When shear stress rises to the level of steady state frictional sliding, the system begins to discharge, with superimposed anomalies characterized by <span class="hlt">potential</span> drops of several volts that coincide with stick-slip failure. This behavior is consistent at both 1 and 30 μm/s loading velocity. At a load point velocity of 100μm/s, the anomalies exhibit sharp <span class="hlt">potential</span> spikes on the order of 20 volts coincident with stick slip failure events with gradual charging between events. Experiments conducted under 100% humidity and submerged conditions showed no associated <span class="hlt">electrical</span> anomalies. We interpret that the observed signal is a convolution of two effects: charging of the forcing blocks and anomalies associated with the stress state of the material. Charging of the blocks is accomplished by grain movement along the boundaries during initial arrangement of force chain networks. Anomalies associated with the material originate from electron holes produced when peroxy links are broken. The defects then propagate away from stressed regions during loading, separating charge. A return current results in a <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop as a semi-homogeneous stress state is attained after failure of the force chain network. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> anomalies during material failure could <span class="hlt">potentially</span> be used to remotely monitor stress states and cracking during the inter-seismic stage of the seismic cycle. <span class="hlt">Potential</span> changes could result in detectable low-frequency signals that may signal the early stages of failure, providing a modest warning of the event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH31B1609G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH31B1609G"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Fundamental Drivers of the Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit and the <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Role of Earthquakes (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golkowski, M.; Kubicki, M.; Brady, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The relationship between atmospheric currents and ionospheric <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on a planetary scale, known as the Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit (GEC), has been the subject of investigation for almost 100 years. Lightning and thundercloud activity have long been suspected to be the fundamental drivers of the GEC. While these atmospheric activities play a role in the GEC, there is still some uncertainty whether they are the only driving mechanism of the observed DC global ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span>. We reassess the role of lightning and thunderclouds as the main driver of the GEC using the newly deployed Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360), which offers global and accurate real-time lightning coverage. Diurnal and geographic variation of lightning activity are averaged over the two year dataset and compared to previous results. Lightning activity for individual days is also compared with atmospheric <span class="hlt">electric</span> field measurements made on the European continent. Our investigations suggest that atmospheric activity associated with lightning as the only primary driver of the GEC has difficulties. Several investigators have raised the possibility of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> role of electromagnetic effects associated with fracturing of rock materials in the source region of crustal earthquakes on exciting the GEC. Unfortunately, the physical processes associated with crustal fracture in the source zone are poorly understood. We examine several mechanisms including the role that fluids present in the hypocentral region of pending earthquakes play in generating streaming <span class="hlt">potentials</span> that may be associated with generating electromagnetic effects. Changes during the earthquake preparation process can produce observed changes in the GEC. We believe this mechanism provides a process that can generate electromagnetic effects that are crucially dependent on the focal mechanism, magnitude and rupture process of the pending earthquake. We highlight cases of anomalies in atmospheric <span class="hlt">electric</span> field measurements made in the vicinity of earthquakes and their role in exciting the GEC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4234774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4234774"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Stimulus Frequency During Self-Paced Exercise and Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Jensen, Jørgen; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> on stimulation-induced muscle function during and after an intense bout of self-paced dynamic exercise. Ten active subjects performed a time trial involving repetitive concentric extension-flexion of the right knee using a Biodex dynamometer. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation before and after a 5 s maximal isometric voluntary contraction was performed before the start of the time trial and immediately (< 5 s) after each 20% of the time trial as well as 1, 2, 4 and 8 min after time trial termination. <span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> was observed before the time trial and as early as 1–2 min after the time trial, but no <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> was detected during or immediately after the time trial for neither single or paired stimuli. At termination of the time trial, “potentiated” peak torque was significantly more reduced than “unpotentiated” peak torque for single stimulus (−65 ± 10% and −42 ± 18%, respectively) and paired stimuli at 100 Hz (−51 ± 10% and −33 ± 15%, respectively). Faster recovery for “potentiated” compared to “unpotentiated” peak torque indicate that <span class="hlt">potentiate</span> peak torque measurements or delay the post-exercise measurements more than a few seconds, will underestimate peripheral fatigue. In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> after maximal contraction disappears during intense exercise. Whether the muscle is already <span class="hlt">potentiated</span> during intense contraction or fatiguing mechanisms inhibits <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> remains to be clarified. PMID:25414743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255197"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersion <span class="hlt">potential</span> between three-bodies with arbitrary <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole polarizabilities: Molecular QED theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salam, A.</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>Molecular quantum electrodynamics is used to obtain an expression for the retarded dispersion energy shift between three arbitrarily <span class="hlt">electrically</span> polarizable atoms or molecules. A generalized Craig-Power Hamiltonian that depends quadratically on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> displacement field is employed together with third-order diagrammatic perturbation theory. This approach simplifies the calculation relative to the use of the usual multipolar coupling Hamiltonian that is linear in the displacement field. Specific higher multipole non-additive contributions are then extracted. These include dipole-dipole-quadrupole, dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole, and dipole-dipole-octupole <span class="hlt">potentials</span> valid for oriented and isotropic species with arbitrary separation distances between particles, extending recent work in which these energy shifts were given for equilateral triangle and collinear geometries. Near-zone limiting forms are found to agree with earlier works in which static inter-particle couplings were used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669509"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersion <span class="hlt">potential</span> between three-bodies with arbitrary <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole polarizabilities: molecular QED theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salam, A</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>Molecular quantum electrodynamics is used to obtain an expression for the retarded dispersion energy shift between three arbitrarily <span class="hlt">electrically</span> polarizable atoms or molecules. A generalized Craig-Power Hamiltonian that depends quadratically on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> displacement field is employed together with third-order diagrammatic perturbation theory. This approach simplifies the calculation relative to the use of the usual multipolar coupling Hamiltonian that is linear in the displacement field. Specific higher multipole non-additive contributions are then extracted. These include dipole-dipole-quadrupole, dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole, and dipole-dipole-octupole <span class="hlt">potentials</span> valid for oriented and isotropic species with arbitrary separation distances between particles, extending recent work in which these energy shifts were given for equilateral triangle and collinear geometries. Near-zone limiting forms are found to agree with earlier works in which static inter-particle couplings were used. PMID:25669509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003MeScT..14..923H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003MeScT..14..923H"><span id="translatedtitle">High resolution ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring using wrist-mounted <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harland, C. J.; Clark, T. D.; Prance, R. J.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>In this paper we describe the application of an <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensor to the ambulatory monitoring of the human electrocardiogram (ECG). We show that a high resolution ECG can be acquired using two of these sensors mounted wristwatch style, one on each wrist. These sensors, which do not require a real current conducting path in order to operate, are used non-invasively without making <span class="hlt">electrical</span> contact to the subject. Furthermore, their sensitivity and low noise floor have made it possible to detect a peak which corresponds, in timing, to the His bundle depolarization - a feature not normally seen in conventional surface ECGs. We predict that these new devices will rapidly find application in the areas of clinical medicine and ambulatory monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/932632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/932632"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Vehicles on Regional Power Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Plug-in hybrid <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid <span class="hlt">electricity</span> is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new <span class="hlt">electric</span> capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">potential</span> impacts of PHEVs on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical <span class="hlt">electricity</span> sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little <span class="hlt">potential</span> to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728774"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling on ionic current and synaptic <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabbah, Pascale; Golowasch, Jorge; Nadim, Farzan</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Recent studies have found <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling to be more ubiquitous than previously thought, and coupling through gap junctions is known to play a crucial role in neuronal function and network output. In particular, current spread through gap junctions may affect the activation of voltage-dependent conductances as well as chemical synaptic release. Using voltage-clamp recordings of two strongly <span class="hlt">electrically</span> coupled neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion and conductance-based models of these neurons, we identified effects of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling on the measurement of leak and voltage-gated outward currents, as well as synaptic <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. Experimental measurements showed that both leak and voltage-gated outward currents are recruited by gap junctions from neurons coupled to the clamped cell. Nevertheless, in spite of the strong coupling between these neurons, the errors made in estimating voltage-gated conductance parameters were relatively minor (<10%). Thus in many cases isolation of coupled neurons may not be required if a small degree of measurement error of the voltage-gated currents or the synaptic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> is acceptable. Modeling results show, however, that such errors may be as high as 20% if the gap-junction position is near the recording site or as high as 90% when measuring smaller voltage-gated ionic currents. Paradoxically, improved space clamp increases the errors arising from <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling because voltage control across gap junctions is poor for even the highest realistic coupling conductances. Furthermore, the common procedure of leak subtraction can add an extra error to the conductance measurement, the sign of which depends on the maximal conductance. PMID:15728774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23838338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23838338"><span id="translatedtitle">Might rapid implementation of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients who are failing to recover after a cardiac arrest <span class="hlt">potentially</span> <span class="hlt">save</span> lives?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ishaq, Muhammad; Pessotto, Renzo</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The question addressed was whether it might be beneficial to have a rapid-response emergency cardiopulmonary bypass service for patients who suffer an in-hospital or an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of any aetiology. Eighty-five papers were reviewed using the reported search, of which 15 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. The concept of using emergency cardiopulmonary bypass (ECPB) for the management of cardiogenic shock and refractory cardiac arrest was developed in the late 1990s. Since this time, a large number of centres worldwide have reported success with use of ECPB for cardiac arrest refractory to conventional resuscitation techniques and for cardiogenic shock. This is a relatively new advancement in resuscitative strategy and is expanding in clinical practice. Clinical studies and experimental data reveal that ECPB is a very effective tool in the return of spontaneous circulation following refractory cardiac arrest. Resuscitation with this technique demonstrated survival benefit when compared with patients having conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for >10 min after witnessed in-hospital arrest, especially if the cause of arrest is of cardiac origin. The reported finding from a systematic review of 1494 patients treated with ECPB noted that the overall survival rate was 47.4%; their results indicate that the application of ECPB in cardiac arrest improves survival and the likelihood of a satisfactory neurological outcome. An additional review revealed that acceptable survival rate and neurological outcomes (30%) can be achieved with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children after prolonged cardiac arrest (up to 95 min) refractory to standard resuscitation. However, no study has provided clear-cut evidence of the merits of ECPS in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, although many case reports and case series have concluded that it is an effective method. We conclude that institution of emergency cardiopulmonary bypass may <span class="hlt">save</span> the lives of patients in whom routine attempts at resuscitation after a cardiac arrest fail, especially after >10 min. The likelihood of success is much higher for patients who have in-hospital witnessed cardiac arrest. PMID:23838338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561399"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of the through-the-thickness <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of a piezoelectric bimorph using the spectral element method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Xingjian; Peng, Zhike; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An efficient spectral element (SE) with <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to investigate the static electromechanical responses of a piezoelectric bimorph for its actuator and sensor functions. A sublayer model based on the piecewise linear approximation for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is used to describe the nonlinear distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> through the thickness of the piezoelectric layers. An equivalent single layer (ESL) model based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to describe the displacement field. The Legendre orthogonal polynomials of order 5 are used in the element interpolation functions. The validity and the capability of the present SE model for investigation of global and local responses of the piezoelectric bimorph are confirmed by comparing the present solutions with those obtained from coupled 3-D finite element (FE) analysis. It is shown that, without introducing any higher-order <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> assumptions, the current method can accurately describe the distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across the thickness even for a rather thick bimorph. It is revealed that the effect of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is significant when the bimorph is used as sensor while the effect is insignificant when the bimorph is used as actuator, and therefore, the present study may provide a better understanding of the nonlinear induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for bimorph sensor and actuator. PMID:24561399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958296','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958296"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of the Through-the-Thickness <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> of a Piezoelectric Bimorph Using the Spectral Element Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Xingjian; Peng, Zhike; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An efficient spectral element (SE) with <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to investigate the static electromechanical responses of a piezoelectric bimorph for its actuator and sensor functions. A sublayer model based on the piecewise linear approximation for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is used to describe the nonlinear distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> through the thickness of the piezoelectric layers. An equivalent single layer (ESL) model based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to describe the displacement field. The Legendre orthogonal polynomials of order 5 are used in the element interpolation functions. The validity and the capability of the present SE model for investigation of global and local responses of the piezoelectric bimorph are confirmed by comparing the present solutions with those obtained from coupled 3-D finite element (FE) analysis. It is shown that, without introducing any higher-order <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> assumptions, the current method can accurately describe the distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across the thickness even for a rather thick bimorph. It is revealed that the effect of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is significant when the bimorph is used as sensor while the effect is insignificant when the bimorph is used as actuator, and therefore, the present study may provide a better understanding of the nonlinear induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for bimorph sensor and actuator. PMID:24561399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.210..351P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.210..351P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> conductivity and streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> coefficient in a moderately alkaline lava series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perrier, Frédéric; Froidefond, Thierry</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Coupled hydraulic and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> problems are being investigated with renewed interest in geophysical applications. In this study, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity and streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> coefficient (SPC) have been measured in the laboratory for crushed oceanite, hawaite, and trachyte samples from an almost complete moderately alkaline lava series from the Mururoa atoll (French Polynesia). For pH varying from 7 to 9.5 and ionic strength varying from 0.1 to 100 mmol/l, despite the closely related mineralogy of the rocks, contrasted results are obtained for the surface conductivity as defined by Revil and Glover: 0.10±0.07 mS/m, 8.3±0.2 mS/m and 1.05±0.16 mS/m for oceanite, hawaite, and trachyte, respectively, and for the inferred ζ <span class="hlt">potential</span>: -6.6±0.3 mV, -26.3±0.5 mV, and -14.6±0.3 mV, respectively. The higher values obtained with hawaite suggest that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties are controlled by secondary and accessory minerals such as clay minerals and zeolites resulting from low-temperature seawater alteration, rather than by the magmatic differentiation. Furthermore, a synthesis of results obtained with 20 rock samples indicates that signatures of the alteration process may emerge from the study of the ζ <span class="hlt">potential</span> as a function of surface conductivity. The results with the lava series can be used to derive estimates of the scaling of basalt resistivity and associated SPC as a function of permeability. For permeability values smaller than 10 -15 m 2, the value of the SPC can be dramatically affected by the value of the surface conductivity. At least in the brittle crust, a better knowledge of the contributions of clay minerals and zeolites to surface conduction is therefore needed, both for the interpretation of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity profiles and for the estimation of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> variations associated with groundwater flow, as could be produced for example during volcanic or tectonic cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456453"><span id="translatedtitle">Polymer adsorption and electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of dispersed particles in weak and strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barany, Sandor</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A review on the effects of adsorbed non-ionic polymers and polyelectrolytes on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles is given. The variety of changes in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer (EDL) structure and, in particular, electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> in weak <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields as a result of polymer adsorption is discussed. Examples on the dependence of zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of particles on the adsorbed amount of polymers are described. An analysis of the influence of various complicating factors, namely polarization of the EDL, curvature of the surface and the presence of electrolytes, on the calculation of polymer layer thickness from electrophoretic data has been performed. Results of electrophoretic measurements in suspensions of non-conventional particles (TiC, SiC and Si3N4) having adsorbed polyethylene oxide are presented. Regularities of the effect of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) and their binary mixtures on the electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of dispersed particles (polystyrene, silica, bentonite and kaolin) as a function of the polymer dose, pH, charge density (CD) of the polyelectrolyte, as well as the mixture composition and the sequence of component addition are described. It has been shown that addition of increasing amount of anionic PEs increases the absolute value of the negative zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of particles, while adsorption of cationic PEs results in a significant decrease in the negative ζ-<span class="hlt">potential</span> and overcharging the particle surface; changes in the ζ-<span class="hlt">potential</span> are more pronounced for samples with higher CD. In mixtures of cationic and anionic PEs, in a wide range of their composition, the ζ-<span class="hlt">potential</span> of negatively charged particles is determined by the adsorbed amount of the anionic polymer independently of the CD of polyelectrolyte and the sequence of the mixture component addition. The role of coulombic and non-coulombic forces in the mechanism of polyelectrolyte adsorption and structure of adsorbed layers formed is discussed. The results of comparative investigations on the effect of adsorbed polymers on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles in weak and strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields are presented. It is shown that adsorption of non-ionic polymers only slightly (by about 20-50%) decreases the electrophoretic velocity (V(ef)) of polystyrene, graphite and aluminium-oxide particles in strong fields (100-400 V/cm). This is in contrast to the electrophoresis in weak fields (5-20 V/cm) in which adsorption of these polymers gives a drop in V(ef) by an order of magnitude or even more. In line with our theoretical predictions, it means that the non-linear ("cubic") electrophoresis, that arises in strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields, is independent of the position of the shear plane, i.e. the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> value. It is determined mainly by the surface conductivity of particles, i.e. by the Dukhin number that characterizes the polarization of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layer. PMID:25456453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2035F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2035F"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the surface of nonuniformly charged polypropylene nonwoven media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fatihou, Ali; Zouzou, Noureddine; Iuga, Gheorghe; Dascalescu, Lucian</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to establish the conditions in which the vibrating capacitive probe of an electrostatic voltmeter could be employed for mapping the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the surface of non-uniformly charged insulating bodies. A first set of experiments are performed on polypropylene non-woven media (thickness: 0.4 mm; fiber diameter: 20 μm) in ambient air. In a second set of experiments the non-uniformity of charge is simulated using five copper strips (width: 2 mm or 3 mm; distance between strips: 2 mm). All the strips are connected to a high-voltage supply (Vs = 1000 V). The sample carrier is attached to a computer-controlled positioning system that transfers it under the capacitive probe (TREK, model 3451) of an electrostatic voltmeter (TREK, model 1341B). The measurements are performed at various relative speeds Vb between the sample and the probe, and for various sample rates Fe. A first set of experiments point out that the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> displayed by the electrostatic voltmeter depends on the spacing h between the sample and the probe. The diameter D of the spot “seen” by the probe is approximately D ≈ 8h/3. From the second set of experiments performed with the test plate, it can be concluded that the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be measured with the media in motion, but the accuracy is limited by the spatial resolution defined by k = Vb/Fe.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415336','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415336"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the constant <span class="hlt">potential</span> method in simulating <span class="hlt">electric</span> double-layer capacitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian B.; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark</p> <p>2014-11-14</p> <p>A major challenge in the molecular simulation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO{sub 4}-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of “inner-sphere adsorbed” Li{sup +} ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li{sup +} ions to the electrode surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3160201','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3160201"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Membrane Tension on the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Field and Dipole <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of Lipid Bilayer Membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Muellner, Michael J.; Chachisvilis, Mirianas</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The dipole <span class="hlt">potential</span> of lipid bilayer membrane controls the difference in permeability of the membrane to oppositely charged ions. We have combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental studies to determine changes in <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer in response to applied membrane tension. MD simulations based on CHARMM36 force field showed that electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of DOPC bilayer decreases by ~45 mV in the physiologically relevant range of membrane tension values (0 to 15 dyn/cm). The electrostatic field exhibits a peak (~0.8×109 V/m) near the water/lipid interface which shifts by 0.9 Å towards the bilayer center at 15 dyn/cm. Maximum membrane tension of 15 dyn/cm caused 6.4% increase in area per lipid, 4.7% decrease in bilayer thickness and 1.4% increase in the volume of the bilayer. Dipole-<span class="hlt">potential</span> sensitive fluorescent probes were used to detect membrane tension induced changes in DOPC vesicles exposed to osmotic stress. Experiments confirmed that dipole <span class="hlt">potential</span> of DOPC bilayer decreases at higher membrane tensions. These results are suggestive of a <span class="hlt">potentially</span> new mechanosensing mechanism by which mechanically induced structural changes in the lipid bilayer membrane could modulate the function of membrane proteins by altering electrostatic interactions and energetics of protein conformational states. PMID:21722624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139x4908P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139x4908P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of a spherical soft particle with a charged core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phan, Anh D.; Tracy, Dustin A.; Nguyen, T. L. Hoai; Viet, N. A.; Phan, The-Long; Nguyen, Thanh H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of a spherical soft particle is derived by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations on a spherical system both numerically and analytically. The soft particle is assumed to consist of an ion-permeable charged outer layer and a non-permeable charged core with constant charged density. The contribution of the core to the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile is calculated for different charges and dielectric constants. Our results show that the charged core heavily influences the local <span class="hlt">potential</span> within the soft particle. By contrast, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution outside the particle in the salt solution is found to be weakly dependent on the core features. These findings are consistent with previous experiments showing the minor impact of the core of the MS2 virus on its overall <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties. Our studies also indicate that while a change in temperature from 290 K to 310 K only slightly varies the <span class="hlt">potential</span>, the ionic strength in the range of 1-600 mM has a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile. Our studies would provide good understanding for experimental research in the field of biophysics and nanomedicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6207289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6207289"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between presynaptic membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and acetylcholine release in synaptosomes from Torpedo <span class="hlt">electric</span> organ.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meunier, F M</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>The membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> of purely cholinergic synaptosomes isolated from Torpedo <span class="hlt">electric</span> organ was monitored with fluorescent carbocyanine dyes. An increased fluorescence was associated with depolarization and a quenching with hyperpolarization. Fluorescence data provided evidence that Torpedo synaptosomes have a membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> mainly driven by a K+ diffusion <span class="hlt">potential</span> and a membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> of about -50 mV could be estimated after calibration of fluorescence signals with ionophore antibiotics. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) from Torpedo synaptosomes was monitored continuously by measuring the light emitted by a chemiluminescent method (Israël & Lesbats, 1981 a). Using fluorescence data, the release of ACh was expressed as a function of membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The relationship between presynaptic <span class="hlt">potential</span> and transmitter release as determined by biochemical methods at cholinergic nerve endings showed striking similarities to that observed at the squid giant synapse. Several substances were also tested with regard to their depolarizing and releasing properties and it was found that the toxin isolated from the venom of the annelid Glycera convoluta, which induced a large increase in quantal release of transmitter (Manaranche, Thieffry, & Israël, 1980) promoted a depolarization of Torpedo synaptosomes in addition to ACh release. PMID:6207289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556264"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> from photosystem I reaction centers in lipid vesicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pennisi, C P; Greenbaum, E; Yoshida, K</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic reaction centers are integral membrane complexes that produce a net transmembrane charge separation in response to light. The Photosystem I (PSI) complex is a thoroughly studied reaction center that has been proposed as a nanoscale photovoltaic structure in diverse applications, including activation of excitable cells by triggering of voltage-gated ion channels. An electrostatic model of a spherical lipid vesicle embedded with PSI and suspended in an aqueous medium is presented. The distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is obtained by solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with the finite-element method. The model predicts a maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference of 1.3 V between charges. This value depends mostly on the intrinsic dielectric constants of the reaction center and distance between charges. However, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution near the reaction center depends on the ionic strength of the aqueous medium. When the ionic strength is zero, the vesicle develops a transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> that increases linearly with the density of reaction centers. When the ionic strength increases, this <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference approaches to zero. The main results of the simulations are consistent with previously reported experimental data. Based on the presented results, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> application of PSI to light activation of voltage-gated ion channels is discussed. PMID:18556264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/236833','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/236833"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> utility restructuring: Issues for small business</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, J.W.