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1

Treatment and toxicity evaluation of methylene blue using electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a basic dye, methylene blue, by electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption, and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption was compared. Methylene blue at 100mgL?1 was used in this study. The toxicity was also monitored by the Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test.When electrochemical oxidation was used, 99% color and 84% COD were removed from the methylene blue solution in 20min

Kai-sung Wang; Ming-Chi Wei; Tzu-Huan Peng; Heng-Ching Li; Shu-Ju Chao; Tzu-Fang Hsu; Hong-Shen Lee; Shih-Hsien Chang

2010-01-01

2

p-Nitrosodimethylaniline (RNO)Based Evaluation of Enhanced Oxidative Potential During Electrochemical Treatment of High-Salinity Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical bleaching of p-nitrosodimethylaniline (RNO) was investigated in order to apply its reactions to evaluating electrochemical oxidation. The bleaching rate of RNO during electrochemical treatment was accelerated by the presence of chloride ions. The initial bleaching rate of RNO was found to be accelerated during the electrolysis of NH4Cl, suggesting that electrochemically generated chloramines are sufficiently strong oxidants to

Fumiko Tanaka; Chuanping Feng; Norio Sugiura; Takaaki Maekawa

2004-01-01

3

Continuous treatment of textile wastewater by combined coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of text wastewaters from a large dyeing and finishing mill by a continuous process of combined chemical coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and activated sludge treatment is investigated. The experimental results are assessed in terms of COD and color (turbidity) reductions to determine the overall treatment efficiency of the combined process. Operating variables, such as the wastewater flow rate, conductivity, pH,

Sheng H. Lin; Chi F. Peng

1996-01-01

4

Effects of oxidation and heat treatment of acetylene blacks on their electrochemical double layer capacitances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations between the electrochemical double layer capacitances of various acetylene blacks modified by surface oxidation and heat treatment, and their morphologies are presented. The acetylene blacks were different from each other in primary structural unit size (equivalent to mean particle diameter). They were oxidized in air at 300°C for 1h to produce graphene sheets protruding from the surfaces of the

Taegon Kim; Chulho Ham; Choong Kyun Rhee; Seong-Ho Yoon; Masaharu Tsuji; Isao Mochida

2009-01-01

5

STEP wastewater treatment: a solar thermal electrochemical process for pollutant oxidation.  

PubMed

A solar thermal electrochemical production (STEP) pathway was established to utilize solar energy to drive useful chemical processes. In this paper, we use experimental chemistry for efficient STEP wastewater treatment, and suggest a theory based on the decreasing stability of organic pollutants (hydrocarbon oxidation potentials) with increasing temperature. Exemplified by the solar thermal electrochemical oxidation of phenol, the fundamental model and experimental system components of this process outline a general method for the oxidation of environmentally stable organic pollutants into carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. Using thermodynamic calculations we show a sharply decreasing phenol oxidation potential with increasing temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that this increased temperature can be supplied by solar thermal heating. In combination this drives electrochemical phenol removal with enhanced oxidation efficiency through (i) a thermodynamically driven decrease in the energy needed to fuel the process and (ii) improved kinetics to sustain high rates of phenol oxidation at low electrochemical overpotential. The STEP wastewater treatment process is synergistic in that it is performed with higher efficiency than either electrochemical or photovoltaic conversion process acting alone. STEP is a green, efficient, safe, and sustainable process for organic wastewater treatment driven solely by solar energy. PMID:22965739

Wang, Baohui; Wu, Hongjun; Zhang, Guoxue; Licht, Stuart

2012-10-01

6

Treatment and toxicity evaluation of methylene blue using electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption.  

PubMed

Treatment of a basic dye, methylene blue, by electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption, and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption was compared. Methylene blue at 100 mgL(-1) was used in this study. The toxicity was also monitored by the Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. When electrochemical oxidation was used, 99% color and 84% COD were removed from the methylene blue solution in 20 min at a current density of 428 Am(-2), NaCl of 1000 mgL(-1), and pH(0) of 7. However, the decolorized solution showed high toxicity (100% light inhibition). For fly ash adsorption, a high dose of fly ash (>20,000 mgL(-1)) was needed to remove methylene blue, and the Freundlich isotherm described the adsorption behavior well. In the combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption treatment, the addition of 4000 mgL(-1) fly ash effectively reduced intermediate toxicity and decreased the COD of the electrochemical oxidation-treated methylene blue solution. The results indicated that the combined process effectively removed color, COD, and intermediate toxicity of the methylene blue solution. PMID:20399000

Wang, Kai-sung; Wei, Ming-Chi; Peng, Tzu-Huan; Li, Heng-Ching; Chao, Shu-Ju; Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chang, Shih-Hsien

2010-08-01

7

Electrochemical oxidation of phenol for wastewater treatment using SnO 2 , anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment was studied on doped SnO2 anodes. Analysis of reaction intermediates and a carbon balance has shown that the main reaction is oxidation of phenol to CO2. This unexpected behaviour of the SnO2 anode is explained by a change of the chemical structure of the electrode surface during anodic polarization.

Ch. Comninellis; C. Pulgarin

1993-01-01

8

Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous wastes; Oxidation of ethylene glycol and benzene by silver (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that, in the future, mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) may be used for the ambient temperature destruction of hazardous waste and for the conversion of mixed waste to low-level radioactive waste. The authors have studied the MEO of ethylene glycol and benzene, two model compounds, in an electrochemical reactor. The reactor had a rotating-cylinder anode that was operated

Joseph C. Farmer; F. T. Wang; R. A. Hawley-Fedder; P. R. Lewis; L. J. Summers; L. Foiles

1992-01-01

9

Treatment of methyl orange dye wastewater by cooperative electrochemical oxidation in anodic-cathodic compartment.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange wastewater was studied using Ti/IrO(2)/RuO(2) anode and a self-made Pd/C O(2)-fed cathode in the divided cell with a terylene diaphragm. The result indicated that the appropriate rate of feeding air improved the methyl orange removal efficiency. The discoloration efficiency of methyl orange in the divided cell increased with increasing current density. The initial pH value had some effect on the discoloration of methyl orange, which became not obvious when the pH ranged from 2 to 10. However, the average removal efficiency of methyl orange wastewater in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) can reach 89.3%. The methyl orange structure had changed in the electrolytic process, and the characteristic absorption peak of methyl orange was about 470 nm. With the extension of electrolysis time, the concentration of methyl orange gradually reduced; wastewater discoloration rate increased gradually. The degradation of methyl orange was assumed to be cooperative oxidation by direct or indirect electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H(2)O(2), ·OH, O(2)(-)· produced by oxygen reduction at the cathode in the divided cell. Therefore, the cooperative electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange wastewater in the anodic-cathodic compartment had better degradation effects. PMID:23202555

Pang, L; Wang, H; Bian, Z Y

2013-01-01

10

Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry.  

PubMed

Scale-up of anodic oxidation system is critical to the practical application of electrochemical treatment in bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. In this study, the scale-up of electrochemical flow system was investigated by treating petrochemical wastewater using platinized titanium (Ti/Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. It was demonstrated that flow cell was successfully scaled-up because when it was compared with batch mode (Rocha et al. 2012b), higher performances on organic matter removal were achieved. Under the suitable operating conditions and better anode material, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petrochemical wastewater was reduced from 2,746 to 200 mg L(-1) within 5 h with an energy consumption of only 56.2 kWh m(-3) in the scaled-up BDD anode system. These results demonstrate that anode flow system is very promising in practical bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. PMID:24687787

dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sena, Shirley Feitosa Machado; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-07-01

11

Combined technology for clomazone herbicide wastewater treatment: three-dimensional packed-bed electrochemical oxidation and biological contact degradation.  

PubMed

The clomazone herbicide wastewater was treated using a combined technology composed of electrochemical catalytic oxidation and biological contact degradation. A new type of electrochemical reactor was fabricated and a Ti/SnO2 electrode was chosen as the anode in electrochemical-oxidation reactor and stainless steel as the cathode. Ceramic rings loaded with SnO2 were used as three-dimensional electrodes forming a packed bed. The operation parameters that might influence the degradation of organic contaminants in the clomazone wastewater were optimized. When the cell voltage was set at 30 V and the volume of particle electrodes was designed as two-thirds of the volume of the total reactor bed, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate could reach 82% after 120 min electrolysis, and the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/COD of wastewater increased from 0.12 to 0.38. After 12 h degradation with biological contact oxidation, the total COD removal rate of the combined technology reached 95%, and effluent COD was below 120 mg/L. The results demonstrated that this electrocatalytic oxidation method can be used as a pretreatment for refractory organic wastewater before biological treatment. PMID:23823563

Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Zhu, Limin; Wei, Jinzhi

2013-01-01

12

Reduced graphene oxide paper by supercritical ethanol treatment and its electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO) paper was treated in supercritical ethanol as a green route for its reduction, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis and conductivity measurements. The reduced GO paper showed good electrochemical properties. As a sole component of the anode in lithium ion batteries, its specific capacity was comparable to those of free standing GO papers reduced by hydrazine or carbon nanotube paper. The GO paper reduced by supercritical ethanol can be a potential candidate for a binder-free anode in high performance lithium batteries.

Liu, Siyang; Chen, Ke; Fu, You; Yu, Suyang; Bao, Zhihao

2012-04-01

13

Electrochemical generation of high-concentration ozone for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews electrochemical methods of high-concentration ozone generation for various applications including water treatment. Various membrane and electrode materials suitable for electrochemical ozone generation are discussed in terms of the efficiency of ozone yield, material stability against aggressive oxidative environment during the process of ozone generation, costs, and power consumption. Two different methods of electrochemical ozone generation are considered,

Dmitri G. Bessarabov

14

Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced Concepts Program. The tests examined the effectiveness of CEO in destroying sarin (GB), a chemical nerve agent. The tests used 0.5 mL, 0.95 mL, and 1.0 mL of GB, corresponding to 544 mg, 816 mg, and 1,090 mg, respectively, of GB. Analysis of the off gas showed that, under continuous processing of the GB agent, destruction efficiencies of better than six 9s (99.9999% destroyed) could be achieved.

Surma, J.E.

1994-05-01

15

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01

16

Use of electrochemical oxidation process as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the electrochemical oxidation process as a post-treatment for the effluents of a bench-scale UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached pulp plant. The oxidation process was performed using a single compartment cell with two plates as electrodes. The anode was made of Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 and the cathode of stainless steel. The following variables were evaluated: current density (75, 150 and 225 mA cm(-2)) and recirculation flow rate in the electrochemical cell (0.22, 0.45 and 0.90 L h(-1)). The increase in current density from 75 to 225 mA cm(-2) did not increased the color removal efficiency for the tested flow rates, 0.22, 0.45 and 0.90 L h(-1), however the energy consumption increased significantly. The results indicated the technical feasibility of the electrochemical treatment as post-treatment for UASB reactors treating wastewaters from pulp and paper plants. PMID:16939104

Buzzini, A P; Miwa, D W; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

2006-01-01

17

Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of the treatment of phenolic compounds containing wastewater generated from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing, oil refinery and bulk drug manufacturing industries by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at a fixed current density of 5.4 A/dm2 using Ti/TiO2-RuO2-IrO2 electrode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD and TOC concentrations were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were detected at high concentrations during the electrolytic treatment of the effluents. However, it was observed that increasing the electrolysis time bring down the AOX concentration to lower levels. Energy consumption and current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated and presented. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment for highly concentrated bio-refractory organic pollutants present in the industrial wastewater. PMID:15363521

Rajkumar, D; Palanivelu, K

2004-09-10

18

Electrochemically "writing" graphene from graphene oxide.  

PubMed

A novel approach of patterning graphene on conductive surfaces based on local electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide is reported. Graphene is "written" from typical graphene oxide dispersion by applying negative potential on conductive surfaces vs. a micrometer-sized counter electrode "pen" with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Micrometer scaled patterns are successfully generated on gold and stainless steel surfaces. PMID:23922294

Liu, Liang; Tan, Chaoliang; Chai, Jianwei; Wu, Shixin; Radko, Anna; Zhang, Hua; Mandler, Daniel

2014-09-01

19

Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development, design and applications of electrochemical technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Particular focus was given to electrodeposition, electrocoagulation (EC), electroflotation (EF) and electrooxidation. Over 300 related publications were reviewed with 221 cited or analyzed. Electrodeposition is effective in recover heavy metals from wastewater streams. It is considered as an established technology with possible further development

Guohua Chen

2004-01-01

20

Electrochemical oxidation of benzene on boron-doped diamond electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an electrochemical investigation of the benzene oxidation process in aqueous solution on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Additionally, in order to determine the main products generated during the oxidation process, electrolysis and high performance liquid chromatography experiments were carried out. The complete degradation of this compound was performed aiming to a further application in waste water treatment. The

Robson T. S. Oliveira; Giancarlo R. Salazar-Banda; Mauro C. Santos; Marcelo L. Calegaro; Douglas W. Miwa; Sergio A. S. Machado; Luis A. Avaca

2007-01-01

21

Electrochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructured Electrode  

E-print Network

in the fabrication of high-surface-area cathodes for lithium batteries. © 2008 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10-gel vanadium oxides in lithium batteries has been altering the way the solvent phase is re- moved through

Sadoway, Donald Robert

22

Electrochemical post-treatment of infinite coordination polymers: an effective route to preparation of Pd nanoparticles supported onto carbon nanotubes with enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation.  

