Science.gov

Sample records for electricity savings potentials

  1. Electrical energy and cost savings potential at DOD facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Lister, L.; DeBaille, L.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) has been mandated to reduce energy consumption and costs by 20% from 1985 to 2000 and by 30% from 1985 to 2005. Reduction of electrical energy consumption at DOD facilities requires a better understanding of energy consumption patterns and energy and financial savings potential. This paper utilizes two independent studies--EDA (End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm) and MEIP (Model Energy Installation Program)--and whole-installation electricity use data obtained from a state utility to estimate electrical energy conservation potential (ECP) and cost savings potential (CSP) at the Fort Hood, Texas, military installation and at DOD nationwide. At Fort Hood, the authors estimated an annual electricity savings of 62.2 GWh/yr (18%), a peak demand savings of 10.1 MW (14%), and an annual energy cost savings of $6.5 million per year. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $41.1 million, resulting in a simple payback of 6.3 years. Across the DOD, they estimated an annual electricity savings of 4,900 GWh/yr, a peak demand savings of 694 MW, and an annual energy cost savings of $316 million per year. The estimated cost savings is 16% of the total nationwide DOD 1993 annual energy costs. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $1.23 billion, resulting in a simple payback of 3.9 years.

  2. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

  3. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be 1.7 thousand TWh or 21percent of the 2030 projected base case electricity demand. Electricity savings potential ranges from a high of 38percent in India to a low of 9percent in Korea for the two sectors. Lighting, fans, and TV sets and lighting and refrigeration are the largest contributors to residential and commercial electricity savings respectively. This work presents a first estimates of the savings potential of DSM programs in APP countries. While the resulting estimates are based on detailed end-use data, it is worth keeping in mind that more work is needed to overcome limitation in data at this time of the project.

  4. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  5. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  6. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  7. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  8. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  9. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  10. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  11. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  12. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  13. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  14. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jos; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H.; Sweeney, James L.; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in questionDr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  15. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Budnitz, Robert; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fisk, William J.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jos; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McAuliffe, Pat; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H.; Socolow, Robert H.; Sweeney, James L.; Verdict, Malcolm; von Meier, Alexandra; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Woodward, Jane; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-11-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in that effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction like billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this article we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500-megawatt existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in questionDr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  16. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  17. Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  18. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  19. Graphing Electric Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  20. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  1. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  2. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-11

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide. PMID:26766230

  3. Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-06-09

    Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

  4. Energy Saving in DC Electric Railways by Battery Substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    New rolling vehicles used in dc electric railways are of the regenerative type. At less busy time a part of regenerative power is not used for powering vehicles, and canceled by changed air brake. Recently, significant attention has been paid to the development of secondary batteries for hybrid and electric motorcars. The use of this battery enables reduction in electric power consumption. Because we can charge excess regenerative power and use for powering vehicles after. Before the fact we compared the actual and simulated effective coefficient of regenerative energy, we confirmed the suitability of the simulation model. In this simulation, we studied the energy-saving effect of the battery substations and determined the battery capacity at which maximum power saving is achieved. We found that the power consumption could be reduced remarkably by using a 15-20kWh battery substation.

  5. Electric fields on quasiperiodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F.; Naumis, G.

    2010-03-01

    The effects of an electric field on the electronic spectrum and localization properties of quasiperiodic chains are studied. As quasiperiodic systems, we use the Harper and the Fibonacci potentials since we prove that both are closely interrelated. In the limit of a strong field, a ladder spectrum with localized states is observed. The ladder structure can be understood by using perturbation theory. Then each local isomorphism class of the quasiperiodic potential reproduces its structure in the ladder. In the case of a weak field, we observed that the singular spectrum of the quasiperiodic potential tends to be smoothed, and the gaps decrease linearly with the field. Such an effect can be understood using a variational approach, perturbation theory and a series of approximants. When the electric field and the quasiperiodic potential have the same order of magnitude, it is possible to observe a delocalization effect due to local resonances.

  6. Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1988-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  8. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  9. Electrical potentials in stomatal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Saftner, R.A.; Raschke, K.

    1981-06-01

    Guard cells of several species, but predominantly Commelina communis, were impaled by micropipette electrodes and potential differences measured that occurred between cell compartments and the flowing bathing medium. The wall developed a Donnan potential that was between -60 and -70 millivolt in 30 millimolar KC1 at pH 7. The density of the fixed charges ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 molar; its dependence on pH was almost identical with the titration curve of authentic polygalacturonic acid. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of Commelina communis L., Zea mays L., Nicotiana glauca Graham, Allium cepa L., and Vicia faba L. was between -40 and -50 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl when stomata were open and about -30 millivolt when stomata were closed. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of C. communis was almost linearly related to stomatal aperture and responded to changes in the ionic strength in the bathing medium in a Nernstian manner. No specificity for any alkali ion (except Li/sup +/), ammonium, or choline appeared. Lithium caused hyperpolarization. Calcium in concentrations between 1 and 100 millimolar in the medium led to stomatal closure, also caused hyperpolarization, and triggered transient oscillations in the intracellular potential. Gradients in the electrical potential existed across stomatal complexes with open pores. When stomata closed, these gradients almost disappeared or slightly reverted; all epidermal cells were then at potentials near -30 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl.

  10. Fuel savings potential of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.; Sievers, G. K.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) Program is directed at developing new technology for highly loaded, multibladed propellers for use at Mach 0.65 to 0.85 and at altitudes compatible with the air transport system requirements. Advanced turboprop engines offer the potential of 15 to 30 percent savings in aircraft block fuel relative to advanced turbofan engines (50 to 60 percent savings over today's turbofan fleet). The concept, propulsive efficiency gains, block fuel savings and other benefits, and the program objectives through a systems approach are described. Current program status and major accomplishments in both single rotation and counter rotation propeller technology are addressed. The overall program from scale model wind tunnel tests to large scale flight tests on testbed aircraft is discussed.

  11. Electric Water Heater Energy Retrofits-Safety and Energy Savings.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubury, C.Douglas; Ek, Calvin W.; Thor, Philip W.

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the relative energy savings associated with a number of water heater conservation measures are presented. These include water heater insulation wrap, pipe insulation, and three anticonvection devices for control of pipe losses. In addition, potential service-wiring overheating problems resulting from external tank insulation are examined. Estimates of the absolute and relative savings of each conservative measure are presented. The effect of partial wrapping due to close clearances is examined. Two anticonvection valve designs are compared with the use of a simle piping loop for control of heat loss through connected piping. Variables affecting service-wire temperature are examined and their sensitivities evaluated. Variables examined include: water temperature, ambient temperature, the use of cutouts in the insulation wrap, service-wire conductor size, severity of service cycle, and heating element size.

  12. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future market, nor are our conclusions intended to have implications specific only to the California market. That said, some of the findings are unique to our underlying assumptions, as described further within the main body of the report, along with other key limitations.

  13. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  14. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  15. Electric potential differences across auroral generator interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keyser, Johan; Echim, Marius

    2013-04-01

    Strong high-altitude auroral electric fields are often associated with magnetospheric interfaces. The high-altitude electric field profile depends on the properties of the plasmas on either side of the interface, as well as on the total electric potential difference across the structure. We have explored the role of this cross-field electric potential difference for the case of a tangential discontinuity interface. A Vlasov description is used to model how the equilibrium configuration depends on the transverse potential difference. We find that there exist limits to the potential difference, beyond which no equilibrium configuration of the interface can be sustained. It is further demonstrated how the plasma densities and temperatures affect the type of electric field profile in the transition, with monopolar electric fields appearing when the temperature contrast is large, supporting the observed association of monopolar fields with the plasma sheet boundary. The role of shear flow tangent to the interface is also examined.

  16. Energy savings attributable to switching from master metering to individual metering of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This technical memo reviews and analyzes the published literature on electricity consumption by tenants in residential buildings with individual meters, compared with electricity consumption in residential buildings with master meters. An important finding is that energy savings of individual over master metering are strongly correlated with the price of electricity.

  17. Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, John R.

    1985-11-01

    This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

  18. Cogeneration to save hospital $213K in electricity gas costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, M.

    1984-01-01

    High utility costs in San Diego have prompted a medical facility to join a growing group of user-cogenerators. The hospital will use all the power and steam it generates, and purchase the remaining 75% of its power demand. Steam demand dictated the size of the unit in order to maximize efficiency. The hospital anticipates a $203,000 saving the first year, and a 10-year savings of $2.2 to $2.7 million. (DCK)

  19. High-density electric potential plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Figueroa-Centeno, R. M.; Hui, K. J.; Schlechter, K. M.

    2015-05-01

    We modify a standard Freshman physics experiment with the aim to produce high density plots of two-dimensional electric potentials versus position. To achieve this we connect a voltage probe to a rotary motion sensor and a computer interface so that it becomes possible to sample and record the potential at high rates through horizontal and vertical transects of the conductive paper. We perform some data filtering, and then illustrate the method with the electric dipole.

  20. Gridded state maps of wind electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. N.; Elliott, D. L.; Gower, G. L.

    1992-10-01

    Estimates of wind electric potential and available windy land area in the contiguous United States, calculated in 1991, were revised by incorporating actual data on the distribution of environmental exclusion areas where wind energy development would be prohibited or severely restricted. The new gridded data base with actual environmental exclusion areas, in combination with a 'moderate' land-use scenario, is the basis for developing the first gridded maps of available windy land and wind electric potential. Gridded maps for the 48 contiguous states show the estimated windy land area and electric potential for each grid cell (1/40 latitude by 1/30 longitude). These new maps show the distribution of the estimated wind electric potential and available windy land within an individual state, unlike previous national maps that only show estimates of the total wind electric potential for the state as a whole. While changes for some individual states are fairly large (in percentage), on a national basis, the estimated windy land area and wind electric potential are only about 1 - 2 percent higher than estimated in 1991.

  1. Gridded state maps of wind electric potential

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.; Gower, G.L.

    1992-10-01

    Estimates of wind electric potential and available windy land area in the contiguous United States, calculated in 1991, have been revised by incorporating actual data on the distribution of environmental exclusion areas where wind energy development would be prohibited or severely restricted. The new gridded data base with actual environmental exclusion areas, in combination with a 'moderate' land-use scenario, is the basis for developing the first gridded maps of available windy land and wind electric potential. Gridded maps for the 48 contiguous states show the estimated windy land area and electric potential for each grid cell (1/40 latitude by 1/30 longitude). These new maps show the distribution of the estimated wind electric potential and available windy land within an individual state, unlike previous national maps that only show estimates of the total wind electric potential for the state as a whole. While changes for some individual states are fairly large (in percentage), on a national basis, the estimated windy land area and wind electric potential are only about 1% to 2% higher than estimated in 1991.

  2. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  3. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen M.

    2015-06-27

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  4. Electric potential differences across auroral generator interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keyser, J.; Echim, M.

    2013-02-01

    Strong localized high-altitude auroral electric fields, such as those observed by Cluster, are often associated with magnetospheric interfaces. The type of high-altitude electric field profile (monopolar, bipolar, or more complicated) depends on the properties of the plasmas on either side of the interface, as well as on the total electric potential difference across the structure. The present paper explores the role of this cross-field electric potential difference in the situation where the interface is a tangential discontinuity. A self-consistent Vlasov description is used to determine the equilibrium configuration for different values of the transverse potential difference. A major observation is that there exist limits to the potential difference, beyond which no equilibrium configuration of the interface can be sustained. It is further demonstrated how the plasma densities and temperatures affect the type of electric field profile in the transition, with monopolar electric fields appearing primarily when the temperature contrast is large. These findings strongly support the observed association of monopolar fields with the plasma sheet boundary. The role of shear flow tangent to the interface is also examined.

  5. Estimates of achievable potential for electricity efficiency improvements in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard

    1993-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential for public policies to achieve electricity efficiency improvements in US residences. This estimate of achievable potential builds upon a database of energy-efficient technologies developed for a previous study estimating the technical potential for electricity savings. The savings potential and cost for each efficiency measure in the database is modified to reflect the expected results of policies implemented between 1990 and 2010. Factors included in these modifications are: the market penetration of efficiency measures, the costs of administering policies, and adjustments to the technical potential measures to reflect the actual energy savings and cost experienced in the past. When all adjustment factors are considered, this study estimates that policies can achieve approximately 45% of the technical potential savings during the period from 1990 to 2010. Thus, policies can potentially avoid 18% of the annual frozen-efficiency baseline electricity consumption forecast for the year 2010. This study also investigates the uncertainty in best estimate of achievable potential by estimating two alternative scenarios -- a

  6. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  7. Electric potential microelectrode for studies of electrobiogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-09-01

    Spatially separated electron donors and acceptors in sediment can be exploited by the so-called "cable bacteria." Electric potential microelectrodes (EPMs) were constructed to measure the electric fields that should appear when cable bacteria conduct electrons over centimeter distances. The EPMs were needle-shaped, shielded Ag/AgCl half-cells that were rendered insensitive to redox-active species in the environment. Tip diameters of 40 to 100 µm and signal resolution of approximately 10 μV were achieved. A test in marine sediments with active cable bacteria showed an electric potential increase by approximately 2 mV from the sediment-water interface to a depth of approximately 20 mm, in accordance with the location and direction of the electric currents estimated from oxygen, pH, and H2S microprofiles. The EPM also captured emergence and decay of electric diffusion potentials in the upper millimeters of artificial sediment in response to changes in ion concentrations in the overlying water. The results suggest that the EPM can be used to track electric current sources and sinks with submillimeter resolution in microbial, biogeochemical, and geophysical studies.

  8. Possibilities of intense resource saving in electric furnace steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, I. V.; Kartavtsev, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    The application of a secondary energy resource in the form of the heat of liquid steel is considered for melting metal scrap used in a charge in electric furnace steelmaking. Temperature-heat curves are plotted for cooling of steel and melting of metal scrap. The possibilities of using melted scrap in electric furnace steel-making are analyzed.

  9. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (< 30%) in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and highest values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing potential future transitions in these systems. Here presented opportunities associated with irrigation improvements are significant and suggest that they should be considered an important means on the way to sustainable food security.

  10. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  11. Electricity savings among participants three years after weatherization in Bonneville's 1986 residential weatherization program

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Brown, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    To ensure proper assessment of its weatherization activities, the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has examined several cohorts of participants in various phases of its Long-Term Residential Weatherization Program (Long-Term RWP). Beginning in 1980, energy savings one, two, and three years after program participation have been evaluated. This study, which continues the series of Bonneville's ongoing evaluation of weatherization activities, examines electricity savings three years after weatherization in the 1986 Long-Term RWP. Electricity bills were weather-adjusted using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Normalized Annual Consumption (NAC) was calculated for each participant and control household for which data were available. Gross energy savings were calculated by subtracting a household's NAC for each postretrofit year (1986--87, 1986--88, and 1988--89) from its preretrofit NAC (1985--86). Household level data were aggregated and examined at the utility level allowing the calculation of average net savings, which is the difference between gross savings by nonparticipants and participants. Utility-level data were then weighted, based on the extent of each utility's participation in the Long-Term RWP in 1986, to allow the identification of overall program savings. 29 refs., 5 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Global potential for wind-generated electricity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2009-01-01

    The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States. Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3.6-MW turbines deployed in ocean waters with depths <200 m within 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) of closest coastlines. PMID:19549865

  13. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  14. A preliminary look at electric efficiency potential

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Jess

    2010-01-15

    A systematic review of more than 20 studies of electric efficiency potential suggests that, contrary to what might be desired of such objective analysis, the study author, sponsor, and intended audience may matter in the conclusions that are reached. This pattern warrants further study. (author)

  15. Improving air-conditioning and saving electricity in the spinning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chirarattananon, S.; Liu Bing; Quoc, N.H.; Wei, T.

    1996-09-01

    In the tropics, air-conditioning is used in the spinning industry to maintain the relative humidity and the air temperature in the factory at a required level. Most of the air is recycled for most of the year. This article reports on a study in a number of factories that use varying proportions of recycled air. The study concludes that, for most of the year, fresh air should be used to reduce the cooling requirement, which would help reduce electricity use in the chillers by up to 40%, or up to 6% of the factory total. A physical model of a factory and its air-conditioning system is constructed to test the concept, as well as to develop a workable control system. The control algorithm uses a simple proportional control for the air damper, which affects the relative humidity, and an on-off control for the chilled water supply to control the temperature. The results show an improvement in the control of the condition of the air in the factory, and confirm the expected potential for saving electricity.

  16. Energy saving potential of residential HVAC options at Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Stucky, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated heating and cooling system options for existing family housing at Fort Irwin, California. The purpose of this work was to quantify the energy conservation potential of alternative system types and to identify the most cost-effective technology available. The conventional residential heating/cooling systems at Fort Irwin are separate propane forced-air furnaces and central air conditioners. The options examined included air- and ground-source heat pumps, a natural gas furnace with central air conditioning, and a natural-gas-fired heat pump. The most cost-effective technology applicable to Fort Irwin was found to be the high-efficiency ground-source heat pumps. If all conventional units were replaced immediately, the net energy savings would be 76,660 MBtu (80.9 TJ) per year and a reduction in electrical demand of approximately 15,000 kW-month. The initial investment for implementing this technology would be approximately $7.1 million, with a savings-to-investment ratio of 1.74.

  17. Motor Assembly Plant Saves $85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project.

  18. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  19. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

  20. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  1. The potential cost savings of implementing an inter-utility NO{sub x} trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Kalagnanam, J.

    1995-12-31

    Technology based standards such as RACT, which require the installation of a Reasonably Available Control Technology on a boiler by boiler basis have been the dominant factor driving electric utility NO{sub x} compliance plans. In this paper, the authors examine the cost savings of implementing NO{sub x} trading, an alternative market based strategy for reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to achieve NO{sub x} reduction goals set under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act. In order to estimate the potential cost savings of inter-utility NO{sub x} trading, the authors have used a combinatorial optimization approach to identify boiler retrofits and operating parameters which yield efficient (i.e., the most cost effective) NO{sub x} abatement. In the formulation, annual emissions at individual boilers which are expensive to abate may exceed RACT levels by up to a factor of two thus allowing for trades with boilers which can abate in a more cost effective manner. The authors constrain total emissions in a trading region to be at or below the level obtained had all the boilers adopted RACT. Increasing the flexibility with which trades can occur has two main effects: (1) the cost effectiveness of meeting an aggregate reduction goal increases and (2) the spatial distribution of emissions shift relative to what it would have been under a strict RACT based compliance strategy. The authors estimate the magnitude of these effects for two Eastern electric utilities making intra and inter-utility NO{sub x} trades. Results indicate that the cost effectiveness of meeting RACT level reduction can be increased by as much as 38% under certain trading regimes.

  2. The potential cost savings of implementing an inter-utility NO{sub x} trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Kalagnanam, J.

    1995-10-01

    Technology based standards such as RACT, which require the installation of a (R)easonably (A)vailable (C)ontrol (T)echnology on a boiler by boiler basis have been the dominant factor driving electric utility NO{sub x} compliance plans. In this paper, the authors examine the cost savings of implementing NO{sub x} trading, an alternative market based strategy for reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to achieve NO{sub x} reduction goals set under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act. In order to estimate the potential cost savings of inter-utility NO{sub x} trading, they use a combinatorial optimization approach to identify boiler retrofits and operating parameters which yield efficient (i.e., the most cost effective) NO{sub x} abatement strategies. In their formulation, annual emissions at individual boilers which are expensive to abate may exceed RACT levels by up to a factor of two thus allowing for trades with boilers which can abate in a more cost effective manner. They constrain total emissions in a trading region to be at or below the level obtained had all the boilers adopted RACT. Increasing the flexibility with which trades can occur has two main effects: (1) the cost effectiveness of meeting an aggregate reduction goal increases and (2) the spatial distribution of emissions shift relative to what it would have been under a strict RACT based compliance strategy. They estimate the magnitude of these effects for two Eastern electric utilities making intra- and inter-utility NO{sub x} trades. Results indicate that the cost effectiveness of meeting RACT level reduction can be increased by as much as 38% under certain trading regimes.

  3. Electrical Monitoring Devices Save on Time and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the Solar Dynamics Observatory's instruments from blowing their fuses and being rendered unusable, Goddard Space Flight Center worked with Micropac Industries Inc., based in Garland, Texas, to develop solid-state power controllers, which can depower and then resupply power to an instrument in the event of an electric surge. The company is now selling the technology for use in industrial plants.

  4. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting. PMID:26904062

  5. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting. PMID:26904062

  6. Seasonal variability of wind electric potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.; Gower, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Seasonal wind electric potential has been estimated for the contiguous United States based on the methods previously used to estimate the annual average wind electric potential. National maps show estimates of the seasonal wind electric potential averaged over the state as a whole, and gridded maps show the distribution of the seasonal wind electric potential within a state. The seasons of winter and spring have highest wind electric potential for most windy areas in the United States. Summer is the season with the least potential for most of the contiguous United States. Wind electric potential patterns in autumn generally resemble the annual average potential map. Excellent matches between seasonal wind electric potential and electric energy use occur during winter for the northern parts of the nation. California has a good match between summer wind potential and electric use.

  7. Electrical Potentials in Stomatal Complexes 1

    PubMed Central

    Saftner, Robert A.; Raschke, Klaus

    1981-01-01

    Guard cells of several species, but predominantly Commelina communis, were impaled by micropipette electrodes and potential differences measured that occurred between cell compartments and the flowing bathing medium. The wall developed a Donnan potential that was between ?60 and ?70 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl at pH 7. The density of the fixed charges ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 molar; its dependence on pH was almost identical with the titration curve of authentic polygalacturonic acid. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of Commelina communis L., Zea mays L., Nicotiana glauca Graham, Allium cepa L., and Vicia faba L. was between ?40 and ?50 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl when stomata were open and about ?30 millivolt when stomata were closed. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of C. communis was almost linearly related to stomatal aperture and responded to changes in the ionic strength in the bathing medium in a Nernstian manner. No specificity for any alkali ion (except Li+), ammonium, or choline appeared. Lithium caused hyperpolarization. Calcium in concentrations between 1 and 100 millimolar in the medium led to stomatal closure, also caused hyperpolarization, and triggered transient oscillations in the intracellular potential. Gradients in the electrical potential existed across stomatal complexes with open pores. When stomata closed, these gradients almost disappeared or slightly reverted; all epidermal cells were then at potentials near ?30 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl. PMID:16661822

  8. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  9. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  10. Potential water saving through changes in European diets.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Bidoglio, G

    2013-11-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) regarding agricultural products for three diets - the current diet (REF), a healthy diet (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian diet (VEG) - for the four EU zones WEST, NORTH, SOUTH and EAST. The WFcons related to the consumption of agricultural products (4265l per capita per day or lcd) accounts for 89% of the EU's total WFcons (4815lcd). The effect of diet has therefore an essential impact on the total WFcons. The current zonal WFcons regarding agricultural products is: 5875lcd (SOUTH), 4053lcd (EAST), 3761lcd (WEST) and 3197lcd (NORTH). These differences are the result of different consumption behaviours as well as different agricultural production methods and conditions. From the perspective of a healthy diet based on regional dietary guidelines, the intake of several product groups (sugar, crop oils, animal fats and meat) should be decreased and increased for others (vegetables, fruit). The WFcons regarding agricultural products for the alternative diets are the following: HEALTHY 4110lcd (-30%) and VEG 3476lcd (-41%) for SOUTH; HEALTHY 3606lcd (-11%) and VEG 2956lcd (-27%) for EAST; HEALTHY 2766lcd (-26%) and VEG 2208lcd (-41%) for WEST; HEALTHY 3091lcd (-3%) and VEG 2166lcd (-32%) for NORTH. Both the healthy and vegetarian diets thus result - consistent for all zones - in substantial WFcons reductions. The largest reduction takes place for the vegetarian diet. Indeed, a lot of water can be saved by EU citizens by a change in their diet. PMID:24096041

  11. A multisector analysis of urban irrigation and water savings potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N.; Kim, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban irrigation strains limited water supplies in semi-arid areas such as Orange County, CA, yet the quantity and controlling factors of urban irrigation are not well understood. The goals of this research are to (1) quantify and compare landscape irrigation applied by residential and commercial sectors in various retail agencies at a parcel scale (2) determine over- and under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County, CA representing a wide range of climatic and economic conditions. These agencies contributed between 3 and 13 years of water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Irrigation depth (mm) was estimated using the "minimum month method," and landscape evapotranspiration was calculated using the Hargreaves equation for 122,345 parcels. Multiple regressions of water use were conducted with climatic and socioeconomic variables as possible explanatory variables. Single family residences accounted for the majority of urban water use. Findings from 112,192 single family residences (SFRs) show that total and indoor water use declined, though irrigation did not significantly change. Average irrigation for SFRs was 94 L/day, and a large proportion (42%) of irrigation was applied in excess to landscapes. Air temperature was found to be the primary driver of irrigation. We mapped over-irrigation relative to plant water demand to highlight areas that can be targeted for water conservation efforts. We also show the water savings that would be gained by improving the efficiency of irrigation systems. The information gained in this study would be useful for developing water use efficiency policies and/or educational programs to promote sustainable irrigation practices at the individual parcel scale.

  12. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  13. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  15. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  17. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  18. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing three types of retail rates (a flat rate, a time-of-use rate, and real-time pricing) from these wholesale price profiles, I examine bill savings from PV generation for the ten wholesale market scenarios under net metering and an alternative to net metering where hourly excess PV generation is compensated at the wholesale price. Most generally, I challenge the common assertion that PV compensation is likely to stay constant (or rise) due to constant (or rising) retail rates, and find that future electricity market scenarios can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, in concert with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  19. Electric vehicles: Technology, performance, and potential

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Environmental concerns are stimulating an increased interest in electric vehicles. Governments and car industries have launched new programs to accelerate technology progress. This study presents an overview of the current status of electric car and truck developments in IEA Member countries. The study examines prospects for technology advances in such areas as battery and vehicle performance and electric recharging systems.

  20. Corning Inc.: Proposed Changes at Glass Plant Indicate $26 Million in Potential Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the Corning glass plant in Greenville, Ohio, consumed almost 114 million kWh of electricity and nearly 308,000 MMBtu of natural gas in its glassmaking processes for a total cost of approximately $6.4 million. A plant-wide assessment indicated that improvement projects could save nearly $26 million and reduce natural gas use by 122,900 MMBtu per year, reduce electrical use by 72,300,000 kWh per year, and reduce CO2 emissions by 180 million pounds per year.

  1. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  2. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant densities were approximately 20% to 30% of that called by ASHRAE 62.1. Formaldehyde was the most important contaminant of concern in retail stores investigated. Both stores exceeded the most conservative health guideline for formaldehyde (OEHHA TWA REL = 7.3 ppb). This study found that source removal and reducing the emission rate, as demonstrated in retail stores sampled in this study, is a viable strategy to meet the health guideline. Total volatile compound were present in retail stores at low concentrations well below health guidelines suggested by Molhave (1700microg /m 2) and Bridges (1000 microg /m2). Based on these results and through mass--balance modeling, different ventilation rate reduction scenarios were proposed, and for these scenarios the differences in energy consumption were estimated. Findings of all phases of this desertion have contributed to understanding (a) the trade-off between energy savings and ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality, and (b) the trade-off between energy savings and resets of indoor air temperature that do not compromise thermal comfort. Two models for retail stores were built and calibrated and validated against actual utility bills. Energy simulation results indicated that by lowering the ventilation rates from measured and minimum references would reduce natural gas energy use by estimated values of 6% to 19%. Also, this study found that the electrical cooling energy consumption was not significantly sensitive to different ventilation rates. However, increasing indoor air temperature by 3°C in summer had a significant effect on the energy savings. In winter, both energy savings strategies, ventilation reduction and decrease in set points, had a significant effect on natural gas consumption. Specially, when the indoor air temperature 21°C was decreased to 19.4°C with the same amount of ventilation rate of Molhaves guideline for both cases. Interestingly, the temperature of 23.8°C (75°F), which is the lowest value of ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort for sedentary people (cashiers) and the highest value for thermal comfort adjustments due to activity level (customers and workers) that are calculated by using empirical equation, was the optimum temperature for sedentary and active people in Retail store buildings.

  3. Potential for cost saving by recycling of drugs in hospital.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G; Hawe, P

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of recycling of drugs in hospital two studies were conducted. In the main study, 219 consecutively admitted medical and surgical patients were asked to surrender their drugs on admission to hospital. fifty six per cent of patients complied with the request and 79% of the drugs they brought in were suitable for redistribution within the hospital. Patients were given one months supply for all discharge medications. The cost of reusable drugs surrendered on entry corresponded to 36% of discharge medication costs. In the second study, a telephone survey of a random sample of hospitals in NSW, it was revealed that 31% of metropolitan hospitals and 21% of country hospitals recycle medications. It was concluded that the extension of the practice of recycling to remaining hospitals may substantially offset discharge medication costs and reduce the total bill for pharmaceuticals in hospitals in NSW. However, further discussion of acceptable standards for recycling and further investigation of the cost benefit equation of drug recycling is urged. PMID:10279175

  4. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  5. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  6. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Kenneth W; Stovall, Therese K

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  7. [Research on carbon reduction potential of electric vehicles for low-carbon transportation and its influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Transportation is the key industry of urban energy consumption and carbon emissions. The transformation of conventional gasoline vehicles to new energy vehicles is an important initiative to realize the goal of developing low-carbon city through energy saving and emissions reduction, while electric vehicles (EV) will play an important role in this transition due to their advantage in energy saving and lower carbon emissions. After reviewing the existing researches on energy saving and emissions reduction of electric vehicles, this paper analyzed the factors affecting carbon emissions reduction. Combining with electric vehicles promotion program in Beijing, the paper analyzed carbon emissions and reduction potential of electric vehicles in six scenarios using the optimized energy consumption related carbon emissions model from the perspective of fuel life cycle. The scenarios included power energy structure, fuel type (energy consumption per 100 km), car type (CO2 emission factor of fuel), urban traffic conditions (speed), coal-power technologies and battery type (weight, energy efficiency). The results showed that the optimized model was able to estimate carbon emissions caused by fuel consumption more reasonably; electric vehicles had an obvious restrictive carbon reduction potential with the fluctuation of 57%-81.2% in the analysis of six influencing factors, while power energy structure and coal-power technologies play decisive roles in life-cycle carbon emissions of electric vehicles with the reduction potential of 78.1% and 81.2%, respectively. Finally, some optimized measures were proposed to reduce transport energy consumption and carbon emissions during electric vehicles promotion including improving energy structure and coal technology, popularizing energy saving technologies and electric vehicles, accelerating the battery R&D and so on. The research provides scientific basis and methods for the policy development for the transition of new energy vehicles in low-carbon transport. PMID:23487966

  8. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water. PMID:21621904

  9. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. )

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  10. Potential energy cost savings by use of building roofs as thermal storage of a multi-storied building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelbaya, Ahmad Adam

    The thermal mass of a building has been used for more than two decades to shift the peak cooling load occurring during the day time to evening or night time. This is typically accomplished by use of concrete slabs embedded with pipes carrying hot or chilled water to meet the heating or cooling load, respectively. The water temperature drops across the coils and the frequency and intensity of room air circulation can be varied, along with controlling the gains through the windows, to shift the peak load hours to the nighttime when energy costs are cheaper and electric demands are lower. This thesis deals with the transient finite element heat transfer analysis of a concrete slab embedded with pipes circulating heated or chilled water of a multi-storied office building. A hypothetical office building in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA is analyzed with weather data of that locale. The electrical power consumption of such a system operating at milder conditions or evening or night hours is estimated by use of hourly weather data. The estimated electric power consumption is then compared to the traditional method of operations. The influence of the wall envelope, including the size and orientation of windows, is considered in reducing the energy gain or loss from the space. The results presented in this thesis identify the potential energy cost savings of such a system as well as challenges involved compared to traditional buildings in commercial applications.

  11. Pittsburgh as a High Risk Population: The Potential Savings of a Personalized Dental Care Plan

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Little evidence exists for the current standard of two annual preventative care visits. The purpose of this study was investigate this claim by modeling the potential savings of implementing a personalized care plan for high risk individuals in the Pittsburgh region. Methods. Using radiographs from 39 patients in the University of Pittsburgh Dental Registry and DNA Repository database, two models were created to analyse the direct savings of implementing a more aggressive preventative treatment plan and to view the longitudinal cost of increased annual yearly visits. Results. There is a significant decrease (p < 0.001) between original and modeled treatment cost when treatment severity is reduced. In addition, there is a significant decrease in adult lifetime treatment cost (p < 0.001) for up to four annual visits. Conclusions. Patients in high risk populations may see significant cost benefits in treatment cost when a personalized care plan, or higher annual preventative care visits, is implemented. PMID:27006657

  12. Preliminary Study of the Fuel Saving Potential of Regenerative Turbofans for Commercial Subsonic Transports. [engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of regenerative turbofans was calculated and compared with that of a reference turbofan. At the design altitude of 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, the turbine-inlet-temperature of the regenerative turbofan was fixed at 1700 K while the overall pressure ratio was varied from 10 to 20. The fan pressure ratio was fixed at 1.6 and the bypass ratio varied from 8 to 10. The heat exchanger design parameters such as pressure drop and effectiveness varied from 4 to 8 percent and from 0.80 to 0.90, respectively. Results indicate a fuel savings due to regeneration of 4.1 percent and no change in takeoff gross weight.

  13. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krmer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4?% (in EU) and 18.0?% (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained. PMID:25504806

  14. Energy-saving conditions for electric melting of prereduced pellets in the bath of an arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, E. E.; Chermenev, E. A.; Stepanov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The problems of increasing the efficiency of electric steelmaking under the application of tubular (hollow) electrodes for supplying iron ore prereduced pellets directly to the high-temperature zone on the surface of a liquid metal are considered. It is shown that the use of an energy-saving regime based on the developed algorithm for the new method of charging pellets makes it possible to decrease the metal losses and to increase the energy efficiency of electric steelmaking.

  15. An improved ET control method to determine the water-saving potential for farmland in Baiyangdian Watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Aiping; Li, Chuihui; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-06-01

    Resource-based water-saving potential has been recognized as the reduction of evapotranspiration and water loss of inefficient irrigation systems. In this paper, an improved evapotranspiration control model is applied to calculate resource-based water-saving potential, considering the influences of effective rainfall (uncontrolled evapotranspiration) and irrigated water (controlled evapotranspiration). Farmland in Baiyangdian Watershed, a highly productive area in northern China, is analyzed to determine the water-saving potential of irrigation processes. The water-saving potential was zero, 163.90 × 106 m3, and 318.24 × 106 m3 in wet, normal, and dry years, respectively, and was greater in years with less rainfall. Under the combined effect of rainfall, crop water consumption, and crop water requirements, the water-saving potential showed obvious temporal and spatial variations. July and August comprised almost 98.6% of the annual potential. In the northeast and southwest corner of the study area, potential approached zero. The potential was 1.53 times greater in the north-central than in the south-central area. The model can furnish the appropriate timing and region to water managers for implementing water-saving strategies.

  16. Correlation between electric potential and peristaltic behavior in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yutong; Jia, Ruonan; Qian, Yiqing; Ye, Yang; Liu, Changhong

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a model species of eukaryotic microorganisms for studying amoeboid movement. Plasmodium's natural movements are characterized by the rhythmic back-and-forth streaming of cytoplasm peristalsis, which results in the directed locomotion of plasmodium, and the periodic change of the electric potential on the surface of plasmodium. Although it was suggested the causal connection between the cytoplasmic streaming and the electric potential in P. polycephalum, the relationship between its plasmodium peristaltic behavior and the surface electric potential had not been statistically proven. In this study, based on the modern microscopic observation and the new electric potential measurement, we proved the consistence between the frequency spectrums of the electric potential wave and the peristaltic wave during the growth of plasmodium and the synchronization of their waveforms through cross-correlational analysis. And we concluded that the correlation exists between the peristaltic wave and the electric potential wave. This study added new evidence to the hypothesis of the sharing inner biological mechanism between plasmodium's peristaltic behavior and electric potential as previous studies indicated, and brought a new perspective towards the future research on amoeboid movement. PMID:25892288

  17. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The general replacement of low-efficiency air conditioners (replacing units in all houses without considering pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption) was not cost effective in the test houses. ECMs installed under the Oklahoma WAP and installed in combination with an attic radiant barrier did not produce air-conditioning electricity savings that could be measured in the field test. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this type of housing.

  18. Part-load performance characterization and energy savings potential of the RTU challenge unit: Carrier weather expert

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.

    2015-09-29

    This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and there use with the EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from the use of WeatherExpert units compared to other standard options.

  19. Potential unintended pregnancies averted and cost savings associated with a revised Medicaid sterilization policy

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, Sonya; Zite, Nikki; Potter, Joseph E.; Trussell, James; Smith, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective Medicaid sterilization policy, which includes a mandatory 30-day waiting period between consent and the sterilization procedure, poses significant logistical barriers for many women who desire publicly-funded sterilization. Our goal was to estimate the number of unintended pregnancies and the associated costs resulting from unfulfilled sterilization requests due to Medicaid policy barriers. Study design We constructed a cost effectiveness model from the health care payer perspective to determine the incremental cost over a 1-year time horizon of the current Medicaid sterilization policy compared to a hypothetical, revised policy in which women who desire a post-partum sterilization would face significantly reduced barriers. Probability estimates for potential outcomes in the model were based on published sources; costs of Medicaid-funded sterilizations and Medicaid-covered births were based on data from the Medicaid Statistical Information System and The Guttmacher Institute, respectively. Results With the implementation of a revised Medicaid sterilization policy, we estimated that the number of fulfilled sterilization requests would increase by 45%, from 53.3% of all women having their sterilization requests fulfilled to 77.5%. Annually, this increase could potentially lead to over 29,000 unintended pregnancies averted and $215 million saved. Conclusion A revised Medicaid sterilization policy could potentially honor women's reproductive decisions, reduce the number of unintended pregnancies, and save a significant amount of public funds. Implication Compared to the current federal Medicaid sterilization policy, a hypothetical, revised policy that reduces logistical barriers for women who desire publicly-funded, post-partum sterilization could potentially avert over 29,000 unintended pregnancies annually and therefore lead to a cost savings of $215 million each year. PMID:24028751

  20. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  1. The reuse of hemodialyzers: an assessment of safety and potential savings.

    PubMed Central

    Baris, E; McGregor, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and potential cost savings of hemodialyzer reuse. DATA SOURCES: All English and French articles published from 1960 to 1991 related to hemodialyzer reuse (retrieved through an Index Medicus and MEDLINE search [corrected]), the indexes of eight North American journals from 1960 onward, conference proceedings, association guidelines, and US and Canadian laws and regulations. RESULTS: For health care personnel the reuse of hemodialyzers did not entail any increased risk of infection or exposure to toxic substances if proper control measures were taken. For patients there was no evidence to suggest any excess risk of complications or death as long as precise and appropriate procedures are observed. The "first-use syndrome" can be prevented and should no longer be considered as a reason to favour reuse. A cost-minimization analysis indicated that five uses might save up to $3629 per patient yearly. Thus, the adoption of a policy of reuse in Canada for all eligible patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis could result in direct savings of about $5.8 to $8.9 million per year. CONCLUSION: The health risks associated with hemodialyzer reuse can be reduced to acceptable levels through the rigorous observance of proper quality-assurance and quality-control measures and the use of automated reconditioning equipment. Such a policy could achieve modest savings for the health care system. A decision to reuse should be formally adopted by the institution and accompanied by a precise definition of the standards of quality assurance and control. PMID:8420655

  2. The potential for electricity efficiency improvements in the US Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.; Meier, A.; McMahon, J.E.; Boghosian, S.; Atkinson, B.; Turiel, I.; Levine, M.D.; Nordman, B.; Chan, P.

    1991-07-01

    This study represents the most elaborate assessment to date of US residential sector electricity improvements. Previous analyses have estimated the conservation potential for other countries, states, or individual utility service territories. As concern over greenhouse gas emissions has increased, interest has grown in estimates of conservation potential for the US residential sector as a whole. The earliest detailed estimate of US conservation potential is now out of date, while more recent estimates are less detailed than is desirable for engineering-economic estimates of the costs of reducing carbon emissions. In this paper, we first describe the methodology for creating supply curves of conserved energy, and then illustrate the subtleties of assessing the technical conservation potential. Next we present the data and forecasts used in this assessment, including costs, baseline thermal characteristics, energy use, and energy savings. Finally, we present the main results and conclusions from the analysis, and discuss future work. 102 refs., 7 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  4. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  5. The potential electricity generating capacity of BIPV in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Shijun, Y.; Hongxing, Y.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the analyzing results of the solar energy resource and potential electricity generating capacity from building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) systems in Hong Kong. The monthly average daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface and the daily sum distributions of solar radiation show that the solar radiation intensity is quite high in Hong Kong except the wet period from January to March. The mean annual global radiation is 4646.8 MJ/m{sup 2}. The potential electricity generating capacity from BIPV systems is estimated to be 10.5 TWh which is about 35% of the total annual electricity supply (29.9 TWh) in Hong Kong in 1995 if the shadow facades of the high-rise buildings are excluded. The BIPV electricity prices are estimated and compared with the local grid electricity prices. The results illustrate a bright future for BIPV applications in the next century in Hong Kong.

  6. Central role of the observable electric potential in transport equations.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J; Compa, V; Lpez, M L

    2001-07-01

    Nonequilibrium systems are usually studied in the framework of transport equations that involve the true electric potential (TEP), a nonobservable variable. Nevertheless another electric potential, the observable electric potential (OEP), may be defined to construct a useful set of transport equations. In this paper several basic characteristics of the OEP are deduced and emphasized: (i) the OEP distribution depends on thermodynamic state of the solution, (ii) the observable equations have a reference value for all other transport equations, (iii) the bridge that connects the OEP with a certain TEP is usually defined by the ion activity coefficient, (iv) the electric charge density is a nonobservable variable, and (v) the OEP formulation constitutes a natural model for studying the fluxes in membrane systems. PMID:11461346

  7. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  8. A Perinatal Care Quality and Safety Initiative: Hospital Costs and Potential Savings

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Sommerness, Samantha; Rauk, Phillip; Gams, Rebecca; Hirt, Charles; Davis, Stanley; Miller, Kristi K.; Landers, Daniel V.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing national focus on hospital initiatives to improve obstetric and neonatal outcomes. While costs of providing care may decrease with improved quality, the accompanying reduced adverse outcomes may impact hospital revenues. The purpose of this study was to estimate, from a hospital perspective, the financial impacts of implementing a perinatal quality and safety initiative. Methods In 2008, a Minnesota-based health system (Fairview Health Services) launched the Zero Birth Injury (ZBI) initiative, which uses evidence-based care bundles to guide management of obstetric services. We conducted a pre-post analysis of financial impacts of ZBI, using hospital administrative records to measure costs and revenues associated with changes in maternal and neonatal birth injuries before (2008) and after (2009–11) the initiative. Results After adjusting for relevant covariates, implementation of ZBI was associated with an 11% decrease in the rate of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes between 2008 and 2011 (AOR=0.89, p=0.076). As a result of the adverse events avoided, the hospital system saved $284,985 in costs but earned $324,333 less revenue, which produced a net financial decrease of $39,348 (or a $305 net financial loss per adverse event avoided) in 2011, compared with 2008. Conclusions Adoption of a perinatal quality and safety initiative that reduced birth injuries had little net financial impact on the hospital. ZBI produced better clinical results at a lower cost, which represents potential savings for payers, but the hospital system offering increased quality reaped no clear financial rewards. These results highlight the important role for shared-savings collaborations (among patients, providers, government and third-party payers, and employers) to incentivize quality improvement. Widespread adoption of perinatal safety initiatives combined with innovative payment models may contribute to better health at reduced cost. PMID:23991507

  9. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,

  10. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,…

  11. The electric potential of the moon in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W., Jr.; Fenner, M. A.; Hills, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Acceleration and detection of the lunar thermal ionosphere in the presence of the lunar electric field yields a value of approximately +10 V for the lunar electric potential for solar zenith angles between 20 and 45 deg and in the magnetosheath or solar wind. The ion number density of the thermal ionosphere observed is compatible with a surface neutral number density of about 100,000 atoms/cu cm.