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study is to examine the issues associated with <span class="hlt">electric</span> power deregulation and restructuring for their <span class="hlt">potential</span> impact on small business. Opportunities for customer cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> are similar to those in other recently deregulated industries such as airlines and other transportation, long distance telephone, and natural gas production. The researcher provides an overview of the environment for utility industry restructuring, identifies the <span class="hlt">potential</span> cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> for small business, compares the `Poolco` and `Direct Access` models for restructuring, reviews several examples of restructuring policies in effect, and presents arguments against permitting <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities to recover all of their `stranded costs` in a deregulated environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3171S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3171S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Impact of the National Plan for Future <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shim, C.; Hong, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future <span class="hlt">electric</span> power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for <span class="hlt">electric</span> generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a <span class="hlt">potential</span> threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the <span class="hlt">potentially</span> worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as <span class="hlt">potentially</span> severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/789188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/789188"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> using conservation supply curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst</p> <p>2001-07-24</p> <p>We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy efficiency improvement. The paper explores the implications of how this change in perspective might affect the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the U.S. It is found that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research for this important area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4085625','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4085625"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Investigation into the Transmembrane <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of the Forward Osmosis Membrane Process in Electrolyte Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bian, Lixia; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaolin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (TMEP) in a forward osmosis membrane process with a single electrolyte solution as the draw and feed solutions was investigated by experiments. The effects of membrane orientation, the electrolyte species (KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2), concentration and concentration ratio of solutions at both sides of membrane on water flux and TMEP were investigated. The results showed that the TMEPs at different membrane orientation cannot completely coincide, which confirmed the effect of membrane asymmetry. The ion diffusion coefficients significantly affected the TMEP across the membrane, with different patterns for different electrolytes and concentrations. PMID:24957177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889779"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the Acid Stimulation in the Beowawe Geothermal Field Using Surface <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hart, Carolyne M.; Engi, Dennis; Morris, Harris E.</p> <p>1983-12-15</p> <p>A surface <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> system was fielded during the chemical stimulation of the Rossi 21-19 well in the Beowawe Geothermal Field. The technique, which measures variations in resistivity resulting from the flow of conductive fluid into the reservoir, was not only shown to be highly sensitive, not only to the chemical treatment, but also to the in situ conductive zones before any acid injection. A review of the experiment and a preliminary interpretation of the data are presented. The data provide convincing evidence that it should be possible to map the treated zone as well as the primary pretreatment in situ conductive zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSt1108..341F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSt1108..341F"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical study of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy surface and <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment of aniline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farasat, Mahshid; Shojaei, S. H. Reza; Golzan, M. Maqsood; Farhadi, Khalil</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy surface (PES) of aniline was comprehensively investigated at different levels in this paper. The stable conformer of aniline has CS point group while the transition states possess CS and C2V symmetries. The computed transition states of aniline are highly dependent on the level of the computations including Hartree-Fock, Density functional and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories. The <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment of the molecule varies by the rotation of the amino group with respect to the phenyl plane, while in the range of 60-120 degrees, the changes of the dipole moment is not noticeable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957177"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation into the transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the forward osmosis membrane process in electrolyte solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bian, Lixia; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaolin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (TMEP) in a forward osmosis membrane process with a single electrolyte solution as the draw and feed solutions was investigated by experiments. The effects of membrane orientation, the electrolyte species (KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2), concentration and concentration ratio of solutions at both sides of membrane on water flux and TMEP were investigated. The results showed that the TMEPs at different membrane orientation cannot completely coincide, which confirmed the effect of membrane asymmetry. The ion diffusion coefficients significantly affected the TMEP across the membrane, with different patterns for different electrolytes and concentrations. PMID:24957177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NES.C1008S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NES.C1008S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Anomalous <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Energy in Distilled Water Under Solar Heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe a very simple experiment with distilled water which could exhibit anomalous <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy with very minimum preparation energy. While this observed excess energy here is less impressive than J-P. Beberian's and M. Porringa's, and the material used is also far less exotic than common LENR-CANR experiments, from the viewpoint of minimum preparation requirement --and therefore less barrier for rapid implementation--, it seems that further experiments could be recommended in order to verify and also to explore various implications of this new proposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=197552','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=197552"><span id="translatedtitle">TEXAS SCHOOL FOOD POLICY CHANGES RELATED TO MIDDLE SCHOOL A LA CARTE/SNACK BAR FOODS: <span class="hlt">POTENTIAL</span> <span class="hlt">SAVINGS</span> IN KILOCALORIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> impact of a school food policy change reducing sweetened beverage and high-fat, salty, and sweet food portions on energy consumption of middle-school students was assessed. Snack bar sales for one school year were obtained from 23 schools. Energy content was calculated for each item an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApGeo...9...19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApGeo...9...19S"><span id="translatedtitle">A model study of residual oil distribution jointly using crosswell and borehole-surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, Ben-Yu; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Xu, Jing-Ling; Song, Jian-Yong</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Although high resolution can be provided by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> logging, the measured <span class="hlt">electrical</span> log range is narrow and is limited to near the well. Borehole-surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements are able to detect a wide enough range but its resolution is limited, particularly for reservoirs with complex oil and water distribution or complicated structure. In this study, we attempt to accurately locate the 3-D reservoir water and oil distribution by combining borehole-surface and crosswell <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. First, the distributions of oil and water in both vertical and horizontal directions are detected by the borehole-surface and crosswell <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> methods, respectively, and then the measured crosswell <span class="hlt">potential</span> result is used to calibrate the measured borehole-surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> data to improve vertical resolution so that the residual oil distribution is determined in a lower half-space with three dimensions. The evaluation of residual oil distribution is obtained by investigation of differences between the simulation results of the reservoir with and without water flooding. The finite difference numerical simulation results prove that the spatial residual oil distribution can be effectively determined by combining the crosswell and borehole-surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/34347','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/34347"><span id="translatedtitle">Learning about <span class="hlt">saving</span> energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to <span class="hlt">save</span> energy in heating and cooling, <span class="hlt">electric</span> appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BVol...74.2221W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BVol...74.2221W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> impacts from tephra fall to <span class="hlt">electric</span> power systems: a review and mitigation strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wardman, J. B.; Wilson, T. M.; Bodger, P. S.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Modern society is highly dependent on a reliable <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply. During explosive volcanic eruptions, tephra contamination of power networks (systems) can compromise the reliability of supply. Outages can have significant cascading impacts for other critical infrastructure sectors and for society as a whole. This paper summarises known impacts to power systems following tephra falls since 1980. The main impacts are (1) supply outages from insulator flashover caused by tephra contamination, (2) disruption of generation facilities, (3) controlled outages during tephra cleaning, (4) abrasion and corrosion of exposed equipment and (5) line (conductor) breakage due to tephra loading. Of these impacts, insulator flashover is the most common disruption. The review highlights multiple instances of <span class="hlt">electric</span> power systems exhibiting tolerance to tephra falls, suggesting that failure thresholds exist and should be identified to avoid future unplanned interruptions. To address this need, we have produced a fragility function that quantifies the likelihood of insulator flashover at different thicknesses of tephra. Finally, based on our review of case studies, <span class="hlt">potential</span> mitigation strategies are summarised. Specifically, avoiding tephra-induced insulator flashover by cleaning key facilities such as generation sites and transmission and distribution substations is of critical importance in maintaining the integrity of an <span class="hlt">electric</span> power system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020047560','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020047560"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Operating Orbits for Fission <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Propulsion Systems Driven by the SAFE-400</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houts, Mike; Kos, Larry; Poston, David; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Safety must be ensured during all phases of space fission system design, development, fabrication, launch, operation, and shutdown. One <span class="hlt">potential</span> space fission system application is fission <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion (FEP), in which fission energy is converted into <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and used to power high efficiency (Isp greater than 3000s) <span class="hlt">electric</span> thrusters. For these types of systems it is important to determine which operational scenarios ensure safety while allowing maximum mission performance and flexibility. Space fission systems are essentially nonradioactive at launch, prior to extended operation at high power. Once high power operation begins, system radiological inventory steadily increases as fission products build up. For a given fission product isotope, the maximum radiological inventory is typically achieved once the system has operated for a length of time equivalent to several half-lives. After that time, the isotope decays at the same rate it is produced, and no further inventory builds in. For an FEP mission beginning in Earth orbit, altitude and orbital lifetime increase as the propulsion system operates. Two simultaneous effects of fission propulsion system operation are thus (1) increasing fission product inventory and (2) increasing orbital lifetime. Phrased differently, as fission products build up, more time is required for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Simultaneously, as fission products build up, orbital lifetime increases, providing more time for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Operational constraints required to ensure safety can thus be quantified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5912003','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5912003"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> for containment leak paths through <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sebrell, W.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher <span class="hlt">potential</span> for leakage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+heat&pg=6&id=EJ225523','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+heat&pg=6&id=EJ225523"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy Control Systems: Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>School Business Affairs, 1980</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The installation of proper control systems is estimated as <span class="hlt">saving</span> up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0685Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0685Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for Hydro-generated <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> and Climate Change Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Leon, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.; Li, H. Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydropower is a dominant renewable energy source at the global level, accounting for more than 15% of the world's total power supply. It is also very vulnerable to climate change. Improved understanding of climate change impact on hydropower can help develop adaptation measures to increase the resilience of energy system. In this study, we developed a comprehensive estimate of global hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> using runoff and stream flow data derived from a global hydrologic model with a river routing sub-model, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental consideration (Figure 1). We find that hydropower has the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this <span class="hlt">potential</span> varies substantially by regions. Resources in a number of countries exceed by multiple folds the total current demand for <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, e.g., Russia and Indonesia. A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be highly sensitive to a number of parameters including designed flow for capacity, cost and financing, turbine efficiency, and stream flow. The climate change impact on hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> was evaluated by using runoff outputs from 4 climate models (HadCM3, PCM, CGCM2, and CSIRO2). It was found that the climate change on hydropower shows large variation not only by regions, but also climate models, and this demonstrates the importance of incorporating climate change into infrastructure-planning at the regional level though the existing uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394236','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394236"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of halophytes as energy crops for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility industry. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goodin, J.R.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>This technical report assesses and estimates the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass <span class="hlt">potential</span>, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological <span class="hlt">potential</span>. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388758"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-<span class="hlt">potential</span> respirators support <span class="hlt">electricity</span> production in microbial fuel cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grüning, André; Beecroft, Nelli J; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we analyse how <span class="hlt">electric</span> power production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) depends on the composition of the anodic biofilm in terms of metabolic capabilities of identified sets of species. MFCs are a promising technology for organic waste treatment and sustainable bioelectricity production. Inoculated with natural communities, they present a complex microbial ecosystem with syntrophic interactions between microbes with different metabolic capabilities. Our results demonstrate that low-<span class="hlt">potential</span> anaerobic respirators--that is those that are able to use terminal electron acceptors with a low redox <span class="hlt">potential</span>--are important for good power production. Our results also confirm that community metabolism in MFCs with natural inoculum and fermentable feedstock is a two-stage system with fermentation followed by anode respiration. PMID:25388758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770056058&hterms=cell+potentials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Bpotentials','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770056058&hterms=cell+potentials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Bpotentials"><span id="translatedtitle">Light-dependent cation gradients and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in Halobacterium halobium cell envelope vesicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lanyi, J. K.; Macdonald, R. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Vesicles can be prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes, which contain properly oriented bacteriorhodopsin and which extrude H(+) during illumination. The pH difference that is generated across the membranes is accompanied by an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of 90 to 100 mV (interior negative) and the movements of other cations. Among these is the efflux of Na(+), which proceeds against its electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The relationship between the size and direction of the light-induced pH gradient and the rate of depletion of Na(+) from the vesicles, as well as other evidence, suggest that the active Na(+) extrusion is facilitated by a membrane component that exchanges H(+) for Na(+) with a stoichiometry greater than 1. The gradients of H(+) and Na(+) are thus coupled to one another. The Na(+) gradient (efflux much larger than influx), which arises during illumination, plays a major role in energizing the active transport of amino acids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24303193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24303193"><span id="translatedtitle">Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> that we named obex slow <span class="hlt">potential</span> (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators. PMID:24303193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302397','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302397"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing distance and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> within a protein pore with tethered DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Howorka, Stefan; Bayley, Hagan</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>DNA molecules tethered inside a protein pore can be used as a tool to probe distance and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The approach and its limitations were tested with alpha-hemolysin, a pore of known structure. A single oligonucleotide was attached to an engineered cysteine to allow the binding of complementary DNA strands inside the wide internal cavity of the extramembranous domain of the pore. The reversible binding of individual oligonucleotides produced transient current blockades in single channel current recordings. To probe the internal structure of the pore, oligonucleotides with 5' overhangs of deoxyadenosines and deoxythymidines up to nine bases in length were used. The characteristics of the blockades produced by the oligonucleotides indicated that single-stranded overhangs of increasing length first approach and then thread into the transmembrane beta-barrel. The distance from the point at which the DNA was attached and the internal entrance to the barrel is 43 A, consistent with the lengths of the DNA probes and the signals produced by them. In addition, the tethered DNAs were used to probe the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> within the protein pore. Binding events of oligonucleotides with an overhang of five bases or more, which threaded into the beta-barrel, exhibited shorter residence times at higher applied <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. This finding is consistent with the idea that the main <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop is across the alpha-hemolysin transmembrane beta-barrel, rather than the entire length of the lumen of the pore. It therefore explains why the kinetics and thermodynamics of formation of short duplexes within the extramembranous cavity of the pore are similar to those measured in solution, and bolsters the idea that a "DNA nanopore" provides a useful means for examining duplex formation at the single molecule level. PMID:12496089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159317"><span id="translatedtitle">The market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for SMES in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility applications. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are <span class="hlt">potentially</span> attractive in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility applications. This study evaluates the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of <span class="hlt">electric</span> energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1335.1623M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1335.1623M"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometrical Gauge Factor of Directional <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Drop Sensors for Creep Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Directional <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511629"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometrical gauge factor of directional <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop sensors for creep monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.</p> <p>2011-06-23</p> <p>Directional <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49j5203P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49j5203P"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at trench surfaces on ion angular distribution in plasma etching processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palov, A. P.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Baklanov, M. R.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Ion-stimulated etching of dielectrics in radio frequency plasma results in positive charging of a trench bottom because of the significant difference in the angular distribution functions of ions and electrons. They are anisotropic for ions and quasi-isotropic for electrons. The charging leads to a decrease in the energy of the ions bombarding the trench bottom and to undesirable sputtering of the walls near the trench bottom because of the curving of the ion trajectories. This process is normally investigated by Monte Carlo methods in the absence of experimental data. In this paper the analytical dependence of the ion flux bombarding the trench bottom on a trench aspect ratio and ion angular distribution function is obtained. Numerical calculations of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the trench bottom for a set of trench aspect ratios and angles of the ion angular distribution function were performed based on a Monte Carlo method to demonstrate the ion flux and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> correlated well with each other. The proposed formula for an ion flux is suggested to be helpful for analyzing charging the trenches with different aspect ratios in plasma with an arbitrary angular ion distribution function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6271R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6271R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity tomography and self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> case studies for fractured aquifer characterization and monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, Tanguy; Dassargues, Alain; Nguyen, Frdric</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) investigations have been conducted in complex carboniferous limestones aquifers in Belgium (synclinorium structures). The aims of this study were (1) to detect and characterize fractured zones in hard rock aquifers, (2) to monitor groundwater flow/water content in these fractured or karstic areas and (3) to use geophysical data to support groundwater flow model set-up and calibration. The investigated areas lie in calcareous synclines. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> images allowed us to detect and characterize (in terms of direction, width and depth) several less resistive anomalies, which are interpreted in terms of fractured and/or karstic zones. To interpret the ERT images, data errors as well as image appraisal indicators (resolution matrix, sensitivity matrix and DOI index) were analysed and compared. This allowed us to determine the depth of investigation of ERT and to avoid the misinterpretation of the resulting images. Inversions based on focusing scheme are tested against smoothness-constraint inversion on these field data to provide more realistic images on the basis of prior geological knowledge. Self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements were performed along the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> profiles and allowed us to find negative anomalies possibly related with groundwater preferential flow pathways. By taking the assumption that only the electrokinetic effect plays a role in the SP signals, we were able to estimate a first distribution of the water table along our profiles. The SP data showed that in this particular tectonic structure, two perpendicular hydraulic gradients are present. The first gradient is related with the main fold axis direction and is the major drainage system. The second hydraulic gradient is related with the flanks of the calcareous valley. Geophysical data concurrently with ground truth' geological and hydrogeological data allowed us to better understand the groundwater flow in these calcareous synclines and to verify the conceptual groundwater flow model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2891064','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2891064"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertebral Growth Modulation by <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Current in an Animal Model: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Treatment for Scoliosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dodge, George R.; Bowen, J. Richard; Jeong, Changhoon</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The concept of modulating spinal growth to correct scoliosis is intriguing, and this study proposes a new model. Inhibition of vertebral growth on the convex side of a curve would allow continued normal growth on the concave side to correct the scoliosis. In a previous study, we induced bony bridges across the physis of the femur producing an epiphysiodesis in rabbits by using a stimulator modified to deliver a current of 50 μA. The present study builds on this finding to design a model with an aim of inhibiting growth in a unilateral peripheral portion of the vertebral endplate physis, which induces asymmetric spinal growth. Methods The study was conducted with 8-week-old rabbits; six were treated with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current via an implantable 4-lead device; three were age matched normal rabbits. The device was implanted and delivered a constant current of 50 μA from each electrode, continuously for 6 weeks. Weekly radiograph monitoring and endpoint histology were performed. Results Spinal growth was modified by inducing asymmetric growth of the vertebra of young rabbits using <span class="hlt">electric</span> stimulators delivering 50 μA of direct current through electrodes implanted in a left peripheral portion of the endplate physis. Conclusion This concept study, based on our previous study, involved a method and device for inhibiting growth in one aspect of the vertebral endplate using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current at an amplitude that induced a hemiepiphysiodesis. Our results demonstrated that this technique both establishes an in vivo model of scoliosis and suggests that if this technique were applied to an existing curve it could <span class="hlt">potentially</span> induce asymmetrical growth of the spine, thereby correcting scoliosis by continuing the normal growth on the concavity of the curve. Clinical Relevance A <span class="hlt">potential</span> new method for modulating spinal growth was developed, and, with further research, this method may be useful in treating children with scoliosis by delivering a growth-inhibiting current to the physeal areas of vertebra through electrodes placed percutaneously. PMID:20502237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220122','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220122"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to provide homeowners with significant energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters to determine the energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> when replacing typical <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters, but only <span class="hlt">saved</span> source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088592','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088592"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to provide homeowners with significant energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters to determine the energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> when replacing typical <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters, but only <span class="hlt">saved</span> source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043097','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043097"><span id="translatedtitle">SunShot Vision Study: A Comprehensive Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for U.S. Solar <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Generation (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The SunShot Vision Study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for solar technologies to meet a significant share of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand in the United States during the next several decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/54759','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/54759"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy and resource <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the United States Army</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nemeth, R.J.; DeBaillie, L.P.; Fournier, D.J.