PubMed

This study describes an effective method to prepare highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles supported onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with high electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of ethanol. This method is essentially based on electrochemical post-treatment of Pd-based infinite coordination polymer (ICP). The Pd-based ICP is synthesized through the coordination reaction between Zn(2+) and metallo-Schiff base (MSB) to form Zn-MSB-Zn (ZMZ) ICP that precipitates from ethyl ether. The as-formed Zn-MSB-Zn ICP is then subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with Pd(2+) to obtain the Zn-MSB-Pd (ZMP) ICP. To prepare Pd/SWNT nanocomposite, the ZMP ICP is mixed into the SWNT dispersion in N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to form a homogeneous dispersion that is then drop-coated onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Electrochemical post-treatment of ZMP ICP to form Pd/SWNT nanocomposite is thus performed by polarizing the coated electrode at -0.2 V for 600 s in 0.5 M H2SO4. The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the resulting Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed onto SWNTs and the particles size are small and narrowly distributed (2.12 ± 0.32 nm). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that, after the electrochemical post-treatment, no detectable ZMP ICP precursors are left on the surface of SWNTs. The electrocatalytic activity of the as-formed Pd/SWNT nanocomposite toward ethanol oxidation is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results show that the Pd/SWNT nanocomposite prepared here shows a more negative potential and higher mass catalytic activity, as well as higher stability for the oxidation of ethanol than the commercial Pd/C catalyst. This work demonstrates a novel approach to the formation of ultrasmall and highly dispersed Pd/SWNT nanocomposite with enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation. PMID:24159926

Ren, Lin; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Wang, Yuexiang; Mao, Lanqun

2013-11-13

23

Oxidative electrochemical switching of photochromic diarylethene compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of photochromic diarylethenes compounds were synthesized and the electrochemistry and electrochemistry reaction mechanism properties were investigated. The cyclic voltammetry tests demonstrated that the colorless open-ring isomers were assigned to the unique oxidation process, but the color closed-ring isomers of these compounds were assigned to two oxidation processes. In addition, the electrochromism of diarylethene compound is observed in solution: The closed-ring reaction can be triggered by electrochemical oxidation, while the open-ring reaction must be photochemically driven. These oxidation processes properties can be useful as the oxidation processes electrochemical switching and the oxidation electrochemical switching properties of these different diarylethene isomers can be potential for electrochemistry data storages.

Fan, Congbin; Pu, Shouzhi; Liu, Weijun; Yang, Tianshe; Liu, Gang

2008-12-01

24

Electrochemical oxidation of textile wastewater and its reuse.  

PubMed

It is attempted in the present investigation to treat organic pollutant present in the textile effluent using an electrochemical treatment technique. Experiments are carried out in a batch electrochemical cell covering wide range in operating conditions. Due to the strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced, the effluent COD is reduced substantially in this treatment technique. The influence of effluent initial concentration, pH, supporting electrolyte concentration and the anode material on pollutant degradation has been critically examined. It is further attempted in the present investigation to reuse the treated wastewater for dyeing purpose. Several cycles of dyeing operations have been performed with the treated textile wastewater and the dye uptake and water quality have been critically examined at each cycle of dyeing process. The results indicate that the electrochemical method is a feasible technique for treatment of textile wastewater and electrochemically treated wastewater can be effectively reused for dyeing application. PMID:17336454

Mohan, N; Balasubramanian, N; Basha, C Ahmed

2007-08-17

25

Dechlorination by combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation*  

PubMed Central

Chlorophenols are typical priority pollutants listed by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The removal of chlorophenol could be carried out by a combination of electrochemical reduction and oxidation method. Results showed that it was feasible to degrade contaminants containing chlorine atoms by electrochemical reduction to form phenol, which was further degraded on the anode by electrochemical oxidation. Chlorophenol removal rate was more than 90% by the combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation at current of 6 mA and pH 6. The hydrogen atom is a powerful reducing agent that reductively dechlorinates chlorophenols. The instantaneous current efficiency was calculated and the results indicated that cathodic reduction was the main contributor to the degradation of chlorophenol. PMID:15909345

Cong, Yan-qing; Wu, Zu-cheng; Tan, Tian-en

2005-01-01

26

Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using cylindrical flow reactor and optimization of treatment conditions.  

PubMed

This paper examines the use of electrooxidation for treatment of wastewater obtained from a pharmaceutical industry. The wastewater primarily contained Gentamicin and Dexamethasone. With NaCl as supporting electrolyte, the effluent was treated in a cylindrical flow reactor in continuous (single pass) mode under various current densities (2-5 A/dm2) and flow rates (10-40 L/h). By cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis, the optimum condition for maximum redox reaction was determined. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and power consumption were studied for different operating conditions. From the results it was observed that maximum COD reduction of about 85.56% was obtained at a flow rate of 10 L/h with an applied current density of 4 A/dm2. FT-IR spectra studies showed that during electrooxidation, the intensities of characteristic functional groups such as N-H, O-H were reduced and some new peaks also started to appear. Probable theory, reaction mechanism and modeling were proposed for the oxidation of pharmaceutical effluent. The experimental results demonstrated that electrooxidation treatment was very effective and capable of elevating the quality of treated wastewater to the reuse standard prescribed for pharmaceutical industries. PMID:19827490

Babu, B Ramesh; Venkatesan, P; Kanimozhi, R; Basha, C Ahmed

2009-08-01

27

Indirect electrochemical treatment of saline dyestuff wastewater.  

PubMed

Dyestuff wastewater is always found to contain highly-concentrated sodium chloride. In many cases, biological processes are not available to dispose saline dyestuff wastewater. In this paper, both direct a nd indirect electrochemical oxidation of saline dyestuff wastewater were carried out and the accessibility of indirect electrochemical oxidation by electrochemically generated hypochlorite was investigated. It was found that the indirect electrochemical process removed COD by 87% and color by 100% in 50 minutes while the direct electrochemical process removed COD by 47% and color by 50% in 5 hours. The rate-limiting step for hypochlorite evolution at the anode was found to be diffusion-controlled. For the two processes, COD removal kinetics could be simplified as the pseudo first-order kinetics. The rate constants of COD removal were 0.038 min(-1) and 0.0018 min(-1) for the indirect and direct oxidation respectively. Current efficiency of the indirect process was I while that of the direct process was 0.16; cost efficiency of the two processes was 8,000 mg-COD (kWh)(-1) and 1,000 mg-COD (kWh)(-1) respectively. It can be concluded that the indirect electrochemical process is a promising method for the disposal of saline dyestuff wastewater. PMID:11816771

Zhan, X M; Wang, J L; Wen, X H; Qian, Y

2001-09-01

28

Degradation of conazole fungicides in water by electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

The electrochemical oxidation (EO) treatment in water of three conazole fungicides, myclobutanil, triadimefon and propiconazole, has been carried out at constant current using a BDD/SS system. First, solutions of each fungicide were electrolyzed to assess the effect of the experimental parameters such as current, pH and fungicide concentration on the decay of each compound and total organic carbon abatement. Then a careful analysis of the degradation by-products was made by high performance liquid chromatography, ion chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in order to provide a detailed discussion on the original reaction pathways. Thus, during the degradation of conazole fungicides by the electrochemical oxidation process, aromatic intermediates, aliphatic carboxylic acids and Cl(-) were detected prior to their complete mineralization to CO2 while NO3(-) anions remained in the treated solution. This is an essential preliminary step towards the applicability of the EO processes for the treatment of wastewater containing conazole fungicides. PMID:24140400

Urzúa, J; González-Vargas, C; Sepúlveda, F; Ureta-Zañartu, M S; Salazar, R

2013-11-01

29

Electrochemical advanced oxidation process using DiaChem® electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) using boron doped diamond (DiaChem®, registered trademark of Condias GmbH) has been studied for wastewater treatment and drinking water disinfection. DiaChem® electrodes consist of preferentially metallic base materials coated with a conductive polycrystalline diamond film by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition. They exhibit high overpotential for water electrolysis as well as high chemical inertness and

I. Tröster; L. Schäfer; M. Fryda; T. Matthée

30

Effect of hydrogen and oxygen plasma treatments on the electrical and electrochemical properties of zinc oxide nanorod films on zinc substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO nanorod films were synthesised on polished zinc sheets by a hydrothermal method. Non-equilibrium oxygen and hydrogen plasma treatments were applied on these nanorod films to study the induced changes in their semiconducting properties. Donor densities were evaluated by means of Mott–Schottky analysis based on the electrochemical impedance data. In comparison to the as-grown films, hydrogen plasma led to an

Ozlem Ozcan; Katharina Pohl; Patrick Keil; Guido Grundmeier

2011-01-01

31

Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation  

E-print Network

Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation Venkat prepared by electrochemically precipitating the hydroxide and heating it in air to form Co3O4, it is desirable to study the generality of the electrochemical precipitation technique as a means of fab- ricating

Weidner, John W.

32

Vanadium oxide electrode synthesized by electroless deposition for electrochemical capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin film vanadium oxide electrode was synthesized by a simple electroless deposition method. Surface and structural analyses revealed that the deposited oxide is a mixture of amorphous V2O5 and VO2. Electrochemical characterizations of the synthesized vanadium oxide showed capacitive behavior with good cycle life. The electroless deposition of vanadium oxide is inexpensive, easy to process, and environmentally benign, offering a promising route for electrode development for electrochemical capacitors.

Wu, Haoran; Lian, Keryn

2014-12-01

33

Treatment of petroleum refinery effluent using electrochemical techniques;.  

E-print Network

??The present research was undertaken to investigate the potential of electrocoagulation and electrochemical oxidation techniques for treating petroleum refinery wastewater Different types of electrodes have… (more)

Dhorgham skban ibrahim

2014-01-01

34

Photo-electrochemical properties of hydrogen in anodically oxidized niobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrogen charging on the properties of niobium oxide was studied by photo-electrochemical measurements for anodically oxidized niobium. The niobium oxide studied was an n-type semiconductor, and an anodic photocurrent was observed on illumination with light. From the spectrum of the photocurrent the band gap energy of the oxide was determined. The spectrum changed on the introduction of

Y. Hayashi; M. Arita; K. Koga; M. Masuda

1995-01-01

35

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01

36

pH sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between ?60 and ?80 mV\\/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high valence state), the sensitivity is also higher. This

W. Olthuis; M. A. M. Robben; P. Bergveld; M. Bos; Linden van der W. E

1990-01-01

37

Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) based technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this CRADA was the continued research and development by LLNL, and the commercialization by EOSystems, Inc., of the waste treatment technology known as Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation. MEO is a non-thermal electrochemical technology developed in part at LLNL for the destruction of organic waste streams; this technology has wide applications in the government, manufacturing, biomedical and industrial sectors. The system uses an electrochemical cell to generate highly oxidizing {open_quote}mediators{close_quote} in an acidic aqueous solution, which subsequently react with organic waste and convert it to carbon dioxide and water. The broad research responsibilities of LLNL in this CRADA were the investigation of numerous cell electrode materials and materials of construction, the evaluation of the process chemistry, and the testing of a flow visualization cell and a functional prototype. Major deliverables included: a determination of suitable electrode materials, an investigation of the destruction efficiency for numerous organic substrates, the construction and testing of a flow visualization cell, and the testing of a functional prototype commercial cell. The responsibilities of EOSystems included the definition of the market and potential customers, the design and engineering of the flow visualization and prototype cells, and the commercialization of the MEO units. Deliverables included the selection of the process and ancillary systems, the design of a flow visualization cell, and the design and construction of a prototype cell. In general, most of the deliverables were met by both partners, although unexpected technical difficulties delayed some of the delivery dates and forced the adoption of a modified statement of work. However, the primary, original project goals were completed on-time and on-budget.

NONE

1996-07-18

38

Selective Separation of Cs and Sr from LiCl-Based Salt for Electrochemical Processing of Oxide Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical processing technology is currently being used for the treatment of metallic spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at Idaho National Laboratory. The treatment of oxide-based spent nuclear fuel via electrochemical processing is possible provided there is a front-end oxide reduction step. During this reduction process, certain fission products, including Cs and Sr, partition into the salt phase and

P. Sachdev; M. F. Simpson; S. M. Frank; K. Yano; V. Utgikar

2008-01-01

39

Spectroscopic study of SERS- and SEIRA-activity of copper large-scaled surface substrates prepared by electrochemical deposition: What is the role of oxidation-reduction cycle treatment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) are powerful analytical techniques used for the study and characterization of ultrathin films and monolayers of organic compounds adsorbed on the nanostructured surface of several metals. The main requirement which has to be met for the SERS- and SEIRA-activity is the proper morphology of the surface in nanoscale, which can be tailored by the preparation procedure. In the present work different electrochemical preparation procedures of copper substrates (cathodic reduction from electrochemical baths or its combination with oxidation-reduction cycles (ORC) treatment) were developed with the aim of fabrication of the substrate with both SERS- and SEIRA-activity for the selected model analyte. The diffuse reflectance methodology was designed to study SEIRA-activity on large-scaled nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructure of the copper surface was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effect of different ORC treatments on the surface morphology as well as on SERS- and SEIRA-activity is discussed. The interpretation of SERS and SEIRA spectra has been made in terms of the comparison of these two types of surface-enhanced spectra with normal infrared and Raman spectra and DFT calculation elucidating the orientation of the molecule on the surface.

Prokopec, Vadym; Dendisová-Vyškovská, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžb?ta; ?ejková, Jitka; ?lupek, Martin; Mat?jka, Pavel

2011-05-01

40

Size dependent electrochemical properties of reduced graphite oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size dependent electrochemical properties of reduced graphite oxide are investigated. Two kinds, 5 and 149 ?m, of natural graphite as a precursor are used to synthesize graphite oxide and to reduce it by hydrazine. The precursor of smaller grain size provides efficient oxidation and reduction, resulting in improved electrochemical properties compared to the precursor of larger grain size for energy storage applications. Furthermore, the influence of hydrazine concentration on the reduction is investigated, finding that too much hydrazine causes side effects on the reduction.

Tran, Minh-Hai; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Jeong, Hae Kyung

2014-07-01

41

Electrochemical preparation of silver oxide electrodes having high thermal stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates to electrochemical cells and more particularly to silver oxide electrodes. Accordingly an object of this invention is to provide a new method of electrochemically preparing AgO electrodes. Another object of this invention is to provide a method of increasing the shelf life of electrochemically prepared silver oxide electrodes. A further object of this invention is to increase the energy capacity of electrochemically prepared AgO electrodes. These and other objects of this invention are achieved by improvements in the process for preparing AgO cathodes by anodizing silver plaques in basic electrolytes and in the performance of the anodizing process at a temperature in the range of from about 70 C to just under the reflux temperature of the electrolyte.

Glen, Daniel R.; Mansour, Azzam N.; Oneill, Kathleen M.; Dallek, Steven; Larrick, Benjamin F.

1989-08-01

42

Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application.  