  12. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  13. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance. Architects, professional engineers, and commercial real estate developers will benefit from the availability of information that quantifies energy savings, first cost construction differences, and additional operating costs created when office space must be reconfigured to accommodate new tenants.

  14. Bio-electric conductivity potentials in experimental skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Angrist, R C; Gonnering, R S; Dortzbach, R K; Crawford, K

    1987-01-01

    Prior investigations have established that changes in bio-electric potentials accompany the processes of wound creation and healing. In order to investigate these changes in an experimental full-thickness skin graft model, grafts were harvested from the dorsa of eight albino rabbits. Changes in potential were recorded over a period of 32 days, using silver-silver chloride electrodes and a recording polygraph. The potential measured across the skin graft became increasingly more electropositive until, between days 1 and 2, the potential abruptly reversed polarity. This negative potential lasted until day 4, when the conductivity again became positive, with a slow return to baseline measurements by day 32. Although these observations may indicate a bio-electric counterpart to the cellular events of wound healing, more study is needed. PMID:3154591

  15. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-09

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

  16. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  17. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, .

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  18. Electrical mapping of microtubular structures by surface potential microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Cantiello, Horacio F.

    2009-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal polymers that play an essential role in cell division and transport in all eukaryotes and information processing in neurons. MTs are highly charged polyelectrolytes, composed of hollow cylindrical arrangements of αβ-tubulin dimers. To date, there is little information about electrical properties of MTs. Here, we deposited and dried MTs onto a gold-plated surface to image their topology by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and determined their electrical mapping with surface potential microscopy (SPM). We found a strong linear correlation between the magnitude of relative surface potential and MT parameters, including diameter and height. AFM images confirmed the cylindrical topology of microtubular structures, and the presence of topological discontinuities along their surface, which may contribute to their unique electrical properties.

  19. Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor

    Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damaged as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem: men surrounded by physical fields including ones of cosmic origination. Magnetic storms’ influence had been observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old, Moscow). To control the main functional systems of the examinees, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. All of these characteristics, save for the EEG, were within the normal range for all of the examinees during measurements. According to the EEG investigations by implementation of the computer proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal-polar and occipital areas of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.8] for all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with electromagnetic geophysical researches and geomagnetic storms). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm frontal - occipital coherence function of all of the students of the group under consideration decreased by a factor of two or more, including the zero coherence function value. The similar result was obtained for another basic low-frequency electro-neurophysiological rhythm delta (f = 0.5 - 3.9 Hz, A = 20 μV). The usual coherence function values from the interval [0.3, 0.8] were being registered, typically, about 48 hours after the magnetic storm end. The result about decreasing of the coherence of the brain low frequency bioelectric oscillations under a magnetic storm influence was obtained by two methods: 1) comparison of the time series of bioelectric oscillations of a given person without a magnetic storm and under its influence; 2) comparison of two sets of time series of oscillations: a) the set A of time series measured without a magnetic storm and b) the set B of time series measured under its influence, regardless to an individual. Surely, the total number of the EEGs available for the investigation by the set’s approach, i.e. without personification, is more than the number of the EEGs available by the individual approach because there were ones investigated without a magnetic storm only as well as ones investigated under its influence only. By the EEG measurements with closed or open eyes, but without a functional load on the brain in the form of the proof-reading test, a distinctive decrease of the coherence function was not observed during a magnetic storm as well as for pairs of points from other parts of the head (see above) or other rhythms.

  20. Computational Method for Electrical Potential and Other Field Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Proposes the finite differences relaxation method as a teaching tool in secondary and university level courses discussing electrical potential, temperature distribution in a region, and similar problems. Outlines the theory and operating procedures of the method, and discusses examples of teaching applications, including possible laboratory

  1. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. Office technology energy use and savings potential in New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A., Cramer, M., Eto, J., Koomey, J.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses energy use by office equipment in New York State and the energy savings potential of energy-efficient equipment. A model containing equipment densities and energy-use characteristics for major categories of office equipment has been developed. The model specifies power requirements and hours of use for three modes of average operation for each device: active, standby, and suspend. The energy-use intensity for each device is expressed as a function of the average device density (number of units/1,000 sq ft), the hours of operation in each mode, and the average power requirements in each mode. Output includes an estimate of total energy use (GWh) for each device by building type. Three scenarios are developed. First is a business-as-usual efficiency baseline. Second is a future with increased use of power-managed devices projected under the current Energy Star Computers program sponsored by the US EPA. Third is a scenario that examines energy savings from greater use of products that go well beyond the standard Energy Star products. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore uncertainties in model inputs. The business-as-usual baseline forecast confirms that office equipment energy use has been rising over the past decade, and may continue to increase for the next decade and beyond. Office equipment currently consumes about 2,900 GWh/year in the State of New York. Under the business-as-usual baseline forecast, this load may increase to 3,300 GWh/year by the year 2000, and approximately double again before 2010. Widespread use of power management technologies adopted with the promotion of the Energy Star program could reduce this load growth by about 30% by the year 2000. Use of more advanced energy-efficient technology could reduce total energy use by office equipment to about 1,900 GWh/year in 2010, which is less than current consumption.

  7. Electric potential of the moon in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W., Jr.; Fenner, M. A.; Hills, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Acceleration and detection of the lunar thermal ionosphere in the presence of the lunar electric field yields a value of at least +10 V for the lunar electric potential for solar zenith angles between approximately 20 and 45 deg and in the magnetosheath or solar wind. An enhanced positive ion flux is observed with the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment when a preacceleration voltage attains certain values. This enhancement is greater when the moon is in the solar wind as opposed to the magnetosheath.

  8. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  9. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  10. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex mix of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. This presentation will provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  11. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex combination of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. In this paper we provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  12. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  13. Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2013-02-01

    We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.

  14. Chemically induced electric field: flat band potential engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, T.; Guo, Z.; Li, W.; Atanacio, A. J.; Nowotny, J.

    2012-10-01

    The present work considers engineering of the flat band potential, FBP, of metal oxides in a controlled manner. The aim is to minimise the energy losses related to recombination. The related experimental approaches include imposition of a chemically-induced electric field using the phenomena of segregation, diffusion and the formation of multilayer systems. This paper considers several basic phenomena that allow the modification of the surface charge and the space charge at the gas/solid and solid/liquid interfaces.

  15. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing fleet of power plants, the results also provide insights to the sitting of future power plants to support the long-term transmission planning.

  16. A time-saving method for recording chemosensory event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Friederike; Damm, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce the recording duration of chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) and thereby to make the method more suitable for routine clinical use. Measurements were performed in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the university hospital of Cologne. Two protocols with different sequences [inter-stimulus intervals (ISI)-standard sequence: 30 s; PRS-15: pseudo-randomized sequence, mean ISI of 15 s] were applied to 40 volunteers to record CSERPs. To compare CSERP recordings under optimal and adverse test conditions, 20 younger/normosmic adults and 20 older/hyposmic participants were included in this study. Olfactory function was gauged using the "Sniffin'Sticks" test. For CSERP recordings, phenylethyl alcohol, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were used for olfactory or trigeminal stimulation, respectively. Both ISI protocols allowed recording CSERPs under optimal and adverse test conditions and distinguishing both groups by latencies (p ≤ 0.015). The time requirement for the recording of CSERPs with the PRS-15 sequence was less than 30 min. The pseudo-randomized sequence allowed the recording of diagnostically conclusive CSERPs in both groups and saved approximately 40% of the measuring time. This seems to be especially useful in cases where a yes/no answer (e.g., medical reports, exclusion of anosmia) is required. Shortening the time requirement significantly allows applying CSERPs to larger populations of patients with olfactory impairment. PMID:22249833

  17. The propagation delay of electrical signals in saline using electric potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrial, W.; Prance, R. J.; Harland, C. J.; Antrobus, C.; Clark, T. D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel electric potential sensor to the measurement of the propagation delay of electrical pulses in a saline environment. This is achieved non-invasively through weak capacitive coupling to a novel electric field sensor. An experimental test cell is used to demonstrate that in an environment consisting of a polar liquid we are able to localize the position of a pulse, as well as determine its amplitude and shape. These are the basic requirements for implementing an imaging system based on this technology. Results are presented which show a spatial resolution of better than 0.23 mm using this propagation delay method. The paper includes a discussion of the effect of salt concentration on the electrical conductivity, propagation delay and velocity. The applicability of the sensor to the detection of signals originating from nerve fibres is discussed with preliminary data acquired from a 100 m diameter glass coated micro-wire immersed in saline.

  18. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  19. The Future is Green: Tribal College Saving Water, Electricity--and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    2005-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities around the country are harnessing natural sources of energy on their campuses. Renewable energy and sustainable building design have many advantages--they save money and provide healthier learning and working environments while allowing people to live in greater harmony with the earth. This article discusses

  20. The Future is Green: Tribal College Saving Water, Electricity--and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    2005-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities around the country are harnessing natural sources of energy on their campuses. Renewable energy and sustainable building design have many advantages--they save money and provide healthier learning and working environments while allowing people to live in greater harmony with the earth. This article discusses…

  1. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Kriner, Scott; Manlove, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  2. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  3. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  4. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological sensor and the EP electrodes connected to the Keithley voltmeter in each irrigation stage. Also, both sensors show a daily cyclical signal (circadian cycle). PMID:25826257

  5. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological sensor and the EP electrodes connected to the Keithley voltmeter in each irrigation stage. Also, both sensors show a daily cyclical signal (circadian cycle). PMID:25826257

  6. Electrical/optical dual-function redox potential transistor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shunpu; Wang, Wensi; Xu, Ju; Chu, Daping; Shen, Z. John; Roy, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new type of transistors, the electrical/optical “dual-function redox-potential transistors”, which is solution processable and environmentally stable. This device consists of vertically staked electrodes that act as gate, emitter and collector. It can perform as a normal transistor, whilst one electrode which is sensitised by dye enables to generate photocurrent when illuminated. Solution processable oxide-nanoparticles were used to form various functional layers, which allow an electrolyte to penetrate through and, consequently, the current between emitter and collector can be controlled by the gate potential modulated distribution of ions. The result here shows that the device performs with high ON-current under low driving voltage (<1 V), while the transistor performance can readily be controlled by photo-illumination. Such device with combined optical and electrical functionalities allows single device to perform the tasks that are usually done by a circuit/system with multiple optical and electrical components, and it is promising for various applications. PMID:24310311

  7. Electric potential distributions at the interface between plasmasheet clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. S.; Roth, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1987-01-01

    At the interface between two plasma clouds with different densities, temperatures, and/or bulk velocities, there are large charge separation electric fields which can be modeled in the framework of a collisionless theory for tangential discontinuities. Two different classes of layers were identified: the first one corresponds to (stable) ion layers which are thicker than one ion Lamor radius; the second one corresponds to (unstable) electron layers which are only a few electron Larmor radii thick. It is suggested that these thin electron layers with large electric potential gradients (up to 400 mV/m) are the regions where large-amplitude electrostatic waves are spontaneously generated. These waves scatter the pitch angles of the ambient plasmasheet electron into the atmospheric loss cone. The unstable electron layers can therefore be considered as the seat of strong pitch angle scattering for the primary auroral electrons.

  8. Impacts of Potential Future Droughts on Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tidwell, V. C.; King, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the state of Texas experienced the worst single-year drought on record. This recent extreme climate event raised questions as to how future droughts might impact ERCOT operations. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential future droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and power plants within the context of long-term transmission planning. The study identified three potential drought scenarios (single- and multiple-year droughts) based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Texas-Gulf river basin. The Texas-Gulf hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and 125 reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and cooling water for power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds (such as evapotranspiration, soil water, water yield from watersheds, stream flow, and water storage in reservoirs) provide a bases to assess if power plants potentially at risk of being of derated and watersheds are vulnerable to droughts. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of power plants at risk and vulnerable watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation. Beyond impacts to the existing fleet of power plants, the results also provide insights to the sitting of future power plants to support the ERCOT long-term transmission planning.

  9. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  10. Analysis of Energy Saving and Environmental Characteristics of Electric Vehicle in Regionally-Disaggregated World Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    This paper investigates the impact of an extensive introduction of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) into global energy system towards 2050. The significant growth of automobile ownership in emerging countries is likely to increase the world oil demand and the associated carbon dioxide emissions. In order to address these energy security and environmental concerns, the deployment of clean energy vehicles, such as EV and PHEV, are expected to play a crucial role due to its high fuel efficiency. On these backgrounds, we develop both global energy system model and world vehicle penetration model, which are able to explicitly analyze the impact of EV introduction into seasonal daily electric load curve considering its specific electricity charging profile to 2050. Simulation results confirm that EV deployment contributes to energy conservation, because oil demand reduction outstrips the growth in its electricity demand and the associated fuel input into power generation mix. Concerning carbon dioxide abatement, the magnitude of the impact relies on the carbon-intensity of power generation mix. If the intensity is low enough to make sure the carbon mitigation effect by EV fuel saving, the emissions reduction is well ensured. It should be noted, however, that, in the regions with high carbon intensity in power generation mix, carbon emissions per mileage of EV is almost equivalent to that of efficient gasoline vehicle like hybrid vehicle and PHEV is slightly higher than hybrid vehicle.

  11. Literature Review of the Potential Energy Savings and Retention Water from Green Roofs in Comparison with Conventional Ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselekis, Kyriakoulis

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is the comparison of green roof systems with conventional isolated and non-isolated ones in order to identify the potential energy savings of green roofs and the benefits provided in comparison with the cost of construction to the buildings. The region of interest is the Watergraafsmeer area in the city of Amsterdam. The method evaluates literature reports - mostly from 2003 to 2010 - that present the advantages of green roofs. Examples in real implementation of green roofs in USA, UK and Germany, retention of rainfall and a Life Cycle Assessment from a residential construction in Madrid will be introduced, showing the energy savings from insulation and heating/cooling that can be gained. All the reports have shown a reduction in energy costs and in runoff of water. Hence, costs and retrofitting potential completes the research. The age of buildings and the absence of insulation make green roofs an ideal alternative project for the retrofit of Watergraafsmeer.

  12. Electrochemical development of hydrogen silsesquioxane by applying an electrical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Sebastian; Harry, Katherine J.; Duan, Huigao; Yang, Joel K. W.; Manfrinato, Vitor R.; Berggren, Karl K.

    2011-09-01

    We present a new method for developing hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) by using electrical potentials and deionized water. Nested-L test structures with a pitch as small as 9 nm were developed using this electrochemical technique in saline solution without adding hydroxyl ions. Furthermore, we showed that high-resolution structures can be electrochemically developed in deionized water alone. Electrochemical development is controlled by the applied voltage and may overcome several of the limitations discussed for alkaline developers, such as poor hydroxyl anion diffusion and charge repulsion effects in small trenches.

  13. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (< 30 %) in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and the highest values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing potential future transitions in these systems. In this paper, presented opportunities associated with irrigation improvements are significant and suggest that they should be considered an important means on the way to sustainable food security.

  14. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    SciTech Connect

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  15. Full-scale in-line hydrolysis and simulation for potential energy and resource savings in activated sludge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tobias; Jnsson, Karin; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of altering primary settlers during biological in-line hydrolysis and converting a nitrifying activated sludge process into a partial pre-denitrification process for the purpose of resource conservation were evaluated. A full-scale primary sludge hydrolysis experiment was performed at a wastewater treatment plant and implemented in a dynamic modelling tool based on ASM2d. The full-scale hydrolysis experiment achieved a volatile fatty acid (VFA) production of 43 g COD(HAc) x m(-3) with no release of ammonium. Additional nitrogen removal of 44 t N x a(-1) was simulated, and the produced hydrolysate was able to replace 50% of the annual ethanol usage. Furthermore, 196 MWh of electricity per annum could be saved through the reduction of ethanol production and the optimization of the operation strategy of the activated sludge tank by operating a different number of anoxic zones. PMID:22988644

  16. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify transmission corridors from the generation areas to the demand centers in the target regions, using a GIS-based transmission algorithm that minimizes economic, social and environmental costs. Third, we use the multi-scale energy system model Calliope to specify the optimal configuration and operation of the CSP fleet to reliably follow the demand every hour of the year in the target regions, and to calculate the levelized cost of doing so, including both generation and transmission costs. The final output will show whether and how much reliable renewable electricity can be supplied from CSP fleets in deserts to demand centers in adjacent regions, at which costs this is possible, as well as a detailed description of the routes of HVDC transmission links. We expect to find that the potential for deserts to supply reliable CSP to the regions in focus is very large in all cases, despite the long distances.

  17. Ion separations based on electrical potentials nanoporous and microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jason

    This dissertation examines several types of ion separations in nanometer to micrometer pores in membranes. Membranes provide an attractive platform for ion separations, primarily because they operate continuously (i.e. not in a batch mode), and small pores offer the potential for ion separation based on charge and electrophoretic mobility differences. Initial studies employed charged, nanoporous membranes to separate monovalent and divalent ions. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers in nanoporous membranes afforded control over the surface charge and pore radii in track-etched membranes, and electrostatic ion-exclusion, particularly for divalent ions, occurred in these membranes because the electrical double layer filled the entire nanopore. Initial experiments employed adsorption of (PSS/PAH) multilayers in the 50-nm diameter pores of PCTE membranes to give a K+/Mg2+ selectivity of ~10 in pressure-driven dead-end filtration. Adsorption of (PSS/PAH) 1 films in 30-nm pores gave a similar K+/Mg2+ selectivity with a simpler modification procedure. Separations utilizing (PSS/PAH)1 films in 30-nm pores showed the lowest ion rejections with high ion concentrations, consistent with enhanced screening of the electrical double layer at high ionic strength. However, solutions with < 5 mM ionic strength exhibited essentially 100% Mg2+ rejections (the Mg2+ concentration in the permeate was below the method detection limit). Moreover, K+ rejections increased in the presence of Mg2+, which may stem from Mg2+-adsorption within the PEM and increased surface charge. Finally, separation of Br- and SO42- with a PSS1-modified, 30-nm PCTE membrane validated the exclusion mechanism for anions. The average Br-/SO42- selectivity was 3.4 +/- 0.8 for a solution containing 0.5 mM NaBr and 0.5 mM Na2SO4. The low selectivity in this case likely stems from a relatively large pore. The membranes used for the separation of monovalent and divalent ions also facilitated separation of monovalent ions (e.g. Li+ and Cs+), via a streaming-potential mechanism. In these separations, flow through a negatively charged membrane yields a positive (permeate minus feed) streaming potential, which retards the transport of a more mobile cation to a greater extent than transport of a less mobile cation. Thus, (PSS)1-modified, 30-nm PCTE membranes enabled Li+ and Cs+ separation, whereas (PSS-PAH)1-modified membranes separated acetate- and Br-. Cation selectivities were ~3 for solutions containing 1.5 mM Li2SO 4 and 1.5 mM Cs2SO4, whereas anion selectivities were ~6 for 0.5 mM Mg(Acetate)2, 0.5 mM MgBr2. The streaming potential method gave only modest selectivities, however, and required low ion concentrations. Electrical potentials applied across microporous glass membranes also facilitate separation of monovalent ions with different electrophoretic mobilities. This dissertation describes a filtration cell with porous electrodes to enable cross-flow filtration with an applied potential. With the appropriate potentials, the cell afforded some separation of K+ and Li+, but the average selectivities were ~3. Moreover, the rejection of both ions plateaued near 90% at sufficiently high current to flow rate ratios. Buffer depletion or nonuniform cross-flow and electric fields may lead to membrane areas with low rejection and prevent high selectivities. Fabrication of a dual cross-flow cell (cross-flow on feed and permeate sides) limits buffer depletion issues and may provide higher monovalent ion selectivities.

  18. Testing Potential Cost Saving and Controversial Actions: Community, Staff and Student Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, L. E.; And Others

    In 1980, the Lake Washington School District in Kirkland (Washington) undertook a needs assessment of district activities and policies. One component of this assessment was a survey of community, staff, and student opinion concerning cost-saving or controversial actions or programs being considered for implementation in the future. Questionnaires…

  19. Immune Response in Severe Infection: Could Life-Saving Drugs Be Potentially Harmful?

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Nada; Djordjevic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill patients suffer a high rate of nosocomial infection with secondary sepsis being a common cause of death. Usage of antibiotics and catecholamines is often necessary, but it can compromise complex immune response to infection. This review explores influence of these life-saving drugs on host immune response to severe infection. PMID:24198733

  20. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  1. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  2. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  3. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school

  4. Field-Aligned Electric Potential in the Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, S.; Hildebrand, L.

    2014-12-01

    Reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the dayside magnetosphere opens the previously closed Earth's field line, allowing solar wind particles to enter the magnetosphere, some of which precipitate into the ionosphere. As the open-field line ExB convects to the nightside, fewer ions can enter the magnetosphere. As a result, field-aligned (parallel) electric potential increases with latitude to prevent more electrons from entering, in order to maintain charge quasi-neutrality. The APL open-field line model predicts that the parallel potential drop increases from cusp to mantle to polar rain. This trend has been confirmed in a study that compared phase space densities of ACE solar wind electrons to those of DMSP precipitating electrons. However, the same study also found that sometimes there is an anomaly: the parallel potential drop would have the opposite polarity such that solar wind electrons are accelerated downward in the afternoon polar cap. Using DMSP magnetometer and particle precipitation data, we show that this accelerating potential drop can be found often in the poleward upward field-aligned current region. The velocity shear at the magnetopause boundary leads to a voltage drop across the boundary, which drives the upward field-aligned currents. At higher latitude or further away from noon, the field line maps to the magnetopause location that is further down the magnetotail where the magnetosheath velocity shear is higher and density is lower. When the velocity shear and hence field-aligned current density (J//) is too high or density too low, parallel potential develops to accelerate more electron downward, in accordance with Knight relation.

  5. Noninvasive imaging using an array of electric potential sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gebrial, W.; Prance, R. J.; Harland, C. J.; Clark, T. D.

    2006-06-15

    We present a design for a linear array of eight electric potential sensors arranged with 1 mm spacing and configured to measure spatially varying potential at the microscopic scale. The array successfully detects a 50 {mu}m wide feature associated with one of the samples tested. In a single sensor arrangement we have demonstrated <1 {mu}m resolution, but the data acquisition times can become prohibitive. The sensors operate noninvasively by capacitively coupling to the sample. The issues associated with using an array of sensors in close proximity are addressed. Cross coupling and strategies for matching the response of the sensors are described in detail. Results are presented for a range of samples including a resistive potential divider, a ceramic microwave circuit board, and a section taken from an oil drill pipe containing a known fault. The data acquisition times are compared with those of a single sensor system, with improvements of 4.5 times in speed reported. In one case real-time simultaneous data acquisition is demonstrated using all eight sensors. Since these sensors operate via the displacement current they may also be applied to the characterization of material properties, including, for example, insulators, dielectrics, and poorly conducting composite materials. It is concluded that we see significant improvements in the data acquisition times for the linear array over a single sensor as expected and are able to overcome the difficulties associated with operating an array of sensors in close proximity.

  6. Dimensional Analysis and Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Dimensional analysis, superposition principle, and continuity of electric potential are used to study the electric potential of a uniformly charged square sheet on its plane. It is shown that knowing the electric potential on the diagonal and inside the square sheet is equivalent to knowing it everywhere on the plane of the square sheet. The

  7. Dimensional Analysis and Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Dimensional analysis, superposition principle, and continuity of electric potential are used to study the electric potential of a uniformly charged square sheet on its plane. It is shown that knowing the electric potential on the diagonal and inside the square sheet is equivalent to knowing it everywhere on the plane of the square sheet. The…

  8. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  9. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  10. Elimination of Potential Electrical Stress During EMC (CS01) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Kenneth P.; Whittlesey, Albert C.; Vorperian, Vatche

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews possible ways to eliminate electrical stress during Electromagneticic Compatibility (EMC) testing. The presentation reviews tests that have had problems due to electrical stress. On December 5, 1995 Cassini Radar instrument failed a functional test in preparation for EMC conducted susceptibility (CSO 1 ) testing. The instrument power supply did not turn on as required, and failure occurred prior to injection of CS test stimulus. A investigation of the failure was conducted. A PSPICE simulation of Cassini Radar 30V line using the EMC test setup was performed; the result of the simulation was an oscillation on the 30V input of the power supply. In another case: on December 28, 1999 an oscillation occurred on the input power line of the SlRTF Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) while preparing to perform CSOI testing, Resulted in damage to flight hardware. Subsequent to failure, JPL provided GSFC history and corrective action from Cassini Radar CSOI test failure GSFC implemented the same corrective action as JPL, except that the value of the resistor connected across the isolation transformer primary winding is 2.5 ohms instead of 50 ohms. Three recommendations are made: (1) Make EMC test community aware of the problem and potential solutions by presenting papers at major environmental test conferences (2) Include warnings and safeguards in EMC test requirements and procedures (3) Try to convince EMC test equipment suppliers to design a CSOl test fixture similar to fixture shown in the diagram

  11. Anisotropic Coarse-Grained Model for Proteins Based On GayBerne and Electric Multipole Potentials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    GayBerne anisotropic potential has been widely used to evaluate the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained particles being described as elliptical rigid bodies. In this paper, we are presenting a coarse-grained model for twenty kinds of amino acids and proteins, based on the anisotropic GayBerne and point electric multipole (EMP) potentials. We demonstrate that the anisotropic coarse-grained model, namely GBEMP model, is able to reproduce many key features observed from experimental protein structures (Dunbrack Library), as well as from atomistic force field simulations (using AMOEBA, AMBER, and CHARMM force fields), while saving the computational cost by a factor of about 10200 depending on specific cases and atomistic models. More importantly, unlike other coarse-grained approaches, our framework is based on the fundamental intermolecular forces with explicit treatment of electrostatic and repulsion-dispersion forces. As a result, the coarse-grained protein model presented an accurate description of nonbonded interactions (particularly electrostatic component) between hetero/homodimers (such as peptidepeptide, peptidewater). In addition, the encouraging performance of the model was reflected by the excellent correlation between GBEMP and AMOEBA models in the calculations of the dipole moment of peptides. In brief, the GBEMP model given here is general and transferable, suitable for simulating complex biomolecular systems. PMID:24659927

  12. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  13. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05) both for the health impairment and the electrical energy usage. The ergonomics intervention on the work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions. PMID:25665197

  14. Junction potentials, electrode standard potentials, and other problems in interpreting electrical properties of membranes.

    PubMed

    Barry, P H; Diamond, J M

    1970-12-01

    As background to a detailed analysis of the cation permeation mechanism in rabbit gallbladder epithelium, this paper considers several general problems in interpretation. With regard to liquid junction potentials, the common practice of using saturated KCl bridges was insufficiently accurate for the present purposes because the resulting junctions are time-dependent and poorly understood theoretically. Time-independent and well-defined junction potentials were obtained by arranging all junctions to be of the biionic or single-salt dilution types. The magnitudes of these junction potentials were estimated in three different ways, with good agreement. Recording arrangements using either agar bridges or else Ag/AgCl electrodes also yielded good agreement after appropriate corrections for junction potentials and electrode potentials. The effects of nonelectrolytes on electrode standard potentials were measured. Two experiments were devised to determine whether transepithelially measured electrical properties of the gallbladder refer to a single membrane or to two membranes in series: the potential difference change resulting from a mucosal concentration change was measured as a function of the serosal concentration, and intracellular concentrations were altered by increasing bathing solution osmolalities with an impermeant nonelectrolyte. Both types of experiment indicated that transepithelial measurements are dominated by a single membrane. Small corrections were applied to measured potential differences to take account of unstirred-layer effects with permeant salts. PMID:24174188

  15. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. PMID:24953314

  16. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  17. Optic nerve evoked potentials elicited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masato; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated whether the optic nerve evoked potential (ONEP) elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve can serve as a reliable intraoperative indicator of visual function. In the experimental study, two silver-ball stimulating electrodes were placed on the dog optic nerve adjacent to the apex of the orbit and one recording electrode was placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm. The nerve was stimulated with 0.1 to 10 mA rectangular pulses. Stable and reproducible ONEPs were obtained. The ONEPs were not influenced by electromyographic potentials and were recorded more clearly on the optic nerve than on the surrounding tissue. Stepwise incremental transection of the thickness of the nerve resulted in incremental amplitude reduction proportional to the transected area. No response was recorded after complete sectioning of the nerve. In the clinical study, recordings were obtained from 15 patients after craniotomy to treat parasellar tumors or cerebral aneurysms. Reproducible ONEPs were recorded intraoperatively from the electrode placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm in 14 of 15 patients. In the remaining patient, the ONEP, recorded only after tumor removal because the optic nerve was stretched and extremely thin, was remarkably small and the patient developed unilateral blindness postoperatively. These experimental and clinical results suggest the possibility of intraoperative monitoring of visual function in patients undergoing craniotomy for the treatment of lesions near the optic nerve. PMID:16041180

  18. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, Argo; Moller, Taavi; Lehtla, Madis; Hoimoja, Hardi

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.

  19. Efficient motor saves power costs by trading electricity for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Casinghead gas provides inexpensive energy to drive the PowerPac pumpjack motor at a lower cost than an electric power plant. The PowerPAc is a 454-cubic-inch General Motors V-8 modified to run on natural gas. The engine will push 500 to 600 pound/feet of torque at low revolutions per minute. Engine efficiency, air emissions, and cost are discussed.

  20. Ionospheric potential variability in global electric circuit models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareev, E.; Volodin, E. M.; Kalinin, A.; Sllyunyaev, N.

    2013-12-01

    The ionospheric potential (IP) represents the electric voltage between the Earth's surface and the lower ionosphere and may be measured with a sufficient accuracy using the balloon soundings over the lowest 15-20 km. This parameter can serve as a global index relating the state of the global electric circuit (GEC) to the planetary climate. Exploring the GEC as a diagnostic tool for climate studies requires an accurate modeling of the IP stationary state and its dynamics, while a question of secular trend of the IP is still under discussion (Markson, 2007; Williams, 2009; Williams and Mareev, 2013). This paper addresses a possibility of correct calculation of the IP in 3D models of the GEC and its adequate parameterization to be used in General Circulation Models (GCM). Our approach is based on the use the integral representation for the contribution of charging currents, supporting the generators (in particular, electrified clouds) in the GEC, into the ionospheric potential (Kalinin et al., 2011; Mareeva et al., 2011). Simple enough analytical expressions for IP induced by the charging electric currents are suggested, including the contribution of the Austausch generator. We have developed also the spherical numerical model of the GEC and applied it for IP calculation for different-type cloud contribution into the circuit. A suggested IP parameterization is appropriate for the use in climate-model simulations (Mareev and Volodin, 2011). We use a high-resolution GCM of the atmosphere and ocean INMCM4.0 for the modeling the GEC. The main characteristics of the model are: atmosphere - 2x1.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, 21 levels; ocean - 1x0.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, 40 levels. We have taken into account quasi-stationary currents of electrified clouds as principal contributors into the DC global circuit. One of the most important aspects of this approach is an account for all the electrified clouds- both thunderstorms and electrified shower cloud. The results have shown that many of the calculated parameters are consistent with measurements on the global circuit, in particular, the diurnal and seasonal variability of the GEC. We found that the inter-annual variability of the IP is low and does not exceed 1% from the mean value. It should be emphasized however that it is correlated tightly with the mean SST in the Pacific ocean (180W-100W, 5S-5N - El-Nigno area). As to long-term trend, mumerical simulations suggest the IP decrease by about 10% for the XXI century if the global warming follows an assumed greenhouse gas emission scenario RCP 8.5. It is interesting that, using Price&Rind parameterizations, it was found that a mean flash rate is increasing by about 20% for the century (from 60 to 72 fl/s) for the same scenario. We conclude that the use of GCM with respective IP parameterizations allows us to study the influence of different factors on the GEC state, including convection intensity and its trends in a warmer climate. Some generalizations of the modeling related to the conductivity perturbations should lead to better description of the electrical generators in the global circuit.

  1. ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIALS IN RESIDENTIAL AND SMALL COMMERCIAL THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS - AN UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-10-31

    This is an update of a report (Andrews and Modera 1991) that quantified the amounts of energy that could be saved through better thermal distribution systems in residential and small commercial buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling from the space-conditioning equipment to the conditioned space. This update involves no basic change in methodology relative to the 1991 report, but rather a review of the additional information available in 2003 on the energy-use patterns in residential and small commercial buildings.

  2. [Effects of labor-saving rice cultivation modes on the diversity of potential weed communities in paddy fields].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Shun; Qiang, Sheng; Jiao, Jun-Sen

    2009-10-01

    Aimed to understand the effects of various labor-saving rice cultivation modes on the diversity of potential weed communities in paddy fields, an investigation was made on the quantitative characteristics of the weed seed bank under dry direct seeding, water direct seeding, seedling throwing, mechanized-transplanting, wheat-rice interplanting, and conventional manual transplanting. Under dry direct seeding, the density of the weed seed bank was up to 228,416 seeds x m(-2), being significantly higher than that under the other five cultivation modes. Wheat-rice interplanting ranked the second place. The seed density of sedge weeds under dry direct seeding and that of broad leaf weeds under wheat-rice interplanting were significantly higher than the seed densities of various kinds of weeds under other cultivation modes. Conventional manual transplanting mode had the highest species richness, with Margalef index being 1.86. The diversity indices, including Shannon-Wiener index, Gini index, and Pielou evenness index under water direct seeding and wheat-rice interplanting were higher than those under other cultivation modes. Comparing with conventional manual transplanting mode, the other five cultivation modes had their own dominant species in the potential weed community, and thereby, different labor-saving rice cultivation modes should be applied by turns to control the potential weed community in paddy fields effectively and persistently. PMID:20077702

  3. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  4. The potential of magneto-electric nanocarriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development and design of personalized nanomedicine for better health quality is receiving great attention. In order to deliver and release a therapeutic concentration at the target site, novel nanocarriers (NCs) were designed, for example, magneto-electric (ME) which possess ideal properties of high drug loading, site-specificity and precise on-demand controlled drug delivery. Areas covered This review explores the potential of ME-NCs for on-demand and site-specific drug delivery and release for personalized therapeutics. The main features including effect of magnetism, improvement in drug loading, drug transport across blood-brain barriers and on-demand controlled release are also discussed. The future directions and possible impacts on upcoming nanomedicine are highlighted. Expert opinion Numerous reports suggest that there is an urgent need to explore novel NC formulations for safe and targeted drug delivery and release at specific disease sites. The challenges of formulation lie in the development of NCs that improve biocompatibility and surface modifications for optimum drug loading/preservation/transmigration and tailoring of electrical–magnetic properties for on-demand drug release. Thus, the development of novel NCs is anticipated to overcome the problems of targeted delivery of therapeutic agents with desired precision that may lead to better patient compliance. PMID:24986772

  5. Electrical properties of sheep Purkinje strands. Electrical and chemical potentials in the clefts.

    PubMed Central

    Levis, R A; Mathias, R T; Eisenberg, R S

    1983-01-01

    The impedence of sheep Purkinje strands, measured to 3-5 kHz, is interpreted with circuit models based on morphology. The strand is described as a one-dimensional electrical cable. Clefts between myocytes of the strand allow radial current to flow in parallel with current across the outer membrane. A lumped model of the clefts, in which all the cleft membrane is in series with 100 omega-cm2, fits only below 20 Hz. Two distributed models, pie and disk, fit at all frequencies with somewhat different (31%) luminal resistivities, but with similar membrane parameters. Series resistance representing the endothelial sheath is small. Simulations of voltage clamp experiments include measured linear parameters and nonlinear membrane channels, as well as radial variation of cleft concentration, membrane flux, voltage, and current. Cleft potential is drastically nonuniform when sodium current flows. Cleft potential is reasonably uniform when calcium and potassium currents flow, but the calcium and potassium concentrations change markedly, enough to turn off the calcium current, even if the calcium channel did not inactivate. We conclude that physiological current flows produce significant nonuniformities in electrochemical potentials in the clefts of this cardiac preparation. PMID:6360228

  6. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy giants', a phenomenon that is expected to continue, accelerate and spread to other countries. This paper explores the potential for slowing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector in developing countries and evaluates the potential of energy savings and emissions mitigation through market transformation programs such as, but not limited to Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L). The bottom-up methodology used allows one to identify which end uses and regions have the greatest potential for savings.

  7. Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1991-03-20

    Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Influence of electric potentials on friction of sliding contacts lubricated by an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Dold, Christian; Amann, Tobias; Kailer, Andreas

    2015-04-28

    Tribological investigations on the macroscopic scale revealed that friction can be influenced in situ by applying electric potentials, if electrically conductive fluid such as an ionic liquid is used as a lubricant. Enrichment of charged ions at a steel interface occurs by applying electric surface potentials in a three-electrode setup. As a consequence, the lubrication conditions change. It is supposed that electrically influenced surface adsorption and electrokinetic effects are the main mechanisms by which friction is varied. PMID:25805119

  9. Photosynthetic free energy transduction related to the electric potential changes across the thylakoid membrane.

    PubMed

    Van Kooten, O; Snel, J F; Vredenberg, W J

    1986-01-01

    A model based on our present knowledge of photosynthetic energy transduction is presented. Calculated electric potential profiles are compared with microelectrode recordings of the thylakoid electric potential during and after actinic illumination periods of intermediate duration. The information content of the measured electric response is disclosed by a comparison of experimental results with calculations. The proton flux through the ATP synthase complex is seen to markedly influence the electric response. Also the imbalance in maximum turnover rate between the two photosystems, common to obligate shade plants like Peperomia metallica used in the microelectrode experiments, is clearly reflected in the electric potential profile. PMID:24442298

  10. Review of Innovative Energy Savings Technology for the Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baek; Sohn, Il

    2014-09-01

    A review of the energy innovations for the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking route is discussed. Preheating of scrap using vertical and horizontal shafts that have been commercially successful in lowering the energy consumption to as much as 90 kWh/t reaching almost the operational limit to heating input scrap materials into the EAF is discussed. Bucket-type and twin-shell preheaters have also shown to be effective in lowering the overall power consumption by 60 kWh/t, but these have been less effective than the vertical shaft-type preheaters. Beyond the scrap preheating technologies, the utilization of waste heat of the slags from the laboratory scale to the pilot scale has shown possible implementation of a granulation and subsequent heat exchange with forced air for energy recovery from the hot slags. Novel techniques to increase metal recovery have shown that laboratory-scale testing of localized Fe concentration into the primary spinel crystals was possible allowing the separation of an Fe-rich crystal from an Fe-depleted amorphous phase. A possible future process for converting the thermal energy of the CO/CO2 off-gases from the EAF into chemical energy was introduced.

  11. Effect of low electrical potentials on the microhardness of metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, D. V.; Danilov, V. I.; Zuev, L. B.; Staskevich, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low (<5 V) electrical potentials on the microhardness of metallic materials has been studied experimentally. It has been revealed that this effect does depend on the sign of the electric field potential. It has been found that the microhardness of aluminum, cobalt, and zinc decreases and the microhardness of zirconium and iron increases when an electrical potential is applied. It has been argued that the degree of microhardness change under an electric field depends on the magnitude of applied potential, the magnitude of the Hall coefficient of a metal, and its physicochemical properties.

  12. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0.93/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.55/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.46/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, $0.30/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.16/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3. At the high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are even higher with a NPV $1.37/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.86/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.84/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.82/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, and $0.65/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 6. DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 28 cfm per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 14 and 16. Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case.

  13. The electric potential gradient in mist, haze, and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamuddin, Syed; Ramanadham, R.

    1983-04-01

    The variation of potential gradient in mist, haze, and fog has been studied. During the formation of these hydrometers the potential gradients were found to increase. Large positive potential gradients were observed during dense fog conditions. Possible charge generation mechanisms responsible for these potential gradients during fog formation are discussed.

  14. Potential advantages of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G.; Atkins, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Past studies of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters have generally emphasized the advantages of flight time reduction and payload increases. However, several subtle advantages exist, which may become important in an environment of increasingly difficult requirements as ways to extend current technology are sought. These advantages accrue primarily because of the inherent capability, unique to electric propulsion, to efficiently shape a trajectory while enroute. Stressed in this paper are: the ability to meet orbital constraints due to assumed radiation belts, science flexibility in a dual launch program, increased numbers of observational passes, and the lengthening of launch periods. These are examined for years representative of relatively easy and difficult ballistic missions. The results indicate that an early investment in solar electric technology will provide a strong performance foundation for a long range outer planet exploration program which evolves from current spacecraft technology.

  15. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  16. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D

    2008-09-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and glutamatergic components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the glutamatergic component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  17. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and chemical components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the chemical component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  18. Role of the clean energy potential for energy savings and air pollution control in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kaygusuz, K.; Kargi, H.; Kaygusuz, A.

    1996-12-01

    This article begins with a brief review of the technical potential, the regional distribution, and the air pollution effects of all fossil energy sources as well as of all clean and renewable energy sources that could be used in Turkey. Air pollution levels due to fossil fuel consumption are examined. In this context, the role of clean energy sources is indicated.

  19. Small hydro-electric potential: West Poverty Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Six schemes in the Bay of Plenty Electric Power Board area and two in the Poverty Bay Electric Power Board area, of which five and one, respectively are below the economic limit of $2400/kW were identified. Only three appear both economically and environmentally acceptable. The schemes identified are not very attractive on the national scale and could not be justified on local terms. It is recommended that a detailed feasibility study of the Takaputahi/Torere diversion is undertaken prior to a decision making to proceed with the Motu development, or if the proposals are dropped. The present low load and slow growth of the area is such that prior to a small hydroelectric scheme is built, demand for power has to be established.