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Using a computer program developed at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (CERL), <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy and water <span class="hlt">savings</span> have been predicted for 110 Army, 72 Air Force, and 68 Navy installations around the United States. The Renewables and Energy Efficiency Planning (REEP) computer program evaluates a total of seventy-eight (78) Energy and Water Conservation Opportunities (ECOs & WCOs) at these installations. Based on the energy/water <span class="hlt">savings</span> and associated cost <span class="hlt">savings</span>, an ECO or WCO is considered economically viable if it has a simple payback of ten years or less, and a <span class="hlt">savings</span>-to-investment ratio of 1.25 or greater. Each Department of Defense (DoD) installation is described using over 100 entries of specific data. This data describes the total area of different building types, weather information, capacities of heating and cooling plants in different capacity bins, utility rate information, water consumption, sewage processing, and more. ECO attributes are characterized using up to 20 user defined variables, such as initial cost, life expectancy, and other ECO unique parameters such as combustion efficiency, reflectance characteristics, U-value, wattage, etc. Using algorithms developed for each ECO, attributes of each ECO, and installation specific data, the REEP program calculates energy, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> demand, and water <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. In the United States the DoD owns over 1.6 billion square feet of facilities. In 1991, utility costs for these facilities were over $2.3 billion. Almost $1.3 billion of this was <span class="hlt">electrical</span> costs. Using the REEP model, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> annual energy and cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> estimated for the 250 DoD installations in 50,000,000 MBtu, or $559 million for a total ECO investment of $2.75 billion. Acceptance or rejection of ECOs at each installation is highly dependent on the installation`s utility rates and climatic conditions. This paper presents some of the research findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24772068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24772068"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses to field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations in the hippocampal formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Posłuszny, Anna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> synapses are a type of cellular membrane junction referred to as gap junctions (GJs). They provide a direct way to exchange ions between coupled cells and have been proposed as a structural basis for fast transmission of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> between neurons in the brain. For this reason GJs have been regarded as an important component within the neuronal networks that underlie synchronous neuronal activity and field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations. Initially, GJs appeared to play a particularly key role in the generation of high frequency oscillatory patterns in field <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. In order to assess the scale of neuronal GJs contribution to field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations in the hippocampal formation, in vivo and in vitro studies are reviewed here. These investigations have shown that blocking the main neuronal GJs, those containing connexin 36 (Cx36-GJs), or knocking out the Cx36 gene affect field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillatory patterns related to awake active behavior (gamma and theta rhythm) but have no effect on high frequency oscillations occurring during silent wake and sleep. Precisely how Cx36-GJs influence population activity of neurons is more complex than previously thought. Analysis of studies on the properties of transmission through GJ channels as well as Cx36-GJs functioning in pairs of coupled neurons provides some explanations of the specific influence of Cx36-GJs on field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations. It is proposed here that GJ transmission is strongly modulated by the level of neuronal network activity and changing behavioral states. Therefore, contribution of GJs to field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillatory patterns depends on the behavioral state. I propose here a model, based on large body of experimental data gathered in this field by several authors, in which Cx36-GJ transmission especially contributes to oscillations related to active behavior, where it plays a role in filtering and enhancing coherent signals in the network under high-noise conditions. In contrast, oscillations related to silent wake or sleep, especially high frequency oscillations, do not require transmission by neuronal GJs. The reliability of neuronal discharges during those oscillations could be assured by conditions of higher signal-to-noise ratio and some synaptic changes taking place during active behavior. PMID:24772068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219325"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages. Existing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>This document presents the most cost effective Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all <span class="hlt">electric</span> homes to achieve 15% and 30% <span class="hlt">savings</span> for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> are typically found between 30% and 50% energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622192"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> coupling in ensembles of nonexcitable cells: modeling the spatial map of single cell <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, Jose Antonio; Mafe, Salvador</p> <p>2015-02-19</p> <p>We analyze the coupling of model nonexcitable (non-neural) cells assuming that the cell membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> is the basic individual property. We obtain this <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the basis of the inward and outward rectifying voltage-gated channels characteristic of cell membranes. We concentrate on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling of a cell ensemble rather than on the biochemical and mechanical characteristics of the individual cells, obtain the map of single cell <span class="hlt">potentials</span> using simple assumptions, and suggest procedures to collectively modify this spatial map. The response of the cell ensemble to an external perturbation and the consequences of cell isolation, heterogeneity, and ensemble size are also analyzed. The results suggest that simple coupling mechanisms can be significant for the biophysical chemistry of model biomolecular ensembles. In particular, the spatiotemporal map of single cell <span class="hlt">potentials</span> should be relevant for the uptake and distribution of charged nanoparticles over model cell ensembles and the collective properties of droplet networks incorporating protein ion channels inserted in lipid bilayers. PMID:25622192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811989"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing Nanoscale Distribution of Corrosion Cells by Open-Loop <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Honbo, Kyoko; Ogata, Shoichiro; Kitagawa, Takuya; Okamoto, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Naritaka; Sugimoto, Itto; Shima, Shohei; Fukunaga, Akira; Takatoh, Chikako; Fukuma, Takeshi</p> <p>2016-02-23</p> <p>Corrosion is a traditional problem but still one of the most serious problems in industry. To reduce the huge economic loss caused by corrosion, tremendous effort has been made to understand, predict and prevent it. Corrosion phenomena are generally explained by the formation of corrosion cells at a metal-electrolyte interface. However, experimental verification of their nanoscale distribution has been a major challenge owing to the lack of a method able to visualize the local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in an electrolytic solution. In this study, we have investigated the nanoscale corrosion behavior of Cu fine wires and a duplex stainless steel by in situ imaging of local corrosion cells by open-loop <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> microscopy (OL-EPM). For both materials, <span class="hlt">potential</span> images obtained by OL-EPM show nanoscale contrasts, where areas of higher and lower <span class="hlt">potential</span> correspond to anodic areas (i.e., corrosion sites) and cathodic areas, respectively. This imaging capability allows us to investigate the real-time transition of local corrosion sites even when surface structures show little change. This is particularly useful for investigating reactions under surface oxide layers or highly corrosion-resistant materials as demonstrated here. The proposed technique should be applicable to the study of other redox reactions on a battery electrode or a catalytic material. The results presented here open up such future applications of OL-EPM in nanoscale electrochemistry. PMID:26811989</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010234','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010234"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar Surface <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface <span class="hlt">potential</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE31B3417J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE31B3417J"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge balance and ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> dynamics in time dependent global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jansky, J.; Pasko, V. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have developed a time-dependent model of global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit (GEC)in spherical coordinates. The model solves time-dependent charge continuity equation coupledwith Poisson's equation. An implicit time stepping is used to avoid strict dielectricrelaxation time step condition, and boundary conditions for Poisson's equationare implemented to allow accurate description of time evolution of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span>.The concept of impulse response of GEC is introduced that allows effective representationof complex time dynamics of various physical quantities in the circuit usingmodel results obtained for instantaneous deposition of a point charge.The more complex problems, like continuous charging of thunderstorms and different typesof lightning dischargesare then reconstructed using convolution and linearity principles.It is shown that for a thundercloud charging phase, typicallyrepresented by a current dipole, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be determined from the differenceof time integrals of two ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> impulse responsescorresponding to charge locations at the opposite ends of the current dipole.During a cloud to ground lightning discharge,the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes instantaneously by a value proportionalto the charge moment change produced by lightning and then relaxes to zero.We will also discuss processes involving transient conductivity perturbations in GEC associated withextraterrestrial gamma ray bursts and sprites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344151"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling of surface energy with <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> makes superhydrophobic surfaces corrosion-resistant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>We study the correlation of wetting properties and corrosion rates on hydrophobized cast iron. Samples of different surface roughnesses (abraded by sandpaper) are studied without coating and with two types of hydrophobic coatings (stearic acid and a liquid repelling spray). The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis are measured using a goniometer while corrosion rates are measured by a potentiodynamic polarization test. The data show a decrease in corrosion current density and an increase in corrosion <span class="hlt">potential</span> after superhydrophobization. A similar trend is also found in the recent literature data. We conclude that a decrease in the corrosion rate can be attributed to the changing open circuit <span class="hlt">potential</span> of a coated surface and increased surface area making the non-homogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) state possible. We interpret these results in light of the idea that the inherent surface energy is coupled with the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in accordance with the Lippmann law of electrowetting and Le Châtelier's principle and, therefore, hydrophobization leads to a decrease in the corrosion <span class="hlt">potential</span>. This approach can be used for novel anti-corrosive coatings. PMID:26344151</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/843010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/843010"><span id="translatedtitle">Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst</p> <p>2005-08-03</p> <p>The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply markets, they also offer the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable <span class="hlt">electricity</span> infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise be unused and convert it to <span class="hlt">electricity</span> or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Examples of energy recycling methods include industrial gasification technologies to increase energy recovery, as well as less traditional CHP technologies, and the use of energy that is typically discarded from pressure release vents or from the burning and flaring of waste streams. These energy recovery technologies have the ability to reduce costs for power generation. This report is a preliminary study of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> contribution of this ''new'' generation of clean recycled energy supply technologies to the power supply of the United States. For each of the technologies this report provides a short technical description, as well as an estimate of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for application in the U.S., estimated investment and operation costs, as well as impact on air pollutant emission reductions. The report summarizes the <span class="hlt">potential</span> magnitude of the benefits of these new technologies. The report does not yet provide a robust cost-benefit analysis. It is stressed that the report provides a preliminary assessment to help focus future efforts by the federal government to further investigate the opportunities offered by new clean power generation technologies, as well as initiate policies to support further development and uptake of clean power generation technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......208H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......208H"><span id="translatedtitle">Oil well flow assurance through static <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>: An experimental investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hashmi, Muhammad Ihtsham Asmat</p> <p></p> <p>Flow assurance technology deals with the deposition of organic and inorganic solids in the oil flow path, which results in constriction of the production tubing and surface flow lines and drastically reduces the kinetic energy of the fluid. The major contributors to this flow restriction are inorganic scales, asphaltene, wax and gas hydrates, in addition to minor contribution from formation fines and corrosion products. Some of these materials (particularly asphaltene and inorganic scales) carry surface charges on their nuclei and seen to be attracted by electrode having opposite charge. The focus of the present research is to find the possibilities of inhibiting the deposition of asphaltene and inorganic scales in the production tubing by applying static <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. With this objective, two flow set ups were made; one for asphaltene and the other for scale deposition studies, attached with precision pumps, pressure recording system and DC power supply. In each set up there were two flow loops, one was converted as Anode and the other as Cathode. A series of flow studies were conducted using the flow set ups, in which oil-dilution ratio, temperature and most importantly DC <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference was varied and the deposition behavior of the asphaltene aggregates and calcium carbonate scale to the walls of the test loops were observed through rise of differential pressure across the loop due to possible deposition and constriction of the flow path. Two different sets of flow studies; one without oil dilution and other with the diluted oil (with n-heptane), were performed. Both experiments were investigated under the influence of static <span class="hlt">potential</span> applied across the two test loops. Experimental results indicated that asphaltene deposition in the cathode can be retarded or stopped by applying a suitable negative <span class="hlt">potential</span>; an increase in the static <span class="hlt">potential</span> resulted in enhanced control over the asphaltene aggregation and hence the deposition. In the second study, scale deposition and retardation through static <span class="hlt">potential</span> is studied through a series of flow experiments. Under the influence of static <span class="hlt">potential</span>, scale deposition at the room temperature showed an increase in the deposition rates, whereas, at the elevated temperatures, scale deposition rates were observed to be retarded and delayed. Beyond a certain value of the static <span class="hlt">potential</span>, this decreasing trend in deposition rates become directly proportional to the applied static <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Results showed that the scale deposition may be controlled if not completely stopped, in the anode, if a suitable positive <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be applied to it. The overall conclusion of this study is as follows: Asphaltene deposition can be arrested almost completely by converting the production well into a cathode. Scale deposition can be retarded or deposition rate can be much delayed by converting the production well into an anode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12292225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12292225"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saving</span>, dependency and development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelley, A C; Schmidt, R M</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of dependency on <span class="hlt">savings</span> between 65 less developed countries (LDCs) and 23 developed countries over time and cross-sectionally since 1960. The study tests a modified Leff model and the Mason life-cycle framework. Empirical estimates address <span class="hlt">potential</span> simultaneity between <span class="hlt">savings</span> and output growth. The price indices of Summers and Heston are used because each country's national accounts are converted from nominal into purchasing-power variables. This eliminates the problems with using exchange rates which vary systematically by level of development with a "true" index of purchasing power. <span class="hlt">Savings</span> (S/Y) is the percentage share of gross national <span class="hlt">saving</span> in gross domestic product. Ygr is the growth of per capita income. Y/N gr is the growth in the per capita gross domestic product. Analysis is based on ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares techniques, treatment for heteroscedascity, aggregation periods, several definitions of <span class="hlt">savings</span>, different country samples, and aged dependency and youth dependency. Findings support the Mason variable-growth life-cycle framework that shows that changes in demographic factors accounted for a large part of <span class="hlt">savings</span>. The relationships in the modified Leff-type model were weak, with the exception of the mildly negative youth and elderly dependency impact in the 1980s. The rate of growth of youth dependency was negative and significant in all cross-sections for the full sample, all panel estimates for both LDCs and the full sample, and in the 1980s for LDCs. In the OLS model, life-cycle effects were weaker, but direct dependency effects were stronger. S/Y over time became slightly more sensitive to changes in life cycle impacts but less sensitive to youth dependency. Demography's impact on <span class="hlt">savings</span> over time is attributed to the increase in the pace of youth dependency decline and secondarily to its increasing sensitivity to life-cycle effects. PMID:12292225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPA....3f2115G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPA....3f2115G"><span id="translatedtitle">Resonance line shape, strain and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerken, Martina</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME) sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite) cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM) simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line shape and a zero-response frequency result for the ME coefficient. The zero-response oscillator frequency may be below or above the resonance frequency. The calculated FEM resonance line shapes are fitted successfully to a superposition function of a constant component and a resonant component with a Lorentzian line shape. Equivalence of the superposition function line shape to a Fano resonance profile is derived for frequencies around the resonance. Fano resonances are ubiquitous in physics occurring due to the constructive and destructive quantum interference of two different scattering pathways, e.g., for photons or electrons. The superposition fit parameters describing the resonance line shape are calculated as a function of the cantilever substrate thickness. The inclusion of loss by adjustment of the damping parameter is discussed. The results derived here also are applicable to higher order modes or longitudinal resonance modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNEng..13c6003W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNEng..13c6003W"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral distribution of local field <span class="hlt">potential</span> responses to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the retina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Yan T.; Halupka, Kerry; Kameneva, Tatiana; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Grayden, David B.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; Meffin, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Objective. Different frequency bands of the local field <span class="hlt">potential</span> (LFP) have been shown to reflect neuronal activity occurring at varying cortical scales. As such, recordings of the LFP may offer a novel way to test the efficacy of neural prostheses and allow improvement of stimulation strategies via neural feedback. Here we use LFP measurements from visual cortex to characterize neural responses to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the retina. We aim to show that the LFP is a viable signal that contains sufficient information to optimize the performance of sensory neural prostheses. Approach. Clinically relevant electrode arrays were implanted in the suprachoroidal space of one eye in four felines. LFPs were simultaneously recorded in response to stimulation of individual electrodes using penetrating microelectrode arrays from the visual cortex. The frequency response of each electrode was extracted using multi-taper spectral analysis and the uniqueness of the responses was determined via a linear decoder. Main results. We found that cortical LFPs are reliably modulated by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the retina and that the responses are spatially localized. We further characterized the spectral distribution of responses, with maximum information being contained in the low and high gamma bands. Finally, we found that LFP responses are unique to a large range of stimulus parameters (∼40) with a maximum conveyable information rate of 6.1 bits. Significance. These results show that the LFP can be used to validate responses to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the retina and we provide the first steps towards using these responses to provide more efficacious stimulation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007709&hterms=DOLOMITE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDOLOMITE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007709&hterms=DOLOMITE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDOLOMITE"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscopic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation during hypervelocity impacts: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> implications for planetary paleomagnetism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The production of transient magnetic fields by hypervelocity meteoroid impact has been proposed to possibly explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields in certain lunar samples as well as across broader areas of the lunar surface. In an effort to understand the lunar magnetic record, continued experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range allow characterizing magnetic fields produced by the 5 km/s impacts of 0.32-0.64 cm projectiles over a broad range of impact angles and projectile/target compositions. From such studies, another phenomenon has emerged, macroscopic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation, that may have importance for the magnetic state of solid-body surfaces. This phenomenon was observed during explosive cratering experiments, but the magnetic consequences of macroscopic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation (as opposed to plasma production) during explosion and impact cratering have not, to our knowledge, been explored before now. It is straightforward to show that magnetic field production due to this process may scale as a weakly increasing function of impactor kinetic energy, although more work is needed to precisely assess the scaling dependence. The original intent of our experiments was to assess the character of purely electrostatic signals for comparison with inferred electrostatic noise signals acquired by shielded magnetic sensors buried within particulate dolomite targets. The results demonstrated that electrostatic noise does affect the magnetic sensors but only at relatively short distances (less than 4 cm) from the impact point (our magnetic studies are generally performed at distances greater than approximately 5.5 cm). However, to assess models for magnetic field generation during impact, measurements are needed of the magnetic field as close to the impact point as possible; hence, work with an improved magnetic sensor design is in progress. In this paper, we focus on <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation during hypervelocity impacts as a <span class="hlt">potential</span> transient magnetic field production mechanism in its own right.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327129"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrocorticogram spectral analysis and somatosensory evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> as tools to assess <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stunning efficiency in ducks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beyssen, C; Babile, R; Fernandez, X</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>1. Fast Fourier transformations (FFTs) of electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals and averaging of somatosensory evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (SEPs) were used for assessing the impact of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stunning of ducks in a waterbath set to deliver a constant current of 150 mA, 600 Hz alternating current (AC) for 4 s. The effectiveness of stunning was determined on the basis of induction of epileptiform activity in the ECoG followed by a decrease in total power content to less than 10% of pre-stun values and abolition of SEPs. 2. One out of 10 birds was killed by the stun. FFT analysis of the ECoG signals of the remaining 9 birds showed that only one bird had a decrease of the total power to less than 10% of the pre-stun values for up to 70 s post-stun. The SEPs were retained in 6 out of 9 ducks and and 4 of them retained the evoked responses throughout the post-stun period. In the two birds showing abolition of SEPs, this was associated with a decrease in the total power content to below 10% of the pre-stun value. 3. The present experiment confirmed that the abolition of SEPs and the decrease of the total power below 10% of the pre-stun value for assessing unconsciousness after an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stunning in various species are also applicable to ducks. Based on this, it is concluded that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> waterbath stunning of ducks using 150 mA of 600 Hz AC is ineffective. PMID:15327129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814316','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814316"><span id="translatedtitle">Meeting the Challenge: The Prospect of Achieving 30 Percent <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Through the Weatherization Assistance Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schweitzer, M.</p> <p>2002-05-31</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program has been installing energy-efficiency measures in low-income houses for over 25 years, achieving <span class="hlt">savings</span> exceeding 30 percent of natural gas used for space heating. Recently, as part of its Weatherization Plus initiative, the Weatherization Assistance Program adopted the goal of achieving 30 percent energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for all household energy usage. The expansion of the Weatherization Assistance Program to include <span class="hlt">electric</span> baseload components such as lighting and refrigerators provides additional opportunities for <span class="hlt">saving</span> energy and meeting this ambitious goal. This report documents an Oak Ridge National Laboratory study that examined the <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> that could be achieved by installing various weatherization measures in different types of dwellings throughout the country. Three different definitions of <span class="hlt">savings</span> are used: (1) reductions in pre-weatherization expenditures; (2) <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the amount of energy consumed at the house site, regardless of fuel type (''site Btus''); and (3) <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the total amount of energy consumed at the source (''source Btus''), which reflects the fact that each Btu* of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> consumed at the household level requires approximately three Btus to produce at the generation source. In addition, the effects of weatherization efforts on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633353"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetry Breaking of B2N((-, 0, +)): An Aspect of the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and Atomic Charges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monajjemi, Majid; Bagheri, Samira; Moosavi, Matin S; Moradiyeh, Nahid; Zakeri, Mina; Attarikhasraghi, Naime; Saghayimarouf, Nastaran; Niyatzadeh, Ghorban; Shekarkhand, Marzie; Khalilimofrad, Mohammad S; Ahmadin, Hashem; Ahadi, Maryam</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the three forms of B2N((-, 0, +))-radical, anion and cation-have been compared in terms of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and atomic charges, ESP, rather than the well-known cut of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy surface (PES). We have realized that the double minimum of the BNB radical is related to the lack of the correct permutational symmetry of the wave function and charge distribution. The symmetry breaking (SB) for B2N((0, +)) exhibits energy barrier in the region of (5-150) cm(-1). The SB barrier goes through a dynamic change with no centrosymmetric form which depends on the wave function or charge distribution. In spite of A ˜ 2 Σ g + exited state, the B ˜ 2 ∏ g excited configuration contributes to the ground state ( B ˜ 2 ∏ g - X ˜ 2 Σ u + ) for forming radicals. The SB did not occur for the anion form (B2N((-))) in any electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> and charges distribution. Finally, we have modified the Columbic term of the Schrödinger equation to define the parameters "αα' and ββ'" in order to investigate the SBs subject. PMID:26633353</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/510562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/510562"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in frog skin: inferences for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and mechanistic models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helman, S I</p> <p>1979-12-01</p> <p>To evaluate possible mechanisms of transport at apical and basolateral barriers of Na transporting cells of epithelia, it is necessary to know the difference of electrochemical <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at each barrier. A reevaluation in light of new data of intracellular voltages of frog skin leads to fundamental questions concerning the origin of the voltages at both inner and outer barriers of this tissue. Whereas the inner barrier is highly selective for K, confirming the observations of Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing, the voltage across the inner barrier, Vi, especially in the absence of transepithelial Na transport, may be greater than the Nernst equilibrium <span class="hlt">potential</span> for K estimated from the maximum values of intracellular [K] reported in the literature. Consequently, it is proposed that the Na:K pumps may, under some conditions, behave not only as a Na:K exchange pump but also as a cation extrusion pump for K especially when intracellular [Na] falls to low levels. In order to explain the relationship between Na entry and the voltage at the outer barrier, it is proposed that the conductance of the outer barrier is voltage dependent, in line with previous observations of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">electrical</span> behavior of the apical barrier of Na transporting cells. Thus, the outer barrier may behave as a simple voltage independent resistor with a Thévenin electromotive force of zero at negative intracellular voltages despite the existence of a chemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> for Na at this barrier. PMID:510562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547461"><span id="translatedtitle">Peripheral <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation triggered by self-paced detection of motor intention enhances motor evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niazi, Imran Khan; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Jiang, Ning; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This paper proposes the development and experimental tests of a self-paced asynchronous brain-computer interfacing (BCI) system that detects movement related cortical <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (MRCPs) produced during motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion and triggers peripheral <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulations timed with the occurrence of MRCPs to induce corticospinal plasticity. MRCPs were detected online from EEG signals in eight healthy subjects with a true positive rate (TPR) of 67.15 ± 7.87% and false positive rate (FPR) of 22.05 ±9.07%. The excitability of the cortical projection to the target muscle (tibialis anterior) was assessed before and after the intervention through motor evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (MEP) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The peak of the evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> significantly (P=0.02) increased after the BCI intervention by 53 ± 43% (relative to preintervention measure), although the spinal excitability (tested by stretch reflexes) did not change. These results demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to alter the corticospinal projections to the tibialis anterior muscle by using an asynchronous BCI system based on online motor imagination that triggered peripheral stimulation. This type of repetitive proprioceptive feedback training based on self-generated brain signal decoding may be a requirement for purposeful skill acquisition in intact humans and in the rehabilitation of persons with brain damage. PMID:22547461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402871"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of local <span class="hlt">electric</span> surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> on holes charging process in uncapped germanium nanocrystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marchand, Aude; El Hdiy, Abdelillah</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>The charging kinetics of holes are investigated in an uncapped Ge nanocrystal by the use of the nano-electron beam induced current technique. The charging process is studied under zero volt or under an appropriate <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The investigation is repeated many times on the same nanocrystal and on others in the same sample to attest of the reproducibility of the results. At 0 V, the cycles of charging kinetics are superimposed and are in a steady state, but an instantaneous local and negative surface <span class="hlt">potential</span>, established in the nanocrystal at the beginning of the kinetics, slows down the holes charging process. Under an external field, the energy band bending accentuation affects the holes charging time constants. As a result, the holes charging cycles weakly affect the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> performance of the thin oxide as is indicated by the value of the measured local resistivity of 6 × 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} Ω cm, which is relatively lower than that of the thick thermal oxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544715"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>We explore the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> quadrupole transitions 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}, 6d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several competitive {sup A}Ra{sup +} candidates, with A= 223-229, are identified. In particular, we show that the transition 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F=2,m{sub F}=0)-6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} (F=0,m{sub F}=0) at 828 nm in {sup 223}Ra{sup +}, with no linear Zeeman and <span class="hlt">electric</span> quadrupole shifts, stands out as a relatively simple case, which could be exploited as a compact, robust, and low-cost atomic clock operating at a fractional frequency uncertainty of 10{sup -17}. With more experimental effort, the {sup 223,225,226}Ra{sup +} clocks could be pushed to a projected performance reaching the 10{sup -18} level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566583','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566583"><span id="translatedtitle">Myoelectric activity along human gastrocnemius medialis: Different spatial distributions of postural and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> elicited surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodson-Tole, Emma F.; Loram, Ian D.; Vieira, Taian M.M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It has recently been shown that motor units in human medial gastrocnemius (MG), activated during standing, occupy relatively small territories along the muscles longitudinal axis. Such organisation provides <span class="hlt">potential</span> for different motor tasks to produce differing regional patterns of activity. Here, we investigate whether postural control and nerve <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation produce equal longitudinal activation patterns in MG. Myoelectric activity, at different proximaldistal locations of MG, was recorded using a linear electrode array. To ensure differences in signal amplitude between channels did not result from local, morphological factors two experimental protocols were completed: (i) quiet standing; (ii) <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the tibial nerve. Averaged, rectified values (ARVs) were calculated for each channel in each condition. The distribution of signals along electrode channels was described using linear regression and differences between protocols at each channel determined as the ratio between mean ARV from standing: stimulation protocols. Ratio values changed systematically across electrode channels in seven (of eight) participants, with larger values in distal channels. The distribution of ARV along MG therefore differed between experimental conditions. Compared to fibres of units activated during MG nerve stimulation, units activated during standing may have a tendency to be more highly represented in the distal muscle portion. PMID:22967836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093574','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093574"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite-geometry models of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field noise from patch <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in ion traps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, Guang Hao; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L.