PubMed

Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g(-1), 739 F g(-1)) and cycling stability (704 F g(-1) retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors. PMID:25023373

Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

2014-01-01

43

Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g-1, 739 F g-1) and cycling stability (704 F g-1 retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors.

Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

2014-07-01

44

DFT and electrochemical studies on nortriptyline oxidation sites.  

PubMed

A study on the possible sites of oxidation and epoxidation of nortriptyline was performed using electrochemical and quantum chemical methods; these sites are involved in the biological responses (for example, hepatotoxicity) of nortriptyline and other similar antidepressants. Quantum chemical studies and electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the oxidation and epoxidation sites are located on the apolar region of nortriptyline, which will useful for understanding the molecule's activity. Also, for the determination of the compound in biological fluids or in pharmaceutical formulations, we propose a useful analytical methodology using a graphite-polyurethane composite electrode, which exhibited the best performance when compared with boron-doped diamond or glassy carbon surfaces. PMID:19172315

de Toledo, Renata A; Santos, Mauro C; Suffredini, Hugo B; Homem-de-Mello, Paula; Honorio, Kathia M; Mazo, Luiz H

2009-08-01

45

Progress in electrochemical synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles have been emerged as significant nanomaterials due to its extensive range of application in various fields. In this regard, synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with desirable properties and high potential applications are greatly demanded. Therefore, investigation on different iron oxide phases and their magnetic properties along with various commonly used synthetic techniques are remarked and thoroughly described in this review. Electrochemical synthesis as a newfound method with unique advantages is elaborated, followed by design approaches and key parameters to control the properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Additionally, since the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles is as important as its preparation, surface modification issue has been a serious challenge which is comprehensively discussed using different surfactants. Despite the advantages of the electrochemical synthesis method, this technique has been poorly studied and requires deep investigations on effectual parameters such as current density, pH, electrolyte concentration etc.

Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

2014-11-01

46

DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPENT OXIDE FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) has been under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997. The concept is to convert spent oxide fuel into metallic form and to remove high heat-load fission products such as Cs and Sr from the spent fuel. The heat power, volume, and radioactivity of spent fuel can decrease by a factor of a quarter via this process. For the realization of ACP, a concept of electrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel in Li2O-LiCl molten salt was proposed and several cold tests using fresh uranium oxides have been carried out. In this new electrochemical reduction process, electrolysis of Li2O and reduction of uranium oxide are taking place simultaneously at the cathode part of electrolysis cell. The conversion of uranium oxide to uranium metal can reach more than 99% ensuring the feasibility of this process.

Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Kim, Ik-Soo; Hong, Sun-Seok; Kang, Dae-Seung; Park, Seong-Won

2003-02-27

47

Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.  

PubMed

In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed. PMID:24687788

Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

2014-07-01

48

Electrochemical Treatment of Alkaline Nuclear Wastes. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate and nitrite are two of the major hazardous non-radioactive species present in Hanford and Savannah River (SR) high-level waste (HLW). Electrochemical treatment processes have been developed to remove these species by converting aqueous sodium nitrate/nitrite into sodium hydroxide and chemically reducing the nitrogen species to gaseous ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Organic complexants and other organic compounds found in waste can be simultaneously oxidized to gaseous carbon dioxide and water, thereby reducing flammability and leaching risks as well as process interferences in subsequent radionuclide separation processes. Competing technologies include thermal, hydrothermal and chemical destruction. Unlike thermal and hydrothermal processes that typically operate at very high temperatures and pressures, electrochemical processes typically operate at low temperatures (<100 C) and atmospheric pressure. Electrochemical processes effect chemical transformations by the addition or removal of electrons and, thus, do not add additional chemicals, as is the case with chemical destruction processes. Hanford and SR have different plans for disposal of the low-activity waste (LAW) that results when radioactive Cs{sup 137} has been removed from the HLW. At SR, the decontaminated salt solution will be disposed in a cement waste form referred to as Saltstone, whereas at Hanford the waste will be vitrified as a borosilicate glass. Destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before disposing the decontaminated salt solution in Saltstone would eliminate possible groundwater contamination that could occur from the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from the cement waste form. Destruction of nitrate and nitrite before vitrification at Hanford would significantly reduce the size of the off-gas system by eliminating the formation of NO{sub x} gases in the melter. Throughout the 1990's, the electrochemical conversion process has been extensively studied at SR, the University of Sou th Carolina, and elsewhere. Testing at the bench-scale has been completed using both surrogate and actual waste streams. A pilot-scale test facility was constructed and operated briefly at SR. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

NONE

2001-01-01

49

Electrochemical lithium intercalation in disordered manganese oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four highly disordered manganese oxides were prepared by reduction of sodium permanganate by chloride, iodide, hydrogen peroxide or oxalate in aqueous medium containing a large excess of Li+ ions, yielding hydrated oxides with Mn valence in the range 3.80–3.92. Thermogravimetric studies showed that the iodide-reduced oxide can be dehydrated to 92% at 240°C, while the other three ones retain water

A Ibarra Palos; M Anne; P Strobel

2001-01-01

50

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01

51

Electrochemically induced oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) for As(III) oxidation and removal in synthetic groundwater.  

PubMed

Mobilization of Arsenic in groundwater is primarily induced by reductive dissolution of As-rich Fe(III) oxyhydroxides under anoxic conditions. Creating a well-controlled artificial environment that favors oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) and subsequent oxidation and uptake of aqueous As can serve as a remediation strategy. We reported a proof of concept study of a novel iron-based dual anode system for As(III) oxidation and removal in synthetic groundwater. An iron anode was used to produce Fe(II) under iron-deficient conditions, and another inert anode was used to generate O2 for oxidative precipitation of Fe(II). For 30 min's treatment, 6.67 ?M (500 ?g/L) of As(III) was completely oxidized and removed from the solution during the oxidative precipitation process when a total current of 60 mA was equally partitioned between the two anodes. The current on the inert anode determined the rate of O2 generation and was linearly related to the rates of Fe(II) oxidation and of As oxidation and removal, suggesting that the process could be manipulated electrochemically. The composition of Fe precipitates transformed from carbonate green rust to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide as the inert anode current increased. A conceptual model was proposed for the in situ application of the electrochemically induced oxidative precipitation process for As(III) remediation. PMID:24708303

Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Peng; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin

2014-05-01

52

Electrochemical and Structural Characterization of Nickel based Alloys Oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical and structural characterization of thermally grown oxides formed on nickel based alloys (type Inconel 600 and 690) at 350 °C and during different time was performed by impedance measurements and near field microscopy combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The impedance results allow discussing the influence of the oxidation time on the capacitance and the resistance of the oxide films. The results obtained by near field microscopy technique show that the film formed during low oxidation time has a small grain size and also a small surface roughness. The values of grain sizes determined in both cases along x- and y-axis are practically the same indicating a spherical shape of oxide grains and are slightly different between oxides formed on type inconel 600 and 690.

Hakiki, N. E.; Bubendorff, J. L.; Pirri, C.; Mechehoud, F.; Mehdaoui, A.; Belhadji, M.

53

Electrochemical properties of inorganic nanoporous oxide coated electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to produce clean water and produce and store clean energy is essential to society. Hence, technologies that facilitate clean energy and clean water are of great importance. This study focused on utilizing nanoporous insulating oxide materials to alter the chemistry at the electrode/electrolyte interface to improve the performance of a number of clean energy and clean water technologies. Here we have shown that applying a thin-film of SiO2 nanoparticles to an electrochemical capacitor electrode can increase the energy storage capacity by up to 50% at high power ratings. We have developed a geometric model to describe the coating of the porous electrode to explain the increased performance at high power ratings. We have also shown that the coated electrochemical capacitor exhibits a higher capacitance when normalized to BET surface area, suggesting that the coated surface is behaving fundamentally differently than the uncoated surface. We attribute the increase in capacitance to the inherent surface potential of the oxide coating and have shown that if we alter the surface potential of the oxide, we can in turn alter the electrochemical capacitance. In addition, we have determined that when used in capacitive deionization systems, these coatings can increase ion removal and accelerate regeneration, allowing for higher efficiency and less waste water. We have demonstrated that a nanoporous oxide coating can increase the gas production rate and lower the overpotential of the hydrogen evolution reaction via water electrolysis on both stainless steel and carbon electrodes. In addition, this work presents data on utilizing nanoporous oxide coatings on Li-Ion battery cathodes to improve high temperature capacity fade. We also introduce a novel thin-film battery/electrochemical capacitor hybrid device, which can improve the performance of simple thin-film batteries.

Leonard, Kevin C.

54

Electrochemical oxidation of textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes.  

PubMed

In the present article, studies have been performed on the electrochemical (EC) oxidation of actual textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes. Multi-response optimization of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo): 4-10, current density (j): 27.78-138.89 A/m(2), NaCl concentration (w): 0-2 g/L and electrolysis time (t): 10-130 min have been performed using Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design. It was aimed to simultaneously maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies and minimize specific energy consumption using desirability function approach. Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value for COD (R(2) = 0.8418), color (R(2) = 0.7010) and specific energy (R(2) = 0.9125) between the experimental values and the predicted values by a second-order regression model. Maximum COD and color removal and minimum specific energy consumed was 90.78%, 96.27% and 23.58 kWh/kg COD removed, respectively, were observed at optimum conditions. The wastewater, sludge and scum obtained after treatment at optimum condition have been characterized by various techniques. UV-visible study showed that all azo bonds of the dyes present in the wastewater were totally broken and most of the aromatic rings were mineralized during EC oxidation with graphite electrode. Carbon balance showed that out of the total carbon eroded from the graphite electrodes, 27-29.2% goes to the scum, 71.1-73.3% goes into the sludge and rest goes to the treated wastewater. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the generated sludge and scum can be dried and used as a fuel in the boilers/incinerators. PMID:24766597

Bhatnagar, Rajendra; Joshi, Himanshu; Mall, Indra D; Srivastava, Vimal C

2014-01-01

55

Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry.  

PubMed

The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm(-2) was 0.41 kWh m(-3) for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m(-3) for the removal of TKN. PMID:23770619

Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2013-09-15

56

Investigating the addition of silicon oxide to carbon: Effects of amount and heat treatment on anti-aggregation and electrochemical performance of Pt catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small nanoparticles offer high surface areas and are certainly desirable for electrocatalytic reactions and fuel cells. However, the drawback of using small nanoparticles is their tendency towards particle aggregation. This paper aims to inhibit platinum agglomeration by adding silicon oxide to a carbon support for enhanced catalytic activity in low-temperature fuel cells. The catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction and

Yan-Ni Wu; Shi-Jun Liao; Jian-Huang Zeng

2011-01-01

57

Playing peekaboo with graphene oxide: a scanning electrochemical microscopy investigation.  

PubMed

Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can image graphene oxide (GO) flakes on insulating and conducting substrates. The contrast between GO and the substrate is controlled by the electrostatic interactions that are established between the charges of the molecular redox mediator and the charges present in the sheet/substrate. SECM also allows quantitative measurement - at the nano/microscale - of the charge transfer kinetics between single monolayer sheets and agent molecules. PMID:25224581

Rapino, Stefania; Treossi, Emanuele; Palermo, Vincenzo; Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco; Zerbetto, Francesco

2014-10-01

58

Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors.  

PubMed

Herein we use Nitrogen-doped reduced Graphene Oxide (N-rGO) as the active material in supercapacitor electrodes. Building on a previous work detailing the synthesis of this material, electrodes were fabricated via spray-deposition of aqueous dispersions and the electrochemical charge storage mechanism was investigated. Results indicate that the functionalised graphene displays improved performance compared to non-functionalised graphene. The simplicity of fabrication suggests ease of up-scaling of such electrodes for commercial applications. PMID:24418938

Nolan, Hugo; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; McEvoy, Niall; O'Brien, Sean; Nicolosi, Valeria; Duesberg, Georg S

2014-02-14

59

Electrochemical lithium intercalation in nanosized manganese oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray amorphous manganese oxides were prepared by reduction of sodium permanganate by lithium iodide in aqueous medium (MnOx-I) and by decomposition of manganese carbonate at moderate temperature (MnOx-C). TEM showed that these materials are not amorphous, but nanostructured, with a prominent spinel substructure in MnOx-C. These materials intercalate lithium with capacities up to 200mAh\\/g at first cycle (potential window 1.8–4.3V)

Pierre Strobel; Céline Darie; F. Thiéry; A. Ibarra-Palos; Maria Bacia; Olivier Proux; Jean-Bruno Soupart

2006-01-01

60

Sulfur tolerant composite cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus is made containing an exterior electrode bonded to the exterior of a tubular, solid, oxygen ion conducting electrolyte where the electrolyte is also in contact with an interior electrode, said exterior electrode comprising particles of an electronic conductor contacting the electrolyte, where a ceramic metal oxide coating partially surrounds the particles and is bonded to the electrolyte, and where a coating of an ionic-electronic conductive material is attached to the ceramic metal oxide coating and to the exposed portions of the particles.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1987-01-01

61

Electrochemical characterization of nanodimensional metal oxide materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy storage devices have become a bottleneck in performance improvements for portable electronics. This research seeks to answer basic science questions that may lead to the necessary improvements. First, this work demonstrates that insertion of multivalent ions into vanadium oxide greatly exceeds the storage capacity of materials presently used. Second, this work demonstrates that potassium ferrate exhibits a uniquely large pseudocapacitive effect. This effect can be used to great advantage when high power density and high energy density are required. Lastly, this work proposes a model of pseudocapacitance that has a greater descriptive power than that of previous models.

Tang, Paul Enle

62

Ultrasonically enhanced electrochemical oxidation of ibuprofen.  