  20. Electrical Potential Transfer Through Grounding and the Concern for Facility and Worker Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Konkel, Herbert

    1998-09-13

    Electrical grounding is probably the most over-looke~ ignored, and misunderstood part of electrical energy source circuits. A faulty ground circuit am have lethal potential to the worker, can damage electrical equipment" or components, and can lead to higher consequences. For example, if the green-wire ground return circuit (in a three-wire power circuit) is fhulty or is open (someone cut the prong, etc.) a person can receive an electrical shock by touching the conductive enclosure, and the result can be lethal. If high explosives are involved m the process, sneak electrical energy paths may cause electrical threats that lead to ignition, which results to higher damage consequences. Proper electrical grounding is essential to mitigate the electrical hazard and improve work place safety. A designer must ask the question, "What grounding is proper?" continuously through a process design and in its application. This question must be readdressed with any process change, including tiom layout, equipment, or procedure changes. Electrical grounding varies ilom local work area grounding to the multi-point grounding found in large industrial areas. These grounding methods become more complex when the designer adds bonding to the grounding schemes to mitigate electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surfkce potentials resulting from lightning currents flowing through the facility structure. Figure 1 shows a typical facility power distribution circuit and the current flow paths resulting ffom a lightning discharge to a facility. This paper discusses electrical grounding methods and their characteristics and identifies potential sneak paths into a process for hazardous electrical energy.

  1. Membrane potential perturbations induced in tissue cells by pulsed electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Pulsed electric fields directly influence the electrophysiology of tissue cells by transiently perturbing their transmembrane potential. To determine the magnitude and time course of this interaction, electronic cable theory was used to calculate the membrane potential perturbations induced in tissue cells by a spatially uniform, pulsed electric field. Analytic solutions were obtained that predict shifts in membrane potential along the length of cells as a function of time in response to an electrical pulse. For elongated tissue cells, or groups of tissue cells that are couple electronically by gap junctions, significant hyperpolarizations and depolarizations can result form millisecond applications of electric fields with strengths on the order of 10--100 mV/cm. The results illustrate the importance of considering cellular cable parameters in assessing the effects of transient electric fields on biological systems, as well as in predicting the efficacy of pulsed electric fields in medical treatments.

  2. What's in a bin: A case study of dental clinical waste composition and potential greenhouse gas emission savings.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Grose, J; Manzi, S; Mills, I; Moles, D R; Mukonoweshuro, R; Nasser, M; Nichols, A

    2016-01-22

    Background Dental practices have a unique position as dental staff use a high number of dental materials and instruments on a daily basis. It is unclear how dentists' and dental care professionals' choices and behaviours around selecting and using materials impact on the amount of unnecessary waste production. Although there are a number of articles exploring the quality and quantity of waste in dental practices, there are no studies on organisational strategies to decrease unnecessary waste. There is no clear economic analysis of the impact on associated cost to dental practices which consequently can affect the access of dental care for disadvantaged groups.Methods This study used an audit approach to explore the potential for sustainability in dental practice by measuring the nature and quantity of dental clinical waste, and assessing the feasibility of measuring the financial costs and potential carbon savings in the management of dental clinical waste.Conclusions The data from our study would appear to support the view that it is possible to reduce carbon emissions and increase profitability. Successful implementation of an environmentally sustainable approach to waste management will be dependent on the practicalities involved and the financial incentives for adopting such practices. PMID:26794110

  3. Functions and potential applications of glycolipid biosurfactants--from energy-saving materials to gene delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    2002-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) produced by various microorganisms show unique properties (e.g., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared to their chemical counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in environmental protection and energy-saving technology as well. Glycolipid BS are the most promising, due to high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid BS produced by a yeast Candida antarctrica, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells. MEL also show a potential anti-agglomeration effect on ice particles in ice slurry used for cold thermal storage. Recently, the cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BS should broaden its applications in new advanced technologies. The current status of research and development on glycolipid BS, especially their function and potential applications, is discussed. PMID:16233292

  4. Anomalous electrostatic potential properties in carbon nanotube thin films under a weak external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, U.; Thanh Cuong, Nguyen; Okada, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    Using density functional theory, we studied the electronic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin films under an electric field. The carrier accumulation due to the electric field depends strongly on the CNT species forming the thin films. Under a low electron concentration, the injected electrons are distributed throughout the CNTs, leading to an unusual electric field between CNTs, the direction of which is opposite to that of the applied field. This unusual field response of CNT thin films to an external electric field is ascribed to the internal electric field arising from the electrostatic potential difference between the constituent CNTs.

  5. Biosensor regeneration via substrate electric potential: A physical mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rui-Bin; Lei, U.

    2010-06-01

    Literatures showed that the immune type biosensors can be regenerated by applying a voltage (??) across the combined macromolecules but the underlying physics was not clarified. By incorporating an electric double layer force and a van der Waals force into a weight-ensemble Brownian dynamics simulation, we found that the dissociation rate constant for biotin-streptavidin increases exponentially with ??, and reaches 418-fold when ?? equals 1 V. Macroscopic diffusion simulations using such enhanced dissociation rate constants agree with the previous experiments, and explain quantitatively the finding that the regeneration using square-wave voltage is superior to that using saw-tooth voltage.

  6. Mapping of electrical potential distributions with charged particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for measuring electrostatic potentials on and near dielectric surfaces charged to several kilovolts are studied. Secondary emission from those charged dielectrics is measured. Candidates for potential measurement include the induced charge, from which potential is calculated; the trajectory endpoints of either high or low energy particles traversing the region near the surface; trajectory impact on the surface; and creating ions at points of interest near the surface. Some of the methods require computer simulations and iterative calculation if potential maps are to be generated. Several approaches are described and compared. A method using a half-cylinder as a test chamber and low-energy probing beams is adapted for the measurement of seconary emission.