</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>We model <span class="hlt">electric</span> field noise from fluctuating patch <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on conducting surfaces by taking into account the finite geometry of the ion trap electrodes to gain insight into the origin of anomalous heating in ion traps. The scaling of anomalous heating rates with surface distance d is obtained for several generic geometries of relevance to current ion trap designs, ranging from planar to spheroidal electrodes. The influence of patch size is studied both by solving Laplace's equation in terms of the appropriate Green's function as well as through an eigenfunction expansion. Scaling with surface distance is found to be highly dependent on the choice of geometry and the relative scale between the spatial extent of the electrode, the ion-electrode distance, and the patch size. Our model generally supports the d{sup -4} dependence currently found by most experiments and models, but also predicts geometry-driven deviations from this trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in an ovine model for the evaluation of visual prosthesis efficacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barriga-Rivera, Alejandro; Eiber, Calvin D; Dodds, Christopher W D; Fung, Adrian T; Tatarinoff, Veronica; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Visual prostheses are becoming a reality as a therapy to restore functional vision to the blind. New stimulation strategies and novel electrode designs are contributing to accelerate the development of such devices triggering the interest of scientists, clinicians and the blind community worldwide. In this scenario, there is a need for large animal models that are suitable for preclinical testing of retinal neuroprostheses. This study presents an electrophysiology assessment of an ovine model for single and simultaneous electrode stimulation from the suprachoroidal space, using symmetric biphasic current pulses with a monopolar return configuration. Visually and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were recorded using supradural surface electrodes, showing charge thresholds comparable to those in humans. This model represents an alternative to feline or canine models with analogous activation levels and an eye anatomy similar to that of humans. PMID:26737012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4284729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4284729"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> of Root Cell Plasma Membranes: Implications for Ion Interactions, Rhizotoxicity, and Uptake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yi-Min; Kinraide, Thomas B.; Wang, Peng; Hao, Xiu-Zhen; Zhou, Dong-Mei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many crop plants are exposed to heavy metals and other metals that may intoxicate the crop plants themselves or consumers of the plants. The rhizotoxicity of heavy metals is influenced strongly by the root cell plasma membrane (PM) surface’s <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (ψ0). The usually negative ψ0 is created by negatively charged constituents of the PM. Cations in the rooting medium are attracted to the PM surface and anions are repelled. Addition of ameliorating cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) to the rooting medium reduces the effectiveness of cationic toxicants (e.g., Cu2+ and Pb2+) and increases the effectiveness of anionic toxicants (e.g., SeO42− and H2AsO4−). Root growth responses to ions are better correlated with ion activities at PM surfaces ({IZ}0) than with activities in the bulk-phase medium ({IZ}b) (IZ denotes an ion with charge Z). Therefore, electrostatic effects play a role in heavy metal toxicity that may exceed the role of site-specific competition between toxicants and ameliorants. Furthermore, ψ0 controls the transport of ions across the PM by influencing both {IZ}0 and the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference across the PM from the outer surface to the inner surface (Em,surf). Em,surf is a component of the driving force for ion fluxes across the PM and controls ion-channel voltage gating. Incorporation of {IZ}0 and Em,surf into quantitative models for root metal toxicity and uptake improves risk assessments of toxic metals in the environment. These risk assessments will improve further with future research on the application of electrostatic theory to heavy metal phytotoxicity in natural soils and aquatic environments. PMID:25493475</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476752"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of conductivity variations within the <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layer on the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> estimation in narrow fluidic confinements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Suman</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we investigate the implications of ionic conductivity variations within the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer (EDL) on the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> estimation in pressure-driven fluidic transport through narrow confinements. Unlike the traditional considerations, we do not affix the ionic conductivities apriori by employing preset values of dimensionless parameters (such as the Dukhin number) to estimate the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Rather, utilizing the Gouy-Chapman-Grahame model for estimating the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and charge density distribution within the Stern layer, we first quantify the Stern layer <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity as a function of the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> and other pertinent parameters quantifying the interaction of the ionic species with the charged surface. Next, by invoking the Boltzmann model for cationic and anionic distribution within the diffuse layer, we obtain the diffuse layer <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity. On the basis of these two different conductivities pertaining to the two different portions of the EDL as well as the bulk conductivity, we define two separate Dukhin numbers that turn out to be functions of the dimensionless zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the channel height to Debye length ratio. We derive analytical expressions for the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> as a function of the fundamental governing parameters, considering the above. The results reveal interesting and significant deviations between the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> predictions from the present considerations against the corresponding predictions from the classical considerations in which electrochemically consistent estimates of variable EDL conductivity are not traditionally accounted for. In particular, it is revealed that the variations of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> with zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> are primarily determined by the competing effects of EDL electromigration and ionic advection. Over low and high zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> regimes, the Stern layer and diffuse layer conductivities predominantly dictate the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations whereas ionic advection governs the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> characteristics over intermediate zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> regimes. It is also inferred that traditional considerations may grossly overpredict the magnitude of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> for narrow confinements in which significant conductivity gradients may prevail across the EDL. PMID:20476752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846875"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of genes associated with yield <span class="hlt">potential</span> and water-<span class="hlt">saving</span> in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield <span class="hlt">potential</span> and water-<span class="hlt">saving</span> were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-<span class="hlt">saving</span> gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding programmes aiming at improving yield and water use efficiency in Shijiazhuang located in China Zone II. PMID:25846875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..11910184J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..11910184J"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge balance and ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> dynamics in time-dependent global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jánský, Jaroslav; Pasko, Victor P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have developed a time-dependent model of global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit (GEC) in spherical coordinates. The model solves time-dependent charge continuity equation coupled with Poisson's equation. An implicit time stepping is used to avoid a strict dielectric relaxation time step condition, and boundary conditions for Poisson's equation are implemented to allow accurate description of time evolution of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The concept of impulse response of GEC is introduced that allows effective representation of complex time dynamics of various physical quantities in the circuit using model results obtained for instantaneous deposition of a point charge. The more complex problems are then reconstructed using convolution and linearity principles. For a point charge instantaneously deposited at a typical thundercloud altitude the impulse response of the charge density shows induction of the same value and polarity charge at the ionospheric boundary, while charge of the same value but opposite sign is moving down logarithmically with time and neutralizes the source point charge on time scale corresponding to the dielectric relaxation time at altitude of the source point charge. The ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> is modified immediately with input of the source point charge based on free space solution of Poisson's equation. Then the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> relaxes. It is shown that during formation of two main charge centers of the thundercloud, typically represented by a current dipole, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be determined from the difference of time integrals of two ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> impulse responses corresponding to charge locations at the opposite ends of the current dipole. For latitude- and longitude-independent conductivity model, the total charge on the Earth is exactly zero at all times. During cloud-to-ground lightning discharge, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes instantaneously by a value proportional to the charge moment change produced by lightning and then relaxes to zero. For a typical charge moment change of 35Ckm and lightning frequency 10s-1, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes by 9.3kV; this value agrees well with the results presented by Rycroft et al. and Rycroft and Odzimek.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1074149.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1074149.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of 3-D Mechanical Models of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuits and Their Effect on Students' Understanding of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Difference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Balta, Nuri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Visualizing physical concepts through models is an essential method in many sciences. While students are mostly proficient in handling mathematical aspects of problems, they frequently lack the ability to visualize and interpret abstract physical concepts in a meaningful way. In this paper, initially the <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuits and related concepts were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...80...69S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...80...69S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> energy, force distribution and oscillatory motion of chloride ion inside <span class="hlt">electrically</span> charged carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadeghi, F.; Ansari, R.; Darvizeh, M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this research, a continuum-based model is presented to explore <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy, force distribution and oscillatory motion of ions, and in particular chloride ion, inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated by functional groups at two ends. To perform this, van der Waals (vdW) interactions between ion and nanotube are modeled by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones (LJ) <span class="hlt">potential</span>, whereas the electrostatic interactions between ion and functional groups are modeled by the Coulomb <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the total interactions are analytically derived by summing the vdW and electrostatic interactions. Making the assumption that carbon atoms and charge of functional groups are all uniformly distributed over the nanotube surface and the two ends of nanotube, respectively, a continuum approach is utilized to evaluate the related interactions. Based on the actual force distribution, the equation of motion is also solved numerically to arrive at the time history of displacement and velocity of inner core. With respect to the proposed formulations, comprehensive studies on the variations of <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy and force distribution are carried out by varying functional group charge and nanotube length. Moreover, the effects of these parameters together with initial conditions on the oscillatory behavior of system are studied and discussed in detail. It is found out that chloride ion escapes more easily from negatively charged CNTs which is followed by uncharged and positively charged ones. It is further shown that the presence of functional groups leads to enhancing the operating frequency of such oscillatory systems especially when the <span class="hlt">electric</span> charges of ion and functional groups have different signs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5477545','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5477545"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects three years after <span class="hlt">potential</span> exposure to the toxic contaminants of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transformer fire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, E.F.; Weinstein, A.L.; Youngblood, L.G.; Standfast, S.J.; Melius, J.M. )</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>A medical surveillance program has been established for 482 persons who were <span class="hlt">potentially</span> exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transformer fire in a Binghamton, NY office building in 1981. Vital Record and Cancer Registry data, medical records, and mail questionnaires were used to assess mortality, symptomatology, cancer incidence, and reproductive events through 1984. The numbers of deaths, cancers, fetal deaths, and infants with low birth weight or congenital malformations were similar to those expected on the basis of age- and sex-specific rates for upstate New York and other comparison populations. Two suicides were observed compared with 0.31 expected, but the difference was not statistically significant. After adjustment for possible confounders, persons with the greatest degree of <span class="hlt">potential</span> exposure were significantly more likely than those with less exposure to report unexplained weight loss (relative risk (RR) = 12.80), muscle pain (RR = 5.07), frequent coughing (RR = 4.14), skin color changes (RR = 3.49), and nervousness or sleep problems (RR = 3.19). The possibility of recall bias and the intervening effects of stress, however, weaken the conclusion that toxic chemicals caused the symptomatology. Exposure-related systemic disorders, e.g., chloracne or peripheral neuropathy, were not diagnosed by personal physicians; however, some persons refused to release their medical records because of ongoing litigation. The findings are consistent with those of our earlier assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253434"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic equivalence of transmembrane pH and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences in ATP synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu</p> <p>2012-03-16</p> <p>ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (ΔpH) across the membrane and transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (Δψ). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ε subunit, ΔpH imposed by acid-base transition and Δψ produced by valinomycin-mediated K(+) diffusion <span class="hlt">potential</span> contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (ΔpH -0.3 to 2.2, Δψ -30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ΔpH or Δψ alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. Δψ was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K(+) inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K(+) from the lipid. PMID:22253434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24928383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24928383"><span id="translatedtitle">Turning waste into valuable resource: <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper explores the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of a hazardous waste of difficult management, <span class="hlt">electric</span> arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its <span class="hlt">potential</span> as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust. PMID:24928383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204679','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204679"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> market size and opportunities for biomass to <span class="hlt">electricity</span> projects in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perlack, R.D.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Efforts are currently underway to assess the market <span class="hlt">potential</span> and prospects for the US private sector in biomass energy development in Yunnan Province. Among the specific objectives of the study are to: estimate the likely market size and competitiveness of biomass energy, assess the viability of US private sector ventures; assess non-economic factors (e.g., resource, environmental, social, political, institutional) that could affect the viability of biomass energy; and recommend appropriate actions to help stimulate biomass initiatives. Feasibility studies show that biomass projects in Yunnan Province are financially and technically viable. Biomass can be grown and converted to <span class="hlt">electricity</span> at costs lower than other alternatives. These projects if implemented can ease power shortages and help to sustain the region`s economic growth. The external environmental benefits of integrated biomass projects are also <span class="hlt">potentially</span> significant. This paper summarizes a two-step screening and rank-ordering process that is being used to identify the best candidate projects for possible US private sector investment. The process uses a set of initial screens to eliminate projects that are not technically feasible to develop. The remaining projects are then rank-ordered using a multicriteria technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22510942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22510942"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the noise in <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements in cochlear implants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Undurraga, Jaime A; Carlyon, Robert P; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (ECAPs) are widely used to study the excitability of the auditory nerve and stimulation properties in cochlear implant (CI) users. However, ECAP detection can be difficult and very subjective at near-threshold stimulation levels or in spread of excitation measurements. In this study, we evaluated the statistical properties of the background noise (BN) and the postaverage residual noise (RN) in ECAP measurements in order to determine an objective detection criterion. For the estimation of the BN and the RN, a method currently used in auditory brainstem response measurements was applied. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> benefit of using weighted (Bayesian) averages was also examined. All estimations were performed with a set of approximately 360 ECAP measurements recorded from five human CI users of the CII or HiRes90K device (advanced bionics). Results demonstrated that the BN was normally distributed and the RN decreased according to the square root of the number of averages. No additional benefit was observed by using weighted averaging. The noise was not significantly different either at different stimulation intensities or across recording electrodes along the cochlea. The analysis of the statistical properties of the noise indicated that a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.7 dB as a detection criterion corresponds to a false positive detection rate of 1% with the used measurement setup. PMID:22510942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156420','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156420"><span id="translatedtitle">On the phase shift between <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plasma density fluctuations in the edge turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shchepetov, S. V. Kholnov, Yu. V.; Vasil'kov, D. G.</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>In some cases, the phase shift between fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plasma density helps to identify the instability that governs the turbulent state. In this paper, the basic experimental and theoretical results that denote the possibility (or impossibility) of such identification are briefly discussed. The experimental data based on measurements of the phase shift between the floating <span class="hlt">potential</span> and ion saturation current fluctuations in the L-2M stellarator-a system with externally imposed magnetic surfaces-are presented (Shchepetov, Kholnov, Fedyanin, et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 045001 (2008)). It is shown that the observed phase shift {Omega} varies in a wide range from {pi} to 0, gradually decreasing with deepening inside the plasma. A number of arguments are presented suggesting that {Omega} Almost-Equal-To {pi} can indicate that the process is nonlocal, i.e., oscillations at a given spatial point are driven and mainly determined by the processes localized outside of the observation point. We note that, within the framework of the magnetohydrodynamic theory, plasma was definitely unstable with respect to resistive interchange modes in all cases under study. It is demonstrated experimentally that the widespread notion that the phase shift {Omega} Almost-Equal-To {pi}/2 is characteristic of only resistive interchange modes is hardly universal. The experimental results are analyzed on the basis of analytical estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820010494','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820010494"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for <span class="hlt">potential</span> service in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility gas turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high <span class="hlt">potential</span> for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show <span class="hlt">potential</span> for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308813','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308813"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Equivalence of Transmembrane pH and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Differences in ATP Synthesis*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (ΔpH) across the membrane and transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (Δψ). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ϵ subunit, ΔpH imposed by acid-base transition and Δψ produced by valinomycin-mediated K+ diffusion <span class="hlt">potential</span> contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (ΔpH −0.3 to 2.2, Δψ −30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ΔpH or Δψ alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. Δψ was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K+ inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K+ from the lipid. PMID:22253434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRA..116.8219G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRA..116.8219G"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of magnetotail reconnection to the cross-polar cap <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gordeev, E. I.; Sergeev, V. A.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Palmroth, M.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Since the work of Dungey (1961), the global circulation pattern with two (dayside and nightside) reconnection regions has become a classic concept. However, the contributions of dayside and nightside sources to the cross-polar cap <span class="hlt">potential</span> (PCP) are not fully understood, particularly, the relative role and specifics of the nightside source are poorly investigated both in quantitative and qualitative terms. To fill this gap, we address the contributions of dayside and nightside sources to the PCP by conducting global MHD simulations with both idealized solar wind input and an observed event input. The dayside source was parameterized by solar wind-based “dayside merging potential” Φd = LeffVBt sin4($\\theta$/2), whereas to characterize the nightside source we integrated across the tail the dawn-dusk <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in the plasma sheet (to obtain the “cross-tail potential” Φn). For the idealized run we performed simulations using four MHD codes available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center to show that contribution of the nightside source is a code-independent feature (although there are many differences in the outputs provided by different codes). Particularly, we show that adding a nightside source to the linear fit function for the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> (i.e., using the fit function Φfit = KdΦd + KnΦn + Φ0) considerably improves the fitting results both in the idealized events as well as in the simulation of an observed event. According to these simulations the nightside source contribution to the PCP has a fast response time (<5 min) and a modest efficiency (<span class="hlt">potential</span> transmission factor from tail to the ionosphere is small, Kn < 0.2), which is closely linked to the primarily inductive character of strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> field generated in the plasma sheet. The latter time intervals are marked by strongly enhanced nightside (lobe) reconnection and can be associated with substorm expansion phases. This association is further strengthened by the simulated patterns of precipitation, the R1-type field-aligned substorm current wedge currents and Hall electrojet currents, which are consistent with the known substorm signatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041335&hterms=vector+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dvector%2Bfields','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041335&hterms=vector+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dvector%2Bfields"><span id="translatedtitle">A combined vector <span class="hlt">potential</span>-scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> method for FE computation of 3D magnetic fields in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> devices with iron cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A method of combined use of magnetic vector <span class="hlt">potential</span> based finite-element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> (MSP) based formulations for computation of three-dimensional magnetostatic fields is introduced. In this method, the curl-component of the magnetic field intensity is computed by a reduced magnetic vector <span class="hlt">potential</span>. This field intensity forms the basic of a forcing function for a global magnetic scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> solution over the entire volume of the region. This method allows one to include iron portions sandwiched in between conductors within partitioned current-carrying subregions. The method is most suited for large-scale global-type 3-D magnetostatic field computations in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> devices, and in particular rotating <span class="hlt">electric</span> machinery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820017234&hterms=energy+oil&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Boil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820017234&hterms=energy+oil&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Boil"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> reduction of DSN uplink energy cost</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in source energy (oil or <span class="hlt">electricity</span>) <span class="hlt">savings</span> are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Didactics+AND+Physics&pg=5&id=EJ563189','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Didactics+AND+Physics&pg=5&id=EJ563189"><span id="translatedtitle">Didactic Problems in the Concept of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Difference and an Analysis of Its Philogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gomez, Enrique Jimenez; Duran, Eugenio Fernandez</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Analyzes didactic problems related to the inseparability of <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge from the mass, the impossibility of its direct observation, and the meaning associated with the basic concepts of <span class="hlt">electricity</span>. Contains 44 references. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188079','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188079"><span id="translatedtitle">Unusual <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Burns Caused by Communication Disc Contact with a High-voltage <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Transmission Cable: a <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Occupational Hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fadeyibi, I.O.; Izegbu, M.C.; Benebo, A.S.; Ademuluyi, S.A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Summary The case reported is that of a communications technician admitted to hospital with 38% burns sustained while climbing a communications mast. The mast was erected less than 3 metres from a 33 kv <span class="hlt">electric</span> transmission cable. His condition is described, as also the treatment he received until his discharge three months later. In the absence of guidelines regarding the erection of such masts, a number of recommendations are made. PMID:21991082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90677"><span id="translatedtitle">Pollution prevention cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Celeste, J.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777153"><span id="translatedtitle">Transepithelial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of nonsensory region of gerbil utricle in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marcus, D C</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Transepithelial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (VT) was measured across the vestibular labyrinth of the inner ear in vitro by puncturing the epithelial wall of the utricle with a glass microelectrode. A region of nonsensory cells of the utricle was isolated from the sensory regions by introducing columns of liquid Sylgard 184. Under control conditions, the VT of this region was +7.5 +/- 0.3 mV (means +/- SE), lumen positive. This <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference was rapidly reduced by either 1 mM ouabain, 10-100 microM bumetanide, 0.5-5.0 mM Ba (in the bathing solution), or cooling, but not by the disulfonic stilbene, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Changes in VT due to reductions of Cl or Na or to increases of K in the bathing solution in exchange for presumably impermeant ions were observed in this region and were compared with those in a preparation in which the insulating seals were absent. The K-induced voltage change was significantly higher in the unblocked preparation, a finding consistent with a high K permeability of the sensory cells. The voltage change due to reduction of Cl was not inhibited by Cl channel blockers (9-anthracenecarboxylate and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate) in the bathing solution. These results represent the first direct demonstration that the nonsensory cells of the utricle produce a lumen-positive active-transport <span class="hlt">potential</span> and characterize some of the properties of the cell membranes in terms of their pharmacological sensitivities and net voltage responses to changes in the bathing medium ions Na, K, and Cl. PMID:3777153</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453648.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453648.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saving</span> Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.