PubMed

A hybrid advanced oxidation process combining sonochemistry (US) and electrochemistry (EC) for the batch scale degradation of ibuprofen was developed. The performance of this hybrid reactor system was evaluated by quantifying on the degradation of ibuprofen under the variation in electrolytes, frequency, applied voltage, ultrasonic power density and temperature in aqueous solutions with a platinum electrode. Among the methods examined (US, EC and US/EC), the hybrid method US/EC resulted 89.32%, 81.85% and 88.7% degradations while using NaOH, H2SO4 and deionized water (DI), respectively, with a constant electrical voltages of 30V, an ultrasound frequency of 1000kHz, and a power density of 100WL(-1) at 298K in 1h. The degradation was established to follow pseudo first order kinetics. In addition, energy consumption and energy efficiencies were also calculated. The probable mechanism for the anodic oxidation of ibuprofen at a platinum electrode was also postulated. PMID:24844440

Thokchom, Binota; Kim, Kyungho; Park, Jeonghyuk; Khim, Jeehyeong

2015-01-01

63

ELECTROCHEMICAL ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS UTILIZING NB-DOPED TIO2 ELECTRODES  

EPA Science Inventory

An electrochemical advanced oxidation process has been developed, utilizing electrodes which generate hydroxyl free radical (HO) by oxidizing water. All substrates tested are oxidized, mostly with reaction rates proportional to the corresponding rate constants for reaction with h...

64

ELECTROCHEMICAL ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS UTILIZING NB-DOPED TIO2 ELECTRODES  

EPA Science Inventory

An electrochemical advanced oxidation process has been developed utilizing electrodes which generate hydroxyl free radical (HO) by oxidizing water. All substrates tested are oxidized, mostly with reaction rates proportional to the corresponding rate constants for reaction with hy...

65

Numerical simulation for electrochemical cultivation of iron oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

A numerical simulation model was constructed for electrochemical cultivation of iron oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, based on Monod's dual limitation equation. In this model, two limiting factors were examined, low supply of Fe(II) ion and dissolved oxygen, from empirical viewpoints. The simulation model was constructed taking into consideration the energy balance based on the amount of the electronic flow from the electrode to bacteria via an iron ion, and then to oxygen. The model consisted of a logarithmic bacterial growth phase during the first three days, followed by a plateau and growth limitation thereafter. The predicted results were in agreement with the actual growth under electrochemical cultivation. It was predicted the growth limiting factor would be changed from insufficient supply of Fe(II) ions to that of oxygen by decreasing the value of oxygen transfer constant K, which correlated with the aeration rate. The optimum aeration rate was determined for the ideal electrochemical cultivation. The algorithm described here can be used in any electrochemical cultivation by modifying the parameters for each system. PMID:11857276

Matsumoto, Norio; Yoshinaga, Hisao; Ohmura, Naoya; Ando, Akikazu; Saiki, Hiroshi

2002-04-01

66

Wet Electrolytic Oxidation of Organics and Application for Sludge Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wet electrolytic oxidation (WEO) is electrochemical oxidation conducted at subcritical water temperature and pressure. Under these conditions, the electrolytic reaction of water is very different from the reaction usually seen in water electrolysis. Electrolysis of an aqueous NaCl solution at 250°C proceeds without the evolution of any oxygen, chlorine or even hydrogen. Rapid oxidation of organics to CO2 occurs in WEO with the production of hydrogen. Further addition of an oxidizer enhances the electrochemical oxidation of organics with the suppression of hydrogen evolution. AOX compounds found in usual electrooxidation are not formed in WEO treatment. When WEO is applied to sludge treatment, colors are drastically reduced and there is an increase in the yield of organic acids. The biodegradability increases by up to 50% and the treated water shows higher methane yields during anaerobic fermentation.

Serikawa, Roberto M.

67

Electrochromic properties of electrochemically fabricated nanostructure nickel oxide and manganese oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of mesoporous lamellar nickel oxides and nanotube manganese oxides were electrochemically fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass using sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a template agent under different controlled potentials in 10mM Ni(NO3)2 and 100mM MnSO4 solutions. Electrochromic characterization together with the morphological observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), structure analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron

Takako Yoshino; Kanae Kobayashi; Shingo Araki; Kazuki Nakamura; Norihisa Kobayashi

68

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to assess vascular oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Vascular inflammatory responses are intimately linked with oxidative stress, favoring the development of pre-atherosclerotic lesions. We proposed that oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and foam cell infiltrates in the subendothelial layer engendered distinct electrochemical properties that could be measured in terms of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Concentric bipolar microelectrodes were applied to interrogate EIS of aortas isolated from fat-fed New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits and explants of human aortas. Frequency-dependent EIS measurements were assessed between 10 kHz and 100 kHz, and were significantly elevated in the pre-atherosclerotic lesions in which oxLDL and macrophage infiltrates were prevalent (At 100 kHz: aortic arch lesion=26.7±2.7 k? vs. control=15.8±2.4 k?; at 10 kHz: lesions=49.2±7.3 k? vs. control=27.6±2.7 k?, n=10, p<0.001). Similarly, EIS measurements were significantly elevated in the human descending aorta where pre-atherosclerotic lesions or fatty streaks were prominent. EIS measurements remained unchanged in spite of various depths of electrode submersion or orientation of the specimens. Hence, the concentric bipolar microelectrodes provided a reliable means to measure endoluminal electrochemical modifications in regions of pro-inflammatory with high spatial resolution and reproducibility albeit uneven lesion topography and non-uniform current distribution. PMID:20652746

Yu, Fei; Li, Rongsong; Ai, Lisong; Edington, Collin; Yu, Hongyu; Barr, Mark; Kim, E S; Hsiai, Tzung K

2011-01-01

69

Degradation of methyl orange waste water by electrochemical oxidation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of methyl orange (MO) waste water was conducted by electrochemical oxidation method with PbO2/Ti electrode as anode. PbO2/Ti electrode was fabricated by electrochemical deposition of PbO2 on Ti foil. The micrograph and crystal structure of PbO2 show that uniform coating of PbO2 on titanium foil was obtained and the dominant crystal structure was ?-PbO2. Degradation experiments of MO solution indicate that the degradation rate increased with cell voltage and solution conductivity. In addition, air aeration also improved the degradation of MO solution; but an increase in cell voltage or input energy decreased the energy efficiency of MO removal. The energy efficiency reached over 0.1mg kJ-1 under a cell voltage lower than 15V, and the removal rate could reach 90%.

Tian, Jingyi; Shang, Kefeng; Xue, Xiangxin; Yang, Lei

2013-03-01

70

Electrochemical and structural characteristics of metal oxide-coated lithium manganese oxide (spinel type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical and structural characteristics of the metal oxide-coated spinel were investigated in the range of 2.5–4.2V. Metal oxide coating on commercial spinel powder (LiMn2?xMxO4, M=Zr, Nikki, Japan) was carried out using the sol–gel method. Al2O3\\/(PtOx or CuOx)-coated spinel exhibited improved cyclability compared to bare spinel. Impedance analysis results indicated that electrochemical resistance value was not consistent with cycle performance.

Seung-Won Lee; Kwang-Soo Kim; Hee-Soo Moon; Jae-Pil Lee; Hyun-Joong Kim; Byung-Won Cho; Won-Il Cho; Jong-Wan Park

2004-01-01

71

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOEpatents

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26

72

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOEpatents

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01

73

OVERVIEW ON CHEMICAL OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial activities utilize organic compounds as a key chemical in organic synthesis of special chemicals such as, synthetic resins, paper products, medicinal products, drugs, dying and others. Different chemical processes, most of them based in oxidation-reduction reactions, are being applied. Processes such as chlorination, ozonation, UV irradiation, electrochemical treatments and processes based in OH. radical attack have been investigated

I. G. Rashed; M. A. Hanna; H. F. El-Gamal; A. A. Al-Sarawy; F. K. M. Wali

2005-01-01

74

Importance of Electrode Material in the Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical oxidation is a promising method for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds. As a general rule, the electrochemical incineration of organics at a given electrode can take place at satisfactory rates and without electrode deactivation only at high anodic potentials in the region of the water discharge due to the participation of the intermediates of oxygen evolution. The nature of the electrode material strongly influences both the selectivity and the efficiency of the process. In particular, anodes with low oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., good catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as graphite, IrO2, RuO2, and Pt only permit the partial oxidation of organics, while anodes with high oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., anodes that are poor catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as SnO2, PbO2, and boron-doped diamond (BDD) favor the complete oxidation of organics to CO2 and so are ideal electrodes for wastewater treatment.However, the application of SnO2 and PbO2 anodes may be limited by their short service life and the risk of lead contamination, while BDD electrodes exhibit good chemical and electrochemical stability, a long life, and a wide potential window for water discharge, and are thus promising anodes for industrial-scale wastewater treatment.

Panizza, Marco

75

High-efficient treatment of wastewater contained the carcinogen naphthylamine by electrochemical oxidation with ?-Al2O3 supported MnO2 and Sb-doped SnO2 catalyst.  

PubMed

1-Naphthylamine wastewater causes severe environmental pollution because of its acute toxicity and carcinogenicity in humans, which makes it difficult to reuse by conventional technologies. In this study, we report an investigation of the electrochemical catalytic oxidation of 1-naphthylamine in synthetic wastewater in a 150 mL electrolytic batch reactor with Ti/Sb-SnO(2)/PbO(2) as anode and steel plate as cathode, where the reaction was assisted by MnO(2) and Sn(1-x)Sb(x)O(2) composite materials as the catalyst and ?-Al(2)O(3) as the carrier (MnO(2)-Sn(1-x)Sb(x)O(2)/?-Al(2)O(3)). The catalyst was synthesized by impregnating process and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of pH and current density on the efficiency of the electrochemical degradation process were also studied. It was found that MnO(2)-Sn(1-x)Sb(x)O(2)/?-Al(2)O(3) exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electrochemical degradation of 1-naphthylamine wastewater. The results showed that the refractory organics in wastewater can be effectively removed by this process, and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 92.2% was obtained in 20 min at pH 7.0 and current density was equal to 50 mA cm(-2). According to the experimental results, a hypothetical mechanism of electrochemical catalytic degradation was also proposed. PMID:22652320

Chen, Fengtao; Yu, Sanchuan; Dong, Xiaoping; Zhang, Shishen

2012-08-15

76

Electrochemically tunable thermal conductivity of lithium cobalt oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using time-domain thermoreflectance, the thermal conductivity and elastic properties of a sputter deposited LiCoO2 film, a common lithium-ion cathode material, are measured as a function of the degree of lithiation. Here we report that via in situ measurements during cycling, the thermal conductivity of a LiCoO2 cathode reversibly decreases from ~5.4 to 3.7?W?m-1?K-1, and its elastic modulus decreases from 325 to 225?GPa, as it is delithiated from Li1.0CoO2 to Li0.6CoO2. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on lithiation appears correlated with the lithiation-dependent phase behaviour. The oxidation-state-dependent thermal conductivity of electrolytically active transition metal oxides provides opportunities for dynamic control of thermal conductivity and is important to understand for thermal management in electrochemical energy storage devices.

Cho, Jiung; Losego, Mark D.; Zhang, Hui Gang; Kim, Honggyu; Zuo, Jianmin; Petrov, Ivan; Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.

2014-06-01

77

Electrochemical performance of LBO-coated spinel lithium manganese oxide as cathode material for Li-ion battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface treatment of the lithium manganese oxide cathode material coated by lithium borate glass (Li2O–2B2O3) with improved electrochemical cyclability and structural stability was conducted in this study. The lithium manganese oxide powder doped with various weight percentages of LBO glass was calcined to form a fine powder with single spinel phase, exhibiting different particle size, size distribution and morphology. The

Hung-Wei Chan; Jenq-Gong Duh; Shyang-Roeng Sheen

2004-01-01

78

Degradation of caffeine by conductive diamond electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

The use of Conductive-Diamond Electrochemical Oxidation (CDEO) and Sonoelectrochemical Oxidation (CDSEO) has been evaluated for the removal of caffeine of wastewater. Effects of initial concentration, current density and supporting electrolyte on the process efficiency are assessed. Results show that caffeine is very efficiently removed with CDEO and that depletion of caffeine has two stages depending on its concentration. At low concentrations, opposite to what it is expected in a mass-transfer controlled process, the efficiency increases with current density very significantly, suggesting a very important role of mediated oxidation processes on the removal of caffeine. In addition, the removal of caffeine is faster than TOC, indicating the formation of reaction intermediates. The number and relative abundance of them depend on the operating conditions and supporting electrolyte used. In chloride media, removal of caffeine is faster and more efficiently, although the occurrence of more intermediates takes place. CDSEO does not increase the efficiency of caffeine removal, but it affects to the formation of intermediates. A detailed characterization of intermediates by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry seems to indicate that the degradation of caffeine by CDEO follows an oxidation pathway similar to mechanism proposed by other advanced oxidation processes. PMID:23769468

Indermuhle, Chloe; Martín de Vidales, Maria J; Sáez, Cristina; Robles, José; Cañizares, Pablo; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Comninellis, Christos; Rodrigo, Manuel A

2013-11-01

79

Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the conventional anodization process.

Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

1997-10-01

80

Disinfection of water by adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment.  

PubMed

The disinfection performance of a unique process of adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment is evaluated. A flake graphite intercalation compound adsorbent was used, which is effective for the removal of organic contaminants and is amenable to anodic electrochemical regeneration. Adsorption of Escherichia coli on the graphite flake was followed by electrochemical treatment under a range of experimental conditions in a sequential batch reactor. The adsorption of E. coli cells was found to be a fast process and was capable of removing >99.98% of cells from solution after 5 min with a ca. 6.5-log10 reduction in E. coli concentration after 10 min. With electrochemical treatment the adsorbent could be reused, with no decrease in E. coli adsorption observed over five cycles. In the presence of chloride, >8.5-log10 reduction of E. coli concentration was achieved. Disinfection was found to be less effective in the absence of chloride. However, selection of appropriate operating conditions enabled effective disinfection in a chloride free system, reducing the potential for formation of disinfection by-products. The energy consumption required to achieve >8.5-log10 disinfection was 2-7 kWh m(-3). PMID:24568786

Hussain, S N; de Las Heras, N; Asghar, H M A; Brown, N W; Roberts, E P L

2014-05-01

81

Use of electrochemical technology to increase the quality of the effluents of bio-oxidation processes. A case studied.  