  7. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  8. Remote energetic neutral atom imaging of electric potential over a lunar magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Lue, C.; Wurz, P.; Vorburger, A.; Bhardwaj, A.; Asamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The formation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> over lunar magnetized regions is essential for understanding fundamental lunar science, for understanding the lunar environment, and for planning human exploration on the Moon. A large positive <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> was predicted and detected from single point measurements. Here, we demonstrate a remote imaging technique of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> mapping at the lunar surface, making use of a new concept involving hydrogen neutral atoms derived from solar wind. We apply the technique to a lunar magnetized region using an existing dataset of the neutral atom energy spectrometer SARA/CENA on Chandrayaan-1. Electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> larger than +135 V inside the Gerasimovic anomaly is confirmed. This structure is found spreading all over the magnetized region. The widely spread <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> can influence the local plasma and dust environment near the magnetic anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/527742','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/527742"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> data and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance tomographic imaging techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.</p> <p>1997-08-26</p> <p>Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current source pole that best fits the measured <span class="hlt">potentials</span> with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/874176','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/874176"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> data and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance tomographic imaging techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Anotonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Penn Valley, CA)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current source pole that best fits the measured <span class="hlt">potentials</span> with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/871121','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/871121"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> data and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance tomographic imaging techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Antonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Alamo, CA)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current source pole that best fits the measured <span class="hlt">potentials</span> with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.103j3701O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.103j3701O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation in the megahertz range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okino, M.; Coutelou, S.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.; Matsukawa, M.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Low frequency mechanical studies have reported the contribution of stress-induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> to bone metabolism. However, the healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity ultrasound is not yet clear. We demonstrate that bone can generate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were obtained from the output of bovine cortical bone transducers. In the range of 0.7-2.5 MHz, sensitivities of bone transducers were around 1/1000 of a poly (vinylidene fluoride) ultrasonic transducer and did not depend on magnitude and alignment of hydroxyapatite crystallites in bone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..0CM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..0CM"><span id="translatedtitle">The photon: EM fields, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, and AC charge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and <span class="hlt">potentials</span> lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRA..10910202M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRA..10910202M"><span id="translatedtitle">Derivation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns in the inner magnetosphere from Cluster EDI data: Initial results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsui, H.; Jordanova, V. K.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Paschmann, G.</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns are derived in the inner magnetosphere at 4 < L < 10 using 2 years of data from the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on Cluster. First, we examine the relations between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and the following three parameters to understand how the <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns are organized: BZ component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), Kp index, and Dst index. From these correlations we can determine the effect of the interplanetary <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (IEF) on the inner magnetospheric <span class="hlt">electric</span> field as measured by Cluster. Next, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is related to a quantity proportional to the injection rate of the plasma sheet particles, F(Dst*) ? (dDst*/dt + 0.13Dst*), where the effect of the magnetopause current is removed in Dst*. Then we develop a method to obtain <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns. An inverse problem is solved by adjusting a trade-off parameter for smoothness of the result. The obtained <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns for three controlling parameters, IMF BZ, Kp index, and F(Dst*), are attached as supplemental material. We discuss the following features from these <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns: (1) <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop, (2) rotation of the direction of the convection <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, (3) dawn-dusk asymmetry of the strength of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, and (4) size of the last closed equipotential (LCE). This initial study is relevant to the development of an empirical model of inner magnetospheric convection in the equatorial plane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+saving+AND+conditioning+AND+system&id=ED083674','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+saving+AND+conditioning+AND+system&id=ED083674"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost and Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Opportunities with Heating, Air Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Schools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.</p> <p></p> <p>Great <span class="hlt">potential</span> exists for <span class="hlt">saving</span> energy and operating costs with a wide variety of heat conservation systems. Two major <span class="hlt">electric</span> services--space conditioning and lighting--afford cost and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> opportunities. These services are detailed in checklist fashion in this brochure, with the suggestions included under space conditioning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83l5431A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83l5431A"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy gap in graphene nanoribbons with structured external <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Apel, W.; Pal, G.; Schweitzer, L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The electronic properties of graphene zigzag nanoribbons with electrostatic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> along the edges are investigated. Using the Dirac-fermion approach, we calculate the energy spectrum of an infinitely long nanoribbon of finite width w, terminated by Dirichlet boundary conditions in the transverse direction. We show that a structured external <span class="hlt">potential</span> that acts within the edge regions of the ribbon can induce a spectral gap and thus switch the nanoribbon from metallic to insulating behavior. The basic mechanism of this effect is the selective influence of the external <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the spinorial wave functions that are topological in nature and localized along the boundary of the graphene nanoribbon. Within this single-particle description, the maximal obtainable energy gap is Emax???vF/w, i.e., ?0.12 eV for w=15 nm. The stability of the spectral gap against edge disorder and the effect of disorder on the two-terminal conductance is studied numerically within a tight-binding lattice model. We find that the energy gap persists as long as the applied external effective <span class="hlt">potential</span> is larger than ?0.55W, where W is a measure of the disorder strength. We argue that there is a transport gap due to localization effects even in the absence of a spectral gap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011805','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011805"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of ISS <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Variations with Mission Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Orbiting approximately 400 km above the Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) is a unique research laboratory used to conduct ground-breaking science experiments in space. The ISS has eight Solar Array Wings (SAW), and each wing is 11.7 meters wide and 35.1 meters long. The SAWs are controlled individually to maximize power output, minimize stress to the ISS structure, and minimize interference with other ISS operations such as vehicle dockings and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). The Solar Arrays are designed to operate at 160 Volts. These large, high power solar arrays are negatively grounded to the ISS and collect charged particles (predominately electrons) as they travel through the space plasma in the Earth's ionosphere. If not controlled, this collected charge causes floating <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations which can result in arcing, causing injury to the crew during an EVA or damage to hardware [1]. The environmental catalysts for ISS floating <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations include plasma density and temperature fluctuations and magnetic induction from the Earth's magnetic field. These alone are not enough to cause concern for ISS, but when they are coupled with the large positive <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the solar arrays, floating <span class="hlt">potentials</span> up to negative 95 Volts have been observed. Our goal is to differentiate the operationally induced fluctuations in floating <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the environmental causes. Differentiating will help to determine what charging can be controlled, and we can then design the proper operations controls for charge collection mitigation. Additionally, the knowledge of how high power solar arrays interact with the environment and what regulations or design techniques can be employed to minimize charging impacts can be applied to future programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9128C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9128C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> Mars: The first direct measurement of an upper limit for the Martian "polar wind" <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collinson, Glyn; Mitchell, David; Glocer, Alex; Grebowsky, Joseph; Peterson, W. K.; Connerney, Jack; Andersson, Laila; Espley, Jared; Mazelle, Christian; Sauvaud, Jean-Andr; Fedorov, Andrei; Ma, Yingjuan; Bougher, Steven; Lillis, Robert; Ergun, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>An important mechanism in the generation of polar wind outflow is the ambipolar <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> which assists ions in overcoming gravity and is a key mechanism for Terrestrial ionospheric escape. At Mars, open field lines are not confined to the poles, and outflow of ionospheric electrons is observed far into the tail. It has thus been hypothesized that a similar <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> may be present at Mars, contributing to global ionospheric loss. However, no direct measurements of this <span class="hlt">potential</span> have been made. In this pilot study, we examine photoelectron spectra measured by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer instrument on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars Scout to put an initial upper bound on the total <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop in the ionosphere of Mars of ?? ?? 2V , with the possibility of a further ?4.5 V <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop above this in the magnetotail. If the total <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop was close to the upper limit, then strong outflows of major ionospheric species (H+, O+, and O2+) would be expected. However, if most of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop is confined below the spacecraft, as expected by current theory, then such a <span class="hlt">potential</span> would not be sufficient on its own to accelerate O2+ to escape velocities, but would be sufficient for lighter ions. However, any <span class="hlt">potential</span> would contribute to atmospheric loss through the enhancement of Jeans escape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862333','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862333"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of Key<span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Products: The Case of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.</p> <p>2005-12-20</p> <p>The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major <span class="hlt">electrical</span> products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, <span class="hlt">electric</span> motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would <span class="hlt">save</span> billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/941496','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/941496"><span id="translatedtitle">Plug-in hybrid <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles : How does one determine their <span class="hlt">potential</span> for reducing U.S. oil dependence?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Estimation of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of plug-in hybrid <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day <span class="hlt">electric</span> rates (d) seasonal <span class="hlt">electric</span> rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-<span class="hlt">electric</span> range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel <span class="hlt">savings</span> of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659779','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659779"><span id="translatedtitle">Burden of unintended pregnancy in the United States: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> with increased use of long-acting reversible contraception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trussell, James; Henry, Nathaniel; Hassan, Fareen; Prezioso, Alexander; Law, Amy; Filonenko, Anna</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background This study evaluated the total costs of unintended pregnancy (UP) in the United States from a third -party health care payer perspective and explored the <span class="hlt">potential</span> role for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in reducing UP and resulting health care expenditure. Study Design An economic model was constructed to estimate direct costs of UP as well as the proportion of UP costs that could be attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. The model considered all US women requiring reversible contraception: the pattern of contraceptive use and rates of UP were derived from published sources. The costs of UP in the United States and the proportion of total cost that might be avoided by improved adherence through increased use of LARC were estimated. Results Annual medical costs of UP in the United States were estimated to be $4.5 billion, and 53% of these were attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. If 10% of women aged 2029 years switched from oral contraception to LARC, total costs would be reduced by $288 million per year. Conclusions Imperfect contraceptive adherence leads to substantial unintended pregnancy and high, avoidable costs. Improved uptake of LARC may generate health care cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> by reducing contraceptive non-adherence. PMID:22959904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505080"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrokinetic characterization of porous plugs from streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> coupled with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymczyk, A; Fievet, P; Foissy, A</p> <p>2002-11-15</p> <p>The zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of mixed nickel-iron oxide particles is evaluated by a new laboratory instrument. This latter allows the measurement of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> together with the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance of porous plugs. The conductivity of electrolyte inside plug (pore conductivity) is deduced from <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance measurements and is used together with streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> to evaluate the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> by accounting for the surface conduction phenomenon. It is shown that neglecting the surface conduction phenomenon leads to a substantial underestimation of the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The coupled measurements of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plug <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance yield zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> values that are in very good agreement with those obtained by electrophoresis. The densification of the porous plug with increasing pressure increments is put in evidence by the decrease in measured streaming <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistance measurements make it possible to account for the increase in surface conductivity resulting from the more compacted structure of the plug. By doing so, the calculated zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> is found to be virtually independent of the pressure difference involved in streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> experiments, whereas the negligence of surface conduction phenomenon leads to a decrease in the apparent zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> with increasing pressure level. PMID:12505080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1702s0025A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1702s0025A"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel numerical meshless approach for <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> estimation in transcranial stimulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ala, Guido; Fasshauer, Gregory E.; Francomano, Elisa; Ganci, Salvatore; McCourt, Michael J.; Vitabile, Salvatore</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, a first application of the method of fundamental solutions in estimating the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the spatial current density distribution in the brain due to transcranial stimulation, is presented. The coupled boundary value p roblems for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> are solved in a meshless way, so avoiding the use of grid based numerical methods. A multi-spherical geometry is considered and numerical results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221059"><span id="translatedtitle">Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in All-<span class="hlt">Electric</span> Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1887..130J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1887..130J"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverse solutions for <span class="hlt">electric</span> and <span class="hlt">potential</span> field imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Christopher R.; MacLeod, Robert S.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>One of the fundamental problems in theoretical electrocardiography can be characterized by an inverse problem. In this paper, we present new methods for achieving better estimates of heart surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions in terms of torso <span class="hlt">potentials</span> through an inverse procedure. First, an adaptive meshing algorithm is described which minimizes the error in the forward problem due to spatial discretization. We have found that since the inverse problem relies directly on the accuracy of the forward solution, adaptive meshing produces a more accurate inverse transfer matrix. Secondly, we introduce a new local regularization procedure. This method works by breaking the global transfer matrix into sub-matrices and performing regularization only on those sub-matrices which have large condition numbers. Furthermore, the regularization parameters are specifically 'tuned' for each sub-matrix using an a priori scheme based on the L-curve method. This local regularization method provides substantial increases in accuracy when compared to global regularization schemes. Finally, we present specific examples of the implementation of these schemes using models derived from magnetic resonance imaging data from a human subject.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhL..81.3284H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhL..81.3284H"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote detection of human electroencephalograms using ultrahigh input impedance <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harland, C. J.; Clark, T. D.; Prance, R. J.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>In this letter, we demonstrate the use of very high performance, ultrahigh impedance, <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> probes in the detection of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity in the brain. We show that these sensors, requiring no <span class="hlt">electrical</span> or physical contact with the body, can be used to monitor the human electroencephalogram (EEG) revealing, as examples, the ? and ? rhythms and the ? blocking phenomenon. We suggest that the advantages offered by these sensors compared with the currently used contact (Ag/AgCl) electrodes may act to stimulate new developments in multichannel EEG monitoring and in real-time <span class="hlt">electrical</span> imaging of the brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23651364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23651364"><span id="translatedtitle">External negative <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> accelerates exocytosis of lamellar bodies in human skin ex vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumamoto, Junichi; Goto, Makiko; Denda, Sumiko; Nakatani, Masashi; Takasugi, Yuya; Tsuchiya, Katsunori; Shimizu, Yuji; Takatsuru, Yusuke; Denda, Mitsuhiro</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Exocytosis of lamellar bodies at the uppermost nucleated layer of the epidermis is a crucial process for epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis. We have previously suggested that skin surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> might be associated with barrier homoeostasis. Thus, we hypothesized that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> might drive exocytosis of lamellar bodies. In this study, we tested this idea by applying negative <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (-0.5V) to human skin samples ex vivo for 2h and observing the ultrastructure of the uppermost layer. The secretion of lamellar bodies was accelerated in the <span class="hlt">potential</span>-applied skin, compared to that in untreated control skin. Multiphoton observation indicated that extracellular lipid domains were more extensive in treated skin than in control skin. Moreover, the calcium ion gradient was greater at the uppermost layer of the epidermis of treated skin, compared to that in control skin. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> may regulate lamellar body secretion in healthy human skin. PMID:23651364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790047968&hterms=effects+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Deffects%2Bacid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790047968&hterms=effects+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Deffects%2Bacid"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparent cooperativity of amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium - Effect of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lanyi, J. K.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Active serine accumulation in cell envelope vesicles from Halobacterium halobium proceeds by co-transport with Na(+) and can be induced by either transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> or transmembrane Na(+) concentration difference. It was shown earlier that in the former case the initial transport rate is a fourth-power function of the magnitude of the electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference of sodium ions, and in the latter, a second-power function. A possible interpretation of this finding is cooperativity of sodium-transporting sites in the transport carrier. When both kinds of driving force are imposed simultaneously on the vesicles, fourth-power dependence on the total <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference of sodium ions is obtained, suggesting that the transport carrier is regulated by the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Heat treatment of the vesicles at 48 C partially inactivates transport and abolishes this effect of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983506','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983506"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B53A0980G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B53A0980G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Variations on a Poplar: Beyond Electrokinetic Effects Associated With Sap Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibert, D.; Le Mouël, J.; Lambs, L.; Nicollin, F.; Conil, F.; Perrier, F.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> has been monitored since December 2003 in the roots and at two circumferences and one vertical profile in a standing poplar (Populus incognitus). <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is sampled using 5 mm diameter stainless steel rods, inserted 5 mm deep in the cambium, and is referenced to an unpolarizable Petiau electrode installed 80 cm deep in the soil. Various types of signals are observed. Transient signals with long relaxation times affecting some electrodes simultaneously, may be contact <span class="hlt">potentials</span> triggered by condensation and evaporation. Diurnal variations are observed which present a seasonal variation. During winter, diurnal variations depend on the measurement point, with variable amplitudes and sometimes anticorrelations between electrodes. By contrast, a stable and coherent organization is established in the spring, with larger amplitudes, and lasts during summer. Such signals have been reported previously (Koppan et al., 2000; Morat et al., 1994; Fensom, 1963), have been interpreted as electrokinetic effects associated with sap flow. However, a comparison of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals with a measurement of the sap flow by a heat flow method, shows that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> variation, although clearly correlated to sap flow, is not simply proportional to it. In a living system, electrokinetic effects, in addition to thermoelectrical effects, are probably modified significantly by additional electrochemical effects, such as membrane diffusion <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, ion active transport by proteins, and action <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. Such effects have been evidenced in laboratory experiments with plants (e.g., Fromm and Hei, 1998). <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> variations in trees may thus reveal mechanisms not accessible by other methods, and maybe reveal new aspects of the physics of living systems. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> response of trees to meteorological, chemical or biological forcing may improve the knowledge of transfer processes between the soil and the atmosphere. This is important for the modeling of water and carbon balance in relation to climate change, as well as of the contribution of trees to the migration, retention and dispersion of contaminants. Fensom, D. S., The bioelectric <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of plants and their functional significance : V. Some daily and seasonal changes in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and resistance of living trees, Canadian J. Botany, 41, 831-851, 1963. Fromm, J., and H. Fei, <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> signaling and gas exchange in maize plants of drying soil, Plant Science, 132, 203-213, 1998. Koppan, A., L. Szarka, and V. Wesztergom, Annual fluctuation in amplitudes of daily variations of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals measured in the trunk of a standing tree, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 323, 559-563, 2000. Morat, P., J.-L. Le Mouël, and A. Granier, <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on a tree. A measurement of the sap flow ?, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 317, 98-101, 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130634"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Existing All <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gordon, A.; Lubliner, M.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Salzberg, E.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128612"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in All-<span class="hlt">Electric</span> Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest, Tacoma, Washington (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+liquids&id=EJ1016959','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+liquids&id=EJ1016959"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Resistance Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shlyonsky, Vadim</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion <span class="hlt">potentials</span> is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance and <span class="hlt">potential</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.359..316Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.359..316Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical and symmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells with applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Zou, LiLi; Guo, Kang-Xian; Yuan, Jian-Hui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A detailed investigation of nonlinear optical rectification (OR) of asymmetrical and symmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells (QWs) under the influence of applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field by using the compact-density-matrix approach is presented. We find that the approximation of the asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> QWs is extremely unreasonable in the previous works, some new and reliable results are obtained by us. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions of the asymmetrical and symmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> QWs are calculated with the differential method. According to the results obtained from the present work, we find that the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and the geometry factors have great influence on the nonlinear OR in these system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJC...71.1693G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJC...71.1693G"><span id="translatedtitle">Scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> without cubic term in 3-3-1 models without exotic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giraldo, Yithsbey; Ponce, William A.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>A detailed study of the criteria for stability of the scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and the proper electroweak symmetry breaking pattern in some 3-3-1 models without exotic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charges is presented. In this paper we concentrate in a scalar sector with three Higgs scalar triplets, with a <span class="hlt">potential</span> that does not include the cubic term, due to the presence of a discrete symmetry. For the analysis we use, and improve, a method previously developed to study the scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the two-Higgs-doublet extension of the standard model. Our main result is to show the consistency of those 3-3-1 models without exotic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3704T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3704T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of microstructure and water on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.; Matsukawa, M.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412670','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412670"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of microstructure and water on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.</p> <p>2015-02-16</p> <p>The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979737','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979737"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Applications for Nuclear Energy besides <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at <span class="hlt">electricity</span> production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole <span class="hlt">electricity</span> market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated <span class="hlt">electric</span> plant. Depending on the process heat temperature and power needs, up to 80 % of the nuclear heat is converted into useful power. An important feature of the design is the standardization of the heat source, as independent as possible of the process heat application. This should expedite licensing. The essential conditions for success include: 1. Timely adapted licensing process and regulations, codes and standards for such application and design; 2. An industry oriented R and D program to meet the technological challenges making the best use of the international collaboration. Gen IV could be the vector; 3. Identification of an end user (or a consortium of) willing to fund a FOAK. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED162888.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED162888.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy: <span class="hlt">Save</span> Money!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eccli, Eugene; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215982"><span id="translatedtitle">Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Annual <span class="hlt">Savings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> of $930,000 and annual energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139p4902L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139p4902L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tension moderation and fluctuation spectrum in simulated lipid membranes under an applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loubet, Bastien; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Khandelia, Himanshu</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We investigate the effect of an applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the mechanics of a coarse grained POPC bilayer under tension. The size and duration of our simulations allow for a detailed and accurate study of the fluctuations. Effects on the fluctuation spectrum, tension, bending rigidity, and bilayer thickness are investigated in detail. In particular, the least square fitting technique is used to calculate the fluctuation spectra. The simulations confirm a recently proposed theory that the effect of an applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the membrane will be moderated by the elastic properties of the membrane. In agreement with the theory, we find that the larger the initial tension the larger the effect of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Application of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> increases the amplitude of the long wavelength part of the spectrum and the bending rigidity is deduced from the short wavelength fluctuations. The effect of the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the bending rigidity is non-existent within error bars. However, when the membrane is stretched there is a point where the bending rigidity is lowered due to a decrease of the thickness of the membrane. All these effects should prove important for mechanosensitive channels and biomembrane mechanics in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2017C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2017C"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the Global <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Circuit coupled to local <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conceição, R.; Silva, H. G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>There are several models describing the Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit of the Earth's atmosphere. Here it is used the common model and parameters of Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit to couple it with a local circuit less studied in literature. The first objective is to test different voltage sources describing thunderstorm activity and compare the output, <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient, with the known Carnegie Curve. Two sets of parameters are used, the first one from values found in literature and the second one from values tweaked to get the best agreement between the simulated <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Gradient and the Carnegie Curve. This study is a first step in simulations regarding the coupling of the Global <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuit (primary) to local <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit (secondary). One of the main objectives is to estimate the aerosol load on the local resistor in case of aerosol events, e.g. fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25897889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25897889"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrically</span> configurable graphene field-effect transistors with a graded-<span class="hlt">potential</span> gate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaowei; Jiang, Xingbin; Wang, Ting; Shi, Jia; Liu, Mingju; Zeng, Qibin; Cheng, Zhihai; Qiu, Xiaohui</p> <p>2015-05-13</p> <p>A device architecture for <span class="hlt">electrically</span> configurable graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) using a graded-<span class="hlt">potential</span> gate is present. The gating scheme enables a linearly varying <span class="hlt">electric</span> field that modulates the electronic structure of graphene and causes a continuous shift of the Dirac points along the channel of GFET. This spatially varying electrostatic modulation produces a pseudobandgap observed as a suppressed conductance of graphene within a controllable energy range. By tuning the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> gradient of the gate, a GFET device is reversibly transformed between ambipolar and n- and p-type unipolar characteristics. We further demonstrate an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> programmable complementary inverter, showing the extensibility of the proposed architecture in constructing logic devices based on graphene and other Dirac materials. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> configurable GFET might be explored for novel functionalities in smart electronics. PMID:25897889</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107s3701R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107s3701R"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using <span class="hlt">electric</span> field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086061','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086061"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic model of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in localized collisionless plasma structures under steady quasi-gyrotropic conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schindler, K.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>Localized plasma structures, such as thin current sheets, generally are associated with localized magnetic and <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields. In space plasmas localized <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields not only play an important role for particle dynamics and acceleration but may also have significant consequences on larger scales, e.g., through magnetic reconnection. Also, it has been suggested that localized <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields generated in the magnetosphere are directly connected with quasi-steady auroral arcs. In this context, we present a two-dimensional model based on Vlasov theory that provides the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for a large class of given magnetic field profiles. The model uses an expansion for small deviation from gyrotropy and besides quasineutrality it assumes that electrons and ions have the same number of particles with their generalized gyrocenter on any given magnetic field line. Specializing to one dimension, a detailed discussion concentrates on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> shapes (such as 'U' or 'S' shapes) associated with magnetic dips, bumps, and steps. Then, it is investigated how the model responds to quasi-steady evolution of the plasma. Finally, the model proves useful in the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> taken from two existing particle simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000894"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Model of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> in Localized Collisionless Plasma Structures under Steady Quasi-gyrotropic Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schindler, K.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Localized plasma structures, such as thin current sheets, generally are associated with localized magnetic and <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields. In space plasmas localized <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields not only play an important role for particle dynamics and acceleration but may also have significant consequences on larger scales, e.g., through magnetic reconnection. Also, it has been suggested that localized <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields generated in the magnetosphere are directly connected with quasi-steady auroral arcs. In this context, we present a two-dimensional model based on Vlasov theory that provides the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for a large class of given magnetic field profiles. The model uses an expansion for small deviation from gyrotropy and besides quasineutrality it assumes that electrons and ions have the same number of particles with their generalized gyrocenter on any given magnetic field line. Specializing to one dimension, a detailed discussion concentrates on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> shapes (such as "U" or "S" shapes) associated with magnetic dips, bumps, and steps. Then, it is investigated how the model responds to quasi-steady evolution of the plasma. Finally, the model proves useful in the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> taken from two existing particle simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED167404.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED167404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">How to <span class="hlt">Save</span> Money by <span class="hlt">Saving</span> Energy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Department of Energy, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers <span class="hlt">save</span> money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) <span class="hlt">electrical</span> appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...110d4315K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...110d4315K"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements of nanoparticles with different surface charges in liquid by open-loop <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Naritaka; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution plays important roles in physical, chemical and biological processes at a solid/liquid interface. However, the measurement of a local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in liquid has been a long-standing challenge, which has hindered understanding of the mechanisms for the various interfacial phenomena. Recently, we have developed a method to overcome this problem [Kobayashi et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123705 (2010)], which is referred to as open-loop <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> microscopy (OL-EPM). Here, we present its first application to quantitative measurements of local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in liquid. In OL-EPM, an ac bias voltage is applied between a tip and sample and the first and second harmonic cantilever oscillations induced by the electrostatic force are detected and used for the calculation of a <span class="hlt">potential</span> value. In the equation for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> calculation, here we introduce a correction factor to cancel out the error caused by the difference in the deflection sensitivity to the first and second harmonic electrostatic forces. With the improved method, we have performed <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements of two types of latex beads with different surface charges. The measured <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference between the different types of latex beads approximately corresponds to their zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference, which demonstrates the quantitative capability of OL-EPM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED426822.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED426822.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Rural Public School Non-Instructional Costs through Shared Services Arrangements: A Regional Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>ECM, Inc., Williamsville, NY.</p> <p></p> <p>A study was undertaken in 16 rural New York school districts to determine the feasibility of sharing noninstructional services as an avenue to achieving cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> and enhanced services. The districts involved were within the Delaware/Chenango/Madison/Otsego BOCES (Board of Cooperative Educational Services) in a rural mountainous region of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24359738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24359738"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-uniform distribution of outer hair cell transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> induced by extracellular <span class="hlt">electric</span> field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Wilson, Teresa M; Wu, Tao; Nuttall, Alfred L</p> <p>2013-12-17</p> <p>Intracochlear <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields arising out of sound-induced receptor currents, silent currents, or <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current injected into the cochlea induce transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> along the outer hair cell (OHC) but its distribution along the cells is unknown. In this study, we investigated the distribution of OHC transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> induced along the cell perimeter and its sensitivity to the direction of the extracellular <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (EEF) on isolated OHCs at a low frequency using the fast voltage-sensitive dye ANNINE-6plus. We calibrated the potentiometric sensitivity of the dye by applying known voltage steps to cells by simultaneous whole-cell voltage clamp. The OHC transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> induced by the EEF is shown to be highly nonuniform along the cell perimeter and strongly dependent on the direction of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> field. Unlike in many other cells, the EEF induces a field-direction-dependent intracellular <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the cylindrical OHC. We predict that without this induced intracellular <span class="hlt">potential</span>, EEF would not generate somatic electromotility in OHCs. In conjunction with the known heterogeneity of OHC membrane microdomains, voltage-gated ion channels, charge, and capacitance, the EEF-induced nonuniform transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> measured in this study suggests that the EEF would impact the cochlear amplification and electropermeability of molecules across the cell. PMID:24359738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3882456','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3882456"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-uniform Distribution of Outer Hair Cell Transmembrane <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Induced by Extracellular <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Wilson, TeresaM.; Wu, Tao; Nuttall, AlfredL.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Intracochlear <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields arising out of sound-induced receptor currents, silent currents, or <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current injected into the cochlea induce transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> along the outer hair cell (OHC) but its distribution along the cells is unknown. In this study, we investigated the distribution of OHC transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> induced along the cell perimeter and its sensitivity to the direction of the extracellular <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (EEF) on isolated OHCs at a low frequency using the fast voltage-sensitive dye ANNINE-6plus. We calibrated the potentiometric sensitivity of the dye by applying known voltage steps to cells by simultaneous whole-cell voltage clamp. The OHC transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> induced by the EEF is shown to be highly nonuniform along the cell perimeter and strongly dependent on the direction of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> field. Unlike in many other cells, the EEF induces a field-direction-dependent intracellular <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the cylindrical OHC. We predict that without this induced intracellular <span class="hlt">potential</span>, EEF would not generate somatic electromotility in OHCs. In conjunction with the known heterogeneity of OHC membrane microdomains, voltage-gated ion channels, charge, and capacitance, the EEF-induced nonuniform transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> measured in this study suggests that the EEF would impact the cochlear amplification and electropermeability of molecules across the cell. PMID:24359738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25687712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25687712"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">potential</span> and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in the cochlear outer hair cell membrane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harland, Ben; Lee, Wen-han; Brownell, William E; Sun, Sean X; Spector, Alexander A</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Outer hair cell electromechanics, critically important to mammalian active hearing, is driven by the cell membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The membrane protein prestin is a crucial component of the active outer hair cell's motor. The focus of the paper is the analysis of the local membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field resulting from the interaction of <span class="hlt">electric</span> charges involved. Here the relevant charges are the ions inside and outside the cell, lipid bilayer charges, and prestin-associated charges (mobile-transferred by the protein under the action of the applied field, and stationary-relatively unmoved by the field). The <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> across and along the membrane are computed for the case of an applied DC-field. The local amplitudes and phases of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> under different frequencies are analyzed for the case of a DC + AC-field. We found that the effect of the system of charges alters the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and internal field, which deviate significantly from their traditional linear and constant distributions. Under DC + AC conditions, the strong frequency dependence of the prestin mobile charge has a relatively small effect on the amplitude and phase of the resulting <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The obtained results can help in a better understanding and experimental verification of the mechanism of prestin performance. PMID:25687712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088080','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088080"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue for grid connected <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage : arbitrage and regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The valuation of an <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two <span class="hlt">potential</span> sources of income for an <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when <span class="hlt">electricity</span> prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when <span class="hlt">electricity</span> prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating <span class="hlt">potential</span> trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21257369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21257369"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-time adaptive microstimulation increases reliability of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked cortical <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brugger, Dominik; Butovas, Sergejus; Bogdan, Martin; Schwarz, Cornelius</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Cortical neuroprostheses that employ repeated <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of cortical areas with fixed stimulus parameters, are faced with the problem of large trial-by-trial variability of evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. This variability is caused by the ongoing cortical signal processing, but it is an unwanted phenomenon if one aims at imprinting neural activity as precisely as possible. Here, we use local field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> measured by one microelectrode, located at a distance of 200 microns from the stimulation site, to drive the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> toward a desired target <span class="hlt">potential</span> by real-time adaptation of the stimulus intensity. The functional relationship between ongoing cortical activity, evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and stimulus intensity was estimated by standard machine learning techniques (support vector regression with problem-specific kernel function) from a set of stimulation trials with randomly varied stimulus intensities. The smallest deviation from the target <span class="hlt">potential</span> was achieved for low stimulus intensities. Further, the observed precision effect proved time sensitive, since it was abolished by introducing a delay between data acquisition and stimulation. These results indicate that local field <span class="hlt">potentials</span> contain sufficient information about ongoing local signal processing to stabilize <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. We anticipate that adaptive low intensity microstimulation will play an important role in future cortical prosthetic devices that aim at restoring lost sensory functions. PMID:21257369</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCoPh.281...82C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCoPh.281...82C"><span id="translatedtitle">An iterative immersed finite element method for an <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> interface problem based on given surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> quantity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Yong; Chu, Yuchuan; He, Xiaoming; Lin, Tao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Interface problems involving the non-homogeneous flux jump condition are critical for engineering designs in the magnetostatic/electrostatic field. In applications, such as plasma simulation, we often only know the total <span class="hlt">electric</span> quantity on the surface of the object, not the charge density distribution on the surface which appears as the non-homogeneous flux jump condition in the usual interface problems considered in the literature for the magnetostatic/electrostatic field. Based on structured meshes independent of the interface, this article proposes an iterative method that employs both the immersed finite element (IFE) method with non-homogeneous flux jump conditions and the regular finite element method with ghost nodes introduced in the object to solve the 2D interface problem for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> field according to the given total <span class="hlt">electric</span> quantity on the surface of the object. Numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3701G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.106g3701G"><span id="translatedtitle">Converting external <span class="hlt">potential</span> fluctuations into nonzero time-average <span class="hlt">electric</span> currents using a single nanopore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomez, Vicente; Ramirez, Patricio; Cervera, Javier; Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Mafe, Salvador</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The possibility of taking advantage of a fluctuating environment for energy and information transduction is a significant challenge in biological and artificial nanostructures. We demonstrate here directional <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transduction from fluctuating external signals using a single nanopore of conical shape immersed in an ionic aqueous solution. To this end, we characterize experimentally the average output currents obtained by the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> rectification of zero time-average input <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The transformation of external <span class="hlt">potential</span> fluctuations into nonzero time-average responses using a single nanopore in liquid state is of fundamental significance for biology and nanophysics. This energy and information conversion constitutes also a significant step towards macroscopic scaling using multipore membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PMB....50.2663X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PMB....50.2663X"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical solutions of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and impedance for a multilayered spherical volume conductor excited by time-harmonic <span class="hlt">electric</span> current source: application in brain EIT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Chunyan; Lei, Yinzhao</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>A model of a multilayered spherical volume conductor with four electrodes is built. In this model, a time-harmonic <span class="hlt">electric</span> current is injected into the sphere through a pair of drive electrodes, and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is measured by the other pair of measurement electrodes. By solving the boundary value problem of the electromagnetic field, the analytical solutions of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and impedance in the whole conduction region are derived. The theoretical values of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the surface of the sphere are in good accordance with the experimental results. The analytical solutions are then applied to the simulation of the forward problem of brain <span class="hlt">electrical</span> impedance tomography (EIT). The results show that, for a real human head, the imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is not small enough to be ignored at above 20 kHz, and there exists an approximate linear relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> when the electromagnetic parameters of the innermost layer keep unchanged. Increase in the conductivity of the innermost layer leads to a decrease of the magnitude of both real and imaginary parts of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the scalp. However, the increase of permittivity makes the magnitude of the imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> increase while that of the real part decreases, and vice versa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22182789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22182789"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method for in vitro stent fracture monitoring and detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Yun, Yeoheung; Kim, Cheol Sang</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a preliminary investigation and prototype fabrication of a novel <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method to continuously monitor vascular stent fractures. A <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement system consisting of Wheatstone bridge circuit and signal conditioning circuit was designed for the cardiovascular stent durability and fatigue test. Each end of a bare and polyurethane-covered Nitinol vascular stent was <span class="hlt">electrically</span> connected to the <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement system and then immersed either in simulated body fluid (SBF) media or distilled water at 36.4 1 C. When the stent experienced fracture (i.e., a cut), its <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> decreased with an increase in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance. This method successfully measured fractures in the stent regardless of location. Furthermore, the number of cycles at the onset of stent fracture was accurately detected and continuously monitored using this technique. Thus, the present fracture detection method, which to our knowledge is the first ever report to use <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement for stent durability test, gives a fast, real-time, accurate and efficient detection of fractures in stent during in vitro fatigue and durability test. PMID:22182789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......110G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......110G"><span id="translatedtitle">An economic analysis of the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation <span class="hlt">potential</span> from biogas resources in the state of Indiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giraldo, Juan S.</p> <p></p> <p>Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate <span class="hlt">electricity</span>. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large <span class="hlt">potential</span> for biogas production and use for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation <span class="hlt">potential</span> from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas <span class="hlt">electricity</span> projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas <span class="hlt">electricity</span> project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation <span class="hlt">potential</span> is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of <span class="hlt">potential</span> generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions and incentives are likely needed to encourage investment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMNS34A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMNS34A..04K"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-<span class="hlt">Potential</span> (SP) and Active <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Geophysical Assessment of Bioremediation at a Contaminated Gasworks Plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulessa, B.; Kalin, R.; Doherty, R.; Phillips, D.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We have surveyed a former gasworks site in Portadown, Northern Ireland, using self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP), <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity, induced polarisation (IP), and ground conductivity (EM-31, EM-34, EM-61). Site lithology and hydrogeology were mapped in numerous trial pits, and groundwater redox conditions together with a host of associated biogeochemical and microbiological parameters have been monitored in several boreholes. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) together with groundwater flow control (slurry wall) and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) are used for remediation of the complex site contamination, including hydrocarbon and heavy metals. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> geophysical surveys mapped the foundations of former infrastructure at the site and detected a formerly unknown tar well and a pit filled with mixed waste. In the contaminated regions of the site the total, measured SP signal is comprised of streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and electrochemical components; in the uncontaminated regions the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> is dominant and electrochemical <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are negligible. The streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> coupling coefficient is estimated by relating the hydraulic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from borehole monitoring and groundwater flow modelling to the total SP signal measured in the uncontaminated regions. Residual SP is determined by subtracting the calculated streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> component from the total SP data, and the impact of spatially variable, bulk ground conductivity on streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> is elucidated. We investigate the relationship between residual SP and redox <span class="hlt">potential</span> measured in several successive, contaminated aquifer layers separated by aquitards. The SP and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> geophysical signatures of microbial processes naturally degrading the subsurface contaminants are examined. Preliminary findings from SP and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> geophysical monitoring of artificially disturbed microbial processes and subsurface redox conditions are also presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043761','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043761"><span id="translatedtitle">Microscopic Measurements of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Yan, B.; Yue, G.; Sivec, L.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.; Tong, X.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We report on a direct measurement of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and field profiles across the n-i-p junction of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells, using the nanometer-resolution <span class="hlt">potential</span> imaging technique of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). It was observed that the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is nonuniform across the i layer. It is much higher in the p/i region than in the middle and the n/i region, illustrating that the i layer is actually slightly n-type. A measurement on a nc-Si:H cell with a higher oxygen impurity concentration shows that the nonuniformity of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is much more pronounced than in samples having a lower O impurity, indicating that O is an electron donor in nc-Si:H materials. This nonuniform distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field implies a mixture of diffusion and drift of carrier transport in the nc-Si:H solar cells. The composition and structure of these nc-Si:H cells were further investigated by using secondary-ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of impurity and structural properties on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution and solar cell performance are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143d4707B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143d4707B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of water on the local <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of simulated ionic micelles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brodskaya, Elena N.; Vanin, Alexander A.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Ionic micelles in an aqueous solution containing single-charged counter-ions have been simulated by molecular dynamics. For both cationic and anionic micelles, it has been demonstrated that explicit description of solvent has strong effect on the micelle's <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The sign of the local charge alters in the immediate vicinity of the micellar crown and the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> varies nonmonotonically. Two micelle models have been examined: the hybrid model with a rigid hydrocarbon core and the atomistic model. For three molecular models of water (Simple Point Charge model (SPC), Transferable Intermolecular <span class="hlt">Potential</span> 5- Points (TIP5P) and two-centered S2), the results have been compared with those for the continuum solvent model. The orientational ordering of solvent molecules has strong effect on the local <span class="hlt">electric</span> field surprisingly far from the micelle surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5282779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5282779"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">potential</span> and existing problems concerning interface between <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities and cogenerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> and existing problems concerning the interface between US <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities and cogenerators are considered by region. Also considered are regulatory barriers, rates and contracts, economic feasibility, and impact on system planning. Finally, the impact of the National Energy Act on the marketability <span class="hlt">potential</span> of cogeneration is reviewed. The three appendixes summarize the utility meetings on cogeneration held in Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+electric&id=EJ817704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+electric&id=EJ817704"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Polarizability of a Particle Bound by a Double Delta <span class="hlt">Potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maize, M. A.; Smetanka, J. J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we derive an expression for the dynamic <span class="hlt">electric</span> polarizability of a particle bound by a double delta <span class="hlt">potential</span> for frequencies below and above the absolute value of the particle's ground state energy. The derived expression will be used to study some of the fundamental features of the system and its representation of real systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-part72-appD.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-part72-appD.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Appendix D to Part 72 - Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity D Appendix D to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. D Appendix D to Part 72—Calculation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+filter&id=EJ1016959','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ionic+AND+filter&id=EJ1016959"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Resistance Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shlyonsky, Vadim</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion <span class="hlt">potentials</span> is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistance and potential…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=4&id=EJ817704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=4&id=EJ817704"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Polarizability of a Particle Bound by a Double Delta <span class="hlt">Potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maize, M. A.; Smetanka, J. J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we derive an expression for the dynamic <span class="hlt">electric</span> polarizability of a particle bound by a double delta <span class="hlt">potential</span> for frequencies below and above the absolute value of the particle's ground state energy. The derived expression will be used to study some of the fundamental features of the system and its representation of real systems.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-part72-appD.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-part72-appD.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Appendix D to Part 72 - Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity D Appendix D to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. D Appendix D to Part 72Calculation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol16-part72-appD.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol16-part72-appD.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Appendix D to Part 72 - Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Output Capacity D Appendix D to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. D Appendix D to Part 72Calculation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=143685','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=143685"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ELECTRICAL</span> <span class="hlt">POTENTIALS</span> OF PLANT CELL WALLS IN RESPONSE TO THE IONIC ENVIRONMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in cell walls (yWall) and at plasma membrane surfaces (yPM) are determinants of ion activities in these phases. The yPM plays a demonstrated role in ion uptake and intoxication, but a comprehensive theory of plant-ion interactions will require further understanding of yWall. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43135&keyword=magnetic+AND+fiels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57479781&CFTOKEN=16453925','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43135&keyword=magnetic+AND+fiels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57479781&CFTOKEN=16453925"><span id="translatedtitle">A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON <span class="hlt">POTENTIAL</span> REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">ELECTRIC</span> AND MAGNETIC FIELDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields to adversely affect the health of the human population is an issue which continues to receive a great deal of attention in both public and scientific forums. ne of the critical issues is the possibility that such fields may adversely ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H53E1120P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H53E1120P"><span id="translatedtitle">MuSET, A High Precision Logging Sensor For Downhole Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pezard, P. A.; Gautier, S.; Le Borgne, T.; Deltombe, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>MuSET has been designed by ALT and CNRS in the context of the EC ALIANCE research project. It is based on an existing multi-parameter borehole fluid sensor (p, T, Cw, pH, Eh) built by ALT. The new downhole geophysical tool aims to measure subsurface spontaneous <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (SP) in situ with great precision (< V). For this, the device includes an unpolazirable Pb/PbCl2 electrode referred to a similar one at surface. Initial field testing in Montpellier (Languedoc, France), Ploemeur (Brittany, France) and Campos (Mallorca, Spain) took advantage of the set of field sites developed as part of ALIANCE then as part of the environmental research observatory (ORE) network for hydrogeology "H+". While Cretaceous marly limestone at Lavalette (Montpellier) proved to be almost exclusively the source of membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span>, the clay-starved Miocene reefal carbonates of Campos generate a signal dominated by electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span>. This signal is generated due to nearby agricultural pumping, and associated strong horizontal flow. At the top of the salt to fresh water transtion, a discrepancy between the SP signal and the absence of vertical flow measured with a heat-pulse flowmeter hints at a capacity to detect the "fluid-junction", diffusion <span class="hlt">potential</span>. At Ploemeur, the altered granite found in the vicinity of faults and fractures is also the source of a SP signal, mostly surface related while most fractures appear to be closed. In all, the MuSET demonstrates a capacity to identify several subsurface sources of natural <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> such as diffusion ones (membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the presence of clays, fickean processes due to pore fluid salinity gradients), or else the electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> with pore fluid pressure gradients. While spontaneous <span class="hlt">electrical</span> currents often loop out of the borehole, MuSET might be used as a radial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> flowmeter once the diffusion components taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ889225.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ889225.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Encouraging <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in a University Residential Hall through a Combination of Feedback, Visual Prompts, and Incentives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bekker, Marthinus J.; Cumming, Tania D.; Osborne, Nikola K. P.; Bruining, Angela M.; McClean, Julia I.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This experiment investigated the combined use of visual prompts, daily feedback, and rewards to reduce <span class="hlt">electricity</span> consumption in a university residential hall. After a 17-day baseline period, the experimental intervention was introduced in the intervention hall, and no change was made in the control hall. Energy usage decreased in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222902"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive View of Global <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for Hydro-generated <span class="hlt">Electricity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yuyu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Li, Hongyi; Clarke, Leon E.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this study, we assess global hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> using runoff and stream flow data, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental considerations. The results provide the first comprehensive quantification of global hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> including gross, technical, economic, and exploitable estimates. Total global <span class="hlt">potential</span> of gross, technical, economic, and exploitable hydropower are estimated to be approximately 128, 39, 32, and 27 petawatt hours per year, respectively. The economic and exploitable <span class="hlt">potential</span> of hydropower are calculated at less than 9 cents/kWh. We find that hydropower has the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this <span class="hlt">potential</span> varies substantially by region. Globally, hydropower can <span class="hlt">potentially</span> supply about 1.5 times the total <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand in 2005. Estimated hydropower resources in a number of countries are sufficient to accommodate their demand for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> in 2005, e.g., Brazil (5.6 times), Russia (4.6 times), and Canada (3.5 times). A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower estimates are not highly sensitive to five key parameters: design flow (varying by -2% to +1% at less than 9 cents/kWh), cost and financing options (by -7% to +6%), turbine efficiency (by -10% to +10%), stream flow (by -10% to +10%), and fixed charge rate (by -6% to 5%). This sensitivity analysis emphasizes the reliable role of hydropower for future energy systems, when compared to other renewable energy resources with larger uncertainty in their future <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1236307','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1236307"><span id="translatedtitle">Dielectrophoretic forces and <span class="hlt">potentials</span> induced on pairs of cells in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Foster, K R; Sowers, A E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A combined numerical/experimental study is reported of the membrane <span class="hlt">potentials</span> and dielectrophoretically induced forces between cells, membrane pressures, and velocity of attraction of cells under the influence of an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. This study was designed to explore <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and mechanical effects produced by a field on cells in close proximity or undergoing <span class="hlt">electrically</span> induced fusion. Laplace's equation for pairs of membrane-covered spheres in close proximity was solved numerically by the boundary element method, and the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> induced forces on the cells and between cells were obtained by evaluating the Maxwell stress tensor. The velocity of approach of erythrocyte ghosts or fused ghosts in a 60-Hz field of 6 V/mm was measured experimentally, and the data were interpreted by using Batchelor's theory for hydrodynamic interaction of hard spheres. The numerical results show clearly the origin of the dielectrophoretic pressures and forces in fused and unfused cells and the effects of a nearby cell on the induced membrane <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The experimental results agree well with predictions based on the simple <span class="hlt">electrical</span> model of the cell. The analysis shows the strong effect of hydrodynamic interactions between the cells in determining their velocity of approach. PMID:8519978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129375','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129375"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of Multiple Gastric <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Wave Fronts Using <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Based Inverse Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to reconstruct gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity (termed slow waves) non-invasively from <span class="hlt">potential</span> field measurements made on the torso surface would be a useful tool to aid in the clinical diagnosis of a number of gastric disorders. This is mathematically akin to the inverse problem of electrocardiography. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stomach model were used to simulate <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity. Gaussian noise was added to the torso <span class="hlt">potentials</span> to represent experimental signal noise. The stomach <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, activation profiles and gastric slow wave velocities were inversely reconstructed from the torso <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, using the Tikhonov-Greensite inverse method with regularisation determined using an L-curve method. The inverse solutions were then compared with the known input solutions. The reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of multiple propagating wave fronts, determine average activation times to within 5 s and average velocities to within 1 mm/s. When more virtual body surface electrodes were used in the inverse calculations, the accuracy of the reconstructed activity improved. PMID:22254568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6160E..33K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6160E..33K"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations of a gradient of <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">electrical</span> field in the south of East Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krechetov, A. A.; Shamansky, U. V.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>In work the daily variations of a gradient of <span class="hlt">potential</span> of an atmosphere <span class="hlt">electrical</span> field close pulp and paper mill (Baikalsk region) and in the Lake Baikal are analyzed. For the analysis the results of measurements of a gradient of <span class="hlt">potential</span> in seven items located on various distance from a source of pollution, on the same technique are used. Three are revealed such as a daily course of a gradient of <span class="hlt">potential</span>, which are substantially caused by transformation of emissions by local winds in area of the lake Baikal. Spectral and components the analysis of results of measurements has allowed to reveal 2-nd and 7 hour periods of fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.5205K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.5205K"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of multiple gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> wave fronts using <span class="hlt">potential</span>-based inverse methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stomach model were used to simulate <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..105J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..105J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> Current Filamentation at a Non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> Magnetic Null-point Due to Pressure Perturbation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jelnek, P.; Karlick, M.; Murawski, K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>An increase of <span class="hlt">electric</span> current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> current in a non-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the <span class="hlt">electric</span> current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of <span class="hlt">electric</span> current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.1589D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.1589D"><span id="translatedtitle">New fully kinetic model for the study of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, plasma, and dust above lunar landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyadechkin, S.; Kallio, E.; Wurz, P.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We have developed a new fully kinetic electrostatic simulation, HYBes, to study how the lunar landscape affects the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plasma distributions near the surface and the properties of lifted dust. The model embodies new techniques that can be used in various types of physical environments and situations. We demonstrate the applicability of the new model in a situation involving three charged particle species, which are solar wind electrons and protons, and lunar photoelectrons. Properties of dust are studied with test particle simulations by using the <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields derived from the HYBes model. Simulations show the high importance of the plasma and the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> near the surface. For comparison, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> gradients near the landscapes with feature sizes of the order of the Debye length are much larger than those near a flat surface at different solar zenith angles. Furthermore, dust test particle simulations indicate that the landscape relief influences the dust location over the surface. The study suggests that the local landscape has to be taken into account when the distributions of plasma and dust above lunar surface are studied. The HYBes model can be applied not only at the Moon but also on a wide range of airless planetary objects such as Mercury, other planetary moons, asteroids, and nonactive comets.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PSST...22d5020L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PSST...22d5020L"><span id="translatedtitle">Space charge, plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field distributions in HiPIMS discharges of varying configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liebig, B.; Bradley, J. W.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>An electron-emitting (emissive) probe has been used to study the temporal and spatial distribution of the plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> during high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges with various substrate and magnetic field configurations. The average power was 700 W, with a repetition frequency of 100 Hz and pulse duration of 100 s. Strongly negative plasma <span class="hlt">potentials</span> exceeding -300 V and <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields up to 10 kV m-1, caused by strong separation of charges with net charge carrier densities ?n of about 1014 m-3, were observed during the ignition of the discharge. The spatial distribution of the plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the stable stage of the discharge showed values consistently 5 V more negative for a floating substrate compared with a grounded one, so enhancing electron transport around the insulated substrate to grounded walls. However, this change in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> configuration of the plasma does not alter significantly the fraction of ionized sputtered particles (of about 30%) that can <span class="hlt">potentially</span> reach the substrate. By changing the degree of unbalance of the sputtering source, we find a strong correlation between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field strength in the magnetic trap (created through charge separation) and the absolute value (and shape) of the magnetic field. For the more unbalanced magnetron, a flattening of the plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> structure (decrease in the axial <span class="hlt">electric</span> field) was observed close to the target. Our findings show in principle that manipulation of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> barrier close to the target through changing the magnetic field can regulate the proportion of sputtered and ionized species reaching the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...88..389Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuMi...88..389Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells with applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hai</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A detailed investigation of the second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum wells under the influence of applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field by using the compact-density-matrix approach and the finite difference method. The results show that the second-harmonic generation susceptibility obtained in two cases can reach the magnitude of 10-4 m/V, which depend dramatically on the applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and the structural parameters. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4086387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4086387"><span id="translatedtitle">Derived evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> for continuous tones using a hybrid <span class="hlt">electrical</span>-acoustical stimulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aran, J M; Erre, J P; de Sauvage, R C</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Averaged VIIIth nerve and brainstem <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are recorded in normal guinea pigs in response to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the ear presented once without and once with a simultaneous masking continuous pure tone. The waveform difference yields a well synchronized 'derived signal' which is the response to the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of only the group of fibers masked by the pure tone. Study of very low frequency activation is a new possibility brought by this method which is efficient whatever the sound frequency. Pure tone thresholds obtained are similar to previous measurements. Response amplitudes are likely a measure of the number of fibers stimulated by the sounds. PMID:4086387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5137708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5137708"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> load monitoring to support a shared energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159437"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> load monitoring to support a shared energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number_sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83c3709K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83c3709K"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual frequency open-loop <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> microscopy for local <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements in electrolyte solution with high ionic strength</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Naritaka; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Recent development of open-loop <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> microscopy (OL-EPM) has enabled to measure local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution at a solid/liquid interface. However, the operating environment of OL-EPM has been limited to a weak electrolyte solution (<1 mM). This has significantly limited its application range in biology and chemistry. To overcome this limitation, we have developed dual frequency (DF) mode OL-EPM. In the method, an ac bias voltage consisting of two frequency components at f1 and f2 is applied between a tip and sample. The local <span class="hlt">potential</span> is calculated from the amplitudes of the f1 and |f1 - f2| components of the electrostatic force. In contrast to the conventional single frequency (SF) mode OL-EPM, the detection of the 2f1 component is not required in DF mode. Thus, the maximum bias modulation frequency in DF mode is twice as high as that in SF mode. The high bias modulation frequency used in DF mode prevents the generation of electrochemical reactions and redistribution of ions and water, which enables to operate OL-EPM even in a strong electrolyte solution. In this study, we have performed <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements of nanoparticles on a graphite surface in 1 and 10 mM NaCl solution. The results demonstrate that DF mode OL-EPM allows measurements of local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in 10 mM electrolyte solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhA.112..919P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhA.112..919P"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated in vitro durability testing of nonvascular Nitinol stents based on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D.; Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Amarjargal, Altangerel; Kim, Han Joo; Kim, Cheol Sang</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report an evaluation of the performance of a new stent durability tester based on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensing method through accelerated in vitro testing of six different nonvascular Nitinol stents simulating physiological conditions. The stents were subjected to a pulsatile loading of 33 Hz for a total of 62,726,400 cycles, at constant temperature and pressure of 350.5 C and 1204 mmHg, respectively. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of each stent was measured in real-time and monitored for any changes in readings. After conducting test-to-fracture tests, the stents were visually checked, and by scanning electron microscopy. A sudden <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop in the readings suggests a fracture has occurred, and the only two instances of fracture in our present results were correctly determined by our present device, with the fractures confirmed visually after the test. The excellent performance of our new method shows good <span class="hlt">potential</span> for a highly reliable and applicable in vitro durability testing for different kinds and sizes of metallic stents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6692869','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6692869"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of the literature on <span class="hlt">potential</span> reproductive and developmental toxicity of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chernoff, N.; Rogers, J.M.; Kavet, R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> and magnetic fields to adversely affect the health of the human population is an issue which continues to receive a great deal of attention in both public and scientific forums. One of the critical issues is the possibility that such fields may adversely affect the reproductive process. The studies are ordered in broad categories based upon both classification of the species studied (i.e. submammalian, mammalian exclusive of man, and human) and the agent used (i.e. extremely low frequency <span class="hlt">electric</span>, very low frequency <span class="hlt">electric</span>, and magnetic fields). From our review, we conclude that laboratory experimental and epidemiological results to date have not yielded conclusive data to support the contention that such fields induce adverse reproductive effects under the conditions studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JLTP..177...72Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JLTP..177...72Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Field on a Triangular Bound <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Quantum Dot Qubit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Ji-wen; Yu, Yi-fu; Li, Hong-juan</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>On the condition of electron-LO-phonon strong coupling in a triangular bound <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum dot, we obtain the eigenenergy and eigenfuctions of the ground state and the first-excited state by using the Pekar type of variational method. This two-level system in a quantum dot can be employed as a qubit, which is a basic unit for quantum information operation and storage. Our numerical results indicate that the oscillation period of this qubit is an increasing function of the confinement length and the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The influence of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field on the period of oscillation becomes greater when the confinement length is increased. The electron probability density of the qubit is an increasing function of the electron-LO-phonon coupling constant. On the contrary, it is a decreasing function of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. Meanwhile, the electron probability density varies periodically with the polar angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5013502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5013502"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> reductions in US CO/sub 2/ emissions in 1995 and 2010 by technology improvements in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation and transportation sectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheng, Hsing C.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>By combining the current most efficient energy technologies in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation and transportation sectors and their estimated market penetrations, the resultant possible fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the US in 1995 and 2010 were estimated. The improved technologies considered are either already commercially proven or are based on prototypes or advanced developments that could lead to commercialization in the near future. The baseline energy consumption projections based on the year-1985 energy technologies presently in practice were obtained from the reference case of the /open quotes/National Energy Policy Plan Projections to 2010/close quotes/ (NEPP 1985). Two technology scenarios, designated as low and high estimates, were constructed to reflect the relative expectations of the performance and the rate of deployment of improvednew technologies. The resulting scenario should be regarded neither as indicating the upper limit on the <span class="hlt">potential</span> reductions in the US CO/sub 2/ emissions nor as a forecast of what will happen. 10 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electric&pg=4&id=EJ830489','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electric&pg=4&id=EJ830489"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Effects of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Fields and <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> on Electron Motion: An Introduction to Theoretical and Practical Aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Matteucci, G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the so-called <span class="hlt">electric</span> Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electrons&pg=7&id=EJ830489','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electrons&pg=7&id=EJ830489"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Effects of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Fields and <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> on Electron Motion: An Introduction to Theoretical and Practical Aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Matteucci, G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the so-called <span class="hlt">electric</span> Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531234','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531234"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-of-illness analysis reveals <span class="hlt">potential</span> healthcare <span class="hlt">savings</span> with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the <span class="hlt">potential</span> annual <span class="hlt">savings</span> in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related <span class="hlt">savings</span> of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million <span class="hlt">savings</span> for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million <span class="hlt">savings</span> for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID:26321953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3170283','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3170283"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of Direct Antiretroviral Treatment Costs and <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Cost <span class="hlt">Savings</span> by Using Generics in the German HIV ClinSurv Cohort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stoll, Matthias; Kollan, Christian; Bergmann, Frank; Bogner, Johannes; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Fritzsche, Carlos; Hoeper, Kirsten; Horst, Heinz-August; van Lunzen, Jan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Reuter, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jrgen; Stellbrink, Hans-Jrgen; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background/Aim of the Study The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART,-regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop <span class="hlt">potential</span> cost <span class="hlt">saving</span> strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. Methods Antiretroviral regimens (ART) from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART,-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC)-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. Results During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of 812,877,356 were determined according to an average of 42.08 per day (7.52 to 217.70). Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> for cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative <span class="hlt">savings</span> of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively). Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed <span class="hlt">potential</span> cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> of between 1.6% and 31.8%. Conclusions Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research and will give insights into the cost impacts of antiretroviral therapy, and might allow a more rational allocation of resources within the German health care system. PMID:21931626</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/835703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/835703"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile in rabbit ileum: role of rheogenic Na transport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rose, R C; Nahrwold, D L; Koch, M J</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of rabbit ileum was investigated in vitro with the microelectrode technique. The transmural <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (PD), designated psims, was immediately reduced by 60% upon cooling the tissue from 37 to 7 degrees C; the PD across the mucosal membrane (transmucosal PD, psimc) was simultaneously reduced by 37%. These <span class="hlt">electrical</span> changes could not be attributed to alternations in either transmembrane ion concentration gradients or total tissue conductance. The psimc and psims may have substantial values even after the concentration gradients of Na and K across the cell membane are eliminated, provided that active transport mechanisms are still operative. Conversely, in the presence of approximately normal transmembrane ion concentration gradients, but when active transport mechanisms have been inhibited. psimc is reduced by 45% and psims is zero. These observations are consistent with a model of electrolyte transport in which psims and the normal transmembrane cation concentration gradients are established by rheogenic active transport of Na out of the cell. The psimc is generated both by rheogenic active Na transport and by cation concentration gradients which exist across the cell membrane. The Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing model (Acta Physiol. Scand., 1958, vol. 42, p. 298) of electrolyte transport by epithelial cells does not adequately describe the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties of ileum. PMID:835703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9429E..1LD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9429E..1LD"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of <span class="hlt">electric</span> properties of bone compared to cement: streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and piezoelectirc properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dry, Carolyn</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Bone is a material after which to model construction materials for many reasons, including its great strength, toughness, and adaptability. This paper focuses on bone's intrinsic ability to adapt to its environment, namely loading conditions. Research on bone's <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties reveals that two phenomena occur in bone to allow it to adapt to environmental changes; they are the inherent piezoelectric property of bone and the streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> of bone [1]. Together they create charge differences that attract ions to specific regions of the bone, namely those under greatest stress, in order to build up the region to handle the applied load. Research on the utilization of these properties in cement in order to increase adaptability was studied along with 1) the inherent <span class="hlt">electric</span> properties of the cement itself and 2) considered the introduction of a different polymer or ceramic within the cement to impart piezoelectricity and streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21049448','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21049448"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Approach for Response of Infinite Periodic Systems to <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kirtman, Bernard; Springborg, Michael</p> <p>2007-12-26</p> <p>A detailed study of the vector <span class="hlt">potential</span> approach (VPA) for the response of periodic systems to a finite <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is carried out using a parameterized model self-consistent field (SCF) polymer Hamiltonian. Specific issues discussed include 'smoothing' of crystal orbitals, convergence and accuracy of SCF solutions as a function of field and number of k points, Zener tunneling, field-dependent band structure, determination of (non)linear susceptibilities, and nuclear relaxation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22225151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22225151"><span id="translatedtitle">Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Cost <span class="hlt">Savings</span> at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067358"><span id="translatedtitle">Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Cost <span class="hlt">Savings</span> At The Defense Waste Processing Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.</p> <p>2013-01-09</p> <p>At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414743"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus frequency during self-paced exercise and recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G; Jensen, Jørgen; Millet, Guillaume Y; Noakes, Timothy David</p> <p>2014-09-29</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> on stimulation-induced muscle function during and after an intense bout of self-paced dynamic exercise. Ten active subjects performed a time trial involving repetitive concentric extension-flexion of the right knee using a Biodex dynamometer. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation before and after a 5 s maximal isometric voluntary contraction was performed before the start of the time trial and immediately (< 5 s) after each 20% of the time trial as well as 1, 2, 4 and 8 min after time trial termination. <span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> was observed before the time trial and as early as 1-2 min after the time trial, but no <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> was detected during or immediately after the time trial for neither single or paired stimuli. At termination of the time trial, "<span class="hlt">potentiated</span>" peak torque was significantly more reduced than "unpotentiated" peak torque for single stimulus (-65 ± 10% and -42 ± 18%, respectively) and paired stimuli at 100 Hz (-51 ± 10% and -33 ± 15%, respectively). Faster recovery for "<span class="hlt">potentiated</span>" compared to "unpotentiated" peak torque indicate that <span class="hlt">potentiate</span> peak torque measurements or delay the post-exercise measurements more than a few seconds, will underestimate peripheral fatigue. In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> after maximal contraction disappears during intense exercise. Whether the muscle is already <span class="hlt">potentiated</span> during intense contraction or fatiguing mechanisms inhibits <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> remains to be clarified. PMID:25414743</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JAP....57.2640B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JAP....57.2640B"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produced by frog heart muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burstein, Deborah; Cohen, David</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>A comparison is made here between the magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produced by a thin strip of frog heart muscle. An experimental test is made of the theory which states that the wave front of a single fiber (or parallel bundle of fibers as in this strip) can be represented, for both the magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, by the same single-current dipole. First, an experimental measurement is made of the ratio of magnetic field/<span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> produced by an actual current dipole in an electrolytic tank. Then the dipole is replaced by the muscle strip and a measurement is again made of the ratio; this is done for three muscle strips at eight different source-to-detector distances ranging from 1 to 5 cm. It is found, in all cases, that the muscle ratios are equal to those of the actual dipole to within the experimental uncertainty of ±10%. Therefore, to this extent the theory is verified for this case of a thin strip of frog heart tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARZ26003J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARZ26003J"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of Macroions between the Limits of Small Ions and Charged Nanocolloids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Y. Elaine</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of macroions in the size of 1-10 nm in aqueous solutions is critical to understand the supramolecular assembly involving biomacromolecules, charged nanoparticles and nanoclusters and their resulting material properties. However, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of these macroions could not be accurately determined because their sizes fall in between the limits of small ions and plain charged nanocolloids, while solving the non-linear Possion-Boltzmann equation remains a grand challenge to date. In this work, we investigate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with 8 amine terminal groups as a model macroion. We employ a single molecule fluorescence technique, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), combined with photon counting histogram (PCH) to quantitatively measure the local proton concentration, which is the local co-ion concentration in vicinity of POSS with 1.5 nm in diameter. By changing the ionic strength of aqueous solution and the distance between pH-sensitive fluorescence probe and POSS, we quantitatively determine the proton concentration gradient. The distance dependent local pH can be simply analyzed to obtain the surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the POSS macroion without the necessity to solve the non-linear Possion-Boltzmann equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26242755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26242755"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Retrieval of Living Microorganisms from Cryopreserved Marine Sponges Using a <span class="hlt">Potential</span>-Controlled Electrode.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koyama, Sumihiro; Nishi, Shinro; Tokuda, Maki; Uemura, Moeka; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Seya, Takeshi; Chow, Seinen; Ise, Yuji; Hatada, Yuji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop a novel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> retrieval method (ER method) for living sponge-associated microorganisms from marine sponges frozen at -80 C. A -0.3-V vs. Ag/AgCl constant <span class="hlt">potential</span> applied for 2 h at 9 C induced the attachment of the sponge-associated microorganisms to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) or a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass (GZO) working electrode. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> attached microorganisms from homogenized Spirastrella insignis tissues had intact cell membranes and showed intracellular dehydrogenase activity. Dead microorganisms were not attracted to the electrode when the homogenized tissues were autoclaved for 15 min at 121 C before use. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> attached microorganisms included cultivable microorganisms retrieved after detachment from the electrode by application of a 9-MHz sine-wave <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Using the ER method, we obtained 32 phyla and 72 classes of bacteria and 3 archaea of Crenarchaeota thermoprotei, Marine Group I, and Thaumarchaeota incertae sedis from marine sponges S. insignis and Callyspongia confoederata. Employment of the ER method for extraction and purification of the living microorganisms holds <span class="hlt">potential</span> of single-cell cultivation for genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses of bioactive compounds producing sponge-associated microorganisms. PMID:26242755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423449','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423449"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of multiple gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> wave fronts using <span class="hlt">potential</span> based inverse methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, J HK; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One approach, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stomach model were used to simulate <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method was further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (Correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; Pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method. PMID:22842812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........94B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........94B"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Household Travel: Methodological and Empirical Considerations of Vehicle Capability Constraints and Multi-day Activity Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolon, Kevin M.</p> <p></p> <p>The lack of multi-day data for household travel and vehicle capability requirements is an impediment to evaluations of energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> strategies, since (1) travel requirements vary from day-to-day, and (2) energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> transportation options often have reduced capability. This work demonstrates a survey methodology and modeling system for evaluating the energy-<span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of household travel, considering multi-day travel requirements and capability constraints imposed by the available transportation resources. A stochastic scheduling model is introduced---the multi-day Household Activity Schedule Estimator (mPHASE)---which generates synthetic daily schedules based on "fuzzy" descriptions of activity characteristics using a finite-element representation of activity flexibility, coordination among household members, and scheduling conflict resolution. Results of a thirty-household pilot study are presented in which responses to an interactive computer assisted personal interview were used as inputs to the mPHASE model in order to illustrate the feasibility of generating complex, realistic multi-day household schedules. Study vehicles were equipped with digital cameras and GPS data acquisition equipment to validate the model results. The synthetically generated schedules captured an average of 60 percent of household travel distance, and exhibited many of the characteristics of complex household travel, including day-to-day travel variation, and schedule coordination among household members. Future advances in the methodology may improve the model results, such as encouraging more detailed and accurate responses by providing a selection of generated schedules during the interview. Finally, the Constraints-based Transportation Resource Assignment Model (CTRAM) is introduced. Using an enumerative optimization approach, CTRAM determines the energy-minimizing vehicle-to-trip assignment decisions, considering trip schedules, occupancy, and vehicle capability. Designed to accept either actual or synthetic schedules, results of an application of the optimization model to the 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey data show that U.S. households can reduce energy use by 10 percent, on average, by modifying the assignment of existing vehicles to trips. Households in 2009 show a higher tendency to assign vehicles optimally than in 2001, and multi-vehicle households with diverse fleets have greater <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, indicating that fleet modification strategies may be effective, particularly under higher energy price conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/reports/smartmetering/pdf/assessment.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/reports/smartmetering/pdf/assessment.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Interval Data and Their <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Application to Residential <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> End-Use Modeling, An</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is investigating the <span class="hlt">potential</span> benefits of incorporating interval <span class="hlt">electricity</span> data into its residential energy end use models. This includes interval smart meter and submeter data from utility assets and systems. It is expected that these data will play a significant role in informing residential energy efficiency policies in the future. Therefore, a long-term strategy for improving the RECS end-use models will not be complete without an investigation of the current state of affairs of submeter data, including their <span class="hlt">potential</span> for use in the context of residential building energy modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441951"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effect of the initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation in microbial fuel cell].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Ming-Zhi; Liang, Peng; Cao, Xiao-Xin; Huang, Xia</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) was changed by additional circuit in the anode chamber, and the influence of the initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the electricigens was studied. When the initial anode <span class="hlt">potential</span> was 350 mV (vs Hg/Hg2 Cl2), the growth of microorganisms was much slower than that of the microorganisms which grew on the anode with an initial <span class="hlt">potential</span> of -200 mV or 200 mV (vs Hg/Hg2 Cl2). After stable <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation, the anode resistances of the three MFCs, which had initial anode <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of 350 mV, 200 mV and -200 mV respectively, were 71 Omega, 43 Omega and 80 Omega. The community structures in MFCs, before and after the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation, were also studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Clostridium sticklandii, Pseudomonas mendocina and Paenibacillus taejonensis were the three most enriched strains on the anode. PMID:18441951</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872654"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the cost-<span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the Military - Civilian Health Services Partnership Program in the nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay services at Ireland Army Community Hospital, Fort Knox, Kentucky. Master's thesis, July 1987-July 1988</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Amon, T.M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Using workload data for Calendar Year 1987, a cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> analysis was performed on the following three options (involving the Nuclear Medicine Department at Ireland Army Community Hospital); (1) Elimination of Radioimmunoassay Internal Service, (2) Civilian Military Health Service Partnership Program and (3) Fixed price contract for Nuclear Medicine Services. This study revealed the Civilian-Military Health Services Partnership Program would <span class="hlt">potentially</span> generate the greatest cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> and recommended that it be implemented in other areas throughout the Army Medical Department.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LatJP..45...26A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LatJP..45...26A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> of <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Generation on the Western Coast of Mediterranean Sea in Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed Shata, A. S.; Abdelaty, S. M.; Hanitsch, R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A technical and economic assessment has been made of the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation by wind turbines located at three promising <span class="hlt">potential</span> wind sites: Sidi Barrani, Mersa Matruh and El Dabaa in the extreme northwest of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. These contiguous stations along the coast have an annual mean wind speed greater than 5.0 m/s at a height of 10 m. Weibull's parameters and the power law coefficient for all seasons have been estimated and used to describe the distribution and behavior of seasonal winds at these stations. The annual values of wind <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the heights of 70-100 m above the ground level were obtained by extrapolation of the 10 m data from the results of our previous work using the power law. The three stations have a high wind power density, ranging from 340-425 to 450-555 W/m2 at the heights of 70-100 m, respectively. In this paper, an analysis of the cost per kWh of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generated by two different systems has been made: one using a relatively large single 2 MW wind turbine and the other - 25 small wind turbines (80 kW, total 2 MW) arranged in a wind farm. The yearly energy output of each system at each site was determined, and the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation costs in each case were also calculated and compared with those at using diesel oil, natural gas and photovoltaic systems furnished by the Egyptian <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Authority. The single 2 MW wind turbine was found to be more efficient than the wind farm. For all the three considered stations the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> production cost was found to be less than 2 ? cent/kWh, which is about half the specific cost of the wind farm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891539','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891539"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiling the Built-in <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in III-V Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C.-S.; Friedman, D. J.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We report on a direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on cross-sections of GaInP2/GaAs multiple-junction solar cells by using an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning Kelvin probe microscope (UHV-SKPM). The UHV-SKPM allows us to measure the <span class="hlt">potential</span> without air molecules being adsorbed on the cross-sectional surface. Moreover, it uses a GaAs laser with photon energy of 1.4 eV for the atomic force microscope (AFM) operation. This eliminated the light-absorption-induced bottom-junction flattening and top-junction enhancement, which happened in our previous <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement using a 1.85-eV laser for the AFM operation. Three <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were measured at the top, tunneling, and bottom junctions. Values of the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are smaller than the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the bulk. This indicates that the Fermi level on the UHV-cleaved (110) surface was pinned, presumably due to defects upon cleaving. We also observed higher <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at atomic steps than on the terraces for both GaInP2 epitaxial layer and GaAs substrate. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and SKPM measurements, we found that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> height at steps of the GaAs substrate depends on the step direction, which is probably a direct result of unbalanced cations and anions at the steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/943989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/943989"><span id="translatedtitle">Profiling the Built-In <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> in III-V Multijunction Solar Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, C.-S.; Friedman, D. J.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We report on a direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on cross-sections of GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs multiple-junction solar cells by using an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning Kelvin probe microscope (UHV-SKPM). The UHV-SKPM allows us to measure the <span class="hlt">potential</span> without air molecules being adsorbed on the cross-sectional surface. Moreover, it uses a GaAs laser with photon energy of 1.4 eV for the atomic force microscope (AFM) operation. This eliminated the light-absorption-induced bottom-junction flattening and top-junction enhancement, which happened in our previous <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurement using a 1.85-eV laser for the AFM operation. Three <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were measured at the top, tunneling, and bottom junctions. Values of the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are smaller than the <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the bulk. This indicates that the Fermi level on the UHV-cleaved (110) surface was pinned, presumably due to defects upon cleaving. We also observed higher <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at atomic steps than on the terraces for both GaInP2 epitaxial layer and GaAs substrate. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and SKPM measurements, we found that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> height at steps of the GaAs substrate depends on the step direction, which is probably a direct result of unbalanced cations and anions at the steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3807258','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3807258"><span id="translatedtitle">VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> and generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to achieve energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. This smart window combines energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> and generation in one device, and offers <span class="hlt">potential</span> to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24157625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24157625"><span id="translatedtitle">VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> and generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to achieve energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation. This smart window combines energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> and generation in one device, and offers <span class="hlt">potential</span> to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206937"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> impacts of the Energy Policy Act on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and natural gas provider fleets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vyas, A.D.; Wang, M.Q.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Section 501 of the 1992 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPACT) mandates that alternative-fuel providers who may sell such fuels for transportation uses acquire alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs). The <span class="hlt">potential</span> impacts of this mandate on the two largest groups of alternative-fuel providers--<span class="hlt">electricity</span> and natural gas (NG) providers--are presented. Nationwide, 166 <span class="hlt">electric</span>-only utility companies, 127 NG-only utility companies, and 55 dual-utility companies will be covered by EPACT. Together, these companies own/operate nearly 122,000 light-duty vehicles in the EPACT-defined metropolitan areas. Some 63 natural gas producers and transporters, which have 9700 light-duty vehicles, are also covered. We project that covered fuel providers will purchase 2710 AFVs in 1996 and 13, 650 AFVs by 2001. We estimate that natural gas companies already have 19.4% of their existing light-duty vehicle stocks as AFVs, dual companies have 10.0%, natural gas producers and transporters have 7. 0%, and <span class="hlt">electric</span> companies have only 1.6%. If the existing AFVs count toward meeting the Section 501 requirements, NG providers (NG utilities, dual utilities, and NG producers and transporters) will need to make little additional effort, but <span class="hlt">electric</span> companies will have to make substantial commitments to meet the requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15925196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15925196"><span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular evoked myogenic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> induced by intraoperative <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the human inferior vestibular nerve.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basta, D; Todt, I; Eisenschenk, A; Ernst, A</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Vestibular evoked myogenic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (VEMPs) can be recorded from sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to investigate VEMPs upon direct <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the human inferior vestibular nerve to evidence the vestibulocollic reflex arch and their saccular origin, respectively. Seven subjects were stimulated at the inferior (IVN) and superior (SVN) vestibular nerve. The EMG signals of the SCM were recorded. These recordings were compared to air- and bone-conduction evoked VEMPs with respect to latency and shape. All subjects showed normal VEMPs upon acoustic stimulation with a latency of 12.8+/-1.4 ms for P13, and 22.7+/-2.0 ms for the N23 pre-operatively. Upon direct <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the IVN, the mean latency of the positive peak was 9.1+/-2.2 and 13.2+/-2.3 ms for the negative one. No contralateral SCM response was found. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation of the SVN did not result in any EMG response of the SCM. The study shows experimental evidence of the vestibulocollic reflex by direct <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the human IVN for the first time. The method can be utilized to map VIIIth nerve subdivisions and to intraoperatively monitor IVN integrity in a real-time mode. PMID:15925196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54b1504S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54b1504S"><span id="translatedtitle">New porous medium Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for strongly oscillating <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmuck, M.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We consider the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system which is well-accepted for describing dilute electrolytes as well as transport of charged species in homogeneous environments. Here, we study these equations in porous media whose <span class="hlt">electric</span> permittivities show a strong contrast compared with the <span class="hlt">electric</span> permittivity of the electrolyte phase. Our main result is the derivation of convenient low-dimensional equations, that is, of effective macroscopic porous media Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, which reliably describe ionic transport. The contrast in the <span class="hlt">electric</span> permittivities between liquid and solid phase and the heterogeneity of the porous medium induce strongly oscillating <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (fields). In order to account for this specific physical scenario, we introduce a modified asymptotic multiple-scale expansion which takes advantage of the nonlinearly coupled structure of the ionic transport equations. This allows for a systematic upscaling resulting in a new effective porous medium formulation which shows a new transport term on the macroscale. Solvability of all arising equations is rigorously verified. The emergence of a new transport term indicates promising physical insights into the influence of the microscale material properties on the macroscale. Hence, systematic upscaling strategies provide a source and a prospective tool to capitalize intrinsic scale effects for scientific, engineering, and industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6502225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6502225"><span id="translatedtitle">(Assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of Yunnan Province, China to grow and convert biomass to <span class="hlt">electricity</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perlack, R.D.</p> <p>1990-10-15</p> <p>The purpose of the trip was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of biomass energy development in Yunnan Province, China. The evaluation included an assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to grow and convert biomass to <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, and an evaluation of the institutional relationships, which would be critical to the establishment of a collaborative biomass energy development project. This site visit was undertaken to evaluate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of an integrated biomass energy project, including the growing and handling of biomass feedstocks and its conversion to <span class="hlt">electricity</span>. Based on this site visit, it was concluded that biomass production risks are real and further research on species screening and experiments is necessary before proceeding to the conversion phase of this project. The location of <span class="hlt">potential</span> sites inspected and the logistics required for handling and transporting biomass may also be a concern. The commitment of support (labor and land) and leadership to this project by the Chinese is overwhelming exceeding all pre-site visit expectations. In sum, there is a definite opportunity in Yunnan for an integrated biomass energy project and a <span class="hlt">potential</span> market for US technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR41B..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR41B..01L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Observed During Frictional Stick-Slip - A Semiconductor Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leeman, J.; Scuderi, M.; Marone, C.; Saffer, D. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Electromagnetic phenomena are commonly reported during and after large earthquakes. Various lines of evidence including charring of plant roots, magnetic remnant signatures in pseudotachylite, and visible earthquake lights indicate a strong <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> separation during co-seismic rupture. Suggested explanations have included triboelectricity, piezoelectricity, and streaming <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The 'semiconductor effect', or migration of electron holes, has been proposed as an alternative explanation and studied extensively in solids. We present evidence of a similar migration effect in a granular material that exhibits repeated frictional stick-slip events under a variety of conditions. Soda-lime glass beads were sheared in a double-direct shear configuration in a biaxial loading frame. Glass beads exhibit consistent, repetitive stick-slip and rate/state friction effects that are similar to rock. Layers of 5 mm thickness were sheared under a constant normal load of 4MPa, at load point velocities of 1, 30, and 100 μm/s. This was done for mono-disperse particle size distributions of 100-150 μm and 420-500 μm. Tests were conducted at room humidity, at 100% humidity, and under submerged conditions. During shearing, the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the surface was monitored relative to the system ground with a non-contact electrostatic volt meter (ESVM) manufactured by Trek Incorporated. During stick-slip events, we observe <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> anomalies that appear to be related to failure of force chains supporting the shear load. Two distinct types of behavior are delineated by the attainment of steady state frictional sliding. In the pre-steady state phase, as shear stress is increasing, layers are observed to charge during stick-slip and the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the entire system rises. When shear stress rises to the level of steady state frictional sliding, the system begins to discharge, with superimposed anomalies characterized by <span class="hlt">potential</span> drops of several volts that coincide with stick-slip failure. This behavior is consistent at both 1 and 30 μm/s loading velocity. At a load point velocity of 100μm/s, the anomalies exhibit sharp <span class="hlt">potential</span> spikes on the order of 20 volts coincident with stick slip failure events with gradual charging between events. Experiments conducted under 100% humidity and submerged conditions showed no associated <span class="hlt">electrical</span> anomalies. We interpret that the observed signal is a convolution of two effects: charging of the forcing blocks and anomalies associated with the stress state of the material. Charging of the blocks is accomplished by grain movement along the boundaries during initial arrangement of force chain networks. Anomalies associated with the material originate from electron holes produced when peroxy links are broken. The defects then propagate away from stressed regions during loading, separating charge. A return current results in a <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop as a semi-homogeneous stress state is attained after failure of the force chain network. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> anomalies during material failure could <span class="hlt">potentially</span> be used to remotely monitor stress states and cracking during the inter-seismic stage of the seismic cycle. <span class="hlt">Potential</span> changes could result in detectable low-frequency signals that may signal the early stages of failure, providing a modest warning of the event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029407"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages: Existing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casey, S.; Booten, C.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>This document presents the most cost effective Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all <span class="hlt">electric</span> homes to achieve 15% and 30% <span class="hlt">savings</span> for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> are typically found between 30% and 50% energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual <span class="hlt">savings</span> varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4234774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4234774"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Stimulus Frequency During Self-Paced Exercise and Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Jensen, Jørgen; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> on stimulation-induced muscle function during and after an intense bout of self-paced dynamic exercise. Ten active subjects performed a time trial involving repetitive concentric extension-flexion of the right knee using a Biodex dynamometer. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation before and after a 5 s maximal isometric voluntary contraction was performed before the start of the time trial and immediately (< 5 s) after each 20% of the time trial as well as 1, 2, 4 and 8 min after time trial termination. <span class="hlt">Potentiation</span> was observed before the time trial and as early as 1–2 min after the time trial, but no <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> was detected during or immediately after the time trial for neither single or paired stimuli. At termination of the time trial, “potentiated” peak torque was significantly more reduced than “unpotentiated” peak torque for single stimulus (−65 ± 10% and −42 ± 18%, respectively) and paired stimuli at 100 Hz (−51 ± 10% and −33 ± 15%, respectively). Faster recovery for “potentiated” compared to “unpotentiated” peak torque indicate that <span class="hlt">potentiate</span> peak torque measurements or delay the post-exercise measurements more than a few seconds, will underestimate peripheral fatigue. In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> after maximal contraction disappears during intense exercise. Whether the muscle is already <span class="hlt">potentiated</span> during intense contraction or fatiguing mechanisms inhibits <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> remains to be clarified. PMID:25414743</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366944','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366944"><span id="translatedtitle">Stabilization of Double Layer of Radial <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span>, Strongly Damping Turbulence, by Poloidal Chain of Narrow Magnetic Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maslov, V. I.; Porcelli, F.</p> <p>2010-06-16</p> <p>The reasons that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> field can be concentrated on radius are considered. It is shown that due to ion accumulation in magnetic islands, large core plasma density, and strong anomalous transport in peripheral region the radial distribution of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> field can be narrow. At small ion accumulation the double layer type of radial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution can be formed. At large ion accumulation in the case of collisionless plasma electrons the solitary hump-type of radial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution can be formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255197"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersion <span class="hlt">potential</span> between three-bodies with arbitrary <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole polarizabilities: Molecular QED theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salam, A.</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>Molecular quantum electrodynamics is used to obtain an expression for the retarded dispersion energy shift between three arbitrarily <span class="hlt">electrically</span> polarizable atoms or molecules. A generalized Craig-Power Hamiltonian that depends quadratically on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> displacement field is employed together with third-order diagrammatic perturbation theory. This approach simplifies the calculation relative to the use of the usual multipolar coupling Hamiltonian that is linear in the displacement field. Specific higher multipole non-additive contributions are then extracted. These include dipole-dipole-quadrupole, dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole, and dipole-dipole-octupole <span class="hlt">potentials</span> valid for oriented and isotropic species with arbitrary separation distances between particles, extending recent work in which these energy shifts were given for equilateral triangle and collinear geometries. Near-zone limiting forms are found to agree with earlier works in which static inter-particle couplings were used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669509"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersion <span class="hlt">potential</span> between three-bodies with arbitrary <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole polarizabilities: molecular QED theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salam, A</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>Molecular quantum electrodynamics is used to obtain an expression for the retarded dispersion energy shift between three arbitrarily <span class="hlt">electrically</span> polarizable atoms or molecules. A generalized Craig-Power Hamiltonian that depends quadratically on the <span class="hlt">electric</span> displacement field is employed together with third-order diagrammatic perturbation theory. This approach simplifies the calculation relative to the use of the usual multipolar coupling Hamiltonian that is linear in the displacement field. Specific higher multipole non-additive contributions are then extracted. These include dipole-dipole-quadrupole, dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole, and dipole-dipole-octupole <span class="hlt">potentials</span> valid for oriented and isotropic species with arbitrary separation distances between particles, extending recent work in which these energy shifts were given for equilateral triangle and collinear geometries. Near-zone limiting forms are found to agree with earlier works in which static inter-particle couplings were used. PMID:25669509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/932632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/932632"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Vehicles on Regional Power Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Plug-in hybrid <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid <span class="hlt">electricity</span> is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new <span class="hlt">electric</span> capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">potential</span> impacts of PHEVs on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical <span class="hlt">electricity</span> sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little <span class="hlt">potential</span> to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4120355','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4120355"><span id="translatedtitle">Lateral Geniculate Body Evoked <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Elicited by Visual and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Stimulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Choi, Chang Wook; Kim, Pan Sang; Shin, Sun Ae; Yang, Ji Yeon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Blind individuals who have photoreceptor loss are known to perceive phosphenes with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of their remaining retinal ganglion cells. We proposed that implantable lateral geniculate body (LGB) stimulus electrode arrays could be used to generate phosphene vision. We attempted to refine the basic reference of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (EEPs) elicited by microelectrical stimulations of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB of a domestic pig, and then compared it to visual evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (VEPs) elicited by short-flash stimuli. Methods For visual function measurement, VEPs in response to short-flash stimuli on the left eye of the domestic pig were assessed over the visual cortex at position Oz with the reference electrode at Fz. After anesthesia, linearly configured platinum wire electrodes were inserted into the optic nerve, optic track and LGB. To determine the optimal stimulus current, EEPs were recorded repeatedly with controlling the pulse and power. The threshold of current and charge density to elicit EEPs at 0.3 ms pulse duration was about 10 A. Results Our experimental results showed that visual cortex activity can be effectively evoked by stimulation of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB using penetrating electrodes. The latency of P1 was more shortened as the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation was closer to LGB. The EEPs of two-channel in the visual cortex demonstrated a similar pattern with stimulation of different spots of the stimulating electrodes. We found that the LGB-stimulated EEP pattern was very similar to the simultaneously generated VEP on the control side, although implicit time deferred. Conclusions EEPs and VEPs derived from visual-system stimulation were compared. The LGB-stimulated EEP wave demonstrated a similar pattern to the VEP waveform except implicit time, indicating prosthetic-based <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the LGB could be utilized for the blind to perceive vision of phosphenes. PMID:25120343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728774"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling on ionic current and synaptic <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabbah, Pascale; Golowasch, Jorge; Nadim, Farzan</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Recent studies have found <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling to be more ubiquitous than previously thought, and coupling through gap junctions is known to play a crucial role in neuronal function and network output. In particular, current spread through gap junctions may affect the activation of voltage-dependent conductances as well as chemical synaptic release. Using voltage-clamp recordings of two strongly <span class="hlt">electrically</span> coupled neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion and conductance-based models of these neurons, we identified effects of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling on the measurement of leak and voltage-gated outward currents, as well as synaptic <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. Experimental measurements showed that both leak and voltage-gated outward currents are recruited by gap junctions from neurons coupled to the clamped cell. Nevertheless, in spite of the strong coupling between these neurons, the errors made in estimating voltage-gated conductance parameters were relatively minor (<10%). Thus in many cases isolation of coupled neurons may not be required if a small degree of measurement error of the voltage-gated currents or the synaptic <span class="hlt">potentials</span> is acceptable. Modeling results show, however, that such errors may be as high as 20% if the gap-junction position is near the recording site or as high as 90% when measuring smaller voltage-gated ionic currents. Paradoxically, improved space clamp increases the errors arising from <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling because voltage control across gap junctions is poor for even the highest realistic coupling conductances. Furthermore, the common procedure of leak subtraction can add an extra error to the conductance measurement, the sign of which depends on the maximal conductance. PMID:15728774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958296','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958296"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of the Through-the-Thickness <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> of a Piezoelectric Bimorph Using the Spectral Element Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Xingjian; Peng, Zhike; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An efficient spectral element (SE) with <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to investigate the static electromechanical responses of a piezoelectric bimorph for its actuator and sensor functions. A sublayer model based on the piecewise linear approximation for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is used to describe the nonlinear distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> through the thickness of the piezoelectric layers. An equivalent single layer (ESL) model based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to describe the displacement field. The Legendre orthogonal polynomials of order 5 are used in the element interpolation functions. The validity and the capability of the present SE model for investigation of global and local responses of the piezoelectric bimorph are confirmed by comparing the present solutions with those obtained from coupled 3-D finite element (FE) analysis. It is shown that, without introducing any higher-order <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> assumptions, the current method can accurately describe the distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across the thickness even for a rather thick bimorph. It is revealed that the effect of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is significant when the bimorph is used as sensor while the effect is insignificant when the bimorph is used as actuator, and therefore, the present study may provide a better understanding of the nonlinear induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for bimorph sensor and actuator. PMID:24561399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561399"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of the through-the-thickness <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of a piezoelectric bimorph using the spectral element method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Xingjian; Peng, Zhike; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An efficient spectral element (SE) with <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to investigate the static electromechanical responses of a piezoelectric bimorph for its actuator and sensor functions. A sublayer model based on the piecewise linear approximation for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is used to describe the nonlinear distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> through the thickness of the piezoelectric layers. An equivalent single layer (ESL) model based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to describe the displacement field. The Legendre orthogonal polynomials of order 5 are used in the element interpolation functions. The validity and the capability of the present SE model for investigation of global and local responses of the piezoelectric bimorph are confirmed by comparing the present solutions with those obtained from coupled 3-D finite element (FE) analysis. It is shown that, without introducing any higher-order <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> assumptions, the current method can accurately describe the distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across the thickness even for a rather thick bimorph. It is revealed that the effect of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is significant when the bimorph is used as sensor while the effect is insignificant when the bimorph is used as actuator, and therefore, the present study may provide a better understanding of the nonlinear induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for bimorph sensor and actuator. PMID:24561399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24387397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24387397"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of a spherical soft particle with a charged core.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phan, Anh D; Tracy, Dustin A; Nguyen, T L Hoai; Viet, N A; Phan, The-Long; Nguyen, Thanh H</p> <p>2013-12-28</p> <p>The electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of a spherical soft particle is derived by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations on a spherical system both numerically and analytically. The soft particle is assumed to consist of an ion-permeable charged outer layer and a non-permeable charged core with constant charged density. The contribution of the core to the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile is calculated for different charges and dielectric constants. Our results show that the charged core heavily influences the local <span class="hlt">potential</span> within the soft particle. By contrast, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution outside the particle in the salt solution is found to be weakly dependent on the core features. These findings are consistent with previous experiments showing the minor impact of the core of the MS2 virus on its overall <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties. Our studies also indicate that while a change in temperature from 290 K to 310 K only slightly varies the <span class="hlt">potential</span>, the ionic strength in the range of 1-600 mM has a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile. Our studies would provide good understanding for experimental research in the field of biophysics and nanomedicine. PMID:24387397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139x4908P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139x4908P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of a spherical soft particle with a charged core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phan, Anh D.; Tracy, Dustin A.; Nguyen, T. L. Hoai; Viet, N. A.; Phan, The-Long; Nguyen, Thanh H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile of a spherical soft particle is derived by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations on a spherical system both numerically and analytically. The soft particle is assumed to consist of an ion-permeable charged outer layer and a non-permeable charged core with constant charged density. The contribution of the core to the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile is calculated for different charges and dielectric constants. Our results show that the charged core heavily influences the local <span class="hlt">potential</span> within the soft particle. By contrast, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution outside the particle in the salt solution is found to be weakly dependent on the core features. These findings are consistent with previous experiments showing the minor impact of the core of the MS2 virus on its overall <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties. Our studies also indicate that while a change in temperature from 290 K to 310 K only slightly varies the <span class="hlt">potential</span>, the ionic strength in the range of 1-600 mM has a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile. Our studies would provide good understanding for experimental research in the field of biophysics and nanomedicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556264"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> from photosystem I reaction centers in lipid vesicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pennisi, C P; Greenbaum, E; Yoshida, K</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic reaction centers are integral membrane complexes that produce a net transmembrane charge separation in response to light. The Photosystem I (PSI) complex is a thoroughly studied reaction center that has been proposed as a nanoscale photovoltaic structure in diverse applications, including activation of excitable cells by triggering of voltage-gated ion channels. An electrostatic model of a spherical lipid vesicle embedded with PSI and suspended in an aqueous medium is presented. The distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is obtained by solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with the finite-element method. The model predicts a maximum <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference of 1.3 V between charges. This value depends mostly on the intrinsic dielectric constants of the reaction center and distance between charges. However, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution near the reaction center depends on the ionic strength of the aqueous medium. When the ionic strength is zero, the vesicle develops a transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> that increases linearly with the density of reaction centers. When the ionic strength increases, this <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference approaches to zero. The main results of the simulations are consistent with previously reported experimental data. Based on the presented results, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> application of PSI to light activation of voltage-gated ion channels is discussed. PMID:18556264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456453"><span id="translatedtitle">Polymer adsorption and electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of dispersed particles in weak and strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barany, Sandor</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A review on the effects of adsorbed non-ionic polymers and polyelectrolytes on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles is given. The variety of changes in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer (EDL) structure and, in particular, electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> in weak <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields as a result of polymer adsorption is discussed. Examples on the dependence of zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of particles on the adsorbed amount of polymers are described. An analysis of the influence of various complicating factors, namely polarization of the EDL, curvature of the surface and the presence of electrolytes, on the calculation of polymer layer thickness from electrophoretic data has been performed. Results of electrophoretic measurements in suspensions of non-conventional particles (TiC, SiC and Si3N4) having adsorbed polyethylene oxide are presented. Regularities of the effect of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) and their binary mixtures on the electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span> of dispersed particles (polystyrene, silica, bentonite and kaolin) as a function of the polymer dose, pH, charge density (CD) of the polyelectrolyte, as well as the mixture composition and the sequence of component addition are described. It has been shown that addition of increasing amount of anionic PEs increases the absolute value of the negative zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> of particles, while adsorption of cationic PEs results in a significant decrease in the negative ζ-<span class="hlt">potential</span> and overcharging the particle surface; changes in the ζ-<span class="hlt">potential</span> are more pronounced for samples with higher CD. In mixtures of cationic and anionic PEs, in a wide range of their composition, the ζ-<span class="hlt">potential</span> of negatively charged particles is determined by the adsorbed amount of the anionic polymer independently of the CD of polyelectrolyte and the sequence of the mixture component addition. The role of coulombic and non-coulombic forces in the mechanism of polyelectrolyte adsorption and structure of adsorbed layers formed is discussed. The results of comparative investigations on the effect of adsorbed polymers on the electrophoresis of dispersed particles in weak and strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields are presented. It is shown that adsorption of non-ionic polymers only slightly (by about 20-50%) decreases the electrophoretic velocity (V(ef)) of polystyrene, graphite and aluminium-oxide particles in strong fields (100-400 V/cm). This is in contrast to the electrophoresis in weak fields (5-20 V/cm) in which adsorption of these polymers gives a drop in V(ef) by an order of magnitude or even more. In line with our theoretical predictions, it means that the non-linear ("cubic") electrophoresis, that arises in strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields, is independent of the position of the shear plane, i.e. the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span> value. It is determined mainly by the surface conductivity of particles, i.e. by the Dukhin number that characterizes the polarization of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layer. PMID:25456453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzAOP..51..186D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzAOP..51..186D"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the Lightning <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Index and <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in numerical weather prediction models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dementyeva, S. O.; Ilin, N. V.; Mareev, E. A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Modern methods for predicting thunderstorms and lightnings with the use of high-resolution numerical models are considered. An analysis of the Lightning <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Index (LPI) is performed for various microphysics parameterizations with the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The maximum index values are shown to depend significantly on the type of parameterization. This makes it impossible to specify a single threshold LPI for various parameterizations as a criterion for the occurrence of lightning flashes. The topographic LPI maps underestimate the sizes of regions of likely thunderstorm-hazard events. Calculating the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field under the assumption that ice and graupel are the main charge carriers is considered a new algorithm of lightning prediction. The model shows that the <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (between the ground and cloud layer at a given altitude) sufficient to generate a discharge is retained in a larger region than is predicted by the LPI. The main features of the spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and <span class="hlt">potential</span> agree with observed data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2035F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2035F"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the surface of nonuniformly charged polypropylene nonwoven media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fatihou, Ali; Zouzou, Noureddine; Iuga, Gheorghe; Dascalescu, Lucian</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to establish the conditions in which the vibrating capacitive probe of an electrostatic voltmeter could be employed for mapping the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the surface of non-uniformly charged insulating bodies. A first set of experiments are performed on polypropylene non-woven media (thickness: 0.4 mm; fiber diameter: 20 μm) in ambient air. In a second set of experiments the non-uniformity of charge is simulated using five copper strips (width: 2 mm or 3 mm; distance between strips: 2 mm). All the strips are connected to a high-voltage supply (Vs = 1000 V). The sample carrier is attached to a computer-controlled positioning system that transfers it under the capacitive probe (TREK, model 3451) of an electrostatic voltmeter (TREK, model 1341B). The measurements are performed at various relative speeds Vb between the sample and the probe, and for various sample rates Fe. A first set of experiments point out that the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> displayed by the electrostatic voltmeter depends on the spacing h between the sample and the probe. The diameter D of the spot “seen” by the probe is approximately D ≈ 8h/3. From the second set of experiments performed with the test plate, it can be concluded that the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be measured with the media in motion, but the accuracy is limited by the spatial resolution defined by k = Vb/Fe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJTP...55..147X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJTP...55..147X"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Field on RbCl Asymmetric Gaussian <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Quantum Well Qubit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Jing-Lin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We calculate the time evolution and the coordinate change of the quantum mechanical electronic state by using variational method of Pekar type (VMPT) in the presence of strong electron-LO-phonon coupling. The electron is confined in an asymmetric Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> quantum well (AGPQW) subjected to an applied <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The eigenenergies and the eigenfunctions of the ground and the first excited states (GFES) are calculated. A single qubit can be realized in this two-level quantum system. The electron's probability density oscillates in the AGPQW with a certain period of T 0 = 22.511 fs when the electron is in the superposition state of the GFES. We show that due to the presence of the asymmetrical Gaussian <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the growth direction of the QW, the electron's probability density shows one peak in the range of the coordinate z > 0, whereas it equals to zero in the range of z < 0. There is only one peak if the confinement is a two-dimensional symmetric structure in the xy plane of the QW. The oscillating period is an increasing function of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, whereas it is a decreasing one of the height of the AGPQWs and the polaron radius. The oscillating period is a decreasing function of the range of the asymmetric Gaussian confinement <span class="hlt">potential</span> for R < 0.24 nm, whereas it is an increasing one for R > 0.24 nm. It has a minimum when R = 0.24 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967295','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967295"><span id="translatedtitle">Therapeutic management of uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease in france in 2005: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> of omeprazole substitution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mouly, Stéphane; Charlemagne, Agnès; Lejeunne, Philippe; Fagnani, Francis</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) cost the French health care system >€1 billion in 2005, and ~50% of PPI prescriptions were for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Objectives: This study aimed to describe the current use of PPIs for GERD, to estimate the total annual costs of treatment, and to evaluate the economic impact of the various possible substitutions among PPIs available for this indication in France. Methods: Data from a sample of patients aged ≥20 years who visited their general practitioner (GP) at least once in 2005 for uncomplicated, symptomatic GERD were retrieved from the Thales database (a group of 1200 representative GPs connected to a computerized network). Costs of the prescriptions presented for reimbursement and costs of those reimbursed by the French health care insurance system were analyzed. We then evaluated the economic consequences of replacing full-dose generic omeprazole (after substitution from brand-name omeprazole by the pharmacists) with other compounds that are indicated for mild symptoms at half dose (ie, lansoprazole 15 mg, pantoprazole 20 mg, rabeprazole 10 mg, and esomeprazole 20 mg). The results were adjusted to account for the proportions of patients who had full health care coverage and the treatment duration as reported in the database. Results are presented from the perspective of the French health care insurance system. Results: In 2005, a total of 122,571 patients (mean age, 55.7 years; 45.5% men; 13.8% with a history of at least 1 gastrointestinal disorder) met the inclusion criteria. Extrapolated to the French population, this sample corresponded to ≈5.7 million people (ie, 13% of the adult population who visited a GP during the year). PPIs were prescribed as first-line treatment for GERD in 84.1% of the consultations (14.3% in association with other antiulcer drugs). Omeprazole, as a proprietary or generic drug, was prescribed most often (78.9%) and at full dose (20 mg), while other compounds (lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, and esomeprazole) were prescribed at half dose in 64.3% of cases. The extrapolated annual cost of PPIs reimbursed for this indication was €465.02 million at a mean reimbursement level of 72.7%. Brand-name omeprazole still accounted for ≈11% of the total cost reimbursed. Complete replacement of brand-name omeprazole with its generic counterpart would have reduced costs by €18.35 million (a decrease of 4.3% in the total reimbursed expenditure). The switch from generic full-dose omeprazole to a half dose of other PPIs would have allowed further <span class="hlt">savings</span> ranging from €2.59 million (with lansoprazole) to €13.19 million (with pantoprazole). Conclusion: In accordance with recent recommendations for the treatment of uncomplicated GERD and based on the 2006 PPI pricing, switching from branded full-dose omeprazole to generic omeprazole or to the use of half doses of other PPIs may allow cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> in France. PMID:24683238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3171S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3171S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Impact of the National Plan for Future <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shim, C.; Hong, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future <span class="hlt">electric</span> power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for <span class="hlt">electric</span> generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a <span class="hlt">potential</span> threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the <span class="hlt">potentially</span> worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as <span class="hlt">potentially</span> severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957177"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation into the transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the forward osmosis membrane process in electrolyte solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bian, Lixia; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaolin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (TMEP) in a forward osmosis membrane process with a single electrolyte solution as the draw and feed solutions was investigated by experiments. The effects of membrane orientation, the electrolyte species (KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2), concentration and concentration ratio of solutions at both sides of membrane on water flux and TMEP were investigated. The results showed that the TMEPs at different membrane orientation cannot completely coincide, which confirmed the effect of membrane asymmetry. The ion diffusion coefficients significantly affected the TMEP across the membrane, with different patterns for different electrolytes and concentrations. PMID:24957177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NES.C1008S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NES.C1008S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Anomalous <span class="hlt">Potential</span> <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Energy in Distilled Water Under Solar Heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe a very simple experiment with distilled water which could exhibit anomalous <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy with very minimum preparation energy. While this observed excess energy here is less impressive than J-P. Beberian's and M. Porringa's, and the material used is also far less exotic than common LENR-CANR experiments, from the viewpoint of minimum preparation requirement --and therefore less barrier for rapid implementation--, it seems that further experiments could be recommended in order to verify and also to explore various implications of this new proposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSt1108..341F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSt1108..341F"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical study of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy surface and <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment of aniline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farasat, Mahshid; Shojaei, S. H. Reza; Golzan, M. Maqsood; Farhadi, Khalil</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy surface (PES) of aniline was comprehensively investigated at different levels in this paper. The stable conformer of aniline has CS point group while the transition states possess CS and C2V symmetries. The computed transition states of aniline are highly dependent on the level of the computations including Hartree-Fock, Density functional and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories. The <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment of the molecule varies by the rotation of the amino group with respect to the phenyl plane, while in the range of 60-120 degrees, the changes of the dipole moment is not noticeable.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4085625','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4085625"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Investigation into the Transmembrane <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of the Forward Osmosis Membrane Process in Electrolyte Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bian, Lixia; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaolin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (TMEP) in a forward osmosis membrane process with a single electrolyte solution as the draw and feed solutions was investigated by experiments. The effects of membrane orientation, the electrolyte species (KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2), concentration and concentration ratio of solutions at both sides of membrane on water flux and TMEP were investigated. The results showed that the TMEPs at different membrane orientation cannot completely coincide, which confirmed the effect of membrane asymmetry. The ion diffusion coefficients significantly affected the TMEP across the membrane, with different patterns for different electrolytes and concentrations. PMID:24957177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889779"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the Acid Stimulation in the Beowawe Geothermal Field Using Surface <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hart, Carolyne M.; Engi, Dennis; Morris, Harris E.</p> <p>1983-12-15</p> <p>A surface <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> system was fielded during the chemical stimulation of the Rossi 21-19 well in the Beowawe Geothermal Field. The technique, which measures variations in resistivity resulting from the flow of conductive fluid into the reservoir, was not only shown to be highly sensitive, not only to the chemical treatment, but also to the in situ conductive zones before any acid injection. A review of the experiment and a preliminary interpretation of the data are presented. The data provide convincing evidence that it should be possible to map the treated zone as well as the primary pretreatment in situ conductive zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2023P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.646a2023P"><span id="translatedtitle">Hazard assessment of high speed slurry blending using computer modelling of <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields and <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavey, I. D.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Generalised published guidelines indicated a new high shear slurry dispersion system should include inerting of the vessel headspace to avoid electrostatic ignition hazards. This paper describes how computer modelling of <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields and <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, combined with experimental measurements on laboratory scale equipment, was used to show that inerting is not warranted in this case. Ultimately the conclusion was that, subject to certain restrictions, an incendive electrostatic discharge in the new blender could be considered so unlikely that inerting or other protective measures would not be required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020047560','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020047560"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> Operating Orbits for Fission <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Propulsion Systems Driven by the SAFE-400</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houts, Mike; Kos, Larry; Poston, David; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Safety must be ensured during all phases of space fission system design, development, fabrication, launch, operation, and shutdown. One <span class="hlt">potential</span> space fission system application is fission <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion (FEP), in which fission energy is converted into <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and used to power high efficiency (Isp greater than 3000s) <span class="hlt">electric</span> thrusters. For these types of systems it is important to determine which operational scenarios ensure safety while allowing maximum mission performance and flexibility. Space fission systems are essentially nonradioactive at launch, prior to extended operation at high power. Once high power operation begins, system radiological inventory steadily increases as fission products build up. For a given fission product isotope, the maximum radiological inventory is typically achieved once the system has operated for a length of time equivalent to several half-lives. After that time, the isotope decays at the same rate it is produced, and no further inventory builds in. For an FEP mission beginning in Earth orbit, altitude and orbital lifetime increase as the propulsion system operates. Two simultaneous effects of fission propulsion system operation are thus (1) increasing fission product inventory and (2) increasing orbital lifetime. Phrased differently, as fission products build up, more time is required for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Simultaneously, as fission products build up, orbital lifetime increases, providing more time for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Operational constraints required to ensure safety can thus be quantified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..608..717H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..608..717H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> operating orbits for fission <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion systems driven by the SAFE-400</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houts, Mike; Kos, Larry; Poston, David</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Safety must be ensured during all phases of space fission system design, development, fabrication, launch, operation, and shutdown. One <span class="hlt">potential</span> space fission system application is fission <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion (FEP), in which fission energy is converted into <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and used to power high efficiency (Isp>3000s) <span class="hlt">electric</span> thrusters. For these types of systems it is important to determine which operational scenarios ensure safety while allowing maximum mission performance and flexibility. Space fission systems are essentially non-radioactive at launch, prior to extended operation at high power. Once high power operation begins, system radiological inventory steadily increases as fission products build up. For a given fission product isotope, the maximum radiological inventory is typically achieved once the system has operated for a length of time equivalent to several half-lives. After that time, the isotope decays at the same rate it is produced, and no further inventory builds in. For an FEP mission beginning in Earth orbit, altitude and orbital lifetime increase as the propulsion system operates. Two simultaneous effects of fission propulsion system operation are thus (1) increasing fission product inventory and (2) increasing orbital lifetime. Phrased differently, as fission products build up, more time is required for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Simultaneously, as fission products build up, orbital lifetime increases, providing more time for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Operational constraints required to ensure safety can thus be quantified. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5912003','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5912003"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> for containment leak paths through <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sebrell, W.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar <span class="hlt">electrical</span> penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher <span class="hlt">potential</span> for leakage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BVol...74.2221W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BVol...74.2221W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> impacts from tephra fall to <span class="hlt">electric</span> power systems: a review and mitigation strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wardman, J. B.; Wilson, T. M.; Bodger, P. S.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Modern society is highly dependent on a reliable <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply. During explosive volcanic eruptions, tephra contamination of power networks (systems) can compromise the reliability of supply. Outages can have significant cascading impacts for other critical infrastructure sectors and for society as a whole. This paper summarises known impacts to power systems following tephra falls since 1980. The main impacts are (1) supply outages from insulator flashover caused by tephra contamination, (2) disruption of generation facilities, (3) controlled outages during tephra cleaning, (4) abrasion and corrosion of exposed equipment and (5) line (conductor) breakage due to tephra loading. Of these impacts, insulator flashover is the most common disruption. The review highlights multiple instances of <span class="hlt">electric</span> power systems exhibiting tolerance to tephra falls, suggesting that failure thresholds exist and should be identified to avoid future unplanned interruptions. To address this need, we have produced a fragility function that quantifies the likelihood of insulator flashover at different thicknesses of tephra. Finally, based on our review of case studies, <span class="hlt">potential</span> mitigation strategies are summarised. Specifically, avoiding tephra-induced insulator flashover by cleaning key facilities such as generation sites and transmission and distribution substations is of critical importance in maintaining the integrity of an <span class="hlt">electric</span> power system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6841801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6841801"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustically derived auditory nerve action <span class="hlt">potential</span> evoked by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation: an estimation of the waveform of single unit contribution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Sauvage, R C; Cazals, Y; Erre, J P; Aran, J M</p> <p>1983-02-01</p> <p>An experimental study of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the guinea pig cochlea is made using an electrode on the round window for both stimulation and recording. The neural response is separated from the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> artifact with a masking procedure combined with a low amplification, "statistical" averaging method [Charlet de Sauvage et al., Hear. Res. 2, 343-346 (1980)]. The high <span class="hlt">electrical</span> impedance required for recording physiological responses implies the use of a current pulse generator. Monitoring of evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the auditory cortex provides evidence that the effects of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation (and of masking noise) are of auditory origin. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked round window response is of very short latency (less than 0.2 ms). There is a response threshold for both <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus and masking noise. The response amplitude varies monotonically as a function of masking noise or <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus intensity. Experiments with high-pass noise masking suggest that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus is mainly acting on basal fibers. The response latency and waveform are independent of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus intensity, repetition rate, masker level, or spectrum. Little intersubject variation is noted. Our experiments (reciprocal forward masking by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and acoustic stimuli) suggest that a direct, instantaneous <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the fibers occurs. We believe that this response to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation represents the mean unit response of the auditory nerve fibers. This approach may be useful in the separate study of cochlear and VIIIth nerve functions and in the analysis (deconvolution) of the acoustically evoked compound AP. PMID:6841801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0685Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0685Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for Hydro-generated <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> and Climate Change Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Leon, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.; Li, H. Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydropower is a dominant renewable energy source at the global level, accounting for more than 15% of the world's total power supply. It is also very vulnerable to climate change. Improved understanding of climate change impact on hydropower can help develop adaptation measures to increase the resilience of energy system. In this study, we developed a comprehensive estimate of global hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> using runoff and stream flow data derived from a global hydrologic model with a river routing sub-model, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental consideration (Figure 1). We find that hydropower has the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this <span class="hlt">potential</span> varies substantially by regions. Resources in a number of countries exceed by multiple folds the total current demand for <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, e.g., Russia and Indonesia. A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be highly sensitive to a number of parameters including designed flow for capacity, cost and financing, turbine efficiency, and stream flow. The climate change impact on hydropower <span class="hlt">potential</span> was evaluated by using runoff outputs from 4 climate models (HadCM3, PCM, CGCM2, and CSIRO2). It was found that the climate change on hydropower shows large variation not only by regions, but also climate models, and this demonstrates the importance of incorporating climate change into infrastructure-planning at the regional level though the existing uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394236','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394236"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of halophytes as energy crops for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility industry. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goodin, J.R.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>This technical report assesses and estimates the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass <span class="hlt">potential</span>, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological <span class="hlt">potential</span>. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3841057','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3841057"><span id="translatedtitle">Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> that we named obex slow <span class="hlt">potential</span> (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators. PMID:24303193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388758"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-<span class="hlt">potential</span> respirators support <span class="hlt">electricity</span> production in microbial fuel cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grüning, André; Beecroft, Nelli J; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we analyse how <span class="hlt">electric</span> power production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) depends on the composition of the anodic biofilm in terms of metabolic capabilities of identified sets of species. MFCs are a promising technology for organic waste treatment and sustainable bioelectricity production. Inoculated with natural communities, they present a complex microbial ecosystem with syntrophic interactions between microbes with different metabolic capabilities. Our results demonstrate that low-<span class="hlt">potential</span> anaerobic respirators--that is those that are able to use terminal electron acceptors with a low redox <span class="hlt">potential</span>--are important for good power production. Our results also confirm that community metabolism in MFCs with natural inoculum and fermentable feedstock is a two-stage system with fermentation followed by anode respiration. PMID:25388758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770056058&hterms=membrane+potential&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmembrane%2Bpotential','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770056058&hterms=membrane+potential&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmembrane%2Bpotential"><span id="translatedtitle">Light-dependent cation gradients and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in Halobacterium halobium cell envelope vesicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lanyi, J. K.; Macdonald, R. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Vesicles can be prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes, which contain properly oriented bacteriorhodopsin and which extrude H(+) during illumination. The pH difference that is generated across the membranes is accompanied by an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of 90 to 100 mV (interior negative) and the movements of other cations. Among these is the efflux of Na(+), which proceeds against its electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The relationship between the size and direction of the light-induced pH gradient and the rate of depletion of Na(+) from the vesicles, as well as other evidence, suggest that the active Na(+) extrusion is facilitated by a membrane component that exchanges H(+) for Na(+) with a stoichiometry greater than 1. The gradients of H(+) and Na(+) are thus coupled to one another. The Na(+) gradient (efflux much larger than influx), which arises during illumination, plays a major role in energizing the active transport of amino acids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JCoPh..97..144J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JCoPh..97..144J"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> of a Macromolecule in a Solvent: A Fundamental Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juffer, Andr H.; Botta, Eugen F. F.; van Keulen, Bert A. M.; van der Ploeg, Auke; Berendsen, Herman J. C.</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>A general numerical method is presented to compute the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> for a macromolecule of arbitrary shape in a solvent with nonzero ionic strength. The model is based on a continuum description of the dielectric and screening properties of the system, which consists of a bounded internal region with discrete charges and an infinite external region. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> obeys the Poisson equation in the internal region and the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the external region, coupled through appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown how this three-dimensional problem can be presented as a pair of coupled integral equations for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the normal component of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field at the dielectric interface. These equations can be solved by a straightforward application of boundary element techniques. The solution involves the decomposition of a matrix that depends only on the geometry of the surface and not on the positions of the charges. With this approach the number of unknowns is reduced by an order of magnitude with respect to the usual finite difference methods. Special attention is given to the numerical inaccuracies resulting from charges which are located close to the interface; an adapted formulation is given for that case. The method is tested both for a spherical geometry, for which an exact solution is available, and for a realistic problem, for which a finite difference solution and experimental verification is available. The latter concerns the shift in acid strength (pK-values) of histidines in the copper-containing protein azurin on oxidation of the copper, for various values of the ionic strength. A general method is given to triangulate a macromolecular surface. The possibility is discussed to use the method presented here for a correct treatment of long-range electrostatic interactions in simulations of solvated macromolecules, which form an essential part of correct <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of mean force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTFM.129..455H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTFM.129..455H"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Distribution and Trap Depth in Polymeric Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayase, Yuji; Tahara, Mai; Takada, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masafumi</p> <p></p> <p>The relationship between a three dimensional <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution and electron trap depth in polymeric material was discussed. A semi-empirical method of molecular orbital is applied to calculate the distribution of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in simple molecule models for the polymers after determining the configurations of orbital electron and proton. Furthermore the electron trap depth was calculated from difference between an electron affinity and conduction level for each polymers. As the model of polar polymers, Polycarbonate (PC), Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), Polyethylenenaphthalate (PEN) and Polyimide (PI) are chosen. The relationships were also investigated on the simulated models of Polyethylene (PE), Polytetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polystyrene (PS) as typical non-polar polymers. In the case of polar polymers, it is found that the electron traps were basically consisted of carbonyl group and benzene ring, and the trap depth equals to electron affinity which is always positive polarity. In the case of non-polar polymers, the conduction level equals to the electron affinity of PE and the trap depth equals to the difference between the conduction level and each electron affinity of polymer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11414012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11414012"><span id="translatedtitle">Major ion and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in soil under electrokinetic remediation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wada, S; Umegaki, Y</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>To assess the effect of pore water chemistry on the contaminant removal rate, we monitored major ion concentrations in the pore water and the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution of a soil during electrokinetic remediation treatment. On application of the voltage, the soil near the anode became acidic due to the electrolytic generation of H+, and the acid region gradually spread toward the cathode. The major cation in the acid region was, however, not H+ but Al3+ that arose from the acid-induced dissolution of soil minerals, and it migrated very slowly toward the cathode. The measured pH and accompanying ion concentrations indicated that the anomalously slow migration of Al3+ was due to its precipitation-dissolution reaction at the acid front. The stagnancy of Al3+ increased the ionic concentration, flattened the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile, and in turn, diminished electromigration in the acid region. This seems to be one of the causes of the relatively low removal rate of cationic and anionic contaminants in electrokinetic treatments. PMID:11414012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159317"><span id="translatedtitle">The market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for SMES in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility applications. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are <span class="hlt">potentially</span> attractive in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility applications. This study evaluates the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of <span class="hlt">electric</span> energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49j5203P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49j5203P"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at trench surfaces on ion angular distribution in plasma etching processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palov, A. P.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Baklanov, M. R.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Ion-stimulated etching of dielectrics in radio frequency plasma results in positive charging of a trench bottom because of the significant difference in the angular distribution functions of ions and electrons. They are anisotropic for ions and quasi-isotropic for electrons. The charging leads to a decrease in the energy of the ions bombarding the trench bottom and to undesirable sputtering of the walls near the trench bottom because of the curving of the ion trajectories. This process is normally investigated by Monte Carlo methods in the absence of experimental data. In this paper the analytical dependence of the ion flux bombarding the trench bottom on a trench aspect ratio and ion angular distribution function is obtained. Numerical calculations of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the trench bottom for a set of trench aspect ratios and angles of the ion angular distribution function were performed based on a Monte Carlo method to demonstrate the ion flux and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> correlated well with each other. The proposed formula for an ion flux is suggested to be helpful for analyzing charging the trenches with different aspect ratios in plasma with an arbitrary angular ion distribution function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511629"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometrical gauge factor of directional <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop sensors for creep monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.</p> <p>2011-06-23</p> <p>Directional <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2891064','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2891064"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertebral Growth Modulation by <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Current in an Animal Model: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Treatment for Scoliosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dodge, George R.; Bowen, J. Richard; Jeong, Changhoon</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The concept of modulating spinal growth to correct scoliosis is intriguing, and this study proposes a new model. Inhibition of vertebral growth on the convex side of a curve would allow continued normal growth on the concave side to correct the scoliosis. In a previous study, we induced bony bridges across the physis of the femur producing an epiphysiodesis in rabbits by using a stimulator modified to deliver a current of 50 μA. The present study builds on this finding to design a model with an aim of inhibiting growth in a unilateral peripheral portion of the vertebral endplate physis, which induces asymmetric spinal growth. Methods The study was conducted with 8-week-old rabbits; six were treated with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current via an implantable 4-lead device; three were age matched normal rabbits. The device was implanted and delivered a constant current of 50 μA from each electrode, continuously for 6 weeks. Weekly radiograph monitoring and endpoint histology were performed. Results Spinal growth was modified by inducing asymmetric growth of the vertebra of young rabbits using <span class="hlt">electric</span> stimulators delivering 50 μA of direct current through electrodes implanted in a left peripheral portion of the endplate physis. Conclusion This concept study, based on our previous study, involved a method and device for inhibiting growth in one aspect of the vertebral endplate using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> current at an amplitude that induced a hemiepiphysiodesis. Our results demonstrated that this technique both establishes an in vivo model of scoliosis and suggests that if this technique were applied to an existing curve it could <span class="hlt">potentially</span> induce asymmetrical growth of the spine, thereby correcting scoliosis by continuing the normal growth on the concavity of the curve. Clinical Relevance A <span class="hlt">potential</span> new method for modulating spinal growth was developed, and, with further research, this method may be useful in treating children with scoliosis by delivering a growth-inhibiting current to the physeal areas of vertebra through electrodes placed percutaneously. PMID:20502237</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6271R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6271R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity tomography and self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> case studies for fractured aquifer characterization and monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, Tanguy; Dassargues, Alain; Nguyen, Frdric</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) investigations have been conducted in complex carboniferous limestones aquifers in Belgium (synclinorium structures). The aims of this study were (1) to detect and characterize fractured zones in hard rock aquifers, (2) to monitor groundwater flow/water content in these fractured or karstic areas and (3) to use geophysical data to support groundwater flow model set-up and calibration. The investigated areas lie in calcareous synclines. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> images allowed us to detect and characterize (in terms of direction, width and depth) several less resistive anomalies, which are interpreted in terms of fractured and/or karstic zones. To interpret the ERT images, data errors as well as image appraisal indicators (resolution matrix, sensitivity matrix and DOI index) were analysed and compared. This allowed us to determine the depth of investigation of ERT and to avoid the misinterpretation of the resulting images. Inversions based on focusing scheme are tested against smoothness-constraint inversion on these field data to provide more realistic images on the basis of prior geological knowledge. Self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements were performed along the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> profiles and allowed us to find negative anomalies possibly related with groundwater preferential flow pathways. By taking the assumption that only the electrokinetic effect plays a role in the SP signals, we were able to estimate a first distribution of the water table along our profiles. The SP data showed that in this particular tectonic structure, two perpendicular hydraulic gradients are present. The first gradient is related with the main fold axis direction and is the major drainage system. The second hydraulic gradient is related with the flanks of the calcareous valley. Geophysical data concurrently with ground truth' geological and hydrogeological data allowed us to better understand the groundwater flow in these calcareous synclines and to verify the conceptual groundwater flow model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043097','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043097"><span id="translatedtitle">SunShot Vision Study: A Comprehensive Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for U.S. Solar <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Generation (Fact Sheet)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The SunShot Vision Study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for solar technologies to meet a significant share of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand in the United States during the next several decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3982077','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3982077"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses to field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations in the hippocampal formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pos?uszny, Anna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> synapses are a type of cellular membrane junction referred to as gap junctions (GJs). They provide a direct way to exchange ions between coupled cells and have been proposed as a structural basis for fast transmission of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> between neurons in the brain. For this reason GJs have been regarded as an important component within the neuronal networks that underlie synchronous neuronal activity and field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations. Initially, GJs appeared to play a particularly key role in the generation of high frequency oscillatory patterns in field <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. In order to assess the scale of neuronal GJs contribution to field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations in the hippocampal formation, in vivo and in vitro studies are reviewed here. These investigations have shown that blocking the main neuronal GJs, those containing connexin 36 (Cx36-GJs), or knocking out the Cx36 gene affect field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillatory patterns related to awake active behavior (gamma and theta rhythm) but have no effect on high frequency oscillations occurring during silent wake and sleep. Precisely how Cx36-GJs influence population activity of neurons is more complex than previously thought. Analysis of studies on the properties of transmission through GJ channels as well as Cx36-GJs functioning in pairs of coupled neurons provides some explanations of the specific influence of Cx36-GJs on field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillations. It is proposed here that GJ transmission is strongly modulated by the level of neuronal network activity and changing behavioral states. Therefore, contribution of GJs to field <span class="hlt">potential</span> oscillatory patterns depends on the behavioral state. I propose here a model, based on large body of experimental data gathered in this field by several authors, in which Cx36-GJ transmission especially contributes to oscillations related to active behavior, where it plays a role in filtering and enhancing coherent signals in the network under high-noise conditions. In contrast, oscillations related to silent wake or sleep, especially high frequency oscillations, do not require transmission by neuronal GJs. The reliability of neuronal discharges during those oscillations could be assured by conditions of higher signal-to-noise ratio and some synaptic changes taking place during active behavior. PMID:24772068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSM13A..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSM13A..04M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> pattern in the inner magnetosphere derived by Cluster EDI: Dependencies on IMF BZ, Kp index, and Dst index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsui, H.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Jordanova, V. K.; Paschmann, G.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns are derived in the inner magnetosphere at 4<L<10 using data from the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on Cluster. First, we examine the relations between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and the following three parameters to understand how the <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns are organized: BZ component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), Kp index, and Dst index. From these correlations, we can recognize the effect of the interplanetary <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (IEF) on the inner magnetospheric <span class="hlt">electric</span> field as measured by Cluster. Next, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field is related to the quantity proportional to the injection rate of the plasmasheet particles, (dDst*/dt+0.13Dst^*), where the effect of the magnetopause current is removed in Dst*. Then we develop a method to obtain <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns. An inverse problem is solved by adjusting a trade-off parameter for smoothness of the result. We discuss the following features from the <span class="hlt">potential</span> patterns sorted by IMF BZ, Kp index, and (dDst*/dt+0.13Dst^*): 1. <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop, 2. rotation of the direction of the convection <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, 3. dawn-dusk asymmetry of the strength of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field, and 4. shape of the last closed equipotential (LCE) and its relation to the outflow of the plasmaspheric material. We find that the LCE for Kp<2 is a typical tear-drop shape, while those for 2? Kp<4 and 4? Kp are distorted because of the inward shift of the LCE in the evening MLT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=197552','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=197552"><span id="translatedtitle">TEXAS SCHOOL FOOD POLICY CHANGES RELATED TO MIDDLE SCHOOL A LA CARTE/SNACK BAR FOODS: <span class="hlt">POTENTIAL</span> <span class="hlt">SAVINGS</span> IN KILOCALORIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">potential</span> impact of a school food policy change reducing sweetened beverage and high-fat, salty, and sweet food portions on energy consumption of middle-school students was assessed. Snack bar sales for one school year were obtained from 23 schools. Energy content was calculated for each item an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344151"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling of surface energy with <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> makes superhydrophobic surfaces corrosion-resistant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>We study the correlation of wetting properties and corrosion rates on hydrophobized cast iron. Samples of different surface roughnesses (abraded by sandpaper) are studied without coating and with two types of hydrophobic coatings (stearic acid and a liquid repelling spray). The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis are measured using a goniometer while corrosion rates are measured by a potentiodynamic polarization test. The data show a decrease in corrosion current density and an increase in corrosion <span class="hlt">potential</span> after superhydrophobization. A similar trend is also found in the recent literature data. We conclude that a decrease in the corrosion rate can be attributed to the changing open circuit <span class="hlt">potential</span> of a coated surface and increased surface area making the non-homogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) state possible. We interpret these results in light of the idea that the inherent surface energy is coupled with the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in accordance with the Lippmann law of electrowetting and Le Châtelier's principle and, therefore, hydrophobization leads to a decrease in the corrosion <span class="hlt">potential</span>. This approach can be used for novel anti-corrosive coatings. PMID:26344151</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554506"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ measurement of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across the lysosomal membrane using FRET.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koivusalo, Mirkka; Steinberg, Benjamin E; Mason, David; Grinstein, Sergio</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The progressive acidification of the endocytic pathway is generated by H(+) pumping of electrogenic vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) on the endosomal/lysosomal membrane. The determinants of pH during endosome maturation are not completely understood, but the permeability to ions that neutralize the electrogenic effect of the V-ATPase has been proposed to play a central role. If counter-ion conductance becomes limiting, the generation of a large membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> would dominate the proton-motive force (pmf), diminishing the pH gradient proportionally. Validation of this notion requires direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> that develops across the endosomal/lysosomal membrane. To date, the measurement of lysosomal membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> (?(?) ) in situ has been hampered by the inability to access endosomes by electrophysiological means and the fact that individual organelles cannot be discerned when using potentiometric fluorescent dyes. Here, we describe a noninvasive procedure to estimate ?(?) in intact cells, based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). At steady state, ?(?) averaged 19 mV (lumen positive) and was only partially dissipated by inhibition of the V-ATPase with concanamycin A (CcA). ?(?) was considerably increased by alkalinization of the lysosome lumen by NH(4) Cl, implying that at steady state the V-ATPase operates at submaximal rates and that the contribution of ?(?) to pmf is relatively small. Our method should enable systematic studies of endosomal/lysosomal <span class="hlt">potential</span>. PMID:21554506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811989"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing Nanoscale Distribution of Corrosion Cells by Open-Loop <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Honbo, Kyoko; Ogata, Shoichiro; Kitagawa, Takuya; Okamoto, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Naritaka; Sugimoto, Itto; Shima, Shohei; Fukunaga, Akira; Takatoh, Chikako; Fukuma, Takeshi</p> <p>2016-02-23</p> <p>Corrosion is a traditional problem but still one of the most serious problems in industry. To reduce the huge economic loss caused by corrosion, tremendous effort has been made to understand, predict and prevent it. Corrosion phenomena are generally explained by the formation of corrosion cells at a metal-electrolyte interface. However, experimental verification of their nanoscale distribution has been a major challenge owing to the lack of a method able to visualize the local <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in an electrolytic solution. In this study, we have investigated the nanoscale corrosion behavior of Cu fine wires and a duplex stainless steel by in situ imaging of local corrosion cells by open-loop <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> microscopy (OL-EPM). For both materials, <span class="hlt">potential</span> images obtained by OL-EPM show nanoscale contrasts, where areas of higher and lower <span class="hlt">potential</span> correspond to anodic areas (i.e., corrosion sites) and cathodic areas, respectively. This imaging capability allows us to investigate the real-time transition of local corrosion sites even when surface structures show little change. This is particularly useful for investigating reactions under surface oxide layers or highly corrosion-resistant materials as demonstrated here. The proposed technique should be applicable to the study of other redox reactions on a battery electrode or a catalytic material. The results presented here open up such future applications of OL-EPM in nanoscale electrochemistry. PMID:26811989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622192"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> coupling in ensembles of nonexcitable cells: modeling the spatial map of single cell <span class="hlt">potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, Jose Antonio; Mafe, Salvador</p> <p>2015-02-19</p> <p>We analyze the coupling of model nonexcitable (non-neural) cells assuming that the cell membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> is the basic individual property. We obtain this <span class="hlt">potential</span> on the basis of the inward and outward rectifying voltage-gated channels characteristic of cell membranes. We concentrate on the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> coupling of a cell ensemble rather than on the biochemical and mechanical characteristics of the individual cells, obtain the map of single cell <span class="hlt">potentials</span> using simple assumptions, and suggest procedures to collectively modify this spatial map. The response of the cell ensemble to an external perturbation and the consequences of cell isolation, heterogeneity, and ensemble size are also analyzed. The results suggest that simple coupling mechanisms can be significant for the biophysical chemistry of model biomolecular ensembles. In particular, the spatiotemporal map of single cell <span class="hlt">potentials</span> should be relevant for the uptake and distribution of charged nanoparticles over model cell ensembles and the collective properties of droplet networks incorporating protein ion channels inserted in lipid bilayers. PMID:25622192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010234','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010234"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar Surface <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface <span class="hlt">potential</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE31B3417J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE31B3417J"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge balance and ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> dynamics in time dependent global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jansky, J.; Pasko, V. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have developed a time-dependent model of global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit (GEC)in spherical coordinates. The model solves time-dependent charge continuity equation coupledwith Poisson's equation. An implicit time stepping is used to avoid strict dielectricrelaxation time step condition, and boundary conditions for Poisson's equationare implemented to allow accurate description of time evolution of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span>.The concept of impulse response of GEC is introduced that allows effective representationof complex time dynamics of various physical quantities in the circuit usingmodel results obtained for instantaneous deposition of a point charge.The more complex problems, like continuous charging of thunderstorms and different typesof lightning dischargesare then reconstructed using convolution and linearity principles.It is shown that for a thundercloud charging phase, typicallyrepresented by a current dipole, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be determined from the differenceof time integrals of two ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> impulse responsescorresponding to charge locations at the opposite ends of the current dipole.During a cloud to ground lightning discharge,the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes instantaneously by a value proportionalto the charge moment change produced by lightning and then relaxes to zero.We will also discuss processes involving transient conductivity perturbations in GEC associated withextraterrestrial gamma ray bursts and sprites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203850','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203850"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> with compressed air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Risi, J.D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The production of compressed air can be one of the most expensive processes in manufacturing facilities. Annual operating costs of air compressors, dryers and supporting equipment can account for up to 70% of the total <span class="hlt">electric</span> bill. Because the greatest single cost of manufacturing may be attributed to compressed-air, it follows that the greatest <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy conservation may also exist with the compressed-air equipment. Opportunities for cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> related to compressed air include, but are not limited to, the following: compressor waste heat recovery; compressed-air leak reduction; the use of outside air for compressor intakes; compressor control; air-pressure reduction; compressor selection (type, size, etc.); and internal combustion engine-driven air compressor. This paper shows that several energy conservation opportunities exist that are simple to understand and cost-effective to implement. Compressed-air systems should be an integral part of every energy management program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......208H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......208H"><span id="translatedtitle">Oil well flow assurance through static <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>: An experimental investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hashmi, Muhammad Ihtsham Asmat</p> <p></p> <p>Flow assurance technology deals with the deposition of organic and inorganic solids in the oil flow path, which results in constriction of the production tubing and surface flow lines and drastically reduces the kinetic energy of the fluid. The major contributors to this flow restriction are inorganic scales, asphaltene, wax and gas hydrates, in addition to minor contribution from formation fines and corrosion products. Some of these materials (particularly asphaltene and inorganic scales) carry surface charges on their nuclei and seen to be attracted by electrode having opposite charge. The focus of the present research is to find the possibilities of inhibiting the deposition of asphaltene and inorganic scales in the production tubing by applying static <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. With this objective, two flow set ups were made; one for asphaltene and the other for scale deposition studies, attached with precision pumps, pressure recording system and DC power supply. In each set up there were two flow loops, one was converted as Anode and the other as Cathode. A series of flow studies were conducted using the flow set ups, in which oil-dilution ratio, temperature and most importantly DC <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference was varied and the deposition behavior of the asphaltene aggregates and calcium carbonate scale to the walls of the test loops were observed through rise of differential pressure across the loop due to possible deposition and constriction of the flow path. Two different sets of flow studies; one without oil dilution and other with the diluted oil (with n-heptane), were performed. Both experiments were investigated under the influence of static <span class="hlt">potential</span> applied across the two test loops. Experimental results indicated that asphaltene deposition in the cathode can be retarded or stopped by applying a suitable negative <span class="hlt">potential</span>; an increase in the static <span class="hlt">potential</span> resulted in enhanced control over the asphaltene aggregation and hence the deposition. In the second study, scale deposition and retardation through static <span class="hlt">potential</span> is studied through a series of flow experiments. Under the influence of static <span class="hlt">potential</span>, scale deposition at the room temperature showed an increase in the deposition rates, whereas, at the elevated temperatures, scale deposition rates were observed to be retarded and delayed. Beyond a certain value of the static <span class="hlt">potential</span>, this decreasing trend in deposition rates become directly proportional to the applied static <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Results showed that the scale deposition may be controlled if not completely stopped, in the anode, if a suitable positive <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be applied to it. The overall conclusion of this study is as follows: Asphaltene deposition can be arrested almost completely by converting the production well into a cathode. Scale deposition can be retarded or deposition rate can be much delayed by converting the production well into an anode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/843010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/843010"><span id="translatedtitle">Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst</p> <p>2005-08-03</p> <p>The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply markets, they also offer the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable <span class="hlt">electricity</span> infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner <span class="hlt">electricity</span> and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise be unused and convert it to <span class="hlt">electricity</span> or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Examples of energy recycling methods include industrial gasification technologies to increase energy recovery, as well as less traditional CHP technologies, and the use of energy that is typically discarded from pressure release vents or from the burning and flaring of waste streams. These energy recovery technologies have the ability to reduce costs for power generation. This report is a preliminary study of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> contribution of this ''new'' generation of clean recycled energy supply technologies to the power supply of the United States. For each of the technologies this report provides a short technical description, as well as an estimate of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for application in the U.S., estimated investment and operation costs, as well as impact on air pollutant emission reductions. The report summarizes the <span class="hlt">potential</span> magnitude of the benefits of these new technologies. The report does not yet provide a robust cost-benefit analysis. It is stressed that the report provides a preliminary assessment to help focus future efforts by the federal government to further investigate the opportunities offered by new clean power generation technologies, as well as initiate policies to support further development and uptake of clean power generation technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/34347','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/34347"><span id="translatedtitle">Learning about <span class="hlt">saving</span> energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to <span class="hlt">save</span> energy in heating and cooling, <span class="hlt">electric</span> appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+heat&pg=6&id=EJ225523','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+heat&pg=6&id=EJ225523"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy Control Systems: Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>School Business Affairs, 1980</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The installation of proper control systems is estimated as <span class="hlt">saving</span> up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPA....3f2115G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPA....3f2115G"><span id="translatedtitle">Resonance line shape, strain and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerken, Martina</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME) sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite) cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM) simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line shape and a zero-response frequency result for the ME coefficient. The zero-response oscillator frequency may be below or above the resonance frequency. The calculated FEM resonance line shapes are fitted successfully to a superposition function of a constant component and a resonant component with a Lorentzian line shape. Equivalence of the superposition function line shape to a Fano resonance profile is derived for frequencies around the resonance. Fano resonances are ubiquitous in physics occurring due to the constructive and destructive quantum interference of two different scattering pathways, e.g., for photons or electrons. The superposition fit parameters describing the resonance line shape are calculated as a function of the cantilever substrate thickness. The inclusion of loss by adjustment of the damping parameter is discussed. The results derived here also are applicable to higher order modes or longitudinal resonance modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220122','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220122"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to provide homeowners with significant energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters to determine the energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> when replacing typical <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters, but only <span class="hlt">saved</span> source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088592','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088592"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to provide homeowners with significant energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters to determine the energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> when replacing typical <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heaters, but only <span class="hlt">saved</span> source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an <span class="hlt">electric</span> water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007709&hterms=buried+explosives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dburied%2Bexplosives','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007709&hterms=buried+explosives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dburied%2Bexplosives"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscopic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation during hypervelocity impacts: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> implications for planetary paleomagnetism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The production of transient magnetic fields by hypervelocity meteoroid impact has been proposed to possibly explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields in certain lunar samples as well as across broader areas of the lunar surface. In an effort to understand the lunar magnetic record, continued experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range allow characterizing magnetic fields produced by the 5 km/s impacts of 0.32-0.64 cm projectiles over a broad range of impact angles and projectile/target compositions. From such studies, another phenomenon has emerged, macroscopic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation, that may have importance for the magnetic state of solid-body surfaces. This phenomenon was observed during explosive cratering experiments, but the magnetic consequences of macroscopic <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation (as opposed to plasma production) during explosion and impact cratering have not, to our knowledge, been explored before now. It is straightforward to show that magnetic field production due to this process may scale as a weakly increasing function of impactor kinetic energy, although more work is needed to precisely assess the scaling dependence. The original intent of our experiments was to assess the character of purely electrostatic signals for comparison with inferred electrostatic noise signals acquired by shielded magnetic sensors buried within particulate dolomite targets. The results demonstrated that electrostatic noise does affect the magnetic sensors but only at relatively short distances (less than 4 cm) from the impact point (our magnetic studies are generally performed at distances greater than approximately 5.5 cm). However, to assess models for magnetic field generation during impact, measurements are needed of the magnetic field as close to the impact point as possible; hence, work with an improved magnetic sensor design is in progress. In this paper, we focus on <span class="hlt">electric</span> charge separation during hypervelocity impacts as a <span class="hlt">potential</span> transient magnetic field production mechanism in its own right.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633353"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetry Breaking of B2N((-, 0, +)): An Aspect of the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and Atomic Charges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monajjemi, Majid; Bagheri, Samira; Moosavi, Matin S; Moradiyeh, Nahid; Zakeri, Mina; Attarikhasraghi, Naime; Saghayimarouf, Nastaran; Niyatzadeh, Ghorban; Shekarkhand, Marzie; Khalilimofrad, Mohammad S; Ahmadin, Hashem; Ahadi, Maryam</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the three forms of B2N((-, 0, +))-radical, anion and cation-have been compared in terms of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and atomic charges, ESP, rather than the well-known cut of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy surface (PES). We have realized that the double minimum of the BNB radical is related to the lack of the correct permutational symmetry of the wave function and charge distribution. The symmetry breaking (SB) for B2N((0, +)) exhibits energy barrier in the region of (5-150) cm(-1). The SB barrier goes through a dynamic change with no centrosymmetric form which depends on the wave function or charge distribution. In spite of A ˜ 2 Σ g + exited state, the B ˜ 2 ∏ g excited configuration contributes to the ground state ( B ˜ 2 ∏ g - X ˜ 2 Σ u + ) for forming radicals. The SB did not occur for the anion form (B2N((-))) in any electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> and charges distribution. Finally, we have modified the Columbic term of the Schrödinger equation to define the parameters "αα' and ββ'" in order to investigate the SBs subject. PMID:26633353</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641071"><span id="translatedtitle">The membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and its representation by a constant <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in computer simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roux, Benot</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>A theoretical framework is elaborated to account for the effect of a transmembrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> in computer simulations. It is shown that a simulation with a constant external <span class="hlt">electric</span> field applied in the direction normal to the membrane is equivalent to the influence of surrounding infinite baths maintained to a voltage difference via ion-exchanging electrodes connected to an electromotive force. It is also shown that the linearly-weighted displacement charge within the simulation system tracks the net flow of charge through the external circuit comprising the electromotive force and the electrodes. Using a statistical mechanical reduction of the degrees of freedom of the external system, three distinct theoretical routes are formulated and examined for the purpose of characterizing the free energy of a protein embedded in a membrane that is submitted to a voltage difference. The W-route is constructed from the variations in the voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">potential</span> of mean force along a reaction path connecting two conformations of the protein. The Q-route is based on the average displacement charge as a function of the conformation of the protein. Finally, the G-route considers the relative charging free energy of specific residues, with and without applied membrane <span class="hlt">potentials</span>. The theoretical formulation is illustrated with a simple model of an ion crossing a vacuum slab surrounded by two aqueous bulk phases and with a fragment of the voltage-sensor of the KvAP potassium channel. PMID:18641071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014803"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> production of biosurfactants under <span class="hlt">electric</span> field supplied to clayey soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ju, L.; Elektorowicz, M.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The possibility of the introduction of nutrients and bacteria into clayey soil using electrokinetic methodology makes bioremediation more popular. However, biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by their low solubility. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> production of biosurfactants in clayey soil under the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field was presented in this study. The electrokinetic cell tests were carried out to investigate the production of biosurfactants in the contaminated soil and soil without contaminants. The results showed that there was 1.5 times higher production in the soil contaminated by phenanthrene than that without it. In the middle of the electrokinetic cell, there are more biosurfactants produced than at the anode and the cathode areas. It was observed that there was migration of micelles with the electromigration and electroosmosis. In spite of the anionic properties of biosurfactant, the movement of the micelle was only partially directed to the anode. It was also observed that the electroosmosic flow transported micelles to the cathode. The results suggested the possibility of production of biosurfactants under the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field and uniform distribution in the subsoil. The results could find a direct applicability in the enhanced remediation of PAH-contaminated sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566583','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566583"><span id="translatedtitle">Myoelectric activity along human gastrocnemius medialis: Different spatial distributions of postural and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> elicited surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodson-Tole, Emma F.; Loram, Ian D.; Vieira, Taian M.M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It has recently been shown that motor units in human medial gastrocnemius (MG), activated during standing, occupy relatively small territories along the muscles longitudinal axis. Such organisation provides <span class="hlt">potential</span> for different motor tasks to produce differing regional patterns of activity. Here, we investigate whether postural control and nerve <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation produce equal longitudinal activation patterns in MG. Myoelectric activity, at different proximaldistal locations of MG, was recorded using a linear electrode array. To ensure differences in signal amplitude between channels did not result from local, morphological factors two experimental protocols were completed: (i) quiet standing; (ii) <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the tibial nerve. Averaged, rectified values (ARVs) were calculated for each channel in each condition. The distribution of signals along electrode channels was described using linear regression and differences between protocols at each channel determined as the ratio between mean ARV from standing: stimulation protocols. Ratio values changed systematically across electrode channels in seven (of eight) participants, with larger values in distal channels. The distribution of ARV along MG therefore differed between experimental conditions. Compared to fibres of units activated during MG nerve stimulation, units activated during standing may have a tendency to be more highly represented in the distal muscle portion. PMID:22967836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402871"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of local <span class="hlt">electric</span> surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> on holes charging process in uncapped germanium nanocrystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marchand, Aude; El Hdiy, Abdelillah</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>The charging kinetics of holes are investigated in an uncapped Ge nanocrystal by the use of the nano-electron beam induced current technique. The charging process is studied under zero volt or under an appropriate <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The investigation is repeated many times on the same nanocrystal and on others in the same sample to attest of the reproducibility of the results. At 0 V, the cycles of charging kinetics are superimposed and are in a steady state, but an instantaneous local and negative surface <span class="hlt">potential</span>, established in the nanocrystal at the beginning of the kinetics, slows down the holes charging process. Under an external field, the energy band bending accentuation affects the holes charging time constants. As a result, the holes charging cycles weakly affect the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> performance of the thin oxide as is indicated by the value of the measured local resistivity of 6 × 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} Ω cm, which is relatively lower than that of the thick thermal oxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23632279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23632279"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> artifact rejection by independent component analysis: technique validation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akhoun, Idrick; McKay, Colette M; El-Deredy, Wael</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electrically</span>-evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> (ECAP) is the synchronous whole auditory nerve activity in response to an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulus, and can be recorded in situ on cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. A novel procedure (ECAP-ICA) to isolate the ECAP from the stimulation artifact, based on independent component analysis (ICA), is described here. ECAPs with artifact (raw-ECAPs) were sequentially recorded for the same stimulus on 9 different intracochlear recording electrodes. The raw-ECAPs were fed to ICA, which separated them into independent sources. Restricting the ICA projection to 4 independent components did not induce under-fitting and was found to explain most of the raw-data variance. The sources were identified and only the source corresponding to the neural response was retained for artifact-free ECAP reconstruction. The validity of the ECAP-ICA procedure was supported as follows: N1 and P1 peaks occurred at usual latencies; and ECAP-ICA and artifact amplitude-growth functions (AGFs) had different slopes. Concatenation of raw-ECAPs from multiple stimulus currents, including some below the ECAP-ICA threshold, improved the source separation process. The main advantage of ECAP-ICA is that use of maskers or alternating polarity stimulation are not needed. PMID:23632279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544715"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>We explore the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> quadrupole transitions 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}, 6d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several competitive {sup A}Ra{sup +} candidates, with A= 223-229, are identified. In particular, we show that the transition 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F=2,m{sub F}=0)-6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} (F=0,m{sub F}=0) at 828 nm in {sup 223}Ra{sup +}, with no linear Zeeman and <span class="hlt">electric</span> quadrupole shifts, stands out as a relatively simple case, which could be exploited as a compact, robust, and low-cost atomic clock operating at a fractional frequency uncertainty of 10{sup -17}. With more experimental effort, the {sup 223,225,226}Ra{sup +} clocks could be pushed to a projected performance reaching the 10{sup -18} level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093574','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093574"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite-geometry models of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field noise from patch <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in ion traps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, Guang Hao; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L.</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>We model <span class="hlt">electric</span> field noise from fluctuating patch <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on conducting surfaces by taking into account the finite geometry of the ion trap electrodes to gain insight into the origin of anomalous heating in ion traps. The scaling of anomalous heating rates with surface distance d is obtained for several generic geometries of relevance to current ion trap designs, ranging from planar to spheroidal electrodes. The influence of patch size is studied both by solving Laplace's equation in terms of the appropriate Green's function as well as through an eigenfunction expansion. Scaling with surface distance is found to be highly dependent on the choice of geometry and the relative scale between the spatial extent of the electrode, the ion-electrode distance, and the patch size. Our model generally supports the d{sup -4} dependence currently found by most experiments and models, but also predicts geometry-driven deviations from this trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in an ovine model for the evaluation of visual prosthesis efficacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barriga-Rivera, Alejandro; Eiber, Calvin D; Dodds, Christopher W D; Fung, Adrian T; Tatarinoff, Veronica; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Visual prostheses are becoming a reality as a therapy to restore functional vision to the blind. New stimulation strategies and novel electrode designs are contributing to accelerate the development of such devices triggering the interest of scientists, clinicians and the blind community worldwide. In this scenario, there is a need for large animal models that are suitable for preclinical testing of retinal neuroprostheses. This study presents an electrophysiology assessment of an ovine model for single and simultaneous electrode stimulation from the suprachoroidal space, using symmetric biphasic current pulses with a monopolar return configuration. Visually and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were recorded using supradural surface electrodes, showing charge thresholds comparable to those in humans. This model represents an alternative to feline or canine models with analogous activation levels and an eye anatomy similar to that of humans. PMID:26737012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7256287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7256287"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in human brain during cognition: new method reveals dynamic patterns of correlation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gevins, A S; Doyle, J C; Cutillo, B A; Schaffer, R E; Tannehill, R S; Ghannam, J H; Gilcrease, V A; Yeager, C L</p> <p>1981-08-21</p> <p>A new technique has been developed for identifying, in humans, dynamic spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">electrical</span> patterns of the brain during purposive behaviors. In this method, single-trial time-series correlations between brain macropotentials recorded from different scalp sites are analyzed by distribution-independent mathematical pattern recognition. Dynamic patterns of correlation clearly distinguished two brief visuomotor tasks differing only in type of mental judgement required (spatial or numeric). These complex patterns shifted in the anterior-posterior and left-right axes between successive 175-millisecond intervals, indicating that many areas in both cerebral hemispheres were involved even in these simple judgements. These patterns were not obtainable by conventional analysis of averaged evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> or by linear analysis of correlations, suggesting that the new technique will advance the study of human brain activity related to cognition and goal-directed behaviors. PMID:7256287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15016431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15016431"><span id="translatedtitle">Dipolar source modelling of brain <span class="hlt">potentials</span> evoked by painful <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the human sigmoid colon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drewes, Asbjrn Mohr; Rssel, Petra; Le Pera, Domenica; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Valeriani, Massimiliano</p> <p>2004-03-18</p> <p>The aim of the study was to compare the cerebral generators following painful stimulation of the sigmoid colon and the abdominal skin in 11 healthy subjects. The evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (EPs) were recorded from 31 surface electrodes following painful <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimuli of the sigmoid colon, and of the referred pain area on the abdomen. Current dipole models estimating the EPs amplitude and topography were calculated. For colon stimulation, the earliest cortical activities were described by dipoles in the bilateral insula and in the anterior cingulate cortex, while both secondary somatosensory areas were activated later. When the skin was stimulated, early bilateral dipoles in the primary and secondary somatosensory areas were estimated, followed by a dipole in the frontal region. This suggests that painful cutaneous and visceral stimuli are processed differently in the brain. PMID:15016431</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219325"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages. Existing Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>This document presents the most cost effective Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all <span class="hlt">electric</span> homes to achieve 15% and 30% <span class="hlt">savings</span> for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> are typically found between 30% and 50% energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4284729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4284729"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> of Root Cell Plasma Membranes: Implications for Ion Interactions, Rhizotoxicity, and Uptake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yi-Min; Kinraide, Thomas B.; Wang, Peng; Hao, Xiu-Zhen; Zhou, Dong-Mei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many crop plants are exposed to heavy metals and other metals that may intoxicate the crop plants themselves or consumers of the plants. The rhizotoxicity of heavy metals is influenced strongly by the root cell plasma membrane (PM) surfaces <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (?0). The usually negative ?0 is created by negatively charged constituents of the PM. Cations in the rooting medium are attracted to the PM surface and anions are repelled. Addition of ameliorating cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) to the rooting medium reduces the effectiveness of cationic toxicants (e.g., Cu2+ and Pb2+) and increases the effectiveness of anionic toxicants (e.g., SeO42? and H2AsO4?). Root growth responses to ions are better correlated with ion activities at PM surfaces ({IZ}0) than with activities in the bulk-phase medium ({IZ}b) (IZ denotes an ion with charge Z). Therefore, electrostatic effects play a role in heavy metal toxicity that may exceed the role of site-specific competition between toxicants and ameliorants. Furthermore, ?0 controls the transport of ions across the PM by influencing both {IZ}0 and the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference across the PM from the outer surface to the inner surface (Em,surf). Em,surf is a component of the driving force for ion fluxes across the PM and controls ion-channel voltage gating. Incorporation of {IZ}0 and Em,surf into quantitative models for root metal toxicity and uptake improves risk assessments of toxic metals in the environment. These risk assessments will improve further with future research on the application of electrostatic theory to heavy metal phytotoxicity in natural soils and aquatic environments. PMID:25493475</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MeApp..12..319F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MeApp..12..319F"><span id="translatedtitle">Using dew points to estimate <span class="hlt">savings</span> during a planned cooling shutdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friedlein, Matthew T.; Changnon, David; Musselman, Eric; Zielinski, Jeff</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In an effort to <span class="hlt">save</span> money during the summer of 2003, Northern Illinois University (NIU) administrators instituted a four-day working week and stopped air conditioning buildings for the three-day weekends (Friday through Sunday). Shutting down the air conditioning systems caused a noticeable drop in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> usage for that part of the campus that features in our study, with estimated total <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> of 1,268,492 kilowatt-hours or 17% of the average usage during that eight-week period. NIU's air conditioning systems, which relied on evaporative cooling to function, were sensitive to dew point levels. Greatest <span class="hlt">savings</span> during the shutdown period occurred on days with higher dew points. An examination of the regional dew point climatology (1959 2003) indicated that the average summer daily dew point for 2003 was 14.9C (58.8F), which fell in the lowest 20% of the distribution. Based on the relationship between daily average dew points and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> usage, a predictive model that could estimate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> daily <span class="hlt">savings</span> was created. This model suggests that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> related to any future three-day shutdowns over summer could be much greater in more humid summers. Studies like this demonstrate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> value of applying climatological information and of integrating this information into practical decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Nanot..20q5104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Nanot..20q5104C"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous mechanical stiffness and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements of living vascular endothelial cells using combined atomic force and epifluorescence microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Callies, Chiara; Schn, Peter; Liashkovich, Ivan; Stock, Christian; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Fels, Johannes; Strter, Alexandra S.; Oberleithner, Hans</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The degree of mechanical stiffness of vascular endothelial cells determines the endogenous production of the vasodilating gas nitric oxide (NO). However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. Experiments on vascular endothelial cells suggest that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> plasma membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> is involved in this regulatory process. To test this hypothesis we developed a technique that simultaneously measures the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and stiffness of vascular endothelial cells (GM7373 cell line derived from bovine aortic endothelium) under continuous perfusion with physiological electrolyte solution. The cellular stiffness was determined by nano-indentation using an atomic force microscope (AFM) while the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> was measured with bis-oxonol, a voltage-reporting fluorescent dye. These two methods were combined using an AFM attached to an epifluorescence microscope. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and mechanical stiffness of the same cell were continuously recorded for a time span of 5 min. Fast fluctuations (in the range of seconds) of both the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and mechanical stiffness could be observed that were not related to each other. In contrast, slow cell depolarizations (in the range of minutes) were paralleled by significant increases in mechanical stiffness. In conclusion, using the combined AFM-fluorescence technique we monitored for the first time simultaneously the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> plasma membrane <span class="hlt">potential</span> and mechanical stiffness in a living cell. Vascular endothelial cells exhibit oscillatory non-synchronized waves of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and mechanical stiffness. The sustained membrane depolarization, however, is paralleled by a concomitant increase of cell stiffness. The described method is applicable for any fluorophore, which opens new perspectives in biomedical research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=191922','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=191922"><span id="translatedtitle">CELL-SURFACE <span class="hlt">ELECTRICAL</span> <span class="hlt">POTENTIAL</span>: A DEMONSTRATION OF ITS IMPORTANCE FOR ION BIOAVAILABILITY AND A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR ITS COMPUTATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Plasma membranes (PMs) are negatively charged, and this creates a negative PM-surface <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (PSI) that is also controlled by the ionic composition of the bathing medium. PSI controls the distribution of ions between the PM surface and the medium so that negative <span class="hlt">potentials</span> increase t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..11910184J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..11910184J"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge balance and ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> dynamics in time-dependent global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jánský, Jaroslav; Pasko, Victor P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have developed a time-dependent model of global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit (GEC) in spherical coordinates. The model solves time-dependent charge continuity equation coupled with Poisson's equation. An implicit time stepping is used to avoid a strict dielectric relaxation time step condition, and boundary conditions for Poisson's equation are implemented to allow accurate description of time evolution of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The concept of impulse response of GEC is introduced that allows effective representation of complex time dynamics of various physical quantities in the circuit using model results obtained for instantaneous deposition of a point charge. The more complex problems are then reconstructed using convolution and linearity principles. For a point charge instantaneously deposited at a typical thundercloud altitude the impulse response of the charge density shows induction of the same value and polarity charge at the ionospheric boundary, while charge of the same value but opposite sign is moving down logarithmically with time and neutralizes the source point charge on time scale corresponding to the dielectric relaxation time at altitude of the source point charge. The ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> is modified immediately with input of the source point charge based on free space solution of Poisson's equation. Then the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> relaxes. It is shown that during formation of two main charge centers of the thundercloud, typically represented by a current dipole, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> can be determined from the difference of time integrals of two ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> impulse responses corresponding to charge locations at the opposite ends of the current dipole. For latitude- and longitude-independent conductivity model, the total charge on the Earth is exactly zero at all times. During cloud-to-ground lightning discharge, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes instantaneously by a value proportional to the charge moment change produced by lightning and then relaxes to zero. For a typical charge moment change of 35Ckm and lightning frequency 10s-1, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> changes by 9.3kV; this value agrees well with the results presented by Rycroft et al. and Rycroft and Odzimek.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1074149.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1074149.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of 3-D Mechanical Models of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Circuits and Their Effect on Students' Understanding of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Difference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Balta, Nuri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Visualizing physical concepts through models is an essential method in many sciences. While students are mostly proficient in handling mathematical aspects of problems, they frequently lack the ability to visualize and interpret abstract physical concepts in a meaningful way. In this paper, initially the <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuits and related concepts were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041335&hterms=scalar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dscalar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920041335&hterms=scalar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dscalar"><span id="translatedtitle">A combined vector <span class="hlt">potential</span>-scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> method for FE computation of 3D magnetic fields in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> devices with iron cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A method of combined use of magnetic vector <span class="hlt">potential</span> based finite-element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> (MSP) based formulations for computation of three-dimensional magnetostatic fields is introduced. In this method, the curl-component of the magnetic field intensity is computed by a reduced magnetic vector <span class="hlt">potential</span>. This field intensity forms the basic of a forcing function for a global magnetic scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> solution over the entire volume of the region. This method allows one to include iron portions sandwiched in between conductors within partitioned current-carrying subregions. The method is most suited for large-scale global-type 3-D magnetostatic field computations in <span class="hlt">electrical</span> devices, and in particular rotating <span class="hlt">electric</span> machinery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204679','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204679"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> market size and opportunities for biomass to <span class="hlt">electricity</span> projects in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perlack, R.D.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Efforts are currently underway to assess the market <span class="hlt">potential</span> and prospects for the US private sector in biomass energy development in Yunnan Province. Among the specific objectives of the study are to: estimate the likely market size and competitiveness of biomass energy, assess the viability of US private sector ventures; assess non-economic factors (e.g., resource, environmental, social, political, institutional) that could affect the viability of biomass energy; and recommend appropriate actions to help stimulate biomass initiatives. Feasibility studies show that biomass projects in Yunnan Province are financially and technically viable. Biomass can be grown and converted to <span class="hlt">electricity</span> at costs lower than other alternatives. These projects if implemented can ease power shortages and help to sustain the region`s economic growth. The external environmental benefits of integrated biomass projects are also <span class="hlt">potentially</span> significant. This paper summarizes a two-step screening and rank-ordering process that is being used to identify the best candidate projects for possible US private sector investment. The process uses a set of initial screens to eliminate projects that are not technically feasible to develop. The remaining projects are then rank-ordered using a multicriteria technique.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156420','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156420"><span id="translatedtitle">On the phase shift between <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plasma density fluctuations in the edge turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shchepetov, S. V. Kholnov, Yu. V.; Vasil'kov, D. G.</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>In some cases, the phase shift between fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and plasma density helps to identify the instability that governs the turbulent state. In this paper, the basic experimental and theoretical results that denote the possibility (or impossibility) of such identification are briefly discussed. The experimental data based on measurements of the phase shift between the floating <span class="hlt">potential</span> and ion saturation current fluctuations in the L-2M stellarator-a system with externally imposed magnetic surfaces-are presented (Shchepetov, Kholnov, Fedyanin, et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 045001 (2008)). It is shown that the observed phase shift {Omega} varies in a wide range from {pi} to 0, gradually decreasing with deepening inside the plasma. A number of arguments are presented suggesting that {Omega} Almost-Equal-To {pi} can indicate that the process is nonlocal, i.e., oscillations at a given spatial point are driven and mainly determined by the processes localized outside of the observation point. We note that, within the framework of the magnetohydrodynamic theory, plasma was definitely unstable with respect to resistive interchange modes in all cases under study. It is demonstrated experimentally that the widespread notion that the phase shift {Omega} Almost-Equal-To {pi}/2 is characteristic of only resistive interchange modes is hardly universal. The experimental results are analyzed on the basis of analytical estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9009M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9009M"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of the global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit and Ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> in a general circulation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mareev, E. A.; Volodin, E. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A general circulation model of the atmosphere and ocean INMCM4.0 (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Coupled Model) is used for modeling the global <span class="hlt">electric</span> circuit short-time variability and long-term evolution. The ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> parameterization is proposed which takes into account quasi-stationary currents of electrified clouds (including thunderstorms) as principal contributors into the DC global circuit. The diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> (IP) are modeled and compared with available data. Numerical simulations suggest that the IP decreases in the mean with the global warming due to increasing greenhouse gas emission (by about 10% during the 21st century if the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 Wm-2 scenario is assumed). At the same time the lightning flash rate increases with global warming by about 5 fl/s per degree. Interannual IP variability is low and does not exceed 1% of the mean value, being tightly correlated with the mean sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean (El Nio area).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24928383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24928383"><span id="translatedtitle">Turning waste into valuable resource: <span class="hlt">potential</span> of <span class="hlt">electric</span> arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sapia, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper explores the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of a hazardous waste of difficult management, <span class="hlt">electric</span> arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its <span class="hlt">potential</span> as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust. PMID:24928383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5477545','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5477545"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects three years after <span class="hlt">potential</span> exposure to the toxic contaminants of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transformer fire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, E.F.; Weinstein, A.L.; Youngblood, L.G.; Standfast, S.J.; Melius, J.M. )</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>A medical surveillance program has been established for 482 persons who were <span class="hlt">potentially</span> exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transformer fire in a Binghamton, NY office building in 1981. Vital Record and Cancer Registry data, medical records, and mail questionnaires were used to assess mortality, symptomatology, cancer incidence, and reproductive events through 1984. The numbers of deaths, cancers, fetal deaths, and infants with low birth weight or congenital malformations were similar to those expected on the basis of age- and sex-specific rates for upstate New York and other comparison populations. Two suicides were observed compared with 0.31 expected, but the difference was not statistically significant. After adjustment for possible confounders, persons with the greatest degree of <span class="hlt">potential</span> exposure were significantly more likely than those with less exposure to report unexplained weight loss (relative risk (RR) = 12.80), muscle pain (RR = 5.07), frequent coughing (RR = 4.14), skin color changes (RR = 3.49), and nervousness or sleep problems (RR = 3.19). The possibility of recall bias and the intervening effects of stress, however, weaken the conclusion that toxic chemicals caused the symptomatology. Exposure-related systemic disorders, e.g., chloracne or peripheral neuropathy, were not diagnosed by personal physicians; however, some persons refused to release their medical records because of ongoing litigation. The findings are consistent with those of our earlier assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253434"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic equivalence of transmembrane pH and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences in ATP synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu</p> <p>2012-03-16</p> <p>ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (?pH) across the membrane and transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (??). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ? subunit, ?pH imposed by acid-base transition and ?? produced by valinomycin-mediated K(+) diffusion <span class="hlt">potential</span> contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (?pH -0.3 to 2.2, ?? -30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ?pH or ?? alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. ?? was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K(+) inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K(+) from the lipid. PMID:22253434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308813','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308813"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Equivalence of Transmembrane pH and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Differences in ATP Synthesis*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (ΔpH) across the membrane and transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (Δψ). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ϵ subunit, ΔpH imposed by acid-base transition and Δψ produced by valinomycin-mediated K+ diffusion <span class="hlt">potential</span> contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (ΔpH −0.3 to 2.2, Δψ −30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ΔpH or Δψ alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. Δψ was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K+ inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K+ from the lipid. PMID:22253434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820010494','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820010494"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for <span class="hlt">potential</span> service in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility gas turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high <span class="hlt">potential</span> for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show <span class="hlt">potential</span> for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2506840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2506840"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects three years after <span class="hlt">potential</span> exposure to the toxic contaminants of an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transformer fire.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, E F; Weinstein, A L; Youngblood, L G; Standfast, S J; Melius, J M</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A medical surveillance program has been established for 482 persons who were <span class="hlt">potentially</span> exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from an <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transformer fire in a Binghamton, NY office building in 1981. Vital Record and Cancer Registry data, medical records, and mail questionnaires were used to assess mortality, symptomatology, cancer incidence, and reproductive events through 1984. The numbers of deaths, cancers, fetal deaths, and infants with low birth weight or congenital malformations were similar to those expected on the basis of age- and sex-specific rates for upstate New York and other comparison populations. Two suicides were observed compared with 0.31 expected, but the difference was not statistically significant. After adjustment for possible confounders, persons with the greatest degree of <span class="hlt">potential</span> exposure were significantly more likely than those with less exposure to report unexplained weight loss (relative risk [RR] = 12.80), muscle pain (RR = 5.07), frequent coughing (RR = 4.14), skin color changes (RR = 3.49), and nervousness or sleep problems (RR = 3.19). The possibility of recall bias and the intervening effects of stress, however, weaken the conclusion that toxic chemicals caused the symptomatology. Exposure-related systemic disorders, e.g., chloracne or peripheral neuropathy, were not diagnosed by personal physicians; however, some persons refused to release their medical records because of ongoing litigation. The findings are consistent with those of our earlier assessment. PMID:2506840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRA..116.8219G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRA..116.8219G"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of magnetotail reconnection to the cross-polar cap <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gordeev, E. I.; Sergeev, V. A.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Palmroth, M.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Since the work of Dungey (1961), the global circulation pattern with two (dayside and nightside) reconnection regions has become a classic concept. However, the contributions of dayside and nightside sources to the cross-polar cap <span class="hlt">potential</span> (PCP) are not fully understood, particularly, the relative role and specifics of the nightside source are poorly investigated both in quantitative and qualitative terms. To fill this gap, we address the contributions of dayside and nightside sources to the PCP by conducting global MHD simulations with both idealized solar wind input and an observed event input. The dayside source was parameterized by solar wind-based “dayside merging potential” Φd = LeffVBt sin4($\\theta$/2), whereas to characterize the nightside source we integrated across the tail the dawn-dusk <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in the plasma sheet (to obtain the “cross-tail potential” Φn). For the idealized run we performed simulations using four MHD codes available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center to show that contribution of the nightside source is a code-independent feature (although there are many differences in the outputs provided by different codes). Particularly, we show that adding a nightside source to the linear fit function for the ionospheric <span class="hlt">potential</span> (i.e., using the fit function Φfit = KdΦd + KnΦn + Φ0) considerably improves the fitting results both in the idealized events as well as in the simulation of an observed event. According to these simulations the nightside source contribution to the PCP has a fast response time (<5 min) and a modest efficiency (<span class="hlt">potential</span> transmission factor from tail to the ionosphere is small, Kn < 0.2), which is closely linked to the primarily inductive character of strong <span class="hlt">electric</span> field generated in the plasma sheet. The latter time intervals are marked by strongly enhanced nightside (lobe) reconnection and can be associated with substorm expansion phases. This association is further strengthened by the simulated patterns of precipitation, the R1-type field-aligned substorm current wedge currents and Hall electrojet currents, which are consistent with the known substorm signatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846875"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of genes associated with yield <span class="hlt">potential</span> and water-<span class="hlt">saving</span> in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield <span class="hlt">potential</span> and water-<span class="hlt">saving</span> were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-<span class="hlt">saving</span> gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding programmes aiming at improving yield and water use efficiency in Shijiazhuang located in China Zone II. PMID:25846875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777153"><span id="translatedtitle">Transepithelial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> of nonsensory region of gerbil utricle in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marcus, D C</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Transepithelial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (VT) was measured across the vestibular labyrinth of the inner ear in vitro by puncturing the epithelial wall of the utricle with a glass microelectrode. A region of nonsensory cells of the utricle was isolated from the sensory regions by introducing columns of liquid Sylgard 184. Under control conditions, the VT of this region was +7.5 +/- 0.3 mV (means +/- SE), lumen positive. This <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference was rapidly reduced by either 1 mM ouabain, 10-100 microM bumetanide, 0.5-5.0 mM Ba (in the bathing solution), or cooling, but not by the disulfonic stilbene, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Changes in VT due to reductions of Cl or Na or to increases of K in the bathing solution in exchange for presumably impermeant ions were observed in this region and were compared with those in a preparation in which the insulating seals were absent. The K-induced voltage change was significantly higher in the unblocked preparation, a finding consistent with a high K permeability of the sensory cells. The voltage change due to reduction of Cl was not inhibited by Cl channel blockers (9-anthracenecarboxylate and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate) in the bathing solution. These results represent the first direct demonstration that the nonsensory cells of the utricle produce a lumen-positive active-transport <span class="hlt">potential</span> and characterize some of the properties of the cell membranes in terms of their pharmacological sensitivities and net voltage responses to changes in the bathing medium ions Na, K, and Cl. PMID:3777153</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188079','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188079"><span id="translatedtitle">Unusual <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Burns Caused by Communication Disc Contact with a High-voltage <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Transmission Cable: a <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Occupational Hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fadeyibi, I.O.; Izegbu, M.C.; Benebo, A.S.; Ademuluyi, S.A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Summary The case reported is that of a communications technician admitted to hospital with 38% burns sustained while climbing a communications mast. The mast was erected less than 3 metres from a 33 kv <span class="hlt">electric</span> transmission cable. His condition is described, as also the treatment he received until his discharge three months later. In the absence of guidelines regarding the erection of such masts, a number of recommendations are made. PMID:21991082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820017234&hterms=reduction+Cost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dreduction%2BCost','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820017234&hterms=reduction+Cost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dreduction%2BCost"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> reduction of DSN uplink energy cost</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in source energy (oil or <span class="hlt">electricity</span>) <span class="hlt">savings</span> are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP24B..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP24B..06W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Anisotropic Aphid: Three-Dimensional Induction Modeling of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Texture with Mixed <span class="hlt">Potentials</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss, C. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>At the macroscopic scale, where the e-folding distance of low-frequency electromagnetic fields in conductive geomaterials is much larger than the size of organized heterogeneities such as fracture sets or laminations that constitute the geologic texture therein, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> properties can be conveniently approximated by a generalized 3x3 tensor ?. Less convenient, however, are the algorithmic consequences of this approximation in electromagnetic modeling of 3D induction methods for geophysical exploration. Previous efforts at modelling generalized anisotropy with finite differences on a staggered Cartesian grid (e.g. Weiss and Newman, 2002; Wang and Fang, 2001) are posed in terms of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field with its governing "curl-curl" equation and well-documented null-space issues at low induction numbers. In contrast, Weiss (2013) proposed an alternate full-physics formulation in terms of Lorenz-gauged magentic vector A and <span class="hlt">electric</span> scalar ? <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (Project APhiD) that eliminates the troublesome curl-curl operator, with ultrabroadband examples drawn from geologies with scalar, isotropic conductivity over the frequency range 10-2-1010 Hz. Here, the anisotropic theory presented in Weiss (2013) is implemented with finite differences on a Cartesian grid. Briefly stated, in this theoretical approach the conductivity tensor ? is split in terms of a rotationally-invariant isotropic conductivity ?* = ? Tr(?) and the residual ? - ?*I. This splitting decomposes the resulting finite difference coefficient matrix K into the sum Kiso + Kaniso, where the Kiso term is the coefficient matrix for the isotropic medium ?*, thus enabling reuse of the various routines previously developed for computing matrix coefficients in the isotropic case. Treatment of anisotropy is algorithmically therefore restricted to computing the coefficients in the sparse matrix Kaniso consisting of simple inner products of (? - ?*I) (A-??) and their divergence. In keeping with the philosophy of economizing the compute resource footprint, the anisotropic finite difference algorithm is solved in a matrix-free formulation whereby coefficient matrices are computed as needed at each step of the iterative BiCG-STAB solver used to solve the finite difference system of equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.104e1104S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.104e1104S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability enhancement of an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> window</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shim, HongShik; Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Lim, Joohyun; Gyu Han, Moon; Lee, Jin-Kyu</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external <span class="hlt">electric</span> field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during <span class="hlt">electrical</span> switching. By introducing larger electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012824','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012824"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of novel <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polymers: <span class="hlt">Potential</span> conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films and conducting polymers on defined surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimmer, Hans</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Based on previous results involving thiophene derived <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polymers in which it was shown that thiophene, 3-substituted thiophenes, furans, and certain oligomers of these compounds showed <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity after polymerization. The conductivity was in the order of up to 500 S/cm. In addition, these polymers showed conductivity without being doped and most of all they were practically inert toward ambient conditions. They even could be used in aqueous media. With these findings as a guide, a number of 3-long-chain-substituted thiophenes and 1-substituted-3-long-chain substituted pyrrols were synthesized as monomers for <span class="hlt">potential</span> polymeric <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22283267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22283267"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability enhancement of an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> window</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shim, HongShik; Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr</p> <p>2014-02-03</p> <p>The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an <span class="hlt">electrically</span> tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external <span class="hlt">electric</span> field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during <span class="hlt">electrical</span> switching. By introducing larger electrochemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5l7214D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5l7214D"><span id="translatedtitle">Solutions for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and field distribution in cylindrical core-shell nanoparticles using the image charge method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daneshfar, Nader; Moradbeigi, Nasrin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This article considers the problem of finding the electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> that is given in terms of a scalar function called Green function in dielectric cylindrical nanoparticles with core-shell structure using the image charge method. By using this method that allows us to solve differential form of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> problem by the Green function, we investigate the distribution of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field in the configuration of a cylindrical nanoparticle surrounded by a continuum dielectric medium. By utilizing this well-known method, we obtain exact analytical formulas for the electrostatic <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the <span class="hlt">electric</span> field inside the shell, core and surrounding space of nanoparticle that can be applied to analysis of electromagnetic problems, electrostatic interactions in biomolecular simulations and also computer simulations of condensed-matter media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814632"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Economic Impact of <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, SW</p> <p>2001-10-30</p> <p>Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma <span class="hlt">electric</span> industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9%, lowering the need for new capacity and reduce prices during the peak demand. (5) Changes to <span class="hlt">electric</span> prices on the order of 5% to 20% will have only a modest effect on overall economic activity within the state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90677"><span id="translatedtitle">Pollution prevention cost <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Celeste, J.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2048988','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2048988"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic-<span class="hlt">electric</span> interactions in the guinea pig auditory nerve: Simultaneous and forward masking of the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nourski, Kirill V.; Abbas, Paul J.; Miller, Charles A.; Robinson, Barbara K.; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The study investigated the time course of the effects of acoustic and <span class="hlt">electric</span> stimulation on the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> (ECAP). Adult guinea pigs were used in acute experimental sessions. Bursts of acoustic noise and high-rate (5000 pulses/s) <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulse trains were used as maskers. Biphasic <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulses were used as probes. ECAPs were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk. Simultaneous masking of the ECAP with acoustic noise featured an onset effect and a decrease in the amount of masking to a steady state. It was characterized by a two-component exponential function. The amount of masking increased with masker level and decreased with probe level. Post-stimulatory ECAP recovery often featured a non-monotonic time course, described by a three-component exponent. <span class="hlt">Electric</span> maskers produced similar post-stimulatory effects in hearing and acutely deafened subjects. Acoustic stimulation affects the ECAP in a level- and time-dependent manner. Simultaneous masking follows a time course comparable to that of adaptation to an acoustic stimulus. Refractoriness, spontaneous activity, and adaptation are suggested to play a role in ECAP recovery. Post-stimulatory changes in synchrony, possibly due to recovery of spontaneous activity and an additional hair-cell independent mechanism, are hypothesized to contribute to the observed non-monotonicity of recovery. PMID:17723284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1166834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1166834"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garimella, Venkata BS; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective <span class="hlt">potentials</span> can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g. turning ions by 90o and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also feasible. The performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198429','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198429"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garimella, Sandilya V.B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective <span class="hlt">potentials</span> can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining and manipulating ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g. turning ions by 90° and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also shown feasible. The performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which are also shown to agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design. PMID:25257188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4377379','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4377379"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the Effects of Acupoint Antioxidant Intervention by Measuring <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Difference along the Meridian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming-Ming; Guo, Jing-Ke; Xu, Jin-Sen; Zhang, Chao-Xin; Liu, Shu-Tao; Liao, Ri-Tao; Lin, Chun-Tong; Guo, Jian-Hui; Rao, Ping-Fan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies suggest that superoxide anions are possibly traveling along acupuncture meridians. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference (EPD) between acupoints may be related to the movement. To test the above hypothesis, we conducted a study investigating the effects of acupoint antioxidant interventions on the meridian EPD. Firstly, ST39 (L) and ST44 (L) were screened out for the EPD detection along the stomach meridian, and ST36 (L) was selected for interventions including acumassage with the control cream, as well as the TAT-SOD cream for 30 minutes, or injection with reduced glutathione sodium. The EPD between ST39 and ST44 was recorded for 80 minutes and measured again 48 h later. While the EPD increased during the acumassage, the acumassage with TAT-SOD cream and the glutathione injection generated waves of EPD increased, indicating the migration or removal from the visceral organ of a greater quantity of superoxide. Remarkably lower EPD readings 48 h later with both antioxidant acupoint interventions than the mere acumassage imply a more complete superoxide flushing out due to the restored superoxide pathway at the acupoint after interventions. The results confirm superoxide transportation along the meridians and demonstrate a possibility of acupoint EPD measurement as a tool to monitor changes in the meridians and acupoints. PMID:25861356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=221683','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=221683"><span id="translatedtitle">Transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in Rickettsia prowazekii and its relationship to lysine transport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zahorchak, R J; Winkler, H H</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The transmembrane <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> (delta psi) generated by Rickettsia prowazekii metabolizing glutamic acid or ATP was determined by flow dialysis with the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium and with lysine. At pH 7.0, the rickettsiae generated a delta psi as measured by tetraphenylphosphonium distribution of 90 mV. Under similar conditions, cells of R.prowazekii concentrated lysine to a gradient indicating a delta psi of 90 mV. Energy-starved cells of R. prowazekii were able to utilize exogenously supplied ATP as well as glutamic acid to generate a delta psi of 110 mV at pH 8.0. Lysine transport was markedly affected by environmental pH, the optimum pH ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. delta psi as measured with tetraphenyl-phosphonium was similarly affected in this system, with values ranging from 70 mV at pH 6.0 to 100 mV at pH 8.0. Respiration rates were also affected by the external pH, with a maximum rate of 28 nmol of O2 consumed per min per mg of rickettsial protein occurring at pH 8.0. The pH effects were readily reversible and with a rapid onset. PMID:6130061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRB..114.1208A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRB..114.1208A"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater flow and hydrothermal systems within volcanic edifices: Delineation by <span class="hlt">electric</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> and magnetotellurics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aizawa, Koki; Ogawa, Yasuo; Ishido, Tsuneo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The imaging of hydrothermal systems within volcanoes is critical in evaluating the nature and likelihood of future volcanic activity and hazard assessment. In this study, we present a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system in a volcanic edifice, as deduced from the relationship between <span class="hlt">electric</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) and high-resolution resistivity structures. In order to develop a comprehensive model of water flow in volcanoes, we conducted the audiofrequency (10,000-0.3 Hz) magnetotelluric surveys in five large stratovolcanoes (Iwate, Iwaki, Nasu, Nantai, and Nikko-Shirane) in Japan and found that the obtained 2-D resistivity profiles have a close relationship to the previously reported SP data: good extensive conductors occur beneath areas without SP anomalies, whereas good localized conductors only occur beneath large spatial wavelength SP anomalies on the volcano side of the SP minimum. Also taking into account the locations of surface geothermal activity, the good conductors roughly correspond to the hydrothermal zone, whose upper limit is sealed by a low-permeability clay layer. The sealing layer separates an upper groundwater flow from a lower hydrothermal flow in the subsurface and controls the geothermal manifestations and river locations on the surface. We confirmed the feasibility of the proposed model based on numerical simulations of a hydrothermal system. The horizontal extent of the hydrothermal zone is highly heterogeneous even in a volcanic edifice. This heterogeneity can reflect the geological age of flanks that may be related to the occurrence of a previous large sector collapse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7737931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7737931"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation in the compound action <span class="hlt">potential</span> response of the guinea pig VIIIth nerve to <span class="hlt">electric</span> stimulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Killian, M J; Klis, S F; Smoorenburg, G F</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>An experimental study, carried out in guinea pigs, was designed to investigate whether forward masking measured psychophysically in 3M-House cochlear implant users might have a correlate in VIIIth nerve activity. The study was based on <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked VIIIth nerve compound action <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (ECAPs), using a masking paradigm comparable to the one used in the psychophysical study. Trains of 50 maskers with inter-masker-intervals of 509 ms appeared to induce a long-term fatigue effect that could influence the recovery from adaptation measurements. Fatigue stabilized within about 1 to 3 min when masker trains were repeated with intervening silent intervals of 10.5 s. The change in amplitude of probe-evoked ECAPs with increasing masker-probe delays was determined within the steady fatigue state. The recovery-from-adaptation functions obtained from these measurements resembled the forward masking functions found in 3M-House cochlear implant users. No correlate of psychophysical backward masking was found at the VIIIth nerve level. To examine whether hair cells were involved in fatigue and recovery from adaptation, the measurements described above were carried out in intact cochleas and in cochleas without hair cells. Results were essentially the same in the different preparations. The results suggest that processes at the level of the VIIIth nerve could, at least partly, account for forward masking found in 3M-House cochlear implant users. Backward masking must be attributed to mechanisms located centrally to the VIIIth nerve. PMID:7737931</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717419"><span id="translatedtitle">Coarse-Grained Modeling of Nucleic Acids Using Anisotropic Gay-Berne and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Multipole <span class="hlt">Potentials</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Guohui; Shen, Hujun; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Yan; Wang, Honglei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this work, we attempt to apply a coarse-grained (CG) model, which is based on anisotropic Gay-Berne and <span class="hlt">electric</span> multipole (EMP) <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, to the modeling of nucleic acids. First, a comparison has been made between the CG and atomistic models (AMBER point-charge model) in the modeling of DNA and RNA hairpin structures. The CG results have demonstrated a good quality in maintaining the nucleic acid hairpin structures, in reproducing the dynamics of backbone atoms of nucleic acids, and in describing the hydrogen-bonding interactions between nucleic acid base pairs. Second, the CG and atomistic AMBER models yield comparable results in modeling double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. It is encouraging that our CG model is capable of reproducing many elastic features of nucleic acid base pairs in terms of the distributions of the interbase pair step parameters (such as shift, slide, tilt, and twist) and the intrabase pair parameters (such as buckle, propeller, shear, and stretch). Finally, The GBEMP model has shown a promising ability to predict the melting temperatures of DNA duplexes with different lengths. PMID:26717419</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AdSpR..21.1301M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AdSpR..21.1301M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of gravikinesis in paramecium is possibly mediated by filaments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machemer, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Sensitivity of Paramecium to mechanical stress including gravitational force is organized along two opposing gradients of membrane channel distribution: depolarizing Ca channels and hyperpolarizing K channels. Mechanoreceptor channels reside in the membrane of the cell soma and are activated, when the weight of the cytoplasm deforms the ``lower'' plasma membrane. Channel distribution is such as to generate ciliary activation which can counteract sedimentation of the cells: a reduction in downward swimming rate and an augmentation in upward swimming rate. Application of weak DC fields does not only induce the well-known cathodal orientation and swimming of Paramecium toward the cathode (galvanotaxis). We document that swimming velocity is augmented up to 175% as a function of the voltage gradient between 0.3 V/cm and 0.8 V/cm (galvanokinesis). A gradient of 0.3 V/cm was highly effective in raising the common negative gravikinesis of downward swimmers threefold. The gravikinesis of upward swimmers reversed polarity under field stimulation inducing cells to augment sedimentation effects (positive gravikinesis). Both effects of <span class="hlt">electric</span>-field stimulation on ciliary activation are of the depolarizing type: reduction in the frequency of normally beating cilia. Analysis of the data shows that a voltage-sensitivity of gravireceptor channels would not account for the observed <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of negative gravikinesis. It is suggested that a previously described voltage-dependent Ca channel of the soma membrane interferes with a Ca^2+-sensitive, peripheral filament system, which directly connects to gravireceptor channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453648.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453648.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saving</span> Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.</p> <p></p> <p>This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy <span class="hlt">saving</span> action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816531"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined energy-<span class="hlt">savings</span> calculations for heat-island reduction strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.</p> <p>2003-03-15</p> <p>We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of <span class="hlt">savings</span> for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or <span class="hlt">electricity</span> as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and <span class="hlt">savings</span> are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock <span class="hlt">savings</span> ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2. For residences heated with <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, the <span class="hlt">savings</span> ranged from 350 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2 for Pre-1980 stock and 190-600 kWh/1000ft2 for 1980+ stocks. In climates with less than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> were not significantly higher than winter heating penalties. For gas-heated office buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 1100-1500 kWh/1000ft2 and 360-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For <span class="hlt">electrically</span> heated office buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 700-1400 kWh/1000ft2 and 100-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. Similarly, for gas-heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 1300-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 370-750 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For <span class="hlt">electrically</span> heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the range of 1200-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 250-750 kW h/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980 + stocks, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75f1906J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75f1906J"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-consistent analyses for <span class="hlt">potential</span> conduction block in nerves by an ultrashort high-intensity <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, R. P.; Mishra, A.; Hu, Q.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Pakhomov, A.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Simulation studies are presented that probe the possibility of using high-field (>100kV/cm) , short-duration (50ns) <span class="hlt">electrical</span> pulses for nonthermal and reversible cessation of biological <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signaling pathways. This would have obvious applications in neurophysiology, clinical research, neuromuscular stimulation therapies, and even nonlethal bioweapons development. The concept is based on the creation of a sufficiently high density of pores on the nerve membrane by an <span class="hlt">electric</span> pulse. This modulates membrane conductance and presents an effective <span class="hlt">electrical</span> short to an incident voltage wave traveling across a nerve. Net blocking of action <span class="hlt">potential</span> propagation can then result. A continuum approach based on the Smoluchowski equation is used to treat electroporation. This is self-consistently coupled with a distributed circuit representation of the nerve dynamics. Our results indicate that poration at a single neural segment would be sufficient to produce an observable, yet reversible, effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789965"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> impacts of <span class="hlt">electric</span> power production utilizing natural gas, renewables and carbon capture and sequestration on US Freshwater resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tidwell, Vincent C; Malczynski, Leonard A; Kobos, Peter H; Klise, Geoffrey T; Shuster, Erik</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has important implications relative to future thermoelectric water use. A bounding analysis is performed using past greenhouse gas emission policy proposals and assumes either all effected capacity retires (lower water use bound) or is retrofitted (upper bound). The analysis is performed in the context of recent trends in <span class="hlt">electric</span> power generation expansion, namely high penetration of natural gas and renewables along with constrained cooling system options. Results indicate thermoelectric freshwater withdrawals nationwide could increase by roughly 1% or decrease by up to 60% relative to 2009 levels, while consumption could increase as much as 21% or decrease as much as 28%. To identify where changes in freshwater use might be problematic at a regional level, <span class="hlt">electric</span> power production has been mapped onto watersheds with limited water availability (where consumption exceeds 70% of gauged streamflow). Results suggest that between 0.44 and 0.96 Mm(3)/d of new thermoelectric freshwater consumption could occur in watersheds with limited water availability, while power plant retirements in these watersheds could yield 0.90 to 1.0 Mm(3)/d of water <span class="hlt">savings</span>. PMID:23789965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NucFu..42.1289T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NucFu..42.1289T"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies of breakeven prices and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and <span class="hlt">potential</span> <span class="hlt">electricity</span> supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy <span class="hlt">saving</span>, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, but not selected under the BAU case and 650 ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, and (3) the share of <span class="hlt">electricity</span> in 2100 produced by the presently designed tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (introduced after 2060) is well below 30%. It should be noted that these conclusions are based upon varieties of uncertainties in scenarios and data assumptions on nuclear fusion as well as technological options.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24801682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24801682"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> across neuronal membranes: the effect of fixed charges on spinal ganglion neurons and neuroblastoma cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinto, Thiago M; Wedemann, Roseli S; Cortez, Célia M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a model for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile across the membranes of neuronal cells. We considered the resting and action <span class="hlt">potential</span> states, and analyzed the influence of fixed charges of the membrane on its <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, based on experimental values of membrane properties of the spinal ganglion neuron and the neuroblastoma cell. The spinal ganglion neuron represents a healthy neuron, and the neuroblastoma cell, which is tumorous, represents a pathological neuron. We numerically solved the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the regions of the membrane model we have adopted, by considering the densities of charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmic proteins. Our model predicts that there is a difference in the behavior of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profiles of the two types of cells, in response to changes in charge concentrations in the membrane. Our results also describe an insensitivity of the neuroblastoma cell membrane, as observed in some biological experiments. This <span class="hlt">electrical</span> property may be responsible for the low pharmacological response of the neuroblastoma to certain chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:24801682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4011737','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4011737"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> across Neuronal Membranes: The Effect of Fixed Charges on Spinal Ganglion Neurons and Neuroblastoma Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pinto, Thiago M.; Wedemann, Roseli S.; Cortez, Célia M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a model for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profile across the membranes of neuronal cells. We considered the resting and action <span class="hlt">potential</span> states, and analyzed the influence of fixed charges of the membrane on its <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>, based on experimental values of membrane properties of the spinal ganglion neuron and the neuroblastoma cell. The spinal ganglion neuron represents a healthy neuron, and the neuroblastoma cell, which is tumorous, represents a pathological neuron. We numerically solved the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the regions of the membrane model we have adopted, by considering the densities of charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmic proteins. Our model predicts that there is a difference in the behavior of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> profiles of the two types of cells, in response to changes in charge concentrations in the membrane. Our results also describe an insensitivity of the neuroblastoma cell membrane, as observed in some biological experiments. This <span class="hlt">electrical</span> property may be responsible for the low pharmacological response of the neuroblastoma to certain chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:24801682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ohm&pg=2&id=EJ837703','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ohm&pg=2&id=EJ837703"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span>, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102419','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102419"><span id="translatedtitle">Two independent forms of activity-dependent <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> regulate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission at mixed synapses on the Mauthner cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cachope, Roger; Pereda, Alberto E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Mixed (<span class="hlt">electrical</span> and chemical) synaptic contacts on the Mauthner cells, known as Club endings, constitute a valuable model for the study of vertebrate <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission. While <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses are still perceived by many as passive intercellular channels that lack modifiability, a wealth of experimental evidence shows that gap junctions at Club endings are subject to dynamic regulatory control by two independent activity-dependent mechanisms that lead to <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission. One of those mechanisms relies on activation of NMDA receptors and postsynaptic CaMKII. A second mechanism relies on mGluR activation and endocannabinoid production and is indirectly mediated via the release of dopamine from nearby varicosities, which in turn leads to <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> of the synaptic response via a PKA-mediated postsynaptic mechanism. We review here these two forms of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span> and their signaling mechanisms, which include the activation of two kinases with well-established roles as regulators of synaptic strength, as well as the functional implications of these two forms of <span class="hlt">potentiation</span>. PMID:22771708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126.1049K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126.1049K"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Demand and Regional <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Capacity of Distributed Generators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo</p> <p></p> <p>We established a procedure for estimating regional <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand and regional <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional <span class="hlt">potential</span> capacity of DGs to regional maximum <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future <span class="hlt">electricity</span> distribution system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1382861','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1382861"><span id="translatedtitle">Oesophageal sensation assessed by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimuli and brain evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span>--a new model for visceral nociception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frbert, O; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Bak, P; Funch-Jensen, P; Bagger, J P</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Sensory thresholds and brain evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were determined in 12 healthy volunteers using <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the oesophagus 28 and 38 cm from the nares. The peaks of the evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were designated N for negative deflections and P for positive. Continuous <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation (40 Hz) at the 38 cm position resembled heartburn (five of 12 subjects) while non-specific ('<span class="hlt">electrical</span>') sensations were provoked at 28 cm (10 of 12). Thresholds of sensation and of pain were lower at the initial than the second determination, but did not differ with respect to stimulation site. The pain summation threshold to repeated stimuli (2 Hz, 5 stimuli) was determined for the first time in a viscus. This threshold was lower than the pain threshold to single stimuli at 38 cm (p < 0.02). Evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> latencies did not change significantly over a six month period while the N1/P2 amplitude was higher at the first measurement (p < 0.05). P1 and N1 latencies were significantly shorter 38 cm (medians 100 and 141 ms) than 28 cm from the nares (102 and 148 ms) (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008). <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation of the oesophagus may serve as a human experimental model for visceral pain. Longer evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> latencies from the proximal compared with distal stimulations provide new information about the sensory pathways of the oesophagus. PMID:8549932</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+current&pg=4&id=EJ837703','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+current&pg=4&id=EJ837703"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about <span class="hlt">Electric</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span>, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1571..432S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1571..432S"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of vertical <span class="hlt">electrical</span> sounding (VES) in subsurface geological investigation for <span class="hlt">potential</span> aquifer in Lahad Datu, Sabah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saleh, Hardianshah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>40 Vertical <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Sounding (VES) stations were established to investigate the subsurface geology and aquifer <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the area of Dent Group sedimentary rock. Dent Group sedimentary rock consists of Sebahat, Ganduman and Togopi Formation with the age of Late Miocene until Pleistocene. VES technique was performed by measuring the resistivity change with depth. The resistivity measurements were conducted using ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter by using Schlumberger electrode configuration with maximum current electrode separation of 500m. Interpreted VES data in the Sebahat Formation produces three to four geo-<span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity layers. Most of the geo-<span class="hlt">electrical</span> layers show low resistivity value (1-10 Ohm-m) that indicate the formation was mainly made of clay or shale materials. VES results in the Ganduman Formation indicates that the formation dominated by layers of sandstone and mudstone mixed with siltstone layer. Generally, the Ganduman Formation gives four to five geo-<span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity layers. While Togopi Formation produced 3 to 4 geo-<span class="hlt">electrical</span> layers interpreted as sandstone for the first layer, mudstone for the second layer and followed by layer containing several block of limestone. The geo-<span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity results indicate that Ganduman and Togopi Formations have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to become aquifer. The VES method has successfully detected the soil material layers in Ganduman and Togopi formations which were supported by the existing borehole data. Combination of sandstone and mudstone layers indicate that the Ganduman Formation possibly become semi-confined aquifer. Furthermore, the Ganduman Formation also producing artesian wells in some areas that were found at a number of production wells in the study area. Similarly, the Togopi Formation is also having dominated sandy layer that can be a <span class="hlt">potential</span> aquifer. In addition, the limestone blocks in the Togopi Formation could also become a <span class="hlt">potential</span> aquifer, whilst for the Sebahat Formation which consist of mudstone is interpreted to be an aquitard layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+conditioning+AND+system&pg=3&id=EJ134485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+conditioning+AND+system&pg=3&id=EJ134485"><span id="translatedtitle">Wall System <span class="hlt">Saves</span> Initial HVAC Costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Modern Schools, 1976</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The superior insulating characteristics of an exterior wall system has enabled a Massachusetts school district to realize a <span class="hlt">savings</span> on <span class="hlt">electric</span> heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketers+AND+market&pg=4&id=ED426484','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketers+AND+market&pg=4&id=ED426484"><span id="translatedtitle">Deregulation of the <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Industry and Its <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Benefits for School Districts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watkiss, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electric</span> utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the <span class="hlt">electric</span>-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130390','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130390"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Coordinating Council</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.</p> <p>2014-02-24</p> <p>This report, Analysis of <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and <span class="hlt">potentially</span> updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to analyze the proposed energy corridors in the WECC report in five topic areas: Federal land jurisdiction, Existing Section 368 corridors, Existing transmission lines, Previously studied corridor locations, and Protected areas. Analysis methods are explained and tables and maps are provided to describe the results of the analyses in all five topic areas. WECC used a rational approach to connecting the hubs it identified, although there may be opportunities for adapting some of the proposed WECC routes to previously designated Section 368 corridors, for example: The WECC proposed energy corridors are in fact centerlines of proposed routes connecting hubs of various descriptions related to <span class="hlt">electric</span> energy transmission. Although the centerlines were sited to avoid sensitive areas, infrastructure proposed within actual pathways or corridors defined by the centerlines would sometimes affect lands where such development would not normally be allowed, such as National Parks and Monuments, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness Areas. Many WECC proposed energy corridors are sited along centerlines of existing roads, including Interstate Highways, where in some cases additional width to accommodate energy transmission infrastructure may not be available. Examples include the WECC Proposed Corridor along Interstate 70 through Glenwood Canyon in Colorado, and along U.S. Highway 89 across Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. Several WECC proposed energy corridors are parallel to designated Section 368 corridors that have already cleared the preliminary steps to right-of-way approval. In many of these cases, the WECC hub connection objectives can be met more efficiently by routing on the designated Section 368 corridors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814439"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Economic Impact of <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase I Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, SW</p> <p>2001-03-27</p> <p>Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma <span class="hlt">electric</span> industry. This Phase I report concentrates on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. In Phase II, a longer-term analysis will be conducted, incorporating the <span class="hlt">potential</span> of new generation resources and customer responses. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Oak Ridge Competitive <span class="hlt">Electricity</span> Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate marginal-cost-based and regulated prices for the state. The model dispatches the state's power plants to meet the demands from all customers based on the marginal cost of production. Consequent market-clearing prices for each hour of the year are applied to customers' demands to determine the average prices paid. The revenues from the sales are paid to each plant for their generation, resulting in a net profit or loss depending on the plant's costs and prices when it operates. Separately, the model calculates the total cost of generation, including fixed costs such as depreciation, interest and required return on equity. These costs are allocated among the customer classes to establish regulated prices for each class. These prices can be compared to the average market-based prices to see if prices increase or decrease with restructuring. An unchanging transmission and distribution (T&D) component is added to both types of generation prices to determine the overall price of power to each customer class. A base case was established for the state as a whole, using the set of plants and customer demands from 1999 based on data from various industry and government sources. Energy demands from the different customer classes were defined, including wholesale sales outside the state. Plant ownership by specific utilities, whether investor-owned, government, or cooperatives, was not used as a factor in the analysis, except in the generic cost of capital for the different types of utilities. The results showed an average price increase of roughly one cent per kilowatt-hour under a restructured market. This is because in a regulated market each plant will earn just enough to pay all costs and earn a reasonable return on equity. In a restructured market, where prices are based on marginal costs of the most expensive plant operating at any given time, some plants may earn little or nothing over the year while others earn more than the regulated rate of return.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7d5801G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7d5801G"><span id="translatedtitle">Can switching fuels <span class="hlt">save</span> water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired <span class="hlt">electricity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grubert, Emily A.; Beach, Fred C.; Webber, Michael E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Thermal <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas power sector, a shift under consideration due to <span class="hlt">potential</span> environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal powers water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005E%26PSL.235..343A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005E%26PSL.235..343A"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal system beneath Mt. Fuji volcano inferred from magnetotellurics and <span class="hlt">electric</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aizawa, K.; Yoshimura, R.; Oshiman, N.; Yamazaki, K.; Uto, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Tank, S. B.; Kanda, W.; Sakanaka, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Uyeshima, M.; Ogawa, T.; Shiozaki, I.; Hurst, A. W.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Wideband magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were carried out on Mt. Fuji volcano along a northeast to southwest axis. It was found by two-dimensional inversion using the highest quality data (in the frequency range 1-300 Hz) that a good conductor (resistivity of approximately a few ohm m) was located beneath the summit with a lateral extent of approximately 4 km. It begins approximately 1 km below the ground surface; however, its depth cannot be resolved. In our previous study, an intense positive self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) anomaly (approximately 2000 mV), was found around a summit crater having a diameter of approximately 3 km. We interpreted the presence of the good conductor and positive SP anomaly as a strong indication of an active hydrothermal system. Subsequently, we searched for conduction current sources to explain the SP distribution on the surface by using the resistivity structure determined by the MT inversion. The results obtained were that a positive conduction current source of the order of 1000 A should be located at the top of the conductor. From these results, we deduced that the conductor represents a hydrothermal system in which single-phase (liquid) convection is taking place. Since the resistivity at a distance from the good conductor can be explained by the effect of cold groundwater, the hydrothermal system does not seem to extend throughout the entire body of the volcano, but seems to be confined to the area beneath the summit crater. Finally, an estimate of the order of magnitude of the subsurface hydrothermal flow was performed using a relation between the fluid volume flux and <span class="hlt">electric</span> current density in the capillary model. The result suggested that there exists fairly low permeability within the shallow part of Mt. Fuji. We speculate that the low permeability in the volcano has a correlation with the confinement of the hydrothermal system and quiescence of volcanic activities, such as low seismicity, no gas emanations, and no natural hot springs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2170471','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2170471"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">potential</span> management zones from soil <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, yield and crop data*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and <span class="hlt">potential</span> crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6a1007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6a1007B"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Surface <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> Double-Layer Structure at the Aqueous Electrolyte-Nanoparticle Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Matthew A.; Abbas, Zareen; Kleibert, Armin; Green, Richard G.; Goel, Alok; May, Sylvio; Squires, Todd M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The structure of the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double layer has been debated for well over a century, since it mediates colloidal interactions, regulates surface structure, controls reactivity, sets capacitance, and represents the central element of electrochemical supercapacitors. The surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> of such surfaces generally exceeds the electrokinetic <span class="hlt">potential</span>, often substantially. Traditionally, a Stern layer of nonspecifically adsorbed ions has been invoked to rationalize the difference between these two <span class="hlt">potentials</span>; however, the inability to directly measure the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> of dispersed systems has rendered quantitative measurements of the Stern layer <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and other quantities associated with the outer Helmholtz plane, impossible. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid microjet to measure the absolute surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span> of silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous electrolytes. We quantitatively determine the impact of specific cations (Li+ , Na+ , K+ , and Cs+ ) in chloride electrolytes on the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span>, the location of the shear plane, and the capacitance of the Stern layer. We find that the magnitude of the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> increases linearly with the hydrated-cation radius. Interpreting our data using the simplest assumptions and most straightforward understanding of Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory reveals a Stern layer whose thickness corresponds to a single layer of water molecules hydrating the silica surface, plus the radius of the hydrated cation. These results subject <span class="hlt">electrical</span> double-layer theories to direct and falsifiable tests to reveal a physically intuitive and quantitatively verified picture of the Stern layer that is consistent across multiple electrolytes and solution conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223012"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimate of Cost-Effective <span class="hlt">Potential</span> for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span>, Environmental and Financial Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still <span class="hlt">saving</span> consumers money?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7728112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7728112"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the visual cortex be elicited <span class="hlt">electrically</span> despite severe retinal degeneration and a markedly reduced electroretinogram?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humayun, M; Sato, Y; Propst, R; de Juan, E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Outer retinal degenerations can cause severe visual handicap. Specific treatment is lacking. There is good histologic evidence that even in the face of total photoreceptor loss the ganglion cells remain viable. This study evaluates the possibility of eliciting an evoked <span class="hlt">potential</span> by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of rabbit eyes with experimentally induced outer retinal degenerations. <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation using a bipolar contact-lens electrode was performed in normal rabbits as well as in rabbits with experimentally induced outer retinal degenerations. Outer retinal degenerations were induced by injecting intravenously either monoiodoacetic acid (IAA) or sodium iodate (NaIO3). After administration of IAA or NaIO3, the electroretinogram was absent or markedly reduced and, histologically, the photoreceptor layer was severely damaged. However, the <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked visual cortical response could nonetheless be elicited. We conclude that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the globe can elicit evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> from the visual cortex despite severe outer retinal damage. These results provide support for future efforts toward testing the feasibility of bypassing damaged outer retina and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> stimulating the inner retina of patients with profound visual loss from retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:7728112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294330"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of pressure stimulated voltages in rocks using an <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.</p> <p>2009-09-21</p> <p>Recent interest in the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> activity in rock and the use of <span class="hlt">electric</span> field transients as candidates for earthquake precursors has led to studies of pressure stimulated currents in laboratory samples. In this paper, an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field sensor is used to measure directly the voltages associated with these currents. Stress was applied as uniaxial compression to marble and granite at an approximately constant rate. In contrast with the small pressure stimulated currents previously measured, large voltage signals are reported. Polarity reversal of the signal was observed immediately before fracture for the marble, in agreement with previous pressure stimulated current studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22h2001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22h2001S"><span id="translatedtitle">Electro-osmotic flow in a wavy microchannel: Coherence between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the wall shape function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shu, Y. C.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, Y. S.; Wang, C. Y.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The electro-osmotic flow through a wavy microchannel is studied under the Debye-Hückel approximation. An analytic solution by perturbation with appropriate averaging is carried out up to the second-order in terms of the small amplitude of corrugation. It is shown that the wavelength and phase difference of the corrugations can be utilized to control the flow relative to the case of flat walls. In particular, for thick <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers the electro-osmotic flow can be enhanced at long-wavelength corrugations because of the coherence between the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and the wall shape function. Notably, these findings are not restricted to small amplitudes of corrugation. By applying the Ritz method to solve for the electro-osmotic flow, it is found that the enhancement becomes even greater (up to 30%) with increases in corrugation. Moreover, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved by finite difference to study the electro-osmotic flow in terms of the relative strength of the zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The issue of overlapped <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers when they are very thick is also discussed. The relative flow rate is shown to increase under the following conditions: (i) completely out-of-phase corrugations with long wavelength and large amplitude, (ii) small zeta <span class="hlt">potential</span>, and (iii) slight overlapping of <span class="hlt">electric</span> double layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9519E..19H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9519E..19H"><span id="translatedtitle">Light absorption of cylindrical quantum dot with Morse <span class="hlt">potential</span> in the presence of parallel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Kotanjyan, T. V.; Tevosyan, H. K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The electronic states and direct interband light absorption are studied in the cylindrical quantum dot with Morse confining <span class="hlt">potential</span> made of GaAs in the presence of parallel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and magnetic fields. Within the framework of perturbation theory and variation method expressions are obtained for the particle energy spectrum. The effect of the external fields on direct interband light absorption of cylindrical quantum dot is investigated. Selection rules are obtained at presence of parallel <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and magnetic fields. The dependence of the absorption threshold on geometrical parameters of quantum dots and intensities of external fields is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039736&hterms=electrical+resistivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Delectrical%2Bresistivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039736&hterms=electrical+resistivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Delectrical%2Bresistivity"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and thermal conductivities, and <span class="hlt">potential</span> applications of graphite fluoride fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Cheh; Long, Martin; Stahl, Mark</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Graphite fluoride fibers can be produced by fluorinating pristine or intercalated graphite fibers. The higher the degree of graphitization of the fibers, the higher the temperature needed to reach the same degree of fluorination. Structural damage during high temperature fluorination can be reduced or eliminated by pretreating the fibers with bromine and/or fluorine. The <span class="hlt">electrical</span> resistivity of the fibers was in the 0.01 to 10 to the 11th ohm-cm range. The thermal conductivity of these fibers ranged from 5 to 75 W/m-K, which is much larger than the thermal conductivity of glass (1.1 W/m-K), the commonly used fiber in epoxy composites. A composite made from graphite fluoride fibers and epoxy or PTFE may be highly thermally conducting and <span class="hlt">electrically</span> insulating or semiconducting. The <span class="hlt">electrically</span> insulating product may be used as heat sinks for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> or electronic instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10134501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10134501"><span id="translatedtitle">A systems model and <span class="hlt">potential</span> leverage points for base load <span class="hlt">electric</span> generating options</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Price, L.G.; Sebo, D.E.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The mission and structure of <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities may change significantly to meet the challenges on the next several decades. In addition, providing <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy in an environmentally responsible manner will continue to be a major challenge. The methods of supplying <span class="hlt">electrical</span> power may change dramatically in the future as utilities search for ways to improve the availability and reliability of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> power systems. The role of large, base load generating capacity to supply the bulk of a utility`s <span class="hlt">electrical</span> power is evolving, but it will continue to be important for many years to come. The objective of this study is to examine the systems structure of five base load capacity options available to a utility and identify areas where technological improvements could produce significant changes in their systems. These improvements would enhance the likelihood that these options would be selected for providing future <span class="hlt">electrical</span> capacity. Technology improvements are identified and discussed, but it was beyond the scope of this work to develop strategies for specific Idaho National Engineering Laboratory involvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5403009','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5403009"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of tax, financing, and operating-cost incentives on retiree homeowners' current and <span class="hlt">potential</span> decisions to purchase energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> improvements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Long, A.W. Jr.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This study focused on retiree homeowners to determine their level of participation, causes of non-participation and the effect of selected incentive modifications on investment decisions. A descriptive-elemental approach was taken to explore three research questions. Fifty semi-structured interviews selected through restricted probability were conducted in Sun City, California. Findings were keyed to sex, age, education and income and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Retiree homeowners had coped with rising utility costs through modified usage practice rather than through energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> investments. Concerns over access to funding, required initial payout, return on investment, future prices of energy and risk were highest among those of least education or income. A desire to retain an existing life style was important to those of higher education and income. Level of awareness of incentive features was also a major decision factor. The analysis indicated that energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> investments will increase if retiree homeowners are offered shared-cost obligation by the individual, government, and utility; exemption from sales tax for all energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span>-item sales and service; state tax exemption for federal tax credits; exemption of energy-<span class="hlt">saving</span> improvements from property tax; continued federal tax credit; investment loans sufficiently available to meet demand; energy-producing equipment available for rent or lease at reasonable rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy+AND+Prices&pg=7&id=EJ333253','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy+AND+Prices&pg=7&id=EJ333253"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Save</span> Energy $.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814468"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Potential</span> For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hadley, SW</p> <p>2001-12-05</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining <span class="hlt">savings</span> were examined, including existing programs, surveys, <span class="hlt">savings</span> calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">savings</span> in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020) and water heating (14% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling <span class="hlt">savings</span> when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements. The study did not involve changes to the building shell (e.g., increased insulation) or residential lighting improvements. Nevertheless, the residential sector's market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> was calculated to be 5.3% of expected <span class="hlt">electrical</span> use, representing 850 GWh by 2020. Natural gas <span class="hlt">savings</span> could be 2.4% of expected gas use, representing 2.1 trillion Btus. Using expected prices for energy in that year, these represent <span class="hlt">savings</span> of $47 million and $12 million per year. In the commercial sector, the study only considered voluntary market-based policies for some of the technologies. The most notable <span class="hlt">savings</span> were in ventilation (12% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020), lighting (12% <span class="hlt">savings</span>), refrigeration (7% <span class="hlt">savings</span>), water heating (6% <span class="hlt">savings</span>), and space heating (5% <span class="hlt">savings</span> by 2020). The commercial sector's market <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> based on the programs modeled was calculated to be 5.1% of its total expected <span class="hlt">electrical</span> use, representing 605 GWh of power by 2020. Natural gas <span class="hlt">savings</span> were 2.3 trillion Btu, 3.7% of use. Using the same prices as the residential sector (5.5{cents}/kWh and $5.74/MBtu), the <span class="hlt">savings</span> represent $33 million and $13 million per year, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99...51S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">potential</span> impacts of <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This work analyses the <span class="hlt">potential</span> air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a <span class="hlt">potential</span> for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering <span class="hlt">electric</span> generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban air quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26019311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26019311"><span id="translatedtitle">Opioids <span class="hlt">potentiate</span> <span class="hlt">electrical</span> transmission at mixed synapses on the Mauthner cell.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cachope, Roger; Pereda, Alberto E</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Opioid receptors were shown to modulate a variety of cellular processes in the vertebrate central nervous system, including synaptic transmission. While the effects of opioid receptors on chemically mediated transmission have been extensively investigated, little is known of their actions on gap junction-mediated <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses. Here we report that pharmacological activation of mu-opioid receptors led to a long-term enhancement of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> (and glutamatergic) transmission at identifiable mixed synapses on the goldfish Mauthner cells. The effect also required activation of both dopamine D1/5 receptors and postsynaptic cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, suggesting that opioid-evoked actions are mediated indirectly via the release of dopamine from varicosities known to be located in the vicinity of the synaptic contacts. Moreover, inhibitory inputs situated in the immediate vicinity of these excitatory synapses on the lateral dendrite of the Mauthner cell were not affected by activation of mu-opioid receptors, indicating that their actions are restricted to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and glutamatergic transmissions co-existing at mixed contacts. Thus, as their chemical counterparts, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses can be a target for the modulatory actions of the opioid system. Because gap junctions at these mixed synapses are formed by fish homologs of the neuronal connexin 36, which is widespread in mammalian brain, it is likely that this regulatory property applies to <span class="hlt">electrical</span> synapses elsewhere as well. PMID:26019311</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24956620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24956620"><span id="translatedtitle">The forward problem of electroarthrography: modeling load-induced <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at the surface of the knee.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Qingyi; Buschmann, Michael D; Savard, Pierre</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Electroarthrography (EAG) is a novel technology recently proposed to detect cartilage degradation. EAG consists of recording <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the knee surface while the joint is undergoing compressive loading. Previous results show that these signals originating from streaming <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the cartilage reflect joint cartilage health. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the generation of the EAG signals and to the development of interpretation criteria using computer models of the human knee. The knee is modeled as a volume conductor composed of different regions characterized by specific <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivities. The source of the EAG signal is the load-induced interstitial fluid flow that transports ions within the compressed cartilage. It is modeled as an impressed current density in different sections of the articular cartilage. The finite-element method is used to compute the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in two knee models with a realistic geometry. The simulated <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions correlate very well with previously measured <span class="hlt">potential</span> values, which further supports the hypothesis that the EAG signals originate from compressed cartilage. Also, different localized cartilage defects simulated as a reduced impressed current density produce specific <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions that may be used to detect and localize cartilage degradation. In conclusion, given the structural and electrophysiological complexity of the knee, computer modeling constitutes an important tool to improve our understanding of the generation of EAG signals and of the various factors that affect the EAG signals so as to help develop the EAG technology as a useful clinical tool. PMID:24956620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..433T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..433T"><span id="translatedtitle">Bulk meltwater flow and liquid water content of snowpacks mapped using the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> (SP) method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Sarah S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Essery, Richard L. H.; Lüthi, Martin P.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Our ability to measure, quantify and assimilate hydrological properties and processes of snow in operational models is disproportionally poor compared to the significance of seasonal snowmelt as a global water resource and major risk factor in flood and avalanche forecasting. We show here that strong <span class="hlt">electrical</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> fields are generated in melting in situ snowpacks at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier, Switzerland. In agreement with theory, the diurnal evolution of self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> magnitudes ( ˜ 60-250 mV) relates to those of bulk meltwater fluxes (0-1.2 × 10-6 m3 s-1) principally through the permeability and the content, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity and pH of liquid water. Previous work revealed that when fresh snow melts, ions are eluted in sequence and <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, pH and self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> data change diagnostically. Our snowpacks had experienced earlier stages of melt, and complementary snow pit measurements revealed that <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity ( ˜ 1-5 × 10-6 S m-1) and pH ( ˜ 6.5-6.7) as well as permeabilities (respectively ˜ 9.7 × 10-5 and ˜ 4.3 × 10-5 m2 at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier) were invariant. This implies, first, that preferential elution of ions was complete and, second, that our self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> measurements reflect daily changes in liquid water contents. These were calculated to increase within the pendular regime from ˜ 1 to 5 and ˜ 3 to 5.5 % respectively at Rhone Glacier and Jungfraujoch Glacier, as confirmed by ground truth measurements. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> method is a promising snow and firn hydrology sensor owing to its suitability for (1) sensing lateral and vertical liquid water flows directly and minimally invasively, (2) complementing established observational programs through multidimensional spatial mapping of meltwater fluxes or liquid water content and (3) monitoring autonomously at a low cost. Future work should focus on the development of self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> sensor arrays compatible with existing weather and snow monitoring technology and observational programs, and the integration of self-<span class="hlt">potential</span> data into analytical frameworks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880016553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880016553"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in Ti-6Al-4V with <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Telesman, Jack</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> methods have been used in the past primarily to monitor crack length in long crack specimens subjected to fatigue loading. An attempt was made to develop test procedures for monitoring the fatigue crack initiation and the growth of short fatigue cracks in a turbine disk alloy with the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> drop technique (EPDT). In addition, the EPDT was also applied to monitor the fatigue crack growth in long crack specimens of the same alloy. The resolution of the EPDT for different specimen geometries was determined. Factors influencing the EPDT are identified and the applicability of EPDT in implementing damage tolerant design concepts for turbine disk materials is discussed. The experimental procedure adopted and the results obtained is discussed. No substantial differences were observed between the fatigue crack growth data of short and long crack specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3810599','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3810599"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient calculation of the quasi-static <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on a tetrahedral mesh and its implementation in STEPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hepburn, Iain; Cannon, Robert; De Schutter, Erik</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We describe a novel method for calculating the quasi-static <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> on tetrahedral meshes, which we call E-Field. The E-Field method is implemented in STEPS, which performs stochastic spatial reaction-diffusion computations in tetrahedral-based cellular geometry reconstructions. This provides a level of integration between <span class="hlt">electrical</span> excitability and spatial molecular dynamics in realistic cellular morphology not previously achievable. Deterministic solutions are also possible. By performing the Rallpack tests we demonstrate the accuracy of the E-Field method. Efficient node ordering is an important practical consideration, and we find that a breadth-first search provides the best solutions, although principal axis ordering suffices for some geometries. We discuss <span class="hlt">potential</span> applications and possible future directions, and predict that the E-Field implementation in STEPS will play an important role in the future of multiscale neural simulations. PMID:24194715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712447M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712447M"><span id="translatedtitle">Water <span class="hlt">saving</span> at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water <span class="hlt">potential</span> monitoring and irrigation management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water <span class="hlt">potential</span> (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water <span class="hlt">potential</span> (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was -30 kPa and, finally, from the end of May to the harvesting time (maturation process), irrigation was applied when SWP reached -25 kPa. Every time irrigation events were stopped when SWP at the field capacity (-10 kPa) was restored in the upper part of the root zone. Results showed a water <span class="hlt">saving</span> of nearly 50% using the Irrig-OH device, without consequences on the quantity and quality of the production. Plant physiological status based on LWP, T and CWSI measurements showed that despite the different irrigation treatments adopted, no considerable plant stress was found in both rows. In particular, maximum values of the previous indices, performed at midday, were respectively -2 MPa, 1.4 mm h-1 and 0.6, which were in good agreement with those observed by many researches for no-stressed peach orchards in Mediterranean areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1051847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1051847"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel</p> <p>2011-10-13</p> <p>An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that <span class="hlt">potential</span> for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 <span class="hlt">electricity</span> end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, <span class="hlt">electric</span> vehicle (EV) loads, <span class="hlt">electricity</span> storage, and load shifting on <span class="hlt">electricity</span> <span class="hlt">savings</span>; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span>. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could <span class="hlt">save</span> 5% of their total <span class="hlt">electricity</span> load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could <span class="hlt">save</span> the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Direct-DC provides no energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly influenced by climate. While direct-DC for residential applications will most likely arise as a spin-off of developments in the commercial sector—because of lower barriers to market entry and larger energy benefits resulting from the higher coincidence between load and insolation—this paper demonstrates that there are substantial benefits in the residential sector as well. Among residential applications, space cooling derives the largest energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> from being delivered by a direct-DC system. It is the largest load for the average residence on a national basis and is particularly so in high-load regions. It is also the load with highest solar coincidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.B32A..17K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.B32A..17K"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationship between the tree and its environment, based on <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference monitoring on trunk of trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppan, A.; Fenyvesi, A.; Szarka, L.; Wesztergom, V.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences (EPD) in the trunk of a Turkey oak tree (measured by using non-polarising electrodes deepened in the sap wood) have been continuously recorded in the Geophysical Observatory "Istv n Szchenyi" of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences since 1997. Besides of various geophysical observations, meteorological and direct sap-flow measurements have also been carried out in the observatory. As it was found (Kopp n A., Szarka L., Wesztergom V., 2000: Annual fluctuation in amplitudes of daily variations of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> signals measured in the trunk of a standing tree. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Life Sciences 323, 559-563), the measured <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> difference data have a characteristic sinusoidal daily fluctuation, and the intensity of the diurnal variations has a double-peak annual characteristics, which coincides with the life activity maximums of the tree. We have found a remarkable inter-correlation between trunk EPD, water <span class="hlt">potential</span> of air (derived from meteorological data), and direct sap flow velocity data from a neighboring tree. All these results clearly demonstrate that the sap streaming due to the transpiration and root pressure generates the largest part of measured <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences. The ratio of the flow velocity of a diluted solution forced through stems and the <span class="hlt">potential</span> differences was found to be constant (Gindl, W., Lppert, H.-G., Wimmer, R., 1999: Relationship between streaming <span class="hlt">potential</span> and sap velocity in Salix alba L. Phyton, 39, 217-224.). On the contrary in our in-vivo experiments the relationship between the measured sap flow velocity and EPD is non-linear, which means that the conductivity (i.e. ion concentration) of the xylem sap itself also has a daily fluctuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11084148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11084148"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensations and trigeminal somatosensory-evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> elicited by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of endosseous oral implants in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Loven, K; Jacobs, R; Swinnen, A; Van Huffel, S; Van Hees, J; van Steenberghe, D</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The perception of bipolar <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimuli through implants was studied. The stimuli were delivered to permucosal oral endosseous implants in 15 individuals, who then reported tapping to beating sensations. In 10 out of the 15, these stimuli evoked clearly distinguishable <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in the averaged electroencephalograms. The most prominent scalp <span class="hlt">potential</span> was a positive wave with a latency between 18 and 25 ms, often preceded by a negative wave with a latency around 12-17 ms. In contrast, when a motor response was elicited by stimulation of the lip, a shorter latency wave around 8-11 ms was found additionally, indicating that the former-mentioned waves represent a true sensory response and not an artefact of myogenous origin. Furthermore, topical anaesthesia of the gingiva surrounding the implants in six individuals had little effect on the sensory responses. This evidence excluded peri-implant mucosal innervation as the origin of the perception and of the somatosensory-evoked waves elicited by the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the oral implants. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time a sensation (osseoperception) has been elicited by <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of endosseous oral implants and correlated with simultaneously recorded trigeminal somatosensory-evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (TSEPs). PMID:11084148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55cDD12W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55cDD12W"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in organic thin-film transistor by bias-applied hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Takeshi; Tada, Keisuke; Yasuno, Satoshi; Oji, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Noriyuki; Hirosawa, Ichiro</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The effect of gate voltage on <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> in a pentacene (PEN) layer was studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under a bias voltage. It was observed that applying a negative gate voltage substantially increases the width of a C 1s peak. This suggested that injected and accumulated carriers in an organic thin film transistor channel modified the <span class="hlt">potential</span> depth profile in PEN. It was also observed that the C 1s kinetic energy tends to increase monotonically with threshold voltage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912142"><span id="translatedtitle">Postcontraction hyperemia after <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation: <span class="hlt">potential</span> utility in rehabilitation of patients with upper extremity paralysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shibata, Nobusuke; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Kudo, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kana; Mizutani, Takashi; Sato, Mineyoshi; Chida, Satoaki; Hatakeyama, Kazutoshi; Watanabe, Motoyuki; Shimada, Yoichi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to compare postcontraction hyperemia after <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation between patients with upper extremity paralysis caused by upper motor neuron diseases and healthy controls. Thirteen healthy controls and eleven patients with upper extremity paralysis were enrolled. The blood flow in the basilic vein was measured by ultrasound before the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the biceps brachii muscle and 30 s after the stimulation. The stimulation was performed at 10 mA and at a frequency of 70 Hz for 20 s. The mean blood flow in the healthy control group and in upper extremity paralysis group before the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation was 60 ± 20 mL/min (mean ± SD) and 48 ± 25 mL/min, respectively. After the stimulation, blood flow in both groups increased to 117 ± 23 mL/min and 81 ± 41 mL/min, respectively. We show that it is possible to measure postcontraction hyperemia using an ultrasound system. In addition, blood flow in both groups increased after the <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation because of postcontraction hyperemia. These findings suggest that evaluating post contraction hyperemia in patients with upper extremity paralysis can assess rehabilitation effects. PMID:26912142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981839"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2H <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment in a separable <span class="hlt">potential</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gibson, Benjamin; Afnan, I. R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of the <span class="hlt">electric</span> dipole moment of H or HE may well come prior to the coveted measurement of the neutron EDM. Exact model calculations for the deuteron are feasible, and we explore here the model dependence of such deuteron EDM calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10122421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10122421"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">potential</span> stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of <span class="hlt">electric</span> generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814057"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Stranded Commitments for U.S. Investor-Owned <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Utilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baxter, L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regulations are restructuring the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the <span class="hlt">electricity</span> industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. We developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing U.S. investor-owned <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of <span class="hlt">electric</span> generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754097"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different <span class="hlt">potential</span> tenderness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this study, the effect of pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field within 2h. Six different pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed <span class="hlt">electric</span> field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples. PMID:25754097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5623747','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5623747"><span id="translatedtitle">Residential conservation power plant study - Technical <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosenfeld, A.; Schuck, L.; Miller, P.; De La Moriniere, O.; Geller, H.; De Almeida, A.; Barkovitch, B.; Blumstein, C.; Goldstein, D.; Meier, A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This report analyzes the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for <span class="hlt">electricity</span> conservation in seven residential end uses - refrigerating, freezing, water heating, lighting, central air conditioning, cooking, and clothes drying. The analysis is based on the Pacific Gas and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Company service territory. It explores the costs and <span class="hlt">savings</span> of a range of new, energy-efficient technologies including some in the prototype stage, such as heat pump and microwave clothes dryers, bi-radiant ovens, evacuated panel refrigerator insulation, and low temperature dishwashers. The authors develop three alternative scenarios of energy demand through 2005, documenting the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for up to 56% reduction in peak power demand and 44% reduction in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/451182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/451182"><span id="translatedtitle">Measured energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> and performance of power-managed personal computers and monitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Personal computers and monitors are estimated to use 14 billion kWh/year of <span class="hlt">electricity</span>, with power management <span class="hlt">potentially</span> <span class="hlt">saving</span> $600 million/year by the year 2000. The effort to capture these <span class="hlt">savings</span> is lead by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Energy Star program, which specifies a 30W maximum demand for the computer and for the monitor when in a {open_quote}sleep{close_quote} or idle mode. In this paper the authors discuss measured energy use and estimated <span class="hlt">savings</span> for power-managed (Energy Star compliant) PCs and monitors. They collected <span class="hlt">electricity</span> use measurements of six power-managed PCs and monitors in their office and five from two other research projects. The devices are diverse in machine type, use patterns, and context. The analysis method estimates the time spent in each system operating mode (off, low-, and full-power) and combines these with real power measurements to derive hours of use per mode, energy use, and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Three schedules are explored in the {open_quotes}As-operated,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Standardized,{close_quotes} and `Maximum` <span class="hlt">savings</span> estimates. Energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> are established by comparing the measurements to a baseline with power management disabled. As-operated energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> for the eleven PCs and monitors ranged from zero to 75 kWh/year. Under the standard operating schedule (on 20% of nights and weekends), the <span class="hlt">savings</span> are about 200 kWh/year. An audit of power management features and configurations for several dozen Energy Star machines found only 11% of CPU`s fully enabled and about two thirds of monitors were successfully power managed. The highest priority for greater power management <span class="hlt">savings</span> is to enable monitors, as opposed to CPU`s, since they are generally easier to configure, less likely to interfere with system operation, and have greater <span class="hlt">savings</span>. The difficulties in properly configuring PCs and monitors is the largest current barrier to achieving the <span class="hlt">savings</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> from power management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10c6018D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10c6018D"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of finite element model of transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation using scalp <span class="hlt">potentials</span>: implications for clinical dose</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Datta, Abhishek; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Yuzhou; Parra, Lucas C.; Bikson, Marom</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Objective. During transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation, current passage across the scalp generates voltage across the scalp surface. The goal was to characterize these scalp voltages for the purpose of validating subject-specific finite element method (FEM) models of current flow. Approach. Using a recording electrode array, we mapped skin voltages resulting from low-intensity transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation. These voltage recordings were used to compare the predictions obtained from the high-resolution model based on the subject undergoing transcranial stimulation. Main results. Each of the four stimulation electrode configurations tested resulted in a distinct distribution of scalp voltages; these spatial maps were linear with applied current amplitude (0.1 to 1 mA) over low frequencies (1 to 10 Hz). The FEM model accurately predicted the distinct voltage distributions and correlated the induced scalp voltages with current flow through cortex. Significance. Our results provide the first direct model validation for these subject-specific modeling approaches. In addition, the monitoring of scalp voltages may be used to verify electrode placement to increase transcranial <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation safety and reproducibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5616561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5616561"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> growth of nuclear and coal <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation in the US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electricity</span> demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity over the next fifty years. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will require solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear, the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. This report assesses the impacts associated with a range of projected growth rates in <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand over the next 50 years. The resource requirements and waste generation resulting from pursuing the coal and nuclear fuel options to meet the projected growth rates are estimated. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Improvements in technology and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety concerns about <span class="hlt">electricity</span> generation from both options. 34 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648550','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648550"><span id="translatedtitle">Nerve Growth Factor-Immobilized <span class="hlt">Electrically</span> Conducting Fibrous Scaffolds for <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Use in Neural Engineering Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae Y.; Bashur, Chris A.; Milroy, Craig A.; Forciniti, Leandro; Goldstein, Aaron S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Engineered scaffolds simultaneously exhibiting multiple cues are highly desirable for neural tissue regeneration. To this end, we developed a neural tissue engineering scaffold that displays submicrometer-scale features, <span class="hlt">electrical</span> conductivity, and neurotrophic activity. Specifically, electrospun poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers were layered with a nanometer thick coating of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> conducting polypyrrole (PPy) presenting carboxylic groups. Then, nerve growth factor (NGF) was chemically immobilized onto the surface of the fibers. These NGF-immobilized PPy-coated PLGA (NGF-PPyPLGA) fibers supported PC12 neurite formation (28.0±3.0% of the cells) and neurite outgrowth (14.2 µm median length), which were comparable to that observed with NGF (50 ng/mL) in culture medium (29.0±1.3%, 14.4 µm). <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> stimulation of PC12 cells on NGF-immobilized PPyPLGA fiber scaffolds was found to further improve neurite development and neurite length by 18% and 17%, respectively, compared to unstimulated cells on the NGF-immobilized fibers. Hence, submicrometer-scale fibrous scaffolds that incorporate neurotrophic and electroconducting activities may serve as promising neural tissue engineering scaffolds such as nerve guidance conduits. PMID:21712166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P43F..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P43F..06W"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory studies of magnetic anomaly effects on <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> distributions near the lunar surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, X.; Robertson, S. H.; Horanyi, M.; NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Moon does not have a global magnetic field, unlike the Earth, rather it has strong crustal magnetic anomalies. Data from Lunar Prospector and SELENE (Kaguya) observed strong interactions between the solar wind and these localized magnetic fields. In the laboratory, a configuration of a horseshoe permanent magnet below an insulating surface is used as an analogue of lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. Plasmas are created above the surface by a hot filament discharge. <span class="hlt">Potential</span> distributions are measured with an emissive probe and show complex spatial structures. In our experiments, electrons are magnetized with gyro-radii r smaller than the distance from the surface d (r < d) and ions are un-magnetized with r > d. Unlike negative charging on surfaces with no magnetic fields, the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the center of the magnetic dipole is found close to the plasma bulk <span class="hlt">potential</span>. The surface charging is dominated by the cold unmagnetized ions, while the electrons are shielded away. A <span class="hlt">potential</span> minimum is formed between the center of the surface and the bulk plasma, most likely caused by the trapped electrons between the two magnetic mirrors at the cusps. The value of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> minimum with respect to the bulk plasma <span class="hlt">potential</span> decreases with increasing plasma density and neutral pressure, indicating that the mirror-trapped electrons are scattered by electron-electron and electron-neutral collisions. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> at the two cusps are found to be more negative due to the electrons following the magnetic field lines onto the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25968422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25968422"><span id="translatedtitle">From Chemical Gardens to Fuel Cells: Generation of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potential</span> and Current Across Self-Assembling Iron Mineral Membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barge, Laura M; Abedian, Yeghegis; Russell, Michael J; Doloboff, Ivria J; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We examine the electrochemical gradients that form across chemical garden membranes and investigate how self-assembling, out-of-equilibrium inorganic precipitates-mimicking in some ways those generated in far-from-equilibrium natural systems-can generate electrochemical energy. Measurements of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> and current were made across membranes precipitated both by injection and solution interface methods in iron-sulfide and iron-hydroxide reaction systems. The battery-like nature of chemical gardens was demonstrated by linking multiple experiments in series which produced sufficient <span class="hlt">electrical</span> energy to light an external light-emitting diode (LED). This work paves the way for determining relevant properties of geological precipitates that may have played a role in hydrothermal redox chemistry at the origin of life, and materials applications that utilize the electrochemical properties of self-organizing chemical systems. PMID:25968422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChPhL..26h7202L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChPhL..26h7202L"><span id="translatedtitle">CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONICSTRUCTURE, <span class="hlt">ELECTRICAL</span>, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: <span class="hlt">Potential</span>-Dependent Generalized Einstein Relation in Disordered Organic Semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Jiu-Xun; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Da</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The generalized Einstein relation (GER) is extended to consider the <span class="hlt">potential</span> energy of carriers in an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field (PDGER). It can be equivalently seen as the GER having position-dependent Fermi energy, and implies the organic semiconductor is in non-equilibrium under an <span class="hlt">electric</span> field. The distribution of the carrier density with position is solved for two polymer layers. The numerical results are used to evaluate the PDGER. It is shown that the ratio of diffusion coefficient to mobility, ?/D, increases with Fermi energy and decreases with carrier density. The PDGER gives non-traditional values for the two polymer layers; the value of ?/D is small near the surface, and slightly increases as the position departs from the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020252','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020252"><span id="translatedtitle">Dipole and quadrupole synthesis of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> fields. M.S. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tilley, D. G.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A general technique for expanding an unknown <span class="hlt">potential</span> field in terms of a linear summation of weighted dipole or quadrupole fields is described. Computational methods were developed for the iterative addition of dipole fields. Various solution <span class="hlt">potentials</span> were compared inside the boundary with a more precise calculation of the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to derive optimal schemes for locating the singularities of the dipole fields. Then, the problem of determining solutions to Laplace's equation on an unbounded domain as constrained by pertinent electron trajectory data was considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612940','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612940"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for estimation of <span class="hlt">potential</span> generation of waste <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Araujo, Marcelo Guimaraes; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Claudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Literature of WEEE generation in developing countries is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse existing estimates of WEEE generation for Brazil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a model for WEEE generation estimate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WEEE generation of 3.77 kg/capita year for 2008 is estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of constant lifetime should be avoided for non-mature market products. - Abstract: Sales of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste <span class="hlt">electrical</span> and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the 'boom' in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876654"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">electrically</span> evoked cortical <span class="hlt">potential</span> thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M; Jackson, Douglas J; Naber, John F; Ziv, R Ofer; Rizzo, Joseph F; Kaplan, Henry J; Enzmann, Volker</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold <span class="hlt">electrical</span> charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of <span class="hlt">electrical</span> evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (EEP) by delivering <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following <span class="hlt">electrical</span> stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 +/- 7 nC (0.023 +/- 0.016 mC cm(-2)) within the subretinal space and 150 +/- 122 nC (0.375 +/- 0.306 mC cm(-2)) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm(-2), which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). PMID:15876654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnetic+AND+monopole&id=EJ195076','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnetic+AND+monopole&id=EJ195076"><span id="translatedtitle">A Heuristic <span class="hlt">Potential</span> Theory of <span class="hlt">Electric</span> and Magnetic Monopoles without Strings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, William A.; Graziani, Frank</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Shows how Maxwell's equations can be obtained by starting with a relatively simple pseudoscalar and scalar <span class="hlt">potential</span> employing only the Lorentz transformation for a four vector (or pseudovector). (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20824181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20824181"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of U.S. <span class="hlt">Electric</span> End-Use Energy Efficiency <span class="hlt">Potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gellings, Clark W.; Wikler, Greg; Ghosh, Debyani</p> <p>2006-11-15</p> <p>Demand-side management holds significant <span class="hlt">potential</span> to reduce growth in U.S. energy consumption and peak demand, and in a cost-effective manner. But significant policy interventions will be required to achieve these benefits. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4280H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4280H"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory investigation of lunar surface <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> in magnetic anomaly regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howes, C. T.; Wang, X.; Deca, J.; Hornyi, M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>To gain insight into lunar surface charging in the magnetic anomaly regions, we present the results of laboratory experiments with a flowing plasma engulfing a magnetic dipole field above an insulating surface. When the dipole moment is perpendicular to the surface, large positive <span class="hlt">potentials</span> (close to ion flow energies in eV) are measured on the surface in the dipole lobe regions, charged by the unmagnetized ions while the electrons are magnetically excluded. The <span class="hlt">potential</span> decreases exponentially with distance from the surface on the ion (flow) Debye length scale. The surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span> become much smaller when the dipole moment is parallel to the surface, likely due to collisionality. We discuss the implications of our laboratory results for the lunar surface charging in the magnetic anomaly regions, suggesting that the surface <span class="hlt">potential</span> may be much higher than the generally expected several volts positive due to photoemission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1003T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1003T"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical study on relationship between lightning types and distribution of space charge and <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Yongbo; Tao, Shanchang; Liang, Zhongwu; Zhu, Baoyou</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The favorable factors that affect the initiation of intracloud (IC) lightning and cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes are investigated by using a fine resolution two-dimensional lightning model. Simulation results indicate that <span class="hlt">potential</span> at initiation point is a key to decide whether downward leader reaches ground. The absolute values of initiation <span class="hlt">potential</span> of CG flashes are greater than 30 MV, while the absolute values of initiation <span class="hlt">potential</span> of IC lightning are basically less than 30 MV. Since <span class="hlt">potential</span> field is determined by space charge distributions, polarities and types of lightning discharges are also dependent on relative locations and magnitudes of positive and negative charge zones near initiation points. In general, dipoles (positive charge above negative) initiate normal IC lightning and positive CG flashes and inverted dipoles are associated with inverted IC lightning and negative CG flashes. The magnitude of upper charge near initiation point is generally larger than that of lower charge when CG flashes occur, and the two are comparable when IC lightning occur. For CG flashes, the magnitude of lower charge near initiation points should be enough for initiation breakdown, but not so strong that the lower <span class="hlt">potential</span> well prevents propagation to ground. In addition, CG flashes are initiated within various special charge distributions, only if the reference <span class="hlt">potentials</span> at initiation point are far away from 0 MV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140g4710V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140g4710V"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoconfined water under <span class="hlt">electric</span> field at constant chemical <span class="hlt">potential</span> undergoes electrostriction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanzo, Davide; Bratko, D.; Luzar, Alenka</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electric</span> control of nanopore permeation by water and solutions enables gating in membrane ion channels and can be exploited for transient surface tuning of rugged substrates, to regulate capillary permeability in nanofluidics, and to facilitate energy absorption in porous hydrophobic media. Studies of capillary effects, enhanced by miniaturization, present experimental challenges in the nanoscale regime thus making molecular simulations an important complement to direct measurement. In a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, exchange of water between the pores and environment requires modeling of coexisting confined and bulk phases, with confined water under the field maintaining equilibrium with the unperturbed environment. In the present article, we discuss viable methodologies for MD sampling in the above class of systems, subject to size-constraints and uncertainties of the barostat function under confinement and nonuniform-field effects. Smooth <span class="hlt">electric</span> field variation is shown to avoid the inconsistencies of MD integration under abruptly varied field and related ambiguities of conventional barostatting in a strongly nonuniform interfacial system. When using a proper representation of the field at the border region of the confined water, we demonstrate a consistent increase in electrostriction as a function of the field strength inside the pore open to a field-free aqueous environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11O..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11O..03C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy <span class="hlt">Savings</span> in Phoenix, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chester, M.; Bartos, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the <span class="hlt">potential</span> for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate <span class="hlt">potential</span> water <span class="hlt">savings</span>, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>. Water conservation policies have the <span class="hlt">potential</span> to reduce statewide <span class="hlt">electricity</span> demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span>, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy <span class="hlt">savings</span> to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822810"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling and Analysis of <span class="hlt">Electrical</span> <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Recorded in Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ness, Torbjrn V; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Potworowski, Jan; ??ski, Szymon; G??bska, Helena; Wjcik, Daniel K; Einevoll, Gaute T</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), substrate-integrated planar arrays of up to thousands of closely spaced metal electrode contacts, have long been used to record neuronal activity in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the analysis of the MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> has generally been mainly qualitative. Here we use a biophysical forward-modelling formalism based on the finite element method (FEM) to establish quantitatively accurate links between neural activity in the slice and <span class="hlt">potentials</span> recorded in the MEA set-up. Then we develop a simpler approach based on the method of images (MoI) from electrostatics, which allows for computation of MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> by simple formulas similar to what is used for homogeneous volume conductors. As we find MoI to give accurate results in most situations of practical interest, including anisotropic slices covered with highly conductive saline and MEA-electrode contacts of sizable physical extensions, a Python software package (ViMEAPy) has been developed to facilitate forward-modelling of MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> generated by biophysically detailed multicompartmental neurons. We apply our scheme to investigate the influence of the MEA set-up on single-neuron spikes as well as on <span class="hlt">potentials</span> generated by a cortical network comprising more than 3000 model neurons. The generated MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span> are substantially affected by both the saline bath covering the brain slice and a (putative) inadvertent saline layer at the interface between the MEA chip and the brain slice. We further explore methods for estimation of current-source density (CSD) from MEA <span class="hlt">potentials</span>, and find the results to be much less sensitive to the experimental set-up. PMID:25822810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410362"><span id="translatedtitle">Approximate expression for the <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potential</span> around an absorbing particle in isotropic collisionless plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Semenov, I. L. Thomas, H. M.; Khrapak, S. A.</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>A new approximate expression for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution around an absorbing particle in isotropic collisionless plasma is proposed. The approximate expression is given by the sum of the Debye-Hückel <span class="hlt">potential</span> with an effective screening length and the far-field asymptote obtained from the solution of the linearized Poisson equation. In contrast to analogous models, the effective screening length is not fixed but depends on the distance from the particle. This allows us to obtain a more accurate approximation for the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution in the entire range of distances. The dependence of the screening length on the distance is predicted from the analysis of the charge density distribution function. This dependence contains two adjustable parameters, which are calculated by applying the procedure based on charge balance considerations. Using the obtained results, simple expressions for the parameters of the model are proposed. In addition, a simple expression for the characteristic screening length, which can be used to approximate the <span class="hlt">potential</span> distribution near the particle, is obtained. The developed model <span class="hlt">potential</span> is shown to be in excellent agreement with the solution of the nonlinear Poisson equation for typical conditions used in experiments with complex plasmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2066144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2066144"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical tests of a method for simulating <span class="hlt">electrical</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> on the cortical surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kearfott, R B; Sidman, R D; Major, D J; Hill, C D</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>A mathematical imaging method for simulating cortical surface <span class="hlt">potentials</span> was introduced at recent neurosciences meetings [1a], [1b], [2] and was applied to elucidate the neural origins of evoked responses in normal volunteers and certain patient populations. This method consists of the solution of an inward harmonic continuation problem and its effect is to simulate data that has not been attenuated and smeared by the skull. This cortical imaging technique (CIT) is validated by applying it to artificially derived data. Pairs of dipolar sources with different depths and separations are introduced into a spherical conducting medium simulating the head. Scalp <span class="hlt">potential</span> maps are constructed by interpolating the simulated data between 28 "scalp" electrode positions. Noise is added to the data to approximate the variability in measured <span class="hlt">potentials</span> that would be observed in practice. CIT is used in each case to construct <span class="hlt">potential</span> maps on layers concentric to and within the layer representing the scalp. In several instances when the dipole pair is deep and closely spaced, the sources cannot be separated by the scalp topographical maps but are easily separated by the "cortical" topographical maps. CIT is also applied to scalp-recorded <span class="hlt">potentials</span> evoked by bilateral median nerve stimulation and pattern-reversal visual stimulation. PMID:2066144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33F4925F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33F4925F"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake Lights and <span class="hlt">Electric</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Potentials</span> Following the South Napa Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freund, F. T.; Scoville, J.; Heraud, J. A.; Spremo, S.; Sornette, J.; Kosovichev, P.; Baney, O. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Earthquake lights (EQLs) in form of bright flashes have been documented multiple times by private security cameras during and after the M6.0 South Napa earthquake of Aug. 24, 2014. On the video records, series of flashes are seen rising out of the ground, sometimes in rapid succession, at other times as single events brightly illuminating the night sky. The EQLs appear to come from extended sources, probably up to hundreds of meters in lateral extent. Though few video records display accurate GPS-timing, most of the flashes were clearly co-seismic in the sense that they coincided with the local arrival of the seismic waves. This pattern is consistent with records obtained by a surveillance camera and a seismometer co-located on the PUCP campus in Lima, Peru, during the arrival of the P and S waves from the M8.0 Pisco earthquake about 150 km to the southeast of Lima. Analysis of the PUCP and other video records, plus a number of eyewitness reports, indicate that the EQLs were associated (i) with the S waves and (ii) with mafic dykes. Attempts to see to detect the Napa EQLs on records of the GOES satellite were unsuccessful. Unusual conditions have to exist to produce <span class="hlt">electric</span> discharges at the Earth's surface that can rise 100-200 m into the sky. Key to understanding the underlying processes is the fact that, when mafic rocks are stressed, positive hole charge carriers become activated, i.e. defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. The higher the stress rate, the higher the currents, reaching currents on the order of 1-2 billion A/km3 during compaction of gabbro within 1-2 msec. Obviously, when S waves pass through rocks at velocities around 3.4 km/sec, large numbers of positive holes appear. Flowing out of the stressed rock volume they can create very high <span class="hlt">electric</span> fields, leading to a number of follow-on processes including corona discharges. In Campbell near San Jose, about 60 km south of Napa, a security camera, motion-triggered by the arrival of the seismic waves, recorded <span class="hlt">electric</span> arcs coming out of an unused power cord hanging off the eve of a private residence. The arc started to spark about 30 sec after the camera was triggered, bridging an air gap of 2.5-5 cm and continuing for at least 90 sec, suggesting up 100 kV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760060148&hterms=earth+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bgravity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760060148&hterms=earth+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bgravity"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion combined with earth gravity assist - A new <span class="hlt">potential</span> for planetary exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Atkins, K. L.; Sauer, C. G.; Flandro, G. A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The need to shorten mission time (travel time to target planet) in missions to the outer planets prompts a search for alternatives to one-way minimum-energy transfers while continuing to minimize on-power thrusts. Gravity assists via swing-bys of inner planets are examined, with emphasis on a projected Venus-earth gravity assist (VEGA) and a combined solar <span class="hlt">electric</span> propulsion and earth gravity assist (SEEGA). Gravity assists are also examined as essential for missions with sample returns back to earth. Possible use of such techniques in the Shuttle Interim Upper Stage (IUS) program is considered. Various SEEGA and VEGA trajectories are discussed and charted, and time lost in the launch orbit to earth re-encounter time is weighed against time gained by faster speed toward the mission destination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/232999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/232999"><span id="translatedtitle">Meridional structures of <span class="hlt">electric</span> <span class="hlt">potentials</span> relevant to premidnight discrete auroras: A case study from Akebono measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Tatsundo; Kaneda, Eisuke; Hayakawa, Hajime</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>The authors present satellite measurements from Akebono of auroral structures from UV images, from particle measurements, and from <span class="hlt">electric</span> field measurements made at altitudes near 10000 km over the polar region in a period of geomagnetic activity. The effort is to correlate the auroral data, and in particular what is observed at lower altitudes, with measurements at these altitudes of precipitation properties, and field values, to infer information on the contribution of altitudes above and below the satellite to acceleration processes which produce observed aurorae. The regions of observed discrete aurorae are compared with the regions exhibiting particle precipitation, which are commonly associated with plasma sheet sources, and found to not be in good alignment. Such observations are correlated with field observations to develop an altitude picture of field structures in the disturbed polar ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Potential</span> for cogeneration of heat and <span class="hlt">electricity</span> in California industry, phase 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, H. S.; Edelson, E.; Kashani, A. K.; Slonski, M. L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The nontechnical issues of industrial cogeneration for 12 California firms were analyzed under three categories of institutional settings: (1) industrial ownership without firm sales of power; (2) industrial ownership with firm sales of power; and (3) utility or third party ownership. Institutional issues were analyzed from the independent viewpoints of the primary parties of interest: the industrial firms, the <span class="hlt">electric</span> utilities and the California Public utilities Commission. Air quality regulations and the agencies responsible for their promulgation were examined, and a life cycle costing model was used to evaluate the economic merits of representative conceptual cogeneration systems at these sites. Specific recommendations were made for mitigating measures and regulatory action relevant to industrial cogeneration in California.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>