</p> <p></p> <p>This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22283267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22283267"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability enhancement of an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> window</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shim, HongShik; Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr</p> <p>2014-02-03</p> <p>The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external <span class="hlt">electric</span> field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during <span class="hlt">electrical</span> switching. By introducing larger electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012824','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012824"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of novel <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polymers: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films and conducting polymers on defined surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimmer, Hans</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Based on previous results involving thiophene derived <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polymers in which it was shown that thiophene, 3-substituted thiophenes, furans, and certain oligomers of these compounds showed <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity after polymerization. The conductivity was in the order of up to 500 S/cm. In addition, these polymers showed conductivity without being doped and most of all they were practically inert toward ambient conditions. They even could be used in aqueous media. With these findings as a guide, a number of 3-long-chain-substituted thiophenes and 1-substituted-3-long-chain substituted pyrrols were synthesized as monomers for <span class="hlt">potential</span> polymeric <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP24B..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP24B..06W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Anisotropic Aphid: Three-Dimensional Induction Modeling of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Texture with Mixed <span class="hlt">Potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss, C. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>At the macroscopic scale, where the e-folding distance of low-frequency electromagnetic fields in conductive geomaterials is much larger than the size of organized heterogeneities such as fracture sets or laminations that constitute the geologic texture therein, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties can be conveniently approximated by a generalized 3x3 tensor ?. Less convenient, however, are the algorithmic consequences of this approximation in electromagnetic modeling of 3D induction methods for geophysical exploration. Previous efforts at modelling generalized anisotropy with finite differences on a staggered Cartesian grid (e.g. Weiss and Newman, 2002; Wang and Fang, 2001) are posed in terms of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field with its governing "curl-curl" equation and well-documented null-space issues at low induction numbers. In contrast, Weiss (2013) proposed an alternate full-physics formulation in terms of Lorenz-gauged magentic vector A and <span class="hlt">electric</span> scalar ? <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (Project APhiD) that eliminates the troublesome curl-curl operator, with ultrabroadband examples drawn from geologies with scalar, isotropic conductivity over the frequency range 10-2-1010 Hz. Here, the anisotropic theory presented in Weiss (2013) is implemented with finite differences on a Cartesian grid. Briefly stated, in this theoretical approach the conductivity tensor ? is split in terms of a rotationally-invariant isotropic conductivity ?* = ? Tr(?) and the residual ? - ?*I. This splitting decomposes the resulting finite difference coefficient matrix K into the sum Kiso + Kaniso, where the Kiso term is the coefficient matrix for the isotropic medium ?*, thus enabling reuse of the various routines previously developed for computing matrix coefficients in the isotropic case. Treatment of anisotropy is algorithmically therefore restricted to computing the coefficients in the sparse matrix Kaniso consisting of simple inner products of (? - ?*I) (A-??) and their divergence. In keeping with the philosophy of economizing the compute resource footprint, the anisotropic finite difference algorithm is solved in a matrix-free formulation whereby coefficient matrices are computed as needed at each step of the iterative BiCG-STAB solver used to solve the finite difference system of equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816531"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined energy-<span class="hlt">savings</span> calculations for heat-island reduction strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.</p> <p>2003-03-15</p> <p>We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of <span class="hlt">savings</span> for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or <span class="hlt">electricity</span> as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and <span class="hlt">savings</span> are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock <span class="hlt">savings</span> ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2. For residences heated with <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, the <span class="hlt">savings</span> ranged from 350 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2 for Pre-1980 stock and 190-600 kWh/1000ft2 for 1980+ stocks. In climates with less than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> were not significantly higher than winter heating penalties. For gas-heated office buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 1100-1500 kWh/1000ft2 and 360-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For <span class="hlt">electrically</span> heated office buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 700-1400 kWh/1000ft2 and 100-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. Similarly, for gas-heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 1300-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 370-750 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For <span class="hlt">electrically</span> heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 1200-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 250-750 kW h/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980 + stocks, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814632"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Economic Impact of <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, SW</p> <p>2001-10-30</p> <p>Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma <span class="hlt">electric</span> industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9%, lowering the need for new capacity and reduce prices during the peak demand. (5) Changes to <span class="hlt">electric</span> prices on the order of 5% to 20% will have only a modest effect on overall economic activity within the state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=airconditioning&pg=2&id=EJ134485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=airconditioning&pg=2&id=EJ134485"><span id="translatedtitle">Wall System <span class="hlt">Saves</span> Initial HVAC Costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Modern Schools, 1976</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The superior insulating characteristics of an exterior wall system has enabled a Massachusetts school district to realize a <span class="hlt">savings</span> on <span class="hlt">electric</span> heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2048988','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2048988"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic-<span class="hlt">electric</span> interactions in the guinea pig auditory nerve: Simultaneous and forward masking of the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nourski, Kirill V.; Abbas, Paul J.; Miller, Charles A.; Robinson, Barbara K.; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The study investigated the time course of the effects of acoustic and <span class="hlt">electric</span> stimulation on the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> (ECAP). Adult guinea pigs were used in acute experimental sessions. Bursts of acoustic noise and high-rate (5000 pulses/s) <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulse trains were used as maskers. Biphasic <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulses were used as probes. ECAPs were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk. Simultaneous masking of the ECAP with acoustic noise featured an onset effect and a decrease in the amount of masking to a steady state. It was characterized by a two-component exponential function. The amount of masking increased with masker level and decreased with probe level. Post-stimulatory ECAP recovery often featured a non-monotonic time course, described by a three-component exponent. <span class="hlt">Electric</span> maskers produced similar post-stimulatory effects in hearing and acutely deafened subjects. Acoustic stimulation affects the ECAP in a level- and time-dependent manner. Simultaneous masking follows a time course comparable to that of adaptation to an acoustic stimulus. Refractoriness, spontaneous activity, and adaptation are suggested to play a role in ECAP recovery. Post-stimulatory changes in synchrony, possibly due to recovery of spontaneous activity and an additional hair-cell independent mechanism, are hypothesized to contribute to the observed non-monotonicity of recovery. PMID:17723284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15137692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15137692"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced electrokinetic removal of phenanthrene from clay soil by periodic <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reddy, Krishna R; Saichek, Richard E</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Electrokinetically enhanced in-situ flushing using surfactants has the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from low permeability clay soils; however, previous research has shown that the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produces complex physical, chemical, and electrochemical changes within clay soils that affect mass transfer and overall efficiency. This article presents the results of a laboratory investigation conducted to determine the contaminant mass removal by using a periodic voltage application. The periodic voltage effects were evaluated by performing four different bench-scale electrokinetic tests with the voltage gradient applied continuously or periodically, under relatively low voltage (1.0 VDC/cm) and high anode buffering (0.1 M NaOH) as well as high voltage (2.0 VDC/cm) and low anode buffering (0.01 M NaOH) conditions. For all the tests, kaolin soil was used as a representative clay soil and it was spiked with phenanthrene, a representative PAH, with a target concentration of 500 mg/kg. A nonionic polyoxyethylene surfactant, Igepal CA 720, was used as the flushing solution in all the tests. The voltage was applied according to a cycle of five days of continuous application followed by two days of "down time," when the voltage was not applied. The results of these experiments show that considerable contaminant removal can be achieved by employing a high, 2.0 VDC/cm, voltage gradient along with a periodic mode of voltage application. The increased removal was attributed to increased phenanthrene solubilization and mass transfer due to the reduced flow of the bulk solution during the down time as well as to the pulsed electroosmotic flow that improved flushing action. PMID:15137692</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7d5801G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7d5801G"><span id="translatedtitle">Can switching fuels <span class="hlt">save</span> water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired <span class="hlt">electricity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grubert, Emily A.; Beach, Fred C.; Webber, Michael E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Thermal <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to <span class="hlt">potential</span> environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717419"><span id="translatedtitle">Coarse-Grained Modeling of Nucleic Acids Using Anisotropic Gay-Berne and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Multipole <span class="hlt">Potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Guohui; Shen, Hujun; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Yan; Wang, Honglei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this work, we attempt to apply a coarse-grained (CG) model, which is based on anisotropic Gay-Berne and <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole (EMP) <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, to the modeling of nucleic acids. First, a comparison has been made between the CG and atomistic models (AMBER point-charge model) in the modeling of DNA and RNA hairpin structures. The CG results have demonstrated a good quality in maintaining the nucleic acid hairpin structures, in reproducing the dynamics of backbone atoms of nucleic acids, and in describing the hydrogen-bonding interactions between nucleic acid base pairs. Second, the CG and atomistic AMBER models yield comparable results in modeling double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. It is encouraging that our CG model is capable of reproducing many elastic features of nucleic acid base pairs in terms of the distributions of the interbase pair step parameters (such as shift, slide, tilt, and twist) and the intrabase pair parameters (such as buckle, propeller, shear, and stretch). Finally, The GBEMP model has shown a promising ability to predict the melting temperatures of DNA duplexes with different lengths. PMID:26717419</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8927410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8927410"><span id="translatedtitle">Compound motor action <span class="hlt">potentials</span> and mechanical failure during sustained contractions by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation in paraplegic patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabischong, E; Doutrelot, P L; Ohanna, F</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>In nine paraplegic patients we recorded the torque output and compound motor action <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (CMAPs) produced by the quadriceps muscle during an isometric contraction elicited by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation. The torque, the peak to peak amplitude, the latency, the peak to peak duration and the total surface of the rectified CMAPs were computed over a period of 126 s. After a brief increase the mechanical output rapidly decreased and reached a stable minimum level by the end of 126 s. The final torque output values ranged from 7.1 to 54% of initial values. This torque decrease was related neither to length of time between injury and testing, nor to the thoracic level of the spinal cord injury. The peak to peak amplitude of the CMAPs changed over the course of stimulation. It was noted to increase over a period of time after which it decreased to a minimum level. The latency from the onset of stimulation to the onset of the CMAP varied to a relatively small extent compared to the peak to peak duration. Therefore, the conduction velocity along the muscle fibres appeared to be more affected by the test than by the conduction velocity along the nerve fibres and the transmission across the neuromuscular junction. The mechanisms involved in the changes in CMAPs and the change in torque output over the time course of stimulation are discussed. PMID:8927410</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8892238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8892238"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface action <span class="hlt">potentials</span> related to torque output in paraplegics' <span class="hlt">electrically</span> stimulated quadriceps muscle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabischong, E</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>We recorded in 15 complete paraplegic patients the torque output and the surface action <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (SAP) produced by the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> stimulated quadriceps muscle during an isometric contraction lasting 126 s. We studied the evolution during the test of the peak to peak amplitude, the latency from the onset of stimulation, the rising time to peak, the peak to peak duration, the area of the recorded SAPs and we tried to relate those data to the torque production. Results were extremely different among patients but the general behaviour facing this test was comparable. After a short increase the mechanical output decreased and reached a plateau (range from 7.13 to 53.5% of initial value). The peak to peak amplitude first increased and then decreased, and was not related to the torque production. The latency, the rising time to peak and the peak to peak duration continuously increased to a maximum and then plateaued or slightly decreased after different courses of time. The latency from the onset of stimulation was less affected by the test than the rising time to peak and the peak to peak duration. Therefore, the nerve conduction velocity and the neuromuscular junction transmission did not vary to a great extent compared to the muscle fibre conduction velocity. The area of the rectified SAPs first increased and then decreased and was not related to the torque decrease. PMID:8892238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRB..114.1208A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRB..114.1208A"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater flow and hydrothermal systems within volcanic edifices: Delineation by <span class="hlt">electric</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> and magnetotellurics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aizawa, Koki; Ogawa, Yasuo; Ishido, Tsuneo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The imaging of hydrothermal systems within volcanoes is critical in evaluating the nature and likelihood of future volcanic activity and hazard assessment. In this study, we present a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system in a volcanic edifice, as deduced from the relationship between <span class="hlt">electric</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) and high-resolution resistivity structures. In order to develop a comprehensive model of water flow in volcanoes, we conducted the audiofrequency (10,000-0.3 Hz) magnetotelluric surveys in five large stratovolcanoes (Iwate, Iwaki, Nasu, Nantai, and Nikko-Shirane) in Japan and found that the obtained 2-D resistivity profiles have a close relationship to the previously reported SP data: good extensive conductors occur beneath areas without SP anomalies, whereas good localized conductors only occur beneath large spatial wavelength SP anomalies on the volcano side of the SP minimum. Also taking into account the locations of surface geothermal activity, the good conductors roughly correspond to the hydrothermal zone, whose upper limit is sealed by a low-permeability clay layer. The sealing layer separates an upper groundwater flow from a lower hydrothermal flow in the subsurface and controls the geothermal manifestations and river locations on the surface. We confirmed the feasibility of the proposed model based on numerical simulations of a hydrothermal system. The horizontal extent of the hydrothermal zone is highly heterogeneous even in a volcanic edifice. This heterogeneity can reflect the geological age of flanks that may be related to the occurrence of a previous large sector collapse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AdSpR..21.1301M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AdSpR..21.1301M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of gravikinesis in paramecium is possibly mediated by filaments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machemer, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Sensitivity of Paramecium to mechanical stress including gravitational force is organized along two opposing gradients of membrane channel distribution: depolarizing Ca channels and hyperpolarizing K channels. Mechanoreceptor channels reside in the membrane of the cell soma and are activated, when the weight of the cytoplasm deforms the ``lower'' plasma membrane. Channel distribution is such as to generate ciliary activation which can counteract sedimentation of the cells: a reduction in downward swimming rate and an augmentation in upward swimming rate. Application of weak DC fields does not only induce the well-known cathodal orientation and swimming of Paramecium toward the cathode (galvanotaxis). We document that swimming velocity is augmented up to 175% as a function of the voltage gradient between 0.3 V/cm and 0.8 V/cm (galvanokinesis). A gradient of 0.3 V/cm was highly effective in raising the common negative gravikinesis of downward swimmers threefold. The gravikinesis of upward swimmers reversed polarity under field stimulation inducing cells to augment sedimentation effects (positive gravikinesis). Both effects of <span class="hlt">electric</span>-field stimulation on ciliary activation are of the depolarizing type: reduction in the frequency of normally beating cilia. Analysis of the data shows that a voltage-sensitivity of gravireceptor channels would not account for the observed <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of negative gravikinesis. It is suggested that a previously described voltage-dependent Ca channel of the soma membrane interferes with a Ca^2+-sensitive, peripheral filament system, which directly connects to gravireceptor channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1166834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1166834"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garimella, Venkata BS; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective <span class="hlt">potentials</span> can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g. turning ions by 90o and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also feasible. The performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4377379','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4377379"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the Effects of Acupoint Antioxidant Intervention by Measuring <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Difference along the Meridian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming-Ming; Guo, Jing-Ke; Xu, Jin-Sen; Zhang, Chao-Xin; Liu, Shu-Tao; Liao, Ri-Tao; Lin, Chun-Tong; Guo, Jian-Hui; Rao, Ping-Fan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies suggest that superoxide anions are possibly traveling along acupuncture meridians. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (EPD) between acupoints may be related to the movement. To test the above hypothesis, we conducted a study investigating the effects of acupoint antioxidant interventions on the meridian EPD. Firstly, ST39 (L) and ST44 (L) were screened out for the EPD detection along the stomach meridian, and ST36 (L) was selected for interventions including acumassage with the control cream, as well as the TAT-SOD cream for 30 minutes, or injection with reduced glutathione sodium. The EPD between ST39 and ST44 was recorded for 80 minutes and measured again 48 h later. While the EPD increased during the acumassage, the acumassage with TAT-SOD cream and the glutathione injection generated waves of EPD increased, indicating the migration or removal from the visceral organ of a greater quantity of superoxide. Remarkably lower EPD readings 48 h later with both antioxidant acupoint interventions than the mere acumassage imply a more complete superoxide flushing out due to the restored superoxide pathway at the acupoint after interventions. The results confirm superoxide transportation along the meridians and demonstrate a possibility of acupoint EPD measurement as a tool to monitor changes in the meridians and acupoints. PMID:25861356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198429','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198429"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garimella, Sandilya V.B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective <span class="hlt">potentials</span> can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining and manipulating ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g. turning ions by 90° and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also shown feasible. The performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which are also shown to agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design. PMID:25257188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A13D0962H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A13D0962H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> and Limitations of an <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Low Pressure Impactor in Disjunct Eddy Covariance Aerosol Flux Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Held, A.; Niessner, R.; Bosveld, F.; Klemm, O.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A micrometeorological application of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> low pressure impactor (ELPI) is proposed for the measurement of size-resolved particle fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. This extends flux measurement capabilities to cover submicron particles in several size classes simultaneously. The disjunct eddy covariance system combines a sonic anemometer, an ELPI and a valve-controlled particle sampling unit. Depending on the valve setting, ambient air or filtered particle-free air is sampled and introduced into the impactor. For disjunct eddy covariance measurements, ambient air is sampled only during a very short sampling interval (~ 0.1 s) in measurement intervals of several seconds. The integrated ELPI signal is representative for the particle size distribution during the short sampling interval. This information may be correlated with fast measurements of the vertical wind speed to obtain turbulent fluxes of submicron particles simultaneously in several size classes. A prototype system has been tested in lab and field experiments in order to evaluate the technical limitations of this approach. Tests show that different valve switch cycles do not affect the concentration measurements. However, longitudinal diffusion processes within the sampling lines lead to signal dilatation. In addition, reliable measurements require a minimum number of charged particles impacting on each stage. This leads to the exclusion of some size bins in typical field applications. Nevertheless, the system showed its <span class="hlt">potential</span> for size-resolved flux measurements under favorable conditions. Travel support by the ACCENT Access to Infrastructures program is gratefully acknowledged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27059579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27059579"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical and structural properties of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer of two-component electrolytes in response to varied electrode <span class="hlt">potential</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiyohara, Kenji; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The electrochemical and structural properties of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layers for two-component electrolytes were studied by Monte Carlo simulations using simple models. When the electrolyte contains two species of cations that have different diameters, the capacitance on the cathode dramatically increases as a large negative <span class="hlt">potential</span> is applied. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the one reported in an experimental work that has used Li-containing ionic liquid as the electrolyte [M. Yamagata et al., Electrochim. Acta 110, 181-190 (2013)], in which it has also been reported that addition of Li ions to the electrolyte enhances the <span class="hlt">potential</span> window to the negative side. The analysis of the ionic structure showed that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer on the cathode is dominantly formed by the larger cations under small negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, while they are replaced by the smaller cations under large negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. This transition of the ionic structure with electrode <span class="hlt">potential</span> is also consistent with the enhancement of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> window that was found in the experimental work, which suggests that the organic cations are expelled from the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer under large negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span> and the chance of decomposition is reduced. PMID:27059579</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144m4701K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144m4701K"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical and structural properties of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer of two-component electrolytes in response to varied electrode <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiyohara, Kenji; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The electrochemical and structural properties of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layers for two-component electrolytes were studied by Monte Carlo simulations using simple models. When the electrolyte contains two species of cations that have different diameters, the capacitance on the cathode dramatically increases as a large negative <span class="hlt">potential</span> is applied. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the one reported in an experimental work that has used Li-containing ionic liquid as the electrolyte [M. Yamagata et al., Electrochim. Acta 110, 181-190 (2013)], in which it has also been reported that addition of Li ions to the electrolyte enhances the <span class="hlt">potential</span> window to the negative side. The analysis of the ionic structure showed that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer on the cathode is dominantly formed by the larger cations under small negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, while they are replaced by the smaller cations under large negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. This transition of the ionic structure with electrode <span class="hlt">potential</span> is also consistent with the enhancement of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> window that was found in the experimental work, which suggests that the organic cations are expelled from the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer under large negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span> and the chance of decomposition is reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NucFu..42.1289T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NucFu..42.1289T"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies of breakeven prices and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy <span class="hlt">saving</span>, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, but not selected under the BAU case and 650 ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, and (3) the share of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> in 2100 produced by the presently designed tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (introduced after 2060) is well below 30%. It should be noted that these conclusions are based upon varieties of uncertainties in scenarios and data assumptions on nuclear fusion as well as technological options.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75f1906J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75f1906J"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-consistent analyses for <span class="hlt">potential</span> conduction block in nerves by an ultrashort high-intensity <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, R. P.; Mishra, A.; Hu, Q.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Pakhomov, A.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Simulation studies are presented that probe the possibility of using high-field (>100kV/cm) , short-duration (˜50ns) <span class="hlt">electrical</span> pulses for nonthermal and reversible cessation of biological <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signaling pathways. This would have obvious applications in neurophysiology, clinical research, neuromuscular stimulation therapies, and even nonlethal bioweapons development. The concept is based on the creation of a sufficiently high density of pores on the nerve membrane by an <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulse. This modulates membrane conductance and presents an effective “<span class="hlt">electrical</span> short” to an incident voltage wave traveling across a nerve. Net blocking of action <span class="hlt">potential</span> propagation can then result. A continuum approach based on the Smoluchowski equation is used to treat electroporation. This is self-consistently coupled with a distributed circuit representation of the nerve dynamics. Our results indicate that poration at a single neural segment would be sufficient to produce an observable, yet reversible, effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223012"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimate of Cost-Effective <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span>, Environmental and Financial Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still <span class="hlt">saving</span> consumers money?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy+AND+Prices&pg=7&id=EJ333253','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy+AND+Prices&pg=7&id=EJ333253"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy $.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+current&pg=4&id=EJ837703','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+current&pg=4&id=EJ837703"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span>, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1382861','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1382861"><span id="translatedtitle">Oesophageal sensation assessed by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimuli and brain evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span>--a new model for visceral nociception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frøbert, O; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Bak, P; Funch-Jensen, P; Bagger, J P</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Sensory thresholds and brain evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were determined in 12 healthy volunteers using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the oesophagus 28 and 38 cm from the nares. The peaks of the evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were designated N for negative deflections and P for positive. Continuous <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation (40 Hz) at the 38 cm position resembled heartburn (five of 12 subjects) while non-specific ('<span class="hlt">electrical</span>') sensations were provoked at 28 cm (10 of 12). Thresholds of sensation and of pain were lower at the initial than the second determination, but did not differ with respect to stimulation site. The pain summation threshold to repeated stimuli (2 Hz, 5 stimuli) was determined for the first time in a viscus. This threshold was lower than the pain threshold to single stimuli at 38 cm (p < 0.02). Evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> latencies did not change significantly over a six month period while the N1/P2 amplitude was higher at the first measurement (p < 0.05). P1 and N1 latencies were significantly shorter 38 cm (medians 100 and 141 ms) than 28 cm from the nares (102 and 148 ms) (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008). <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation of the oesophagus may serve as a human experimental model for visceral pain. Longer evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> latencies from the proximal compared with distal stimulations provide new information about the sensory pathways of the oesophagus. PMID:8549932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24801682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24801682"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across neuronal membranes: the effect of fixed charges on spinal ganglion neurons and neuroblastoma cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinto, Thiago M; Wedemann, Roseli S; Cortez, Célia M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a model for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile across the membranes of neuronal cells. We considered the resting and action <span class="hlt">potential</span> states, and analyzed the influence of fixed charges of the membrane on its <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, based on experimental values of membrane properties of the spinal ganglion neuron and the neuroblastoma cell. The spinal ganglion neuron represents a healthy neuron, and the neuroblastoma cell, which is tumorous, represents a pathological neuron. We numerically solved the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the regions of the membrane model we have adopted, by considering the densities of charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmic proteins. Our model predicts that there is a difference in the behavior of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profiles of the two types of cells, in response to changes in charge concentrations in the membrane. Our results also describe an insensitivity of the neuroblastoma cell membrane, as observed in some biological experiments. This <span class="hlt">electrical</span> property may be responsible for the low pharmacological response of the neuroblastoma to certain chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:24801682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4011737','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4011737"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> across Neuronal Membranes: The Effect of Fixed Charges on Spinal Ganglion Neurons and Neuroblastoma Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pinto, Thiago M.; Wedemann, Roseli S.; Cortez, Célia M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a model for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile across the membranes of neuronal cells. We considered the resting and action <span class="hlt">potential</span> states, and analyzed the influence of fixed charges of the membrane on its <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, based on experimental values of membrane properties of the spinal ganglion neuron and the neuroblastoma cell. The spinal ganglion neuron represents a healthy neuron, and the neuroblastoma cell, which is tumorous, represents a pathological neuron. We numerically solved the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the regions of the membrane model we have adopted, by considering the densities of charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmic proteins. Our model predicts that there is a difference in the behavior of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profiles of the two types of cells, in response to changes in charge concentrations in the membrane. Our results also describe an insensitivity of the neuroblastoma cell membrane, as observed in some biological experiments. This <span class="hlt">electrical</span> property may be responsible for the low pharmacological response of the neuroblastoma to certain chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:24801682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JaJAP..54hKG05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JaJAP..54hKG05H"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-contact measurement of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of photovoltaic cells in a module and novel characterization technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hishikawa, Yoshihiro; Yamagoe, Kengo; Onuma, Tsuyoshi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A novel noncontact method of measuring the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of component cells in photovoltaic (PV) modules is investigated using electrostatic field measurement technology. Experimental results for various kinds of PV cells and modules are presented, and their measurement principle as well as practical factors that affect the measurement results are discussed. It is demonstrated that the DC <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the cells in various crystalline silicon and thin-film PV modules can be measured indoors through their cover glass or backsheet within a resolution of the output voltage of about 1 cell. The method is also applicable to the outdoor measurement of PV modules under grid-connected operation, and enables various kinds of characterization such as identifying low-performance cells in a PV module and degraded modules in a PV array, and determining the balance of their output current under outdoor operating conditions. Different distributions of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> measured from the front and back surfaces are observed for some types of modules. These differences are suggested, by the results of the analysis of experiments and numerical simulations, to originate from the modification of the module’s surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> by slight current flow through its component materials such as the cover glass, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and backsheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126.1049K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126.1049K"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Demand and Regional <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Capacity of Distributed Generators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo</p> <p></p> <p>We established a procedure for estimating regional <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand and regional <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of DGs to regional maximum <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future <span class="hlt">electricity</span> distribution system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102419','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102419"><span id="translatedtitle">Two independent forms of activity-dependent <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> regulate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission at mixed synapses on the Mauthner cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cachope, Roger; Pereda, Alberto E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Mixed (<span class="hlt">electrical</span> and chemical) synaptic contacts on the Mauthner cells, known as Club endings, constitute a valuable model for the study of vertebrate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission. While <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses are still perceived by many as passive intercellular channels that lack modifiability, a wealth of experimental evidence shows that gap junctions at Club endings are subject to dynamic regulatory control by two independent activity-dependent mechanisms that lead to <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission. One of those mechanisms relies on activation of NMDA receptors and postsynaptic CaMKII. A second mechanism relies on mGluR activation and endocannabinoid production and is indirectly mediated via the release of dopamine from nearby varicosities, which in turn leads to <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of the synaptic response via a PKA-mediated postsynaptic mechanism. We review here these two forms of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> and their signaling mechanisms, which include the activation of two kinases with well-established roles as regulators of synaptic strength, as well as the functional implications of these two forms of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span>. PMID:22771708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=positioning+AND+marketing+AND+marketing&pg=5&id=ED426484','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=positioning+AND+marketing+AND+marketing&pg=5&id=ED426484"><span id="translatedtitle">Deregulation of the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Industry and Its <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Benefits for School Districts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watkiss, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the <span class="hlt">electric</span>-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130390','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130390"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Coordinating Council</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.</p> <p>2014-02-24</p> <p>This report, Analysis of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and <span class="hlt">potentially</span> updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to analyze the proposed energy corridors in the WECC report in five topic areas: Federal land jurisdiction, Existing Section 368 corridors, Existing transmission lines, Previously studied corridor locations, and Protected areas. Analysis methods are explained and tables and maps are provided to describe the results of the analyses in all five topic areas. WECC used a rational approach to connecting the hubs it identified, although there may be opportunities for adapting some of the proposed WECC routes to previously designated Section 368 corridors, for example: The WECC proposed energy corridors are in fact centerlines of proposed routes connecting hubs of various descriptions related to <span class="hlt">electric</span> energy transmission. Although the centerlines were sited to avoid sensitive areas, infrastructure proposed within actual pathways or corridors defined by the centerlines would sometimes affect lands where such development would not normally be allowed, such as National Parks and Monuments, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness Areas. Many WECC proposed energy corridors are sited along centerlines of existing roads, including Interstate Highways, where in some cases additional width to accommodate energy transmission infrastructure may not be available. Examples include the WECC Proposed Corridor along Interstate 70 through Glenwood Canyon in Colorado, and along U.S. Highway 89 across Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. Several WECC proposed energy corridors are parallel to designated Section 368 corridors that have already cleared the preliminary steps to right-of-way approval. In many of these cases, the WECC hub connection objectives can be met more efficiently by routing on the designated Section 368 corridors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2170471','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2170471"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">potential</span> management zones from soil <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, yield and crop data*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and <span class="hlt">potential</span> crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18196615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18196615"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">potential</span> management zones from soil <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, yield and crop data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and <span class="hlt">potential</span> crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862304"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy Now</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure informs industrial audiences about <span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy Now, part of ''Easy Ways to <span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy'', a national campaign to <span class="hlt">save</span> energy and ensure energy security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7728112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7728112"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the visual cortex be elicited <span class="hlt">electrically</span> despite severe retinal degeneration and a markedly reduced electroretinogram?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humayun, M; Sato, Y; Propst, R; de Juan, E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Outer retinal degenerations can cause severe visual handicap. Specific treatment is lacking. There is good histologic evidence that even in the face of total photoreceptor loss the ganglion cells remain viable. This study evaluates the possibility of eliciting an evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of rabbit eyes with experimentally induced outer retinal degenerations. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation using a bipolar contact-lens electrode was performed in normal rabbits as well as in rabbits with experimentally induced outer retinal degenerations. Outer retinal degenerations were induced by injecting intravenously either monoiodoacetic acid (IAA) or sodium iodate (NaIO3). After administration of IAA or NaIO3, the electroretinogram was absent or markedly reduced and, histologically, the photoreceptor layer was severely damaged. However, the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked visual cortical response could nonetheless be elicited. We conclude that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the globe can elicit evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the visual cortex despite severe outer retinal damage. These results provide support for future efforts toward testing the feasibility of bypassing damaged outer retina and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> stimulating the inner retina of patients with profound visual loss from retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:7728112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6a1007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6a1007B"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Surface <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Double-Layer Structure at the Aqueous Electrolyte-Nanoparticle Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Matthew A.; Abbas, Zareen; Kleibert, Armin; Green, Richard G.; Goel, Alok; May, Sylvio; Squires, Todd M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The structure of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer has been debated for well over a century, since it mediates colloidal interactions, regulates surface structure, controls reactivity, sets capacitance, and represents the central element of electrochemical supercapacitors. The surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> of such surfaces generally exceeds the electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span>, often substantially. Traditionally, a Stern layer of nonspecifically adsorbed ions has been invoked to rationalize the difference between these two <span class="hlt">potentials</span>; however, the inability to directly measure the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> of dispersed systems has rendered quantitative measurements of the Stern layer <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and other quantities associated with the outer Helmholtz plane, impossible. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid microjet to measure the absolute surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous electrolytes. We quantitatively determine the impact of specific cations (Li+ , Na+ , K+ , and Cs+ ) in chloride electrolytes on the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span>, the location of the shear plane, and the capacitance of the Stern layer. We find that the magnitude of the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> increases linearly with the hydrated-cation radius. Interpreting our data using the simplest assumptions and most straightforward understanding of Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory reveals a Stern layer whose thickness corresponds to a single layer of water molecules hydrating the silica surface, plus the radius of the hydrated cation. These results subject <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double-layer theories to direct and falsifiable tests to reveal a physically intuitive and quantitatively verified picture of the Stern layer that is consistent across multiple electrolytes and solution conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294330"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of pressure stimulated voltages in rocks using an <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.</p> <p>2009-09-21</p> <p>Recent interest in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity in rock and the use of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field transients as candidates for earthquake precursors has led to studies of pressure stimulated currents in laboratory samples. In this paper, an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field sensor is used to measure directly the voltages associated with these currents. Stress was applied as uniaxial compression to marble and granite at an approximately constant rate. In contrast with the small pressure stimulated currents previously measured, large voltage signals are reported. Polarity reversal of the signal was observed immediately before fracture for the marble, in agreement with previous pressure stimulated current studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112c3715W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112c3715W"><span id="translatedtitle">Exciton states and oscillator strengths in a cylindrical quantum wire with finite <span class="hlt">potential</span> under transverse <span class="hlt">electric</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Shudong; Tomić, Stanko</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The effects of a transverse <span class="hlt">electric</span> field on the electronic structure, exciton states, and oscillator strengths in a cylindrical quantum wire (QWR) are theoretically investigated. We consider a QWR made of GaAs material surrounded by a barrier of Al0.3Ga0.7As of finite depth <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The electronic structure of the QWR, at the single electron level of theory, is obtained inside the effective mass approximation using the plane wave method, while the exciton states and transition oscillator strengths are calculated using the variational principle. The results show that the exciton oscillator strength is strongly enhanced due to the excitonic effect. The external <span class="hlt">electric</span> field lifts the degeneracy of the electron or hole states. The energy levels of the electron and hole, exciton binding energy and exciton oscillator strength decrease with the increasing of the strength of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The stronger the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, the weaker the excitonic effect is. The influence of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field on exciton states and oscillator strengths becomes more significant for wide quantum wires. However, in sufficiently narrow wires, the influence of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is also significant at small fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/227150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/227150"><span id="translatedtitle">Models of high-latitude <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> derived with a least error fit of spherical harmonic coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weimer, D.R.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>New models of the high-latitude <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> have been developed. These models show how the polar ionospheric <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, or plasma convection, responds to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and other parameters, such as dipole tilt angle. These patterns were derived from measurements of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field on the DE 2 satellite, using all polar cap passes during which high-resolution IMF data were available from the ISEE 3 or IMP 8 satellites. The data are sorted according to the angle of the IMF in the GSM Y-Z plane. The measurements are further divided into different groups according to the magnitude of the IMF or the dipole tilt angle. All measurements in each group are then used to derive a model of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for the given conditions, using a new technique where the coefficients of a spherical harmonic expansion are found by least square error fits. The resulting convection patterns are very realistic and show consistent variations as the IMF B{sub Y}/B{sub Z} angle rotates. For northward IMF (positive B{sub Z}) evidently there are four convection {open_quotes}cells,{close_quotes} rather than a distortion of the two-cell pattern. Many other useful facts regarding the solar wind-ionosphere coupling can be extracted from the derived patterns, such as the relationship between the polar cap <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop and the IMF clock angle. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22h2001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22h2001S"><span id="translatedtitle">Electro-osmotic flow in a wavy microchannel: Coherence between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the wall shape function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shu, Y. C.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, Y. S.; Wang, C. Y.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The electro-osmotic flow through a wavy microchannel is studied under the Debye-Hückel approximation. An analytic solution by perturbation with appropriate averaging is carried out up to the second-order in terms of the small amplitude of corrugation. It is shown that the wavelength and phase difference of the corrugations can be utilized to control the flow relative to the case of flat walls. In particular, for thick <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers the electro-osmotic flow can be enhanced at long-wavelength corrugations because of the coherence between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the wall shape function. Notably, these findings are not restricted to small amplitudes of corrugation. By applying the Ritz method to solve for the electro-osmotic flow, it is found that the enhancement becomes even greater (up to 30%) with increases in corrugation. Moreover, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved by finite difference to study the electro-osmotic flow in terms of the relative strength of the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The issue of overlapped <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers when they are very thick is also discussed. The relative flow rate is shown to increase under the following conditions: (i) completely out-of-phase corrugations with long wavelength and large amplitude, (ii) small zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and (iii) slight overlapping of <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039736&hterms=Fluoride&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DFluoride','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039736&hterms=Fluoride&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DFluoride"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and thermal conductivities, and <span class="hlt">potential</span> applications of graphite fluoride fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Cheh; Long, Martin; Stahl, Mark</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Graphite fluoride fibers can be produced by fluorinating pristine or intercalated graphite fibers. The higher the degree of graphitization of the fibers, the higher the temperature needed to reach the same degree of fluorination. Structural damage during high temperature fluorination can be reduced or eliminated by pretreating the fibers with bromine and/or fluorine. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity of the fibers was in the 0.01 to 10 to the 11th ohm-cm range. The thermal conductivity of these fibers ranged from 5 to 75 W/m-K, which is much larger than the thermal conductivity of glass (1.1 W/m-K), the commonly used fiber in epoxy composites. A composite made from graphite fluoride fibers and epoxy or PTFE may be highly thermally conducting and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> insulating or semiconducting. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> insulating product may be used as heat sinks for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> or electronic instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10134501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10134501"><span id="translatedtitle">A systems model and <span class="hlt">potential</span> leverage points for base load <span class="hlt">electric</span> generating options</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Price, L.G.; Sebo, D.E.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The mission and structure of <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities may change significantly to meet the challenges on the next several decades. In addition, providing <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy in an environmentally responsible manner will continue to be a major challenge. The methods of supplying <span class="hlt">electrical</span> power may change dramatically in the future as utilities search for ways to improve the availability and reliability of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> power systems. The role of large, base load generating capacity to supply the bulk of a utility`s <span class="hlt">electrical</span> power is evolving, but it will continue to be important for many years to come. The objective of this study is to examine the systems structure of five base load capacity options available to a utility and identify areas where technological improvements could produce significant changes in their systems. These improvements would enhance the likelihood that these options would be selected for providing future <span class="hlt">electrical</span> capacity. Technology improvements are identified and discussed, but it was beyond the scope of this work to develop strategies for specific Idaho National Engineering Laboratory involvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1051847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1051847"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel</p> <p>2011-10-13</p> <p>An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that <span class="hlt">potential</span> for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 <span class="hlt">electricity</span> end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicle (EV) loads, <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage, and load shifting on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span>; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could <span class="hlt">save</span> 5% of their total <span class="hlt">electricity</span> load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could <span class="hlt">save</span> the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Direct-DC provides no energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly influenced by climate. While direct-DC for residential applications will most likely arise as a spin-off of developments in the commercial sector—because of lower barriers to market entry and larger energy benefits resulting from the higher coincidence between load and insolation—this paper demonstrates that there are substantial benefits in the residential sector as well. Among residential applications, space cooling derives the largest energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> from being delivered by a direct-DC system. It is the largest load for the average residence on a national basis and is particularly so in high-load regions. It is also the load with highest solar coincidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814468"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Potential</span> For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, SW</p> <p>2001-12-05</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining <span class="hlt">savings</span> were examined, including existing programs, surveys, <span class="hlt">savings</span> calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020) and water heating (14% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling <span class="hlt">savings</span> when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements. The study did not involve changes to the building shell (e.g., increased insulation) or residential lighting improvements. Nevertheless, the residential sector's market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> was calculated to be 5.3% of expected <span class="hlt">electrical</span> use, representing 850 GWh by 2020. Natural gas <span class="hlt">savings</span> could be 2.4% of expected gas use, representing 2.1 trillion Btus. Using expected prices for energy in that year, these represent <span class="hlt">savings</span> of $47 million and $12 million per year. In the commercial sector, the study only considered voluntary market-based policies for some of the technologies. The most notable <span class="hlt">savings</span> were in ventilation (12% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020), lighting (12% <span class="hlt">savings</span>), refrigeration (7% <span class="hlt">savings</span>), water heating (6% <span class="hlt">savings</span>), and space heating (5% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020). The commercial sector's market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> based on the programs modeled was calculated to be 5.1% of its total expected <span class="hlt">electrical</span> use, representing 605 GWh of power by 2020. Natural gas <span class="hlt">savings</span> were 2.3 trillion Btu, 3.7% of use. Using the same prices as the residential sector (5.5{cents}/kWh and $5.74/MBtu), the <span class="hlt">savings</span> represent $33 million and $13 million per year, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712447M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712447M"><span id="translatedtitle">Water <span class="hlt">saving</span> at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water <span class="hlt">potential</span> monitoring and irrigation management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water <span class="hlt">potential</span> (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water <span class="hlt">potential</span> (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was -30 kPa and, finally, from the end of May to the harvesting time (maturation process), irrigation was applied when SWP reached -25 kPa. Every time irrigation events were stopped when SWP at the field capacity (-10 kPa) was restored in the upper part of the root zone. Results showed a water <span class="hlt">saving</span> of nearly 50% using the Irrig-OH device, without consequences on the quantity and quality of the production. Plant physiological status based on LWP, T and CWSI measurements showed that despite the different irrigation treatments adopted, no considerable plant stress was found in both rows. In particular, maximum values of the previous indices, performed at midday, were respectively -2 MPa, 1.4 mm h-1 and 0.6, which were in good agreement with those observed by many researches for no-stressed peach orchards in Mediterranean areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99...51S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">potential</span> impacts of <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This work analyses the <span class="hlt">potential</span> air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a <span class="hlt">potential</span> for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering <span class="hlt">electric</span> generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban air quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..433T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..433T"><span id="translatedtitle">Bulk meltwater flow and liquid water content of snowpacks mapped using the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Sarah S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Essery, Richard L. H.; Lüthi, Martin P.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Our ability to measure, quantify and assimilate hydrological properties and processes of snow in operational models is disproportionally poor compared to the significance of seasonal snowmelt as a global water resource and major risk factor in flood and avalanche forecasting. We show here that strong <span class="hlt">electrical</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> fields are generated in melting in situ snowpacks at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier, Switzerland. In agreement with theory, the diurnal evolution of self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnitudes ( ˜ 60-250 mV) relates to those of bulk meltwater fluxes (0-1.2 × 10-6 m3 s-1) principally through the permeability and the content, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity and pH of liquid water. Previous work revealed that when fresh snow melts, ions are eluted in sequence and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, pH and self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> data change diagnostically. Our snowpacks had experienced earlier stages of melt, and complementary snow pit measurements revealed that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity ( ˜ 1-5 × 10-6 S m-1) and pH ( ˜ 6.5-6.7) as well as permeabilities (respectively ˜ 9.7 × 10-5 and ˜ 4.3 × 10-5 m2 at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier) were invariant. This implies, first, that preferential elution of ions was complete and, second, that our self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements reflect daily changes in liquid water contents. These were calculated to increase within the pendular regime from ˜ 1 to 5 and ˜ 3 to 5.5 % respectively at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier, as confirmed by ground truth measurements. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> method is a promising snow and firn hydrology sensor owing to its suitability for (1) sensing lateral and vertical liquid water flows directly and minimally invasively, (2) complementing established observational programs through multidimensional spatial mapping of meltwater fluxes or liquid water content and (3) monitoring autonomously at a low cost. Future work should focus on the development of self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> sensor arrays compatible with existing weather and snow monitoring technology and observational programs, and the integration of self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> data into analytical frameworks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/451182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/451182"><span id="translatedtitle">Measured energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> and performance of power-managed personal computers and monitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Personal computers and monitors are estimated to use 14 billion kWh/year of <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, with power management <span class="hlt">potentially</span> <span class="hlt">saving</span> $600 million/year by the year 2000. The effort to capture these <span class="hlt">savings</span> is lead by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Energy Star program, which specifies a 30W maximum demand for the computer and for the monitor when in a {open_quote}sleep{close_quote} or idle mode. In this paper the authors discuss measured energy use and estimated <span class="hlt">savings</span> for power-managed (Energy Star compliant) PCs and monitors. They collected <span class="hlt">electricity</span> use measurements of six power-managed PCs and monitors in their office and five from two other research projects. The devices are diverse in machine type, use patterns, and context. The analysis method estimates the time spent in each system operating mode (off, low-, and full-power) and combines these with real power measurements to derive hours of use per mode, energy use, and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Three schedules are explored in the {open_quotes}As-operated,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Standardized,{close_quotes} and `Maximum` <span class="hlt">savings</span> estimates. Energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> are established by comparing the measurements to a baseline with power management disabled. As-operated energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for the eleven PCs and monitors ranged from zero to 75 kWh/year. Under the standard operating schedule (on 20% of nights and weekends), the <span class="hlt">savings</span> are about 200 kWh/year. An audit of power management features and configurations for several dozen Energy Star machines found only 11% of CPU`s fully enabled and about two thirds of monitors were successfully power managed. The highest priority for greater power management <span class="hlt">savings</span> is to enable monitors, as opposed to CPU`s, since they are generally easier to configure, less likely to interfere with system operation, and have greater <span class="hlt">savings</span>. The difficulties in properly configuring PCs and monitors is the largest current barrier to achieving the <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> from power management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27018544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27018544"><span id="translatedtitle">Mutagenic and genotoxic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of direct <span class="hlt">electric</span> current in Escherichia coli and Salmonella thyphimurium strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gomes, Marina das Neves; Cardoso, Janine Simas; Leitão, Alvaro Costa; Quaresma, Carla Holandino</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Direct <span class="hlt">electric</span> current has several therapeutic uses such as antibacterial and antiprotozoal action, tissues scarring and regeneration, as well as tumor treatment. This method has shown promising results in vivo and in vitro, with significant efficacy and almost no side effects. Considering lack of studies regarding direct <span class="hlt">electric</span> current mutagenic and/or genotoxic effects, the present work evaluated both aspects by using five different bacterial experimental assays: survival of repair-deficient mutants, Salmonella-histidine reversion mutagenesis (Ames test), forward mutations to rifampicin resistance, phage reactivation, and lysogenic induction. In these experimental conditions, cells were submitted to an approach that allows evaluation of anodic, cathodic, and electro-ionic effects generated by 2 mA of direct <span class="hlt">electric</span> current, with doses ranging from 0.36 to 3.60 Coulombs. Our results showed these doses did not induce mutagenic or genotoxic effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:234-243, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15605856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15605856"><span id="translatedtitle">Skin cancer identification using multifrequency <span class="hlt">electrical</span> impedance--a <span class="hlt">potential</span> screening tool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aberg, Peter; Nicander, Ingrid; Hansson, Johan; Geladi, Paul; Holmgren, Ulf; Ollmar, Stig</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> bio-impedance can be used to assess skin cancers and other cutaneous lesions. The aim of this study was to distinguish skin cancer from benign nevi using multifrequency impedance spectra. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> impedance spectra of about 100 skin cancers and 511 benign nevi were measured. Impedance of reference skin was measured ipsi-laterally to the lesions. The impedance relation between lesion and reference skin was used to distinguish the cancers from the nevi. It was found that it is possible to separate malignant melanoma from benign nevi with 75% specificity at 100% sensitivity, and to distinguish nonmelanoma skin cancer from benign nevi with 87% specificity at 100% sensitivity. The power of skin cancer detection using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> impedance is as good as, or better than, conventional visual screening made by general practitioners. PMID:15605856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880016553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880016553"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in Ti-6Al-4V with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Telesman, Jack</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> methods have been used in the past primarily to monitor crack length in long crack specimens subjected to fatigue loading. An attempt was made to develop test procedures for monitoring the fatigue crack initiation and the growth of short fatigue cracks in a turbine disk alloy with the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop technique (EPDT). In addition, the EPDT was also applied to monitor the fatigue crack growth in long crack specimens of the same alloy. The resolution of the EPDT for different specimen geometries was determined. Factors influencing the EPDT are identified and the applicability of EPDT in implementing damage tolerant design concepts for turbine disk materials is discussed. The experimental procedure adopted and the results obtained is discussed. No substantial differences were observed between the fatigue crack growth data of short and long crack specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104985"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient at the Buried Interface between Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes and the SEI Observed Using Photoelectron Spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maibach, Julia; Lindgren, Fredrik; Eriksson, Henrik; Edström, Kristina; Hahlin, Maria</p> <p>2016-05-19</p> <p>The buried interface between the bulk electrode material and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in cycled Li-ion battery anodes is suggested to incorporate an <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> gradient. This suggestion is based on photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) results from different anode materials that all show relative binding energy shifts between the components of the SEI and the active anode. Implications of this <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> gradient on binding energy reference points in PES as well as on charge-transfer kinetics in Li-ion batteries are discussed. Specifically, we show that the separation of surface layer and bulk material spectral contributions (depth profiling) is crucial for consistent data interpretation. We conclude that previous interpretations of lithiation as cause for changes in PES spectra may need to be revised. PMID:27104985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.B32A..17K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.B32A..17K"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationship between the tree and its environment, based on <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference monitoring on trunk of trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppan, A.; Fenyvesi, A.; Szarka, L.; Wesztergom, V.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences (EPD) in the trunk of a Turkey oak tree (measured by using non-polarising electrodes deepened in the sap wood) have been continuously recorded in the Geophysical Observatory "Istv n Széchenyi" of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences since 1997. Besides of various geophysical observations, meteorological and direct sap-flow measurements have also been carried out in the observatory. As it was found (Kopp n A., Szarka L., Wesztergom V., 2000: Annual fluctuation in amplitudes of daily variations of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals measured in the trunk of a standing tree. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Life Sciences 323, 559-563), the measured <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference data have a characteristic sinusoidal daily fluctuation, and the intensity of the diurnal variations has a double-peak annual characteristics, which coincides with the life activity maximums of the tree. We have found a remarkable inter-correlation between trunk EPD, water <span class="hlt">potential</span> of air (derived from meteorological data), and direct sap flow velocity data from a neighboring tree. All these results clearly demonstrate that the sap streaming due to the transpiration and root pressure generates the largest part of measured <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences. The ratio of the flow velocity of a diluted solution forced through stems and the <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences was found to be constant (Gindl, W., L”ppert, H.-G., Wimmer, R., 1999: Relationship between streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and sap velocity in Salix alba L. Phyton, 39, 217-224.). On the contrary in our in-vivo experiments the relationship between the measured sap flow velocity and EPD is non-linear, which means that the conductivity (i.e. ion concentration) of the xylem sap itself also has a daily fluctuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11084148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11084148"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensations and trigeminal somatosensory-evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> elicited by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of endosseous oral implants in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Loven, K; Jacobs, R; Swinnen, A; Van Huffel, S; Van Hees, J; van Steenberghe, D</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The perception of bipolar <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimuli through implants was studied. The stimuli were delivered to permucosal oral endosseous implants in 15 individuals, who then reported tapping to beating sensations. In 10 out of the 15, these stimuli evoked clearly distinguishable <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the averaged electroencephalograms. The most prominent scalp <span class="hlt">potential</span> was a positive wave with a latency between 18 and 25 ms, often preceded by a negative wave with a latency around 12-17 ms. In contrast, when a motor response was elicited by stimulation of the lip, a shorter latency wave around 8-11 ms was found additionally, indicating that the former-mentioned waves represent a true sensory response and not an artefact of myogenous origin. Furthermore, topical anaesthesia of the gingiva surrounding the implants in six individuals had little effect on the sensory responses. This evidence excluded peri-implant mucosal innervation as the origin of the perception and of the somatosensory-evoked waves elicited by the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the oral implants. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time a sensation (osseoperception) has been elicited by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of endosseous oral implants and correlated with simultaneously recorded trigeminal somatosensory-evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (TSEPs). PMID:11084148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754097"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different <span class="hlt">potential</span> tenderness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this study, the effect of pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field within 2h. Six different pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples. PMID:25754097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912142"><span id="translatedtitle">Postcontraction hyperemia after <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation: <span class="hlt">potential</span> utility in rehabilitation of patients with upper extremity paralysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shibata, Nobusuke; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Kudo, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kana; Mizutani, Takashi; Sato, Mineyoshi; Chida, Satoaki; Hatakeyama, Kazutoshi; Watanabe, Motoyuki; Shimada, Yoichi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to compare postcontraction hyperemia after <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation between patients with upper extremity paralysis caused by upper motor neuron diseases and healthy controls. Thirteen healthy controls and eleven patients with upper extremity paralysis were enrolled. The blood flow in the basilic vein was measured by ultrasound before the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the biceps brachii muscle and 30 s after the stimulation. The stimulation was performed at 10 mA and at a frequency of 70 Hz for 20 s. The mean blood flow in the healthy control group and in upper extremity paralysis group before the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation was 60 ± 20 mL/min (mean ± SD) and 48 ± 25 mL/min, respectively. After the stimulation, blood flow in both groups increased to 117 ± 23 mL/min and 81 ± 41 mL/min, respectively. We show that it is possible to measure postcontraction hyperemia using an ultrasound system. In addition, blood flow in both groups increased after the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation because of postcontraction hyperemia. These findings suggest that evaluating post contraction hyperemia in patients with upper extremity paralysis can assess rehabilitation effects. PMID:26912142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981839"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2H <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment in a separable <span class="hlt">potential</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gibson, Benjamin; Afnan, I. R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment of H or HE may well come prior to the coveted measurement of the neutron EDM. Exact model calculations for the deuteron are feasible, and we explore here the model dependence of such deuteron EDM calculations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=short+AND+circuit+AND+current&id=EJ770708','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=short+AND+circuit+AND+current&id=EJ770708"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving High School Students' Understanding of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Difference in Simple <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liegeois, Laurent; Chasseigne, G'erard; Papin, Sophie; Mullet, Etienne</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports two studies into the understanding of the concept of <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference in the current-<span class="hlt">potential</span> difference-resistance context among 8th-12th graders (Study 1), and the efficiency of a learning device derived from Social Judgment Theory (Study 2). These two studies showed that: (a) when asked to infer <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPdMP319D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPdMP319D"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of Interior <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and Density Fluctuations on TEXT-Upgrade using a Heavy Ion Beam Probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demers, D. R.; Schoch, P. M.; Crowley, T. P.; Connor, K. A.; Ouroua, A.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Fluctuations in interior <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and density have been measured in TEXT-Upgrade plasmas using a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP). Measurements extending into the core are achieved with a 2 MeV beam; a higher energy beam than previously used. Increased signal levels from the interior enable us to estimate the radial electrostatic fluctuation induced particle flux and test the validity of the Boltzmann relation in the interior of the plasma. Measured phase shifts between density and <span class="hlt">potential</span> fluctuations are small, therefore errors on the order of 10 degrees will have a significant effect on estimates. Characterization of the phase accuracy of the HIBP detection system will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55cDD12W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55cDD12W"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in organic thin-film transistor by bias-applied hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Takeshi; Tada, Keisuke; Yasuno, Satoshi; Oji, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Noriyuki; Hirosawa, Ichiro</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The effect of gate voltage on <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in a pentacene (PEN) layer was studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under a bias voltage. It was observed that applying a negative gate voltage substantially increases the width of a C 1s peak. This suggested that injected and accumulated carriers in an organic thin film transistor channel modified the <span class="hlt">potential</span> depth profile in PEN. It was also observed that the C 1s kinetic energy tends to increase monotonically with threshold voltage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1250660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1250660"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-Space Distributions of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in Planar and Porous Peroveskite Solar Cells: Carrier Separation and Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini; Luther, Joseph; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; Van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.</p> <p>2015-06-14</p> <p>We study the carrier transport and separation in planar and porous PS devices, which is one of the most fundamental operation mechanisms of solar cells, by profiling the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across the devices. We found that the PV devices work by p-n junction at the TiO2/PS interface for the both device structures. Combining the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profiling results with the solar cell performance parameters taken on the optimized and thickened devices, we found that mobility is the main factor limiting the device performance. Improving the mobility both within grains and across grain boundaries (or enlarging the grain size) are expected to significantly improve the device efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22830725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22830725"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of spherical <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli</p> <p>2012-07-21</p> <p>We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile, we argue that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers. PMID:22830725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137c4708G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137c4708G"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of spherical <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile, we argue that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5623747','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5623747"><span id="translatedtitle">Residential conservation power plant study - Technical <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosenfeld, A.; Schuck, L.; Miller, P.; De La Moriniere, O.; Geller, H.; De Almeida, A.; Barkovitch, B.; Blumstein, C.; Goldstein, D.; Meier, A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This report analyzes the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> conservation in seven residential end uses - refrigerating, freezing, water heating, lighting, central air conditioning, cooking, and clothes drying. The analysis is based on the Pacific Gas and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Company service territory. It explores the costs and <span class="hlt">savings</span> of a range of new, energy-efficient technologies including some in the prototype stage, such as heat pump and microwave clothes dryers, bi-radiant ovens, evacuated panel refrigerator insulation, and low temperature dishwashers. The authors develop three alternative scenarios of energy demand through 2005, documenting the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for up to 56% reduction in peak power demand and 44% reduction in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4885644','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4885644"><span id="translatedtitle">Unmasking local activity within local field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (LFPs) by removing distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals using independent component analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Whitmore, Nathan W.; Lin, Shih-Chieh</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Local field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (LFPs) are commonly thought to reflect the aggregate dynamics in local neural circuits around recording electrodes. However, we show that when LFPs are recorded in awake behaving animals against a distal reference on the skull as commonly practiced, LFPs are significantly contaminated by non-local and non-neural sources arising from the reference electrode and from movement-related noise. In a data set with simultaneously recorded LFPs and electroencephalograms (EEGs) across multiple brain regions while rats perform an auditory oddball task, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify signals arising from <span class="hlt">electrical</span> reference and from volume-conducted noise based on their distributed spatial pattern across multiple electrodes and distinct power spectral features. These sources of distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals collectively accounted for 23–77% of total variance in unprocessed LFPs, as well as most of the gamma oscillation responses to the target stimulus in EEGs. Gamma oscillation power was concentrated in volume-conducted noise and was tightly coupled with the onset of licking behavior, suggesting a likely origin of muscle activity associated with body movement or orofacial movement. The removal of distal signal contamination also selectively reduced correlations of LFP/EEG signals between distant brain regions but not within the same region. Finally, the removal of contamination from distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals preserved an event-related <span class="hlt">potential</span> (ERP) response to auditory stimuli in the frontal cortex and also increased the coupling between the frontal ERP amplitude and neuronal activity in the basal forebrain, supporting the conclusion that removing distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals unmasked local activity within LFPs. Together, these results highlight the significant contamination of LFPs by distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals and caution against the straightforward interpretation of unprocessed LFPs. Our results provide a principled approach to identify and remove such contamination to unmask local LFPs. PMID:26899209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26899209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26899209"><span id="translatedtitle">Unmasking local activity within local field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (LFPs) by removing distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals using independent component analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whitmore, Nathan W; Lin, Shih-Chieh</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Local field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (LFPs) are commonly thought to reflect the aggregate dynamics in local neural circuits around recording electrodes. However, we show that when LFPs are recorded in awake behaving animals against a distal reference on the skull as commonly practiced, LFPs are significantly contaminated by non-local and non-neural sources arising from the reference electrode and from movement-related noise. In a data set with simultaneously recorded LFPs and electroencephalograms (EEGs) across multiple brain regions while rats perform an auditory oddball task, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify signals arising from <span class="hlt">electrical</span> reference and from volume-conducted noise based on their distributed spatial pattern across multiple electrodes and distinct power spectral features. These sources of distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals collectively accounted for 23-77% of total variance in unprocessed LFPs, as well as most of the gamma oscillation responses to the target stimulus in EEGs. Gamma oscillation power was concentrated in volume-conducted noise and was tightly coupled with the onset of licking behavior, suggesting a likely origin of muscle activity associated with body movement or orofacial movement. The removal of distal signal contamination also selectively reduced correlations of LFP/EEG signals between distant brain regions but not within the same region. Finally, the removal of contamination from distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals preserved an event-related <span class="hlt">potential</span> (ERP) response to auditory stimuli in the frontal cortex and also increased the coupling between the frontal ERP amplitude and neuronal activity in the basal forebrain, supporting the conclusion that removing distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals unmasked local activity within LFPs. Together, these results highlight the significant contamination of LFPs by distal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals and caution against the straightforward interpretation of unprocessed LFPs. Our results provide a principled approach to identify and remove such contamination to unmask local LFPs. PMID:26899209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5647585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5647585"><span id="translatedtitle">Supermarket refrigeration assessment for the Commonwealth <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Company</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsaros, T.L.; Walker, D.H. )</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>The Commonwealth <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Company (COM/<span class="hlt">Electric</span>) has initiated an incentive program to promote <span class="hlt">electric</span> energy conservation within its service territory. The <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Power Research Institute (EPRI) has assisted COM/<span class="hlt">Electric</span> in assessing the impact on the utility and its customers of implementing energy efficient supermarket refrigeration in retrofit applications. The primary task of this assessment was to contact the supermarket chains and refrigeration contractors and suppliers in the COM/<span class="hlt">Electric</span> service territory to determine the type of refrigeration employed and standard or novel retrofit equipment implemented in supermarkets. With this information, estimates were made of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> that COM/<span class="hlt">Electric</span> and the supermarkets could realize if supermarkets were retrofitted with energy efficient refrigeration equipment. It was determined that the refrigerated display case features offering the greatest <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">savings</span> through retrofit installations include doors for medium temperature multideck cases, high-efficiency fan motors, anti-sweat heater controls, and vinyl strip curtains for walk-in coolers. The retrofit components associated with the compressor machine room that offer the greatest <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">savings</span> include the use of low heat pressure control, hot gas defrost, and external liquid-suction heat exchangers and remote evaporative subcoolers for low temperature refrigeration. 6 refs., 14 figs., 26 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/511881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/511881"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">potential</span> uses of <span class="hlt">electric</span>-arc furnace dust (EAFD) in concrete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Al-Zaid, R.Z.; Al-Sugair, F.H.; Al-Negheimish, A.I.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of an investigation for the possible uses of <span class="hlt">electric</span>-arc furnace dust (EAFD) by-product in concrete manufacturing. The effects of EAFD on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete are investigated. The results of standard tests on fresh concrete indicate that EAFD can be used as an effective set retarder. In addition, other standard tests appear to indicate that EAFD will enhance engineering properties of hardened concrete without any side-effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11O..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11O..03C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Phoenix, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chester, M.; Bartos, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate <span class="hlt">potential</span> water <span class="hlt">savings</span>, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Water conservation policies have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to reduce statewide <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10c6018D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10c6018D"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of finite element model of transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation using scalp <span class="hlt">potentials</span>: implications for clinical dose</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Datta, Abhishek; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Yuzhou; Parra, Lucas C.; Bikson, Marom</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Objective. During transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation, current passage across the scalp generates voltage across the scalp surface. The goal was to characterize these scalp voltages for the purpose of validating subject-specific finite element method (FEM) models of current flow. Approach. Using a recording electrode array, we mapped skin voltages resulting from low-intensity transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation. These voltage recordings were used to compare the predictions obtained from the high-resolution model based on the subject undergoing transcranial stimulation. Main results. Each of the four stimulation electrode configurations tested resulted in a distinct distribution of scalp voltages; these spatial maps were linear with applied current amplitude (0.1 to 1 mA) over low frequencies (1 to 10 Hz). The FEM model accurately predicted the distinct voltage distributions and correlated the induced scalp voltages with current flow through cortex. Significance. Our results provide the first direct model validation for these subject-specific modeling approaches. In addition, the monitoring of scalp voltages may be used to verify electrode placement to increase transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation safety and reproducibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22014584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22014584"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for estimation of <span class="hlt">potential</span> generation of waste <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment in Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Sales of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the "boom" in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years. PMID:22014584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5616561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5616561"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> growth of nuclear and coal <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation in the US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electricity</span> demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity over the next fifty years. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will require solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear, the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. This report assesses the impacts associated with a range of projected growth rates in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand over the next 50 years. The resource requirements and waste generation resulting from pursuing the coal and nuclear fuel options to meet the projected growth rates are estimated. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Improvements in technology and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety concerns about <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation from both options. 34 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648550','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648550"><span id="translatedtitle">Nerve Growth Factor-Immobilized <span class="hlt">Electrically</span> Conducting Fibrous Scaffolds for <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Use in Neural Engineering Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae Y.; Bashur, Chris A.; Milroy, Craig A.; Forciniti, Leandro; Goldstein, Aaron S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Engineered scaffolds simultaneously exhibiting multiple cues are highly desirable for neural tissue regeneration. To this end, we developed a neural tissue engineering scaffold that displays submicrometer-scale features, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, and neurotrophic activity. Specifically, electrospun poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers were layered with a nanometer thick coating of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polypyrrole (PPy) presenting carboxylic groups. Then, nerve growth factor (NGF) was chemically immobilized onto the surface of the fibers. These NGF-immobilized PPy-coated PLGA (NGF-PPyPLGA) fibers supported PC12 neurite formation (28.0±3.0% of the cells) and neurite outgrowth (14.2 µm median length), which were comparable to that observed with NGF (50 ng/mL) in culture medium (29.0±1.3%, 14.4 µm). <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation of PC12 cells on NGF-immobilized PPyPLGA fiber scaffolds was found to further improve neurite development and neurite length by 18% and 17%, respectively, compared to unstimulated cells on the NGF-immobilized fibers. Hence, submicrometer-scale fibrous scaffolds that incorporate neurotrophic and electroconducting activities may serve as promising neural tissue engineering scaffolds such as nerve guidance conduits. PMID:21712166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6646418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6646418"><span id="translatedtitle">An electrophysiological study of the accessory olfactory bulb in the rabbit--I. Analysis of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacLeod, N K; Reinhardt, W</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>Following <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the vomeronasal nerves, the primary olfactory nerves, the lateral olfactory tract and the corticomedial amygdala, we have made a study of evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the rabbit accessory olfactory bulb. Vomeronasal nerve stimulation evoked a complex field <span class="hlt">potential</span> consisting of a compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> followed by 4 negative waves (N1, N2, N3, N4). In contrast to the field <span class="hlt">potential</span> elicited in the main olfactory bulb following primary olfactory nerve stimulation, there was either no evoked wave or only a weak positive component of the field in the accessory bulb. Amygdala stimulation caused a long latency, long duration negative-positive dipolar field <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the accessory olfactory bulb. Both antidromic and orthodromic field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> showed sign reversal when the electrode penetrated the bulb at a point corresponding to the lower border of the mitral cell band. Stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract elicited a weak, short-latency wave which did not show any sign reversal when the electrode was lowered into the accessory bulb. This wave was presumably due to fibres arising in the main bulb and projecting through the accessory bulb into the lateral olfactory tract. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation of the primary olfactory nerves did not induce any response in the accessory bulb neither did vomeronasal nerve stimulation evoke a response in the main olfactory bulb. The origin of these <span class="hlt">potential</span> fields is discussed and it is concluded that the synaptic organization of the accessory olfactory bulb resembles that of the main olfactory bulb in lower vertebrates. There is no detectable communication between the two olfactory systems. PMID:6646418</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPA....4j7130M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPA....4j7130M"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and ion concentration in the downstream area of atmospheric pressure remote plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishin, M. V.; Protopopova, V. S.; Uvarov, A. A.; Alexandrov, S. E.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results from an experimental study of the ion flux characteristics behind the remote plasma zone in a vertical tube reaction chamber for atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma was generated in pure He and gas mixtures: He-Ar, He-O2, He-TEOS. We previously used the reaction system He-TEOS for the synthesis of self-assembled structures of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. It is likely that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> parameters of the area, where nanoparticles have been transported from the synthesis zone to the substrate, play a significant role in the self-organization processes both in the vapor phase and on the substrate surface. The results from the spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and ion concentration in the discharge downstream area measured by means of the external probe of original design and the special data processing method are demonstrated in this work. Positive and negatives ions with maximum concentrations of 106-107 cm-3 have been found at 10-80 mm distance behind the plasma zone. On the basis of the revealed distributions for different gas mixtures, the physical model of the observed phenomena is proposed. The model illustrates the capability of the virtual ion emitter formation behind the discharge gap and the presence of an extremum of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the distance of approximately 10-2-10-1 mm from the grounded electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25968422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25968422"><span id="translatedtitle">From Chemical Gardens to Fuel Cells: Generation of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and Current Across Self-Assembling Iron Mineral Membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barge, Laura M; Abedian, Yeghegis; Russell, Michael J; Doloboff, Ivria J; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We examine the electrochemical gradients that form across chemical garden membranes and investigate how self-assembling, out-of-equilibrium inorganic precipitates-mimicking in some ways those generated in far-from-equilibrium natural systems-can generate electrochemical energy. Measurements of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and current were made across membranes precipitated both by injection and solution interface methods in iron-sulfide and iron-hydroxide reaction systems. The battery-like nature of chemical gardens was demonstrated by linking multiple experiments in series which produced sufficient <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy to light an external light-emitting diode (LED). This work paves the way for determining relevant properties of geological precipitates that may have played a role in hydrothermal redox chemistry at the origin of life, and materials applications that utilize the electrochemical properties of self-organizing chemical systems. PMID:25968422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChPhL..26h7202L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChPhL..26h7202L"><span id="translatedtitle">CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONICSTRUCTURE, <span class="hlt">ELECTRICAL</span>, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: <span class="hlt">Potential</span>-Dependent Generalized Einstein Relation in Disordered Organic Semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Jiu-Xun; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Da</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The generalized Einstein relation (GER) is extended to consider the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy of carriers in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (PDGER). It can be equivalently seen as the GER having position-dependent Fermi energy, and implies the organic semiconductor is in non-equilibrium under an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The distribution of the carrier density with position is solved for two polymer layers. The numerical results are used to evaluate the PDGER. It is shown that the ratio of diffusion coefficient to mobility, μ/D, increases with Fermi energy and decreases with carrier density. The PDGER gives non-traditional values for the two polymer layers; the value of μ/D is small near the surface, and slightly increases as the position departs from the surface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P43F..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P43F..06W"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory studies of magnetic anomaly effects on <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions near the lunar surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, X.; Robertson, S. H.; Horanyi, M.; NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Moon does not have a global magnetic field, unlike the Earth, rather it has strong crustal magnetic anomalies. Data from Lunar Prospector and SELENE (Kaguya) observed strong interactions between the solar wind and these localized magnetic fields. In the laboratory, a configuration of a horseshoe permanent magnet below an insulating surface is used as an analogue of lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. Plasmas are created above the surface by a hot filament discharge. <span class="hlt">Potential</span> distributions are measured with an emissive probe and show complex spatial structures. In our experiments, electrons are magnetized with gyro-radii r smaller than the distance from the surface d (r < d) and ions are un-magnetized with r > d. Unlike negative charging on surfaces with no magnetic fields, the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the center of the magnetic dipole is found close to the plasma bulk <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The surface charging is dominated by the cold unmagnetized ions, while the electrons are shielded away. A <span class="hlt">potential</span> minimum is formed between the center of the surface and the bulk plasma, most likely caused by the trapped electrons between the two magnetic mirrors at the cusps. The value of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> minimum with respect to the bulk plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> decreases with increasing plasma density and neutral pressure, indicating that the mirror-trapped electrons are scattered by electron-electron and electron-neutral collisions. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the two cusps are found to be more negative due to the electrons following the magnetic field lines onto the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612940','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612940"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for estimation of <span class="hlt">potential</span> generation of waste <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Araujo, Marcelo Guimaraes; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Claudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Literature of WEEE generation in developing countries is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse existing estimates of WEEE generation for Brazil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a model for WEEE generation estimate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WEEE generation of 3.77 kg/capita year for 2008 is estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of constant lifetime should be avoided for non-mature market products. - Abstract: Sales of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the 'boom' in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020252','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020252"><span id="translatedtitle">Dipole and quadrupole synthesis of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> fields. M.S. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tilley, D. G.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A general technique for expanding an unknown <span class="hlt">potential</span> field in terms of a linear summation of weighted dipole or quadrupole fields is described. Computational methods were developed for the iterative addition of dipole fields. Various solution <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were compared inside the boundary with a more precise calculation of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to derive optimal schemes for locating the singularities of the dipole fields. Then, the problem of determining solutions to Laplace's equation on an unbounded domain as constrained by pertinent electron trajectory data was considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876654"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked cortical <span class="hlt">potential</span> thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M; Jackson, Douglas J; Naber, John F; Ziv, R Ofer; Rizzo, Joseph F; Kaplan, Henry J; Enzmann, Volker</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold <span class="hlt">electrical</span> charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (EEP) by delivering <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 +/- 7 nC (0.023 +/- 0.016 mC cm(-2)) within the subretinal space and 150 +/- 122 nC (0.375 +/- 0.306 mC cm(-2)) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm(-2), which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). PMID:15876654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maxwells+AND+equation&pg=3&id=EJ195076','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maxwells+AND+equation&pg=3&id=EJ195076"><span id="translatedtitle">A Heuristic <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Theory of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> and Magnetic Monopoles without Strings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, William A.; Graziani, Frank</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Shows how Maxwell's equations can be obtained by starting with a relatively simple pseudoscalar and scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> employing only the Lorentz transformation for a four vector (or pseudovector). (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3540962','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3540962"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoparticle-enhanced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> impedance detection and its <span class="hlt">potential</span> significance in image tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Ran; Jin, Cuiyun; Song, Fengjuan; Liu, Jing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The conductivity and permittivity of tumors are known to differ significantly from those of normal tissues. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> impedance tomography (EIT) is a relatively new imaging method for exploiting these differences. However, the accuracy of data capture is one of the difficult problems urgently to be solved in the clinical application of EIT technology. A new concept of EIT sensitizers is put forward in this paper with the goal of expanding the contrast ratio of tumor and healthy tissue to enhance EIT imaging quality. The use of nanoparticles for changing tumor characteristics and determining the infiltration vector for easier detection has been widely accepted in the biomedical field. Ultra-pure water, normal saline, and gold nanoparticles, three kinds of material with large differences in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> characteristics, are considered as sensitizers and undergo mathematical model analysis and animal experimentation. Our preliminary results suggest that nanoparticles are promising for sensitization work. Furthermore, in experimental and simulation results, we found that we should select different sensitizers for the detection of different types and stages of tumor. PMID:23319858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23182636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23182636"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> interests and limits of magnetic and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation techniques to assess neuromuscular fatigue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millet, G Y; Bachasson, D; Temesi, J; Wuyam, B; Féasson, L; Vergès, S; Lévy, P</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Neuromuscular function can change under different conditions such as ageing, training/detraining, long-term spaceflight, environmental conditions (e.g. hypoxia, hyperthermia), disease, therapy/retraining programs and also with the appearance of fatigue. Neuromuscular fatigue can be defined as any decrease in maximal voluntary strength or power. There is no standardized method to induce fatigue and various protocols involving different contraction patterns (such as sustained or intermittent submaximal isometric or dynamic contractions on isokinetic or custom chairs) have been used. Probably due to lack of motivation/cooperation, results of fatigue resistance protocols are more variable in patients than in healthy subjects. Magnetic and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation techniques allow non-invasive assessment of central and peripheral origins of fatigue. They also allow investigation of different types of muscle fatigue when combining various types of stimulation with force/surface EMG measurements. Since maximal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimuli may be uncomfortable or even sometimes painful, several alternative methods have been recently proposed: submaximal muscle stimulation, low/high-frequency paired pulses instead of tetanic stimuli and the use of magnetic stimulation at the peripheral level. PMID:23182636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24559363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24559363"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoconfined water under <span class="hlt">electric</span> field at constant chemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> undergoes electrostriction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanzo, Davide; Bratko, D; Luzar, Alenka</p> <p>2014-02-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> control of nanopore permeation by water and solutions enables gating in membrane ion channels and can be exploited for transient surface tuning of rugged substrates, to regulate capillary permeability in nanofluidics, and to facilitate energy absorption in porous hydrophobic media. Studies of capillary effects, enhanced by miniaturization, present experimental challenges in the nanoscale regime thus making molecular simulations an important complement to direct measurement. In a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, exchange of water between the pores and environment requires modeling of coexisting confined and bulk phases, with confined water under the field maintaining equilibrium with the unperturbed environment. In the present article, we discuss viable methodologies for MD sampling in the above class of systems, subject to size-constraints and uncertainties of the barostat function under confinement and nonuniform-field effects. Smooth <span class="hlt">electric</span> field variation is shown to avoid the inconsistencies of MD integration under abruptly varied field and related ambiguities of conventional barostatting in a strongly nonuniform interfacial system. When using a proper representation of the field at the border region of the confined water, we demonstrate a consistent increase in electrostriction as a function of the field strength inside the pore open to a field-free aqueous environment. PMID:24559363</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140g4710V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140g4710V"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoconfined water under <span class="hlt">electric</span> field at constant chemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> undergoes electrostriction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanzo, Davide; Bratko, D.; Luzar, Alenka</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> control of nanopore permeation by water and solutions enables gating in membrane ion channels and can be exploited for transient surface tuning of rugged substrates, to regulate capillary permeability in nanofluidics, and to facilitate energy absorption in porous hydrophobic media. Studies of capillary effects, enhanced by miniaturization, present experimental challenges in the nanoscale regime thus making molecular simulations an important complement to direct measurement. In a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, exchange of water between the pores and environment requires modeling of coexisting confined and bulk phases, with confined water under the field maintaining equilibrium with the unperturbed environment. In the present article, we discuss viable methodologies for MD sampling in the above class of systems, subject to size-constraints and uncertainties of the barostat function under confinement and nonuniform-field effects. Smooth <span class="hlt">electric</span> field variation is shown to avoid the inconsistencies of MD integration under abruptly varied field and related ambiguities of conventional barostatting in a strongly nonuniform interfacial system. When using a proper representation of the field at the border region of the confined water, we demonstrate a consistent increase in electrostriction as a function of the field strength inside the pore open to a field-free aqueous environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822810"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling and Analysis of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Recorded in Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ness, Torbjrn V; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Potworowski, Jan; ??ski, Szymon; G??bska, Helena; Wjcik, Daniel K; Einevoll, Gaute T</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), substrate-integrated planar arrays of up to thousands of closely spaced metal electrode contacts, have long been used to record neuronal activity in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the analysis of the MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> has generally been mainly qualitative. Here we use a biophysical forward-modelling formalism based on the finite element method (FEM) to establish quantitatively accurate links between neural activity in the slice and <span class="hlt">potentials</span> recorded in the MEA set-up. Then we develop a simpler approach based on the method of images (MoI) from electrostatics, which allows for computation of MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by simple formulas similar to what is used for homogeneous volume conductors. As we find MoI to give accurate results in most situations of practical interest, including anisotropic slices covered with highly conductive saline and MEA-electrode contacts of sizable physical extensions, a Python software package (ViMEAPy) has been developed to facilitate forward-modelling of MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> generated by biophysically detailed multicompartmental neurons. We apply our scheme to investigate the influence of the MEA set-up on single-neuron spikes as well as on <span class="hlt">potentials</span> generated by a cortical network comprising more than 3000 model neurons. The generated MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are substantially affected by both the saline bath covering the brain slice and a (putative) inadvertent saline layer at the interface between the MEA chip and the brain slice. We further explore methods for estimation of current-source density (CSD) from MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, and find the results to be much less sensitive to the experimental set-up. PMID:25822810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA41B2127N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA41B2127N"><span id="translatedtitle">Rotation of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> caused by spatial gradients of ionospheric conductivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamizo, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Ohtani, S.; Ieda, A.; Seki, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The present study focuses on the relationship between the inhomogeneity of the ionospheric conductivity and the rotation of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span>. By applying a simplified version of the Hall-conjugate separation method [Yoshikawa, in preparation] to a global ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> solver, we analyze calculated <span class="hlt">potential</span> structures separating them into the primary field and secondary field (the polarization field generated by the Hall effect). Calculations are performed with the following conditions for simplification. Here we call the diagonal and off-diagonal components of the conductivity tensor used in the <span class="hlt">potential</span> solver SGTT/SGPP and SGTP, respectively, and we regard them as Pedersen and Hall conductivities for the high-latitude region. Besides, we call SGTP 'effective-Hall conductivity' based on its characteristics. (1) The input is a dawn-dusk and day-night symmetric R1-FAC. (2) The basic conductivity distribution is homogeneous in the longitudinal direction with only the latitudinal gradient by solar EUV and equatorial enhancement, no day-night difference and no auroral enhancement. (3) From the basic distribution, SGTP is changed with respect to the fixed SGTT/SGPP with the Hall-Pedersen ratio and offset that are applied globally. It is confirmed that the rotation angle (polarization field) is not so changed when we add only offsets but it becomes larger as the Hall-Pedersen ratio increases. This result is not only consistent with a theoretical prediction [Yoshikawa et al., 2013b] but also provides the fact that the ionospheric internal process, the primary-secondary fields generation process, does affect largely on the <span class="hlt">potential</span> structure, and eventually on the magnetosphere-ionosphere processes. By combining the previously obtained and current results, we will clarify how the <span class="hlt">potential</span> structure is actually described by the primary field and secondary field. The results can be applied to qualitatively/quantitatively identify the ionospheric causes of components of <span class="hlt">potential</span> rotation/asymmetries that cannot be explained only by solar wind-magnetosphere effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21753221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21753221"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stunning current and frequency on meat quality, plasma parameters, and glycolytic <span class="hlt">potential</span> in broilers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, L; Zhang, L; Yue, H Y; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Ji, F; Qi, G H</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>This study was designed to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stunning variables (low currents and high frequencies) on meat quality, glycolytic <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and blood parameters in broilers. A total of 54 broilers were stunned with 9 <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stunning methods for 18 s using sinusoidal alternating currents combining 3 current levels (35 V, 47 mA; 50 V, 67 mA; and 65 V, 86 mA) with 3 frequencies (160, 400, and 1,000 Hz). Samples for meat quality were obtained from the pectoralis major (PM) and musculus iliofibularis (MI), and samples for glycogen metabolism were taken from the PM and tibialis anterior muscle at 45 min postmortem. The use of high frequency reduced the shear value in PM (400 and 1,000 Hz vs. 160 Hz; P < 0.01) and cooking loss in MI (1,000 Hz vs. 160 and 400 Hz; P < 0.01). The shear value of PM decreased at high frequency (400 and 1,000 Hz) when current was high (50 V, 67 mA and 65 V, 86 mA; P < 0.01) but increased at high frequency (1,000 Hz) when current was low (35 V, 47 mA). Stunning with 1,000 Hz (vs. 160 Hz) caused low glycogen and glycolytic <span class="hlt">potential</span> in PM (P < 0.05). Plasma corticosterone decreased (P < 0.05) at high currents (≥50 V, 67 mA) but was not affected by changes in frequency. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> current interacted with frequency in plasma glucose, redness 24 h postmortem, shear value (PM), pH 24 h postmortem (MI), and glycolytic <span class="hlt">potential</span> (tibialis anterior; P < 0.05). This study indicated that high stunning frequencies (400 and 1,000 Hz) may improve meat quality without aggregating stress when the current was not too low (>50 V, 67 mA). PMID:21753221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33F4925F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33F4925F"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake Lights and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Following the South Napa Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freund, F. T.; Scoville, J.; Heraud, J. A.; Spremo, S.; Sornette, J.; Kosovichev, P.; Baney, O. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Earthquake lights (EQLs) in form of bright flashes have been documented multiple times by private security cameras during and after the M6.0 South Napa earthquake of Aug. 24, 2014. On the video records, series of flashes are seen rising out of the ground, sometimes in rapid succession, at other times as single events brightly illuminating the night sky. The EQLs appear to come from extended sources, probably up to hundreds of meters in lateral extent. Though few video records display accurate GPS-timing, most of the flashes were clearly co-seismic in the sense that they coincided with the local arrival of the seismic waves. This pattern is consistent with records obtained by a surveillance camera and a seismometer co-located on the PUCP campus in Lima, Peru, during the arrival of the P and S waves from the M8.0 Pisco earthquake about 150 km to the southeast of Lima. Analysis of the PUCP and other video records, plus a number of eyewitness reports, indicate that the EQLs were associated (i) with the S waves and (ii) with mafic dykes. Attempts to see to detect the Napa EQLs on records of the GOES satellite were unsuccessful. Unusual conditions have to exist to produce <span class="hlt">electric</span> discharges at the Earth's surface that can rise 100-200 m into the sky. Key to understanding the underlying processes is the fact that, when mafic rocks are stressed, positive hole charge carriers become activated, i.e. defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. The higher the stress rate, the higher the currents, reaching currents on the order of 1-2 billion A/km3 during compaction of gabbro within 1-2 msec. Obviously, when S waves pass through rocks at velocities around 3.4 km/sec, large numbers of positive holes appear. Flowing out of the stressed rock volume they can create very high <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields, leading to a number of follow-on processes including corona discharges. In Campbell near San Jose, about 60 km south of Napa, a security camera, motion-triggered by the arrival of the seismic waves, recorded <span class="hlt">electric</span> arcs coming out of an unused power cord hanging off the eve of a private residence. The arc started to spark about 30 sec after the camera was triggered, bridging an air gap of 2.5-5 cm and continuing for at least 90 sec, suggesting up 100 kV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410362"><span id="translatedtitle">Approximate expression for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> around an absorbing particle in isotropic collisionless plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Semenov, I. L. Thomas, H. M.; Khrapak, S. A.</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>A new approximate expression for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution around an absorbing particle in isotropic collisionless plasma is proposed. The approximate expression is given by the sum of the Debye-Hückel <span class="hlt">potential</span> with an effective screening length and the far-field asymptote obtained from the solution of the linearized Poisson equation. In contrast to analogous models, the effective screening length is not fixed but depends on the distance from the particle. This allows us to obtain a more accurate approximation for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in the entire range of distances. The dependence of the screening length on the distance is predicted from the analysis of the charge density distribution function. This dependence contains two adjustable parameters, which are calculated by applying the procedure based on charge balance considerations. Using the obtained results, simple expressions for the parameters of the model are proposed. In addition, a simple expression for the characteristic screening length, which can be used to approximate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution near the particle, is obtained. The developed model <span class="hlt">potential</span> is shown to be in excellent agreement with the solution of the nonlinear Poisson equation for typical conditions used in experiments with complex plasmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2066144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2066144"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical tests of a method for simulating <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the cortical surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kearfott, R B; Sidman, R D; Major, D J; Hill, C D</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>A mathematical imaging method for simulating cortical surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span> was introduced at recent neurosciences meetings [1a], [1b], [2] and was applied to elucidate the neural origins of evoked responses in normal volunteers and certain patient populations. This method consists of the solution of an inward harmonic continuation problem and its effect is to simulate data that has not been attenuated and smeared by the skull. This cortical imaging technique (CIT) is validated by applying it to artificially derived data. Pairs of dipolar sources with different depths and separations are introduced into a spherical conducting medium simulating the head. Scalp <span class="hlt">potential</span> maps are constructed by interpolating the simulated data between 28 "scalp" electrode positions. Noise is added to the data to approximate the variability in measured <span class="hlt">potentials</span> that would be observed in practice. CIT is used in each case to construct <span class="hlt">potential</span> maps on layers concentric to and within the layer representing the scalp. In several instances when the dipole pair is deep and closely spaced, the sources cannot be separated by the scalp topographical maps but are easily separated by the "cortical" topographical maps. CIT is also applied to scalp-recorded <span class="hlt">potentials</span> evoked by bilateral median nerve stimulation and pattern-reversal visual stimulation. PMID:2066144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=security+AND+bank&pg=4&id=EJ736867','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=security+AND+bank&pg=4&id=EJ736867"><span id="translatedtitle">Columbus <span class="hlt">Saves</span>: <span class="hlt">Saving</span> Money in Ohio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shockey, Susan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The "Columbus <span class="hlt">Saves</span>" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased <span class="hlt">savings</span> through education and social service…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20088296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20088296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Save</span> a life--<span class="hlt">save</span> the world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fruh, Sharon; Jezek, Kenda</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The ancient Hebrew principle of Pikuach Nephesh, "He who <span class="hlt">saves</span> a life <span class="hlt">saves</span> the world entire," took precedence in the healing ministry of Jesus. Today, when Christian nurses persist in serving others, striving to achieve compassion and professional excellence, they too uphold the law of "preserving life." PMID:20088296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294527','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294527"><span id="translatedtitle">A limit of the confluent Heun equation and the Schroedinger equation for an inverted <span class="hlt">potential</span> and for an <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>El-Jaick, Lea Jaccoud; Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D. B.</p> <p>2009-12-15</p> <p>We re-examine and extend a group of solutions in series of Bessel functions for a limiting case of the confluent Heun equation and, then, apply such solutions to the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with an inverted quasiexactly solvable <span class="hlt">potential</span> as well as to the angular equation for an electron in the field of a point <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole. For the first problem we find finite- and infinite-series solutions which are convergent and bounded for any value of the independent variable. For the angular equation, we also find expansions in series of Jacobi polynomials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910029786&hterms=electricity+discovery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Delectricity%2Bdiscovery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910029786&hterms=electricity+discovery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Delectricity%2Bdiscovery"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of properties and <span class="hlt">potential</span> aerospace applications of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meador, Mary Ann B.; Gaier, James R.; Good, Brian S.; Sharp, G. Richard; Meador, Michael A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An overview of current research in conducting polymers is presented. Emphasis is placed on development of materials useful for aeronautic and space applications. Research on organic conducting polymers began in the early 1970s with the discovery of polyacetylene. Since then, many polymers which share structural characteristics with polyacetylene have been prepared which conduct <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, especially when they are doped with suitable agents. Problems with environmental instability, difficult processing, poor mechanical properties and high cost have slowed the development of conducting polymers. However, practical use of these materials is imminent, based on recent refinements in understanding how polymers conduct, more systematic approaches to the development of new materials, and significant improvements in both the processing and properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/232999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/232999"><span id="translatedtitle">Meridional structures of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> relevant to premidnight discrete auroras: A case study from Akebono measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Tatsundo; Kaneda, Eisuke; Hayakawa, Hajime</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>The authors present satellite measurements from Akebono of auroral structures from UV images, from particle measurements, and from <span class="hlt">electric</span> field measurements made at altitudes near 10000 km over the polar region in a period of geomagnetic activity. The effort is to correlate the auroral data, and in particular what is observed at lower altitudes, with measurements at these altitudes of precipitation properties, and field values, to infer information on the contribution of altitudes above and below the satellite to acceleration processes which produce observed aurorae. The regions of observed discrete aurorae are compared with the regions exhibiting particle precipitation, which are commonly associated with plasma sheet sources, and found to not be in good alignment. Such observations are correlated with field observations to develop an altitude picture of field structures in the disturbed polar ionosphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>