PubMed

In this work, it has been studied the use of conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation (CDEO) as a refining technology to assure the quality of the effluents of door manufacturing processes (DMP). To do this, the raw effluents of these factories have been treated by a combination of physicochemical, biological and CDEO treatments. CDEO was found to be a feasible alternative to the refinement of a wooden DMP waste. It can successfully decrease the organic load of the effluents of the biological oxidation with low energy requirements. In addition, in case of incidents in the biological process, CDEO can treat successfully the effluents of the coagulation process. The effluents of the biological treatment have also been treated by CDEO in order to check the possible use of electrochemical technology to increase the biodegradability of the effluents and their possible recycle to the biological treatment. Unfortunately, electrochemical technology was found to be not adequate to increase the biodegradability of the effluents of a biological treatment. The hard oxidation conditions generated during CDEO do not lead to the accumulation of intermediates but to the almost direct formation of carbon dioxide. Lowering the current density or changing the electrodes can not enhance the biodegradability of the effluents of an electrochemical cell. PMID:18501407

Cañizares, Pablo; Beteta, Alberto; Sáez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Rodrigo, Manuel A

2008-07-01

82

Electrochemical treatment of spent solution after EDTA-based soil washing.  

PubMed

The use of EDTA in soil washing technologies to remediate soils contaminated with toxic metals is prohibitive because of the large volumes of waste washing solution generated, which must be treated before disposal. Degradation of EDTA in the waste solution and the removal of Pb, Zn and Cd were investigated using electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP) with a boron-doped diamond anode (BDDA), graphite and iron anodes and a stainless-steel cathode. In addition to EAOP, the efficiency of electro-Fenton reactions, induced by the addition of H(2)O(2) and the regulation of electrochemical systems to pH 3, was also investigated. Soil extraction with 15 mmol kg(-1) of soil EDTA yielded waste washing solution with 566 ± 1, 152 ± 1 and 5.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Treatments of the waste solution in pH unregulated electrochemical systems with a BDDA and graphite anode (current density 67 mA cm(-2)) were the most efficient and removed up to 98 ± 1, 96 ± 1, 99 ± 1% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, by electrodeposition on the cathode and oxidatively degraded up to 99 ± 1% of chelant. In the electrochemical system with an Fe anode operated at pH 3, the chelant remained preserved in the treated solution, while metals were removed by electrodeposition. This separation opens up the possibility of a new EDTA recycling method from waste soil washing solution. PMID:22305659

Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

2012-04-15

83

Mechanistic and kinetic study of ethylene glycol electrochemical oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous electrochemical oxidation of ethylene glycol to CO{sub 2} has potential significance in fuel cell technology. In our previous studies, a complex system of reaction pathways for ethylene glycol oxidation has been determined. In this study, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and infrared spectroscopy are combined to measure the relative amounts of CO{sub 2} and adsorbed CO produced during the oxidation of ethylene glycol by a platinum electrode at 0.30 V/sce in 0.10 M perchloric acid solution. The results of these experiments are compared to similar results for glycol aldehyde, glyoxal, glycolic acid, glyoxilic acid and oxalic acid. A mathematical model based on these results is used to determine that 75% of the reacting ethylene glycol molecules are converted directly to CO{sub 2} by the scission of the carbon-carbon bond. The remaining reacting molecules are converted to glycol aldehyde and then oxidized to desorbed gylcolic acid and CO{sub 2} or adsorbed CO.

Wieland, B.; Lancaster, J.P.; Ye, X. [Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI (United States)

1995-12-01

84

Electrochemical production of hydrogen coupled with the oxidation of arsenite.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen accompanied by the simultaneous oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) was achieved using an electrochemical system that employed a BiOx-TiO2 semiconductor anode and a stainless steel (SS) cathode in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte. The production of H2 was enhanced by the addition of As(III) during the course of water electrolysis. The synergistic effect of As(III) on H2 production can be explained in terms of (1) the scavenging of reactive chlorine species (RCS), which inhibit the production of H2 by competing with water molecules (or protons) for the electrons on the cathode, by As(III) and (2) the generation of protons, which are more favorably reduced on the cathode than water molecules, through the oxidation of As(III). The addition of 1.0 mM As(III) to the electrolyte at a constant cell voltage (E cell) of 3.0 V enhanced the production of H2 by 12% even though the cell current (I cell) was reduced by 5%. The net effect results in an increase in the energy efficiency (EE) for H2 production (?EE) by 17.5%. Furthermore, the value ?EE, which depended on As(III) concentration, also depended on the applied E cell. For example, the ?EE increased with increasing As(III) concentration in the micromolar range but decreased as a function of E cell. This is attributed to the fact that the reactions between RCS and As(III) are influenced by both RCS concentration depending on E cell and As(III) concentration in the solution. On the other hand, the ?EE decreased with increasing As(III) concentration in the millimolar range due to the adsorption of As(V) generated from the oxidation of As(III) on the semiconductor anode. In comparison to the electrochemical oxidation of certain organic compounds (e.g., phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-chlorophenol, salicylic acid, catechol, maleic acid, oxalate, and urea), the ?EE obtained during As(III) oxidation (17.5%) was higher than that observed during the oxidation of the above organic compounds (?EE = 3.0-15.3%) with the exception of phenol at 22.1%. The synergistic effect of As(III) on H2 production shows that an energetic byproduct can be produced during the remediation of a significant inorganic pollutant. PMID:24386985

Kim, Jungwon; Kwon, Daejung; Kim, Kitae; Hoffmann, Michael R

2014-02-01

85

Electrochemical anodic oxidation of nitrogen doped carbon nanowall films: X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unintentional nitrogen doped carbon nanowall (CNW) films were oxidized through anodic polarization in different applied potential windows, in a mild neutral K2SO4 electrolyte solution. Applied potentials in the range of [0-1], [0-1.5] and [0-2] V vs. SCE were explored. The films were characterized with X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Micro-Raman spectroscopy, in order to investigate the surface chemistry and structural changes after treatment, respectively. The XPS analysis revealed that this electrochemical treatment leads to an increase of oxygen functional groups, and influences the nitrogen proportion and bonding configuration (such as pyridinic/pyridonic nitrogen) on the film surface at room temperature. In particular, an obvious enhancement of pyrrolic/pyridonic nitrogen doping of CNWs via electrochemical cycling in the range of [0-1.5] and [0-2] V vs. SCE was achieved. Such enhancement happened, because of the oxidation of nitrogen atoms in pyridine as a result of OH ions injection upon electrochemical cycling. Micro-Raman analysis indicates structural quality degradation with increasing the applied potential window. Moreover, the electrochemical capacitance of CNW films was increased after treatment in the range of [0-1] and [0-1.5] and decreased in the range of [0-2] V vs. SCE. The results show that harsh oxidation happened in the range [0-2] V.

Achour, A.; Vizireanu, S.; Dinescu, G.; Le Brizoual, L.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Boujtita, M.

2013-05-01

86

Electrochemical oxidation of a textile dye wastewater using a Pt\\/Ti electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dye wastewater (TDW) from a reactive azo dyeing process was treated by an electrochemical oxidation method using Ti\\/Pt as anode and stainless steel 304 as cathode. Due to the strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced (chlorine, oxygen, hydroxyl radicals and other oxidants) when the wastewater was passed through the electrolytic cell the organic pollutants were oxidized to carbon

A. G Vlyssides; M Loizidou; P. K Karlis; A. A Zorpas; D Papaioannou

1999-01-01

87

Coupling enhanced water solubilization with cyclodextrin to indirect electrochemical treatment for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil remediation.  

PubMed

This study undertakes to examine, at laboratory scale, the technical feasibility, mechanisms and performances provided by coupling the enhanced flushing abilities of cyclodextrin solutions for pentachlorophenol (PCP) removal from contaminated soil with indirect electrochemical treatment for the final disposal of soil extract solutions containing high PCP loads (0.77mmolL(-1)). The hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution increased the aqueous concentration of PCP in soil extract effluents to as much as 3.5 times the concentrations obtained during the water flush of the soil. PCP was treated with electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent in an aqueous medium. The increase in PCP water solubility in the presence of HPCD is balanced by the corresponding decrease in PCP degradation rate under indirect electrochemical treatment. This is due to the high carbon content (HPCD and dissolved natural organic matter) in the soil extract solutions, which compete for the non-selective hydroxyl radical reaction to PCP. However, our results indicate that HPCD has a beneficial effect on the degradation rates of PCP. This relative improvement in PCP degradation could be explained by the formation of the ternary complex (PCP-cyclodextrin-iron) which may direct hydroxyl reaction to PCP and which would, in any case, justify the use of a Fenton -like process for the final treatment of soil extract solutions. Total disappearance of PCP and 90% abatement of the chemical oxygen demand were achieved within an 11h electrolysis treatment time. Elucidation of the PCP degradation pathway indicates that after successive PCP hydroxylations, oxidative opening of the PCP aromatic ring quickly occurred, leading to small unstable non-chlorinated or partially chlorinated short chain carboxylic acids, such as monochloroacetic and dichloromaleic acid. Determination of the concentration of these acids shows that indirect electrochemical treatment leads to oxalic acid accumulation in aqueous solutions treated. A decrease in toxicity was observed at the end of the treatment time. PMID:15975622

Hanna, Khalil; Chiron, Serge; Oturan, Mehmet A

2005-07-01

88

Electrochemical determination of estradiol using a thin film containing reduced graphene oxide and dihexadecylphosphate.  

PubMed

Graphene is a material that has attracted attention with regard to sensing and biosensing applications in recent years. Here, we report a novel treatment (using ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic tip) to obtain graphene oxide (GO) and a new stable conducting film using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and dihexadecylphosphate film (DHP). The GO was obtained by chemical exfoliation and it was reduced using NaBH4. Subsequently, RGO-DHP dispersion was prepared and it was dropped onto a glassy carbon electrode by casting technique. The electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical spectroscopy impedance. The voltammetric behavior of the RGO-DHP/GC electrode in the presence of estradiol was studied, and the results reported an irreversible oxidation peak current at 0.6V. Under the optimal experimental conditions, using linear sweep adsorptive stripping voltammetry, the detection limit obtained for this hormone was 7.7×10(-8)mol L(-1). The proposed electrode can be attractive for applications as electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:24582217

Janegitz, Bruno C; dos Santos, Fabrício A; Faria, Ronaldo C; Zucolotto, Valtencir

2014-04-01

89

Electrochemical characteristics of metal oxide-coated lithium manganese oxide (spinel type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal oxide-coated spinel was investigated with respect to electrochemical characteristics. Metal oxide coating on commercial spinel powder (LiMn2?xMxO4, M=Zr, Nikki, Japan) was carried out using the sol–gel method. Al2O3\\/CuOx-coated spinel exhibited stable cycle performance in the range from 3.0 to 4.4V, and it had lower charge transfer resistance and higher double layer capacitance than bare spinel in later cycles. In

Seung-Won Lee; Kwang-Soo Kim; Ki-Lyoung Lee; Hee-Soo Moon; Hyun-Joong Kim; Byung-Won Cho; Won-Il Cho; Jong-Wan Park

2004-01-01

90

Electrochemical waste water treatment using high overvoltage anodes. Part I: Physical and electrochemical properties of SnO 2 anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical performance of SnO2 as an anode material with high oxygen gas-evolution overpotential was investigated in view of its application for electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory organics in waste waters. The influence of the doping agent (Sb, F, Cl) and doping level on the oxygen-evolution reaction was studied in terms of Tafel slope, oxygen-overpotential and exchange current densities for the

R. Kötz; S. Stucki; B. Carcer

1991-01-01

91

Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

2014-01-01

92

Selective Separation of Cs and Sr from LiCl-Based Salt for Electrochemical Processing of Oxide Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical processing technology is currently being used for the treatment of metallic spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at Idaho National Laboratory. The treatment of oxide-based spent nuclear fuel via electrochemical processing is possible provided there is a front-end oxide reduction step. During this reduction process, certain fission products, including Cs and Sr, partition into the salt phase and form chlorides. Both solid state and molten LiCl-zeolite-A ion exchange tests were conducted for selectively removing Cs and Sr from LiCl-based salt. The solid-state tests produced in excess of 99% removal of Cs and Sr. The molten state tests failed due to phase transformation of the zeolite structure when in contact with the molten LiCl salt.

P Sachdev

2008-07-01

93

A simple and efficient approach to realize difunctionalization of arylketones with malonate esters via electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

A facile difunctionalization of arylketones with malonate esters via electrochemical oxidation was achieved under mild conditions. A variety of difunctionalized products were obtained in good to excellent yields. PMID:24709910

Gao, Huihui; Zha, Zhenggen; Zhang, Zhenlei; Ma, Huanyue; Wang, Zhiyong

2014-05-21

94

Electrochemical and chromogenics kinetics of lithium intercalation in anodic niobium oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niobium oxide films were grown in an acidic environment by application of an alternating potential to metallic niobium substrate. These anodic oxide films show interference colour (iridescence) and their electrochromic characteristics were optically and electrochemically analysed. A model where the reaction rate is dominated by the diffusion of ionic pairs in the oxide films was assumed, and it allowed the

Silvanna L. de Albuquerque Maranhão; Roberto M. Torresi

1998-01-01

95

Solid-phase electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide films in alkaline solution.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) film was evaporated onto graphite and used as an electrode to produce electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) films by electrochemical reduction in 6 M KOH solution through voltammetric cycling. Fourier transformed infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ERGO. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of ERGO and GO films in ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple with 0.1 M KCl supporting electrolyte gave results that are in accordance with previous reports. Based on the EIS results, ERGO shows higher capacitance and lower charge transfer resistance compared to GO. PMID:24059434

Basirun, Wan J; Sookhakian, Mehran; Baradaran, Saeid; Mahmoudian, Mohammad R; Ebadi, Mehdi

2013-01-01

96

Anodic oxidation of phenol in the presence of NaCl for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of phenol in the presence of NaCl for wastewater treatment was studied at Ti\\/SnO2 and Ti\\/IrO2 anodes. The experimental results have shown that the presence of NaCl catalyses the anodic oxidation of phenol only at Ti\\/IrO2 anodes due to the participation of electro-generated ClO- in the oxidation. Analysis of the oxidation products has shown that initially organo-chlorinated

Ch. Comninellis; A. Nerini

1995-01-01

97

Electrochemical performance of nitrogen and oxygen radio-frequency plasma induced functional groups on tri-layered reduced graphene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tri-layered reduced graphene oxide with better graphitization was synthesized and functioned using radio frequency N2 and O2 plasma. The layer numbers of reduced graphene oxide were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of plasma treatment on crystal structure, surface morphology and chemical composition were studied from XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical species present in N2/O2 plasma during functionalization of tri-layered reduced graphene oxide was analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy. Tri-layered reduced graphene oxide and functioned tri-layered reduced graphene oxide exhibits higher electrochemical performance towards ferrocyanide redox reaction than glassy carbon and platinum electrode with much decrease in overpotential. This indicates that tri-layered reduced graphene oxide and N2/O2 functionalized tri-layered reduced graphene oxide are promising working electrodes in the application of electrochemical based biosensor.

Lavanya, J.; Gomathi, N.; Neogi, S.

2014-04-01

98

In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of electrochemical oxidation of Li2O2.  

PubMed

In this Letter, we report the first in situ transmission electron microscopy observation of electrochemical oxidation of Li2O2, providing insights into the rate limiting processes that govern charge in Li-O2 cells. In these studies, oxidation of electrochemically formed Li2O2 particles, supported on multiwall carbon nanotutubes (MWCNTs), was found to occur preferentially at the MWCNT/Li2O2 interface, suggesting that electron transport in Li2O2 ultimately limits the oxidation kinetics at high rates or overpotentials. PMID:23586606

Zhong, Li; Mitchell, Robert R; Liu, Yang; Gallant, Betar M; Thompson, Carl V; Huang, Jian Yu; Mao, Scott X; Shao-Horn, Yang

2013-05-01

99

Electrochemical evidence for catalytic water oxidation mediated by a high-valent cobalt complex.  

PubMed

The pH-dependent electrochemical behavior for a Co(II) complex, [Co(Py5)(OH(2))](ClO(4))(2) (1; Py5 = 2,6-(bis(bis-2-pyridyl)methoxymethane)pyridine), indicates consecutive (proton-coupled) oxidation steps furnish a Co(IV) species that catalyzes the oxidation of water in basic media. PMID:21359324

Wasylenko, Derek J; Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Borau-Garcia, Javier; Berlinguette, Curtis P

2011-04-14

100

Oriented silver oxide nanostructures synthesized through a template-free electrochemical route  

E-print Network

Oriented silver oxide nanostructures synthesized through a template-free electrochemical route September 2010 DOI: 10.1039/c0jm02214d Oriented silver oxide nanostructures, including polycrystalline through deposition parameters, including current density, concentration of silver nitrate and solution p

Sadoway, Donald Robert

101

Chemically grown, porous, nickel oxide thin-film for electrochemical supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A porous nickel oxide film is successfully synthesized by means of a chemical bath deposition technique from an aqueous nickel nitrate solution. The formation of a rock salt NiO structure is confirmed with XRD measurements. The electrochemical supercapacitor properties of the nickel oxide film are examined using cyclic voltammetery (CV), galvanostatic and impedance measurements in two different electrolytes, namely, NaOH

A. I. Inamdar; YoungSam Kim; S. M. Pawar; J. H. Kim; Hyunsik Im; Hyungsang Kim

102

Electrochemical studies of hydrogen evolution, storage and oxidation on carbon nanotube electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotube films produced on a Si(100) substrate without any metal catalyst were used as electrodes in galvanic cells. The electrochemical mechanism of hydrogen evolution, storage and oxidation was studied using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic polarisation. Cyclic voltammetry showed that hydrogen is easily produced on the carbon nanotube surface, but a significant overvoltage was observed for hydrogen oxidation. The kinetics

Pier Paolo Prosini; Alfonso Pozio; Sabina Botti; Roberto Ciardi

2003-01-01

103

Electrochemical oxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped diamond anodes at circumneutral and acidic pH.  

PubMed

Electrochemical processes have been widely investigated for degrading organic contaminants present in wastewater. This study evaluated the performance of electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes by forming OH() for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from secondary-treated wastewater effluents. Since oxidation by OH() and active chlorine species (HClO/ClO(-)) is influenced by pH, the electrochemical oxidation of ROC was evaluated at controlled pH 6-7 and at pH 1-2 (no pH adjustment). A high concentration of chloride ions in the ROC enhanced the oxidation, and 7-11% of Coulombic efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved with 5.2 Ah L(-1) of specific electrical charge. Complete COD removal was observed after 5.2 and 6.6 Ah L(-1), yet the corresponding dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was only 48% (at acidic pH) and 59% (at circumneutral pH). Although a higher operating pH seemed to enhance the participation of OH() in oxidation mechanisms, high concentrations of chloride resulted in the formation of significant concentrations of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) after electrochemical oxidation at both pH. While adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) was degraded at a higher applied electrical charge, a continuous increase in AOCl concentration (up to 0.88 mM) was observed until the end of the experiments (i.e. 10.9 Ah L(-1)). In addition, total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total haloacetic acids (tHAAs) were further degraded with an increase in electrical charge under both pH conditions, to final total concentrations of 1 and 4 ?M (tTHMs), and 12 and 22 ?M (tHAAs), at acidic and circumneutral pH, respectively. In particular, tHAAs were still an order of magnitude above their initial concentration in ROC after further electrooxidation. Where high chloride concentrations are present, it was found to be necessary to separate chloride from ROC prior to electrochemical oxidation in order to avoid the formation of chlorinated by-products. PMID:22995242

Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Batstone, Damien J; Kristiana, Ina; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Joll, Cynthia; Radjenovic, Jelena

2012-11-15

104

Electrochemical oxidation of bisphenol-A from aqueous solution using graphite electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of bisphenol-A (BPA) from aqueous solution using graphite electrodes has been investigated. The effect of the types and concentration of supporting electrolytes, initial pH and applied current density on the performance of the process were examined. During electrolysis, concentration of BPA has been monitored and determined using UV-vis spectra, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and energy consumption. NaCl has been considered as the best supporting electrolyte among the electrolytes used in the present study. Initial pH 5.0, higher concentration (0.01 to 0.1 M) of supporting electrolyte and higher applied current density (4 to 20 mA cm(-2)) facilitate the treatment process. The maximum COD removal of 78.3% has been achieved under the optimal experimental conditions such as NaCl concentration of 0.05 M, applied current density of 12 mA cm(-2), initial pH 5.0 and electrolysis time of 120 min. When the energy consumption has been found to be decreasing with increasing NaCl concentration, it has increased with increasing applied current density. SEM-EDAX analysis has confirmed that the gases such as oxygen and chlorine are produced during the anodic oxidation in graphite anode. The result of UV-vis spectrum analysis confirms the degradation of BPA from aqueous solution at the end of the treatment. PMID:23530365

Govindaraj, M; Rathinam, R; Sukumar, C; Uthayasankar, M; Pattabhi, S

2013-01-01

105

Removal of arsenic, phosphates and ammonia from well water using electrochemical/chemical methods and advanced oxidation: a pilot plant approach.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to develop a pilot plant purification system and apply it to groundwater used for human consumption, containing high concentrations of arsenic and increased levels of phosphates, ammonia, mercury and color. The groundwater used was obtained from the production well in the Vinkovci County (Eastern Croatia). Due to a complex composition of the treated water, the purification system involved a combined electrochemical treatment, using iron and aluminum electrode plates with simultaneous ozonation, followed by a post-treatment with UV, ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The removal of the contaminant with the waste sludge collected during the electrochemical treatment was also tested. The combined electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatment resulted in the complete removal of arsenic, phosphates, color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia, while the removal of other contaminants of interest was up to 96.7%. Comparable removal efficiencies were obtained by using waste sludge as a coagulant. PMID:24798899

Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin; Findri Gustek, Stefica

2014-01-01

106

A Comparative study on oxidation of disperse dyes by electrochemical process, ozone, hypochlorite and fenton reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an experimental study on the destruction of disperse dyes by chemical oxidation using ozone, hypochlorite and Fenton reagent (H2O2+Fe2+) are compared with the data obtained by electrochemical oxidation. While the results obtained during hypochlorite oxidation were not satisfactory (only 35% reduction of colour was achieved at a dose of 6gdm?3), ozonation enabled colour to be reduced by

Lidia Szpyrkowicz; Claudia Juzzolino; Santosh N Kaul

2001-01-01

107

Effect of ammonium-salt solutions on the surface properties of carbon fibers in electrochemical anodic oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surfaces of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers were treated by an electrochemical anodic method. Three different kinds of ammonium-salt solutions namely NH4HCO3, (NH4)2CO3 and (NH4)3PO4 were respectively chosen as the electrolytes. The effect of these electrolytes on the surface structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment, and the root mean square roughness (RMS) of carbon fiber surface increased from 4.6 nm for untreated fibers to 13.5 nm for treated fibers in (NH4)3PO4 electrolytes. The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen atomic on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. The tensile strength of oxidized fibers had an obvious decrease, whereas the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) value of corresponding carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) increased in a large extent. The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions and electrochemical oxidation in (NH4)3PO4 electrolyte was of the most violence. The corresponding mechanism was also discussed and the result showed that the higher the concentration of OH- ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative reaction happened.

Qian, Xin; Wang, Xuefei; Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Yousi; Yan, Qing

2012-10-01

108

Advances in the electrochemical simulation of oxidation reactions mediated by cytochrome p450.  

PubMed

Combining electrochemistry with mass spectrometry constitutes an increasingly useful approach for simulating reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP450). In this review, we discuss the ability of the electrochemical cell to act as a reliable tool to mimic CYP450. The electrochemical oxidation process and CYP450-catalyzed reactions are compared in terms of mechanistic pathways, chemical structures of reactive intermediate metabolites, and final chemical structures of oxidation products. The oxidation reactions mediated by CYP450 are known to occur by either a single electron transfer (SET) or a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. The similarities between the reactions mediated electrochemically or by CYP450 are discussed in terms of SET and HAT mechanisms. PMID:25285807

Bussy, Ugo; Boujtita, Mohammed

2014-10-20

109

Electrochemical fabrication and electronic behavior of polypyrrole nano-fiber array devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemically active Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-fiber array device was fabricated via electrochemical deposition method using aluminum anodic oxide (AAO) membrane as template. After alkaline treatment electrochemically active PPy nano-fiber lost electrochemical activity, and became electrochemically inactive PPy. The electronic properties of PPy nano-fiber array devices were measured by means of a simple method. It was found that for an indium–tin oxide\\/electrochemically

Ling Liu; Yaomin Zhao; Nengqin Jia; Qin Zhou; Chongjun Zhao; Manming Yan; Zhiyu Jiang

2006-01-01

110

Electronic defects and interface potentials for Al oxide films on Al and their relationship to electrochemical properties  

SciTech Connect

The relative electronic defect densities and oxide interface potentials were determined for naturally-occurring and synthetic Al oxides on Al. In addition, the effect of electrochemical treatment on the oxide electrical properties was assessed. The measurements revealed (1) that the open circuit potential of Al in aqueous solution is inversely correlated with the oxide electronic defect density (viz., lower oxide conductivities are correlated with higher open circuit potentials), and (2) the electronic defect density within the Al oxide is increased upon exposure to an aqueous electrolyte at open circuit or applied cathodic potentials, while the electronic defect density is reduced upon exposure to slight anodic potentials in solution. This last result, combined with recent theoretical predictions, suggests that hydrogen may be associated with electronic defects within the Al oxide, and that this H may be a mobile species, diffusing as H{sup +}. The potential drop across the oxide layer when immersed in solution at open circuit conditions was also estimated and found to be 0.3 V, with the field direction attracting positive charge towards the Al/oxide interface.

SULLIVAN,JOHN P.; DUNN,ROBERTO G.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; WALL,FREDERICK D.; MISSERT,NANCY A.; BUCHHEIT,R.G.

2000-06-01

111

Inactivation of enteric microbes in water by electro-chemical oxidant from brine (NaCl) and free chlorine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidant solutions of mostly free chlorine can be electrochemically produced on-site from brine (NaCl) solution and used to disinfect water at the household or community level. In this study electrochemical oxidant (ECO) from brine and free chlorine were evaluated under laboratory conditions for inactivation of test microbes. Purified suspensions of Escherichia coli, the rugose strain of Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium perfringens

L. V. Venczel; C. A. Likirdopulos; C. E. Robinson; M. D. Sobsey

112

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Newtown, PA); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Hickman, Robert G. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

113

Electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'This research project is to develop electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. Specifically, it is to study electrokinetic (EK) and electro-Fento (EF) processes and to integrate these processes for the treatment of soils containing mixed contaminants. The objectives are: (1) To study important parameters controlling the mobilization and the transport of selected organics and metals in soils by the electrokinetic (EK) process. Factors to be studied include field strength, pH, ionic strength, soil washing agents, types of organic and metal contaminants, and soil surface properties such as cation exchange capacity(CEC), soil organic content, soil moisture content, soil composition, and surface charge. (2) To study the important factors governing the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton (EF) process. Parameters such as pH, surface area and the configuration of working electrode, oxygen concentration, ferrous ion, and temperature that may affect the performance of the EF process will be investigated. (3) To understand the mechanism of the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton oxidation process.'

Huang, C.P.

1998-06-01

114

Mediated electrochemical oxidation process: Electrooxidation of cerium(III) to cerium(IV) in nitric acid medium and a study on phenol degradation by cerium(IV) oxidant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerium(III) in nitric acid medium was oxidized electrochemically using a flow type electrochemical cell fabricated in our laboratory. The variation of applied cell current, temperature and the concentration of the electrolyte were studied to determine the oxidation efficiency of Ce(III) in the electrochemical cell. The conversion yield of cerium(IV) in nitric acid was 97% in a short duration of 90min.

Subramanian Balaji; Sang Joon Chung; Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari; Il Shik Moon

2007-01-01

115

Electrochemical treatment of human wastes in a packed bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in the use of electrochemical methods for dealing with pollution problems. This paper deals with the mass balance and the use of a packed bed reactor for the electrochemical incineration of human wastes. Parametric studies were carried out to determine the effect of: (i) anodic particle size, (ii) flow rate of faeces\\/urine mixture, (iii) height

C. L. K. Tennakoon; R. C. Bhardwaji; J. O'M. Bockris

1996-01-01

116

Electrochemical sensor for bisphenol A based on magnetic nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), as one kind of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, has adverse impact on human health and environment. It is urgent to develop effective and simple methods for quantitative determination of BPA. In this work, an electrochemical sensor for BPA based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites and chitosan was presented for the first time. The MNPs-rGO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies show that MNPs-rGO composites can lower the oxidation overpotential and enhance electrochemical response of BPA due to the synergetic effects of MNPs and rGO. Under the optimal experiment conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to the concentration of BPA over the range of 6.0×10(-8) to 1.1×10(-5)molL(-1) with the detection limit of 1.7×10(-8)molL(-1). Moreover, the MNPs-rGO based electrochemical sensor shows excellent stability, reproducibility and selectivity. The electrochemical sensor has been successfully applied to the determination of BPA in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23598214

Zhang, Yixuan; Cheng, Yuxiao; Zhou, Yuyan; Li, Bingyu; Gu, Wei; Shi, Xinhao; Xian, Yuezhong

2013-03-30

117

Highly dispersible and stable copper terephthalate metal-organic framework-graphene oxide nanocomposite for an electrochemical sensing application.  

PubMed

A highly dispersible and stable nanocomposite of Cu(tpa)-GO (Cu(tpa) = copper terephthalate metal-organic framework, GO = graphene oxide) was prepared through a simple ultrasonication method. The morphology and structure of the obtained composite were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the basis of the characterization results, the binding mechanism of the Cu(tpa) and GO was speculated to be the cooperative interaction of ?-? stacking, hydrogen bonding, and Cu-O coordination. The electrochemical sensing property of Cu(tpa)-GO composite was investigated through casting the composite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by an electro-reduction treatment to transfer the GO in the composite to the highly conductive reduced form (electrochemically reduced graphene, EGR). The results demonstrated that the electrochemical signals and peak profiles of the two drugs of acetaminophen (ACOP) and dopamine (DA) were significantly improved by the modified material, owing to the synergistic effect from high conductivity of EGR and unique electron mediating action of Cu(tpa). Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak currents of ACOP and DA were linearly correlated to their concentrations in the ranges of 1-100 and 1-50 ?M, respectively. The detection limits for ACOP and DA were estimated to be as low as 0.36 and 0.21 ?M, respectively. PMID:25000168

Wang, Xia; Wang, Qingxiang; Wang, Qinghua; Gao, Feng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Yizhen; Guo, Hongxu

2014-07-23

118

Electrochemical inactivation of paper mill bacteria with mixed metal oxide electrode.  

PubMed

In this study electrochemical inactivation of selected bacteria living in paper mill circulating waters was investigated. Three aerobic bacteria species (Deinococcus geothermalis, Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis and Meiothermus silvanus) were inactivated effectively (>2 log) at a mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrode in 3 min. The influence of parameters, such as current density and initial pH or chloride concentration of synthetic paper machine water (SPW) on the inactivation efficiency were studied. Increasing current density and initial chloride concentration of SPW increased the inactivation rate but change of pH value did not have significant influence on the inactivation rate. It was observed that inactivation was mainly due to the electrochemically generated chlorine/hypochlorite. Electrochemical oxidation showed good performance for inactivation these primary biofilm forming bacteria species with improved current efficiency by higher initial chloride concentrations. PMID:18206301

Särkkä, Heikki; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Pulliainen, Martti; Sillanpää, Mika

2008-08-15

119

Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with

Jude Mary Runge-Marchese

1997-01-01

120

Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical application of mesoporous copper oxide  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous CuO was successfully synthesized via thermal decomposition of CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} precursors. These products had ring-like morphology, which was made up of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 40 nm. The electrochemical experiments showed that the mesoporous CuO decreased the overvoltage of the electrode and increased electron transference in the measurement of dopamine.

Cheng, Liang [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, and College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Shao, Mingwang, E-mail: mwshao@suda.edu.cn [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, and College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Chen, Dayan; Zhang, Yuzhong [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, and College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)] [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, and College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

2010-02-15

121

Electrochromic properties of intercrossing nickel oxide nanoflakes synthesized by electrochemically anodic deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured nickel oxide film is synthesized directly onto a transparent and conducting indium tin oxide coated glass substrate by electrochemically anodic deposition from an aqueous solution. The deposited nickel oxide film has an intercrossing nanoflake and highly porous morphology. X-ray diffraction peaks of the film resemble closely to the cubic NiO structure. The deposited film oxidized/reduced electrochemically at 0.36 and 0.25V versus a saturated Ag /AgCl electrode, respectively, which corresponds to the reversible changes in coloration and bleaching. The difference in optical response (transmittance) ?T at wavelength of 550nm between the colored state and bleached state can reach as high as 80%.

Wu, Mao-Sung; Yang, Chung-Hsien

2007-07-01

122

Electrochemical properties of metal-oxide-coated carbon electrodes prepared by atomic layer deposition.  

PubMed

Here we report on the electrochemical properties of carbon electrodes coated with thin layers of Al2O3 and SnO2. These oxide films were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and range in thickness from 1 to 6 nm. Electrochemical experiments show that the thinnest oxide layers contain defects that penetrate to the underlying carbon electrode. However, oxygenation of the carbon surface prior to ALD increases the surface concentration of nucleation sites for oxide growth and suppresses the defect density. Films of Al2O3 just ?3-4 nm in thickness are free of pinholes. Slightly thicker coatings of SnO2 are required for equivalent passivation. Both Al2O3 and SnO2 films are stable in both neutral and acidic electrolytes even after repeated voltammetric scanning. The results reported here open up the possibility of studying the effect of oxide supports on electrocatalytic reactions. PMID:25372303

Loussaert, James A; Fosdick, Stephen E; Crooks, Richard M

2014-11-18

123

Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of ZnO nanowires/graphene oxide heterostructures  

PubMed Central

Large-scale vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with high crystal qualities were fabricated on thin graphene oxide films via a low temperature hydrothermal method. Room temperature photoluminescence results show that the ultraviolet emission of nanowires grown on graphene oxide films was greatly enhanced and the defect-related visible emission was suppressed, which can be attributed to the improved crystal quality and possible electron transfer between ZnO and graphene oxide. Electrochemical property measurement results demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires/graphene oxide have large integral area of cyclic voltammetry loop, indicating that such heterostructure is promising for application in supercapacitors. PMID:23522184

2013-01-01

124

A Discussion of Electrochemical Techniques for the Detection of Nitric Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electrochemical methods for the detection of various biological substances has provided real-time measurements giving insights into their roles in various physiological functions. The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) plays critical regulatory roles in a variety of physiological processes has prompted development of analytical techniques for the detection of this diatomic molecule in biological systems. This report will

David A. Wink; Danae Christodoulou; May Ho; Murali C. Krishna; John A. Cook; Harold Haut; J. Kemp Randolph; Melani Sullivan; George Coia; Royce Murray; Thomas Meyer

1995-01-01

125

Written-in conductive patterns on robust graphene oxide biopaper by electrochemical microstamping.  

PubMed

The silk road: By employing silk fibroin as a binder between graphene oxide films and aluminum foil for a facile, highly localized reduction process, conductive paper is reinvented. The flexible, robust biographene papers have high toughness and electrical conductivity. This electrochemical written-in approach is readily applicable for the fabrication of conductive patterned papers with complex circuitries. PMID:24214828

Hu, Kesong; Tolentino, Lorenzo S; Kulkarni, Dhaval D; Ye, Chunhong; Kumar, Satish; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

2013-12-16

126

Anodically potentiostatic deposition of flaky nickel oxide nanostructures and their electrochemical performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous nickel oxide films composed of intercrossing nanoflakes are potentiostatically deposited onto the stainless steel substrate by a plating bath of sodium acetate, nickel sulfate and sodium sulfate. Deposition potential influences pore size of the deposited films. Pore size decreases as the deposition potential increases. Electrochemical performance of the deposited films is characterized by cyclic voltammogram. Specific capacity of the

Mao-Sung Wu; Yu-An Huang; Jiin-Jiang Jow; Wein-Duo Yang; Ching-Yuan Hsieh; Huei-Mei Tsai

2008-01-01

127

Influence of annealing on electrochromic performance of template assisted, electrochemically grown, nanostructured assembly of tungsten oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been electrochemically grown from a self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate–tungsten oxide aggregates at the electrode–electrolyte interface. The nanoparticulates embedded in a quasi-layered structure of the as-deposited WO3 film with a single-crystalline hexagonal phase transform to a hybrid microstructure encapsulating both nanoscaled particles and rods with a tetragonal modification at 100°C, reverting again to

M. Deepa; A. K. Srivastava; S. A. Agnihotry

2006-01-01

128

Kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds at BDD anodes: modelling of surface reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a numerical study of the kinetics of electrochemical oxidation of different organic substances\\u000a at boron doped diamond (BDD).\\u000a \\u000a It is well established that oxidation of organics at BDD anodes takes place in the potential region of oxygen evolution, through\\u000a reaction steps in which OH radicals are involved: these radicals can react with organic compounds

Michele Mascia; Annalisa Vacca; Simonetta Palmas; Anna Maria Polcaro

2007-01-01

129

Effect of electrochemical oxidation on biodegradability and toxicity of batik industry wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to investigate the increase in biodegradability and reduction in toxicity level in the batik wastewater treatment. Basically, the wastewater treatment from batik industry contained chemicals especially dyes which are not biodegradable and contains higher toxicity level because of the chemical compartment which comes out during the wastewater discharge and this could lead high risk in health wise to humans and all the aquatic living organisms. Thus, this research was carried to enhance the effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation method by using the batik wastewater. Optimal parameters such as pH, time, distance between graphite electrodes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration as it activates as the electrolyte was done to obtain the removal of BOD, COD and color in the batik wastewater. The research study found that the removal of COD and color was high in the acidic conditions which are pH 5 with the removal of COD, 89.71% and color 93.89%. The ratio of BOD5/ COD successfully increased from 0.015 to 0.271 which mean it increase by 94.46% and the toxicity level using Toxtrax method (10017) also successfully reduced from 1.195% to 0.129% which means the samples which were slightly toxic were reduced to non-toxic level.

Subramaniam, Devagi; Halim, Azhar A.

2014-09-01

130

Electrochemical treatment of cork boiling wastewater with a boron-doped diamond anode.  

PubMed

Anodic oxidation at a boron-doped diamond anode of cork boiling wastewater was successfully used for mineralization and biodegradability enhancement required for effluent discharge or subsequent biological treatment, respectively. The influence of the applied current density (30-70 mA/cm(2)) and the background electrolyte concentration (0-1.5 g/L Na2SO4) on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. The supporting electrolyte was required to achieve conductivities that enabled anodic oxidation at the highest current intensities applied. The results indicated that pollutant removal increased with the applied current density, and after 8 h, reductions greater than 90% were achieved for COD, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols and colour. The biodegradability enhancement was from 0.13 to 0.59 and from 0.23 to 0.72 for the BOD/COD ratios with BOD of 5 and 20 days' incubation period, respectively. The tests without added electrolyte were performed at lower applied electrical charges (15 mA/cm(2) or 30 V) with good organic load removal (up to 80%). For an applied current density of 30 mA/cm(2), there was a minimum of electric conductivity of 1.9 mS/cm (corresponding to 0.75 g/L of Na2SO4), which minimized the specific energy consumption. PMID:25409580

Fernandes, Annabel; Santos, Diana; Pacheco, Maria José; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Simões, Rogério; Gomes, Arlindo C; Lopes, Ana

2015-01-01

131

Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

2010-11-23

132

Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

2010-03-02

133

Boron-doped diamond electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of peptides and proteins is traditionally performed on carbon-based electrodes. Adsorption caused by the affinity of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids toward these surfaces leads to electrode fouling. We compared the performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides. An optimal working potential of 2000 mV was chosen to ensure oxidation of peptides on BDD by electron transfer processes only. Oxidation by electrogenerated OH radicals took place above 2500 mV on BDD, which is undesirable if cleavage of a peptide is to be achieved. BDD showed improved cleavage yield and reduced adsorption for a set of small peptides, some of which had been previously shown to undergo electrochemical cleavage C-terminal to tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) on porous carbon electrodes. Repeated oxidation with BDD electrodes resulted in progressively lower conversion yields due to a change in surface termination. Cathodic pretreatment of BDD at a negative potential in an acidic environment successfully regenerated the electrode surface and allowed for repeatable reactions over extended periods of time. BDD electrodes are a promising alternative to GC electrodes in terms of reduced adsorption and fouling and the possibility to regenerate them for consistent high-yield electrochemical cleavage of peptides. The fact that OH-radicals can be produced by anodic oxidation of water at elevated positive potentials is an additional advantage as they allow another set of oxidative reactions in analogy to the Fenton reaction, thus widening the scope of electrochemistry in protein and peptide chemistry and analytics. PMID:23763302

Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F A; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bruins, Andries P; Bischoff, Rainer

2013-07-16

134

Electrochemical analysis of transparent oxide-less photovoltaic cell with perforation patterned metal substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of electrochemical behaviour, a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-less dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with two metal foils was compared with those of a metal foil-based DSSC with a TCO-coated substrate. By virtue of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy, open-circuit voltage decay, and photocurrent transient measurements, it was clearly confirmed that the limited performance of the TCO-less DSSC was caused by the restricted transport of ion species in the electrolyte due to the perforation patterned metal foil.

Kim, Myoung; You, In-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Won; Lee, In-Hwan; Yun, Ho-Gyeong

2013-05-01

135

Role of Nanostructure in Electrochemical Corrosion and High Temperature Oxidation: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremely fine grain size of nanocrystalline (nc) metallic alloys results in significantly different mechanical, electrochemical and oxidation properties as compared to the coarse-grained alloys of the same composition. Although the synthesis and attractive mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials have been investigated and reviewed in great depth, the high temperature oxidation and electrochemical corrosion of these materials has received limited attention. The difference in the active dissolution and passivation behavior of nc alloys as compared to their microcrystalline counterparts varies for each alloy system. However, a unified theory explaining these phenomena still eludes us. In this context, this article reviews the progress in the electrochemical corrosion behavior of different nanocrystalline alloys, and hence, develops a better understanding of the effect of grain size, composition, interfacial phenomena and selective dissolution on corrosion of nanocrystalline alloys. This review also presents the role of nanometric grain size and the associated increase in grain boundary diffusion on the high temperature oxidation of nc alloys. The attractive possibility of enhanced oxidation resistance at lower alloying additions as compared to the coarse-grained alloys has been discussed. Although the primary focus of the article is on ferrous alloy systems, however, the lead studies on the role of ultrafine grain size in oxidation/corrosion behavior of other alloys systems have also been reviewed.

Mahesh, B. V.; Raman, R. K. Singh

2014-11-01

136

Electrochemically driven intramolecular oxidative aromatic coupling as a pathway toward ?-extended porphyrins.  

PubMed

A Ni(II) complex of a ?-extended porphyrin bearing three mesityl substituents and one electron-rich naphthalene moiety has been prepared via electrochemical oxidation. It was proven that the whole oxidative process starts from electrochemical generation of a radical-cation on the porphyrin core. Electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of both a naphthalenyl-substituted porphyrin and a porphyrin with a fused naphthalenyl group on the ?-ring system provide clear distinction between metal- and ring-centered processes. The redox reactivity of the naphthalenyl-substituted metalloporphyrin in nonaqueous media is presented while outlining the most important structural factors which influence the reversible half-wave potentials for oxidation and reduction of this complex and the following chemical reactions which lead to an extended ?-system. PMID:23895324

Chen, Ping; Fang, Yuanyuan; Kadish, Karl M; Lewtak, Jan P; Koszelewski, Dominik; Janiga, Anita; Gryko, Daniel T

2013-08-19

137

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

138

Conducting Polymer Electrochemically Generated Via Anodic Oxidation of Toluene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As opposed to the much harsher conditions demanded in homogeneous solutions, a conducting polymer of toluene is readily formed by anodic oxidation of acetonitrile solutions containing the precursor. The fabrication of new conductive polymers is of interes...

D. B. Parry, J. M. Harris, K. Ashley, S. Pons

1988-01-01

139

Tungsten Oxide Nanoporous Structure Synthesized Via Direct Electrochemical Anodization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature anodization of tungsten (W) was conducted in 1 M Na2SO4 added with NH4F. Nanoporous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer was produce when pH of the electrolyte was 3. The growth of the porous WO3 was further investigated in bath with varying pH and the possible explanation for the formation of the nanoporous oxide is discussed.

Ismail, Syahriza; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Jing, Pang Woei; Lockman, Zainovia

2011-05-01

140

Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 ?A mM-1 cm-2), low detection limit (0.2 ?M) and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 ?M. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

Liu, Jinping; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xintang; Zhu, Zhihong

2010-07-01

141

Enhancing electrochemical detection on graphene oxide-CNT nanostructured electrodes using magneto-nanobioprobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene and related materials have come to the forefront of research in electrochemical sensors during recent years due to the promising properties of these nanomaterials. Further applications of these nanomaterials have been hampered by insufficient sensitivity offered by these nanohybrids for the type of molecules requiring lower detection ranges. Here, we report a signal amplification strategy based on magneto-electrochemical immunoassay which combines the advantages of carbon nanotube and reduced graphene oxide together with electrochemical bursting of magnetic nanoparticles into a large number of metal ions. Sensitive detection was achieved by precisely designing the nanohybrid and correlating the available metal ions with analyte concentration. We confirmed the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method for a new generation herbicide diuron and its analogues up to sub-picomolar concentration in standard water samples. The novel immune-detection platform showed the excellent potential applicability in rapid and sensitive screening of environmental pollutants or toxins in samples.

Sharma, Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Dravid, Vinayak; Shekhawat, Gajendera; Jinsong-Wu; Prasad, E. Senthil; Suri, C. Raman

2012-11-01

142

Enhancing electrochemical detection on graphene oxide-CNT nanostructured electrodes using magneto-nanobioprobes  

PubMed Central

Graphene and related materials have come to the forefront of research in electrochemical sensors during recent years due to the promising properties of these nanomaterials. Further applications of these nanomaterials have been hampered by insufficient sensitivity offered by these nanohybrids for the type of molecules requiring lower detection ranges. Here, we report a signal amplification strategy based on magneto-electrochemical immunoassay which combines the advantages of carbon nanotube and reduced graphene oxide together with electrochemical bursting of magnetic nanoparticles into a large number of metal ions. Sensitive detection was achieved by precisely designing the nanohybrid and correlating the available metal ions with analyte concentration. We confirmed the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method for a new generation herbicide diuron and its analogues up to sub-picomolar concentration in standard water samples. The novel immune-detection platform showed the excellent potential applicability in rapid and sensitive screening of environmental pollutants or toxins in samples. PMID:23166860

Sharma, Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Dravid, Vinayak; Shekhawat, Gajendera; Jinsong-Wu, J W; Prasad, E. Senthil; Suri, C. Raman

2012-01-01

143

Chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite films with enhanced interfacial interaction and their electrochemical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of chitosan (CS) nanocomposites incorporated with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were facilely prepared by sonochemical method. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the obtained nanocomposites showed fine dispersion of GO in the CS matrix. Meanwhile, a marked interfacial interaction was also revealed as the values of glass transition temperature, the decomposition temperature and the storage modulus were significantly increased with the addition of GO. Furthermore, the well dispersed GO nanosheets could significantly improve the electrochemical activity of the CS as demonstrated by the electrochemical behaviors of pure CS and the GO/CS composite electrodes. Hence, the GO/CS nanocomposites film could be a promising candidate in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors.

He, Linghao; Wang, Hongfang; Xia, Guangmei; Sun, Jing; Song, Rui

2014-09-01

144

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly use...

145

Microfluidic electrochemical sensor for on-line monitoring of aerosol oxidative activity.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has a significant impact on human morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity are poorly defined. A leading hypothesis states that airborne PM induces harm by generating reactive oxygen species in and around human tissues, leading to oxidative stress. We report here a system employing a microfluidic electrochemical sensor coupled directly to a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) system to measure aerosol oxidative activity in an on-line format. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, where, after being oxidized by PM, the remaining reduced DTT is analyzed by the microfluidic sensor. The sensor consists of an array of working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device. Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine-modified carbon paste was used as the working electrode material, allowing selective detection of reduced DTT. The electrochemical sensor was validated off-line against the traditional DTT assay using filter samples taken from urban environments and biomass burning events. After off-line characterization, the sensor was coupled to a PILS to enable on-line sampling/analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. Urban dust and industrial incinerator ash samples were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber and analyzed for their oxidative activity. The on-line sensor reported DTT consumption rates (oxidative activity) in good correlation with aerosol concentration (R(2) from 0.86 to 0.97) with a time resolution of approximately 3 min. PMID:22651886

Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeff; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Sun, Yele; Collett, Jeffrey; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

2012-06-27

146

Mechanistic studies of water electrolysis and hydrogen electro-oxidation on high temperature ceria-based solid oxide electrochemical cells.  

PubMed

Through the use of ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) and a single-sided solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), we have studied the mechanism of electrocatalytic splitting of water (H2O + 2e(-) ? H2 + O(2-)) and electro-oxidation of hydrogen (H2 + O(2-) ? H2O + 2e(-)) at ?700 °C in 0.5 Torr of H2/H2O on ceria (CeO2-x) electrodes. The experiments reveal a transient build-up of surface intermediates (OH(-) and Ce(3+)) and show the separation of charge at the gas-solid interface exclusively in the electrochemically active region of the SOC. During water electrolysis on ceria, the increase in surface potentials of the adsorbed OH(-) and incorporated O(2-) differ by 0.25 eV in the active regions. For hydrogen electro-oxidation on ceria, the surface concentrations of OH(-) and O(2-) shift significantly from their equilibrium values. These data suggest that the same charge transfer step (H2O + Ce(3+) <-> Ce(4+) + OH(-) + H(•)) is rate limiting in both the forward (water electrolysis) and reverse (H2 electro-oxidation) reactions. This separation of potentials reflects an induced surface dipole layer on the ceria surface and represents the effective electrochemical double layer at a gas-solid interface. The in situ XPS data and DFT calculations show that the chemical origin of the OH(-)/O(2-) potential separation resides in the reduced polarization of the Ce-OH bond due to the increase of Ce(3+) on the electrode surface. These results provide a graphical illustration of the electrochemically driven surface charge transfer processes under relevant and nonultrahigh vacuum conditions. PMID:23822749

Zhang, Chunjuan; Yu, Yi; Grass, Michael E; Dejoie, Catherine; Ding, Wuchen; Gaskell, Karen; Jabeen, Naila; Hong, Young Pyo; Shavorskiy, Andrey; Bluhm, Hendrik; Li, Wei-Xue; Jackson, Gregory S; Hussain, Zahid; Liu, Zhi; Eichhorn, Bryan W

2013-08-01

147

Electrochemical properties of iodine-containing lithium manganese oxide spinel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-containing, cation-deficient, lithium manganese oxides (ICCD-LMO) are prepared by reaction of MnO2 with LiI. The MnO2 is completely transformed into spinel-structured compounds with a nominal composition of Li1??Mn2?2?O4Ix. A sample prepared at 800°C, viz. Li0.99Mn1.98O4I0.02, exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 113mAhg?1 with good cycleability and rate capability in the 4-V region. Iodine-containing, lithium-rich lithium manganese oxides (ICLR-LMO) are also

Chi-Hwan Han; Young-Sik Hong; Hyun-Sil Hong; Keon Kim

2002-01-01

148

Photochemical, electrochemical, and photoelectrochemical water oxidation catalyzed by water-soluble mononuclear ruthenium complexes.  

PubMed

Two mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(H2 tcbp)(isoq)2 ] (1) and [Ru(H2 tcbp)(pic)2 ] (2) (H4 tcbp=4,4',6,6'-tetracarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine, isoq=isoquinoline, pic=4-picoline) are synthesized and fully characterized. Two spare carboxyl groups on the 4,4'-positions are introduced to enhance the solubility of 1 and 2 in water and to simultaneously allow them to tether to the electrode surface by an ester linkage. The photochemical, electrochemical, and photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance of 1 in neutral aqueous solution is investigated. Under electrochemical conditions, water oxidation is conducted on the deposited indium-tin-oxide anode, and a turnover number higher than 15,000 per water oxidation catalyst (WOC) 1 is obtained during 10?h of electrolysis under 1.42?V vs. NHE, corresponding to a turnover frequency of 0.41?s(-1) . The low overpotential (0.17?V) of electrochemical water oxidation for 1 in the homogeneous solution enables water oxidation under visible light by using [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) (P1) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) or [Ru(bpy)2 (4,4'-(COOEt)2 -bpy)](2+) (P2) as a photosensitizer. In a three-component system containing 1 or 2 as a light-driven WOC, P1 or P2 as a photosensitizer, and Na2 S2 O8 or [CoCl(NH3 )5 ]Cl2 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, a high turnover frequency of 0.81?s(-1) and a turnover number of up to 600 for 1 under different catalytic conditions are achieved. In a photoelectrochemical system, the WOC 1 and photosensitizer are immobilized together on the photoanode. The electrons efficiently transfer from the WOC to the photogenerated oxidizing photosensitizer, and a high photocurrent density of 85??A?cm(-2) is obtained by applying 0.3?V bias vs. NHE. PMID:25205065

Li, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Wei-Liang; Chen, Yong; Li, Fu-Min; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Tian, Yong-Hua; Fu, Wen-Fu

2014-10-20

149

Structural carbohydrate availability with electrochemical ozonation and ammonia pressurization / depressurization pre-treatment technologies  

E-print Network

STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE AVAILABILITY WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL OZONATION AND AMMONIA PRESSURIZATION I DEPRESSURIZATION PRE-TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES A Thesis by JAMES JASON WILLIAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1999 Major Subject: Nutrition STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE AVAILABILITY WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL OZONATION AND AMMONIA PRESSURIZATION / DEPRESSURIZATION TECHNOLOGIES A Thesis...

Williams, James Jason

2012-06-07

150

Synthesis and Microstructural Characterization of Manganese Oxide Electrodes for Application as Electrochemical Supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this thesis work was to synthesize Mn-based oxide electrodes with high surface area structures by anodic electrodeposition for application as electrochemical capacitors. Rod-like structures provide large surface areas leading to high specific capacitances. Since templated electrosynthesis of rods is not easy to use in practical applications, it is more desirable to form rod-like structures without using any templates. In this work, Mn oxide electrodes with rod-like structures (˜1.5 µm in diameter) were synthesized from a solution of 0.01 M Mn acetate under galvanostatic control without any templates, on Au coated Si substrates. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized nanocrystalline electrodes were investigated to determine the effect of morphology, chemistry and crystal structure on the corresponding electrochemical behavior of Mn oxide electrodes. Mn oxides prepared at different current densities showed a defective antifluoritetype crystal structure. The rod-like Mn oxide electrodes synthesized at low current densities (5 mAcm.2) exhibited a high specific capacitance due to their large surface areas. Also, specific capacity retention after 250 cycles in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M Na2SO4 at 100 mVs -1 was about 78% of the initial capacity (203 Fg-1 ). To improve the electrochemical capacitive behavior of Mn oxide electrodes, a sequential approach and a one-step method were adopted to synthesize Mn oxide/PEDOT electrodes through anodic deposition on Au coated Si substrates from aqueous solutions. In the former case, free standing Mn oxide rods (about 10 µm long and less than 1.5 µm in diameter) were first synthesized, then coated by electro-polymerization of a conducting polymer (PEDOT) giving coaxial rods. The one-step, co-electrodeposition method produced agglomerated Mn oxide/PEDOT particles. The electrochemical behavior of the deposits depended on the morphology and crystal structure of the fabricated electrodes, which were affected by the composition and pH of the electrolyte, temperature, current density and polymer deposition time. Mn oxide/PEDOT coaxial core/shell rods consisted of MnO2 with an antifluorite-type structure coated with amorphous PEDOT. The Mn oxide/PEDOT coaxial core/shell electrodes prepared by the sequential method showed significantly better specific capacity and redox performance properties relative to both uncoated Mn oxide rods and co- electrodeposited Mn oxide/PEDOT electrodes. The best specific capacitance for Mn oxide/PEDOT rods produced sequentially was ˜295 F g-1 with ˜92% retention after 250 cycles in 0.5 M Na2SO4 at 100 mV s-1. To further improve the electrochemical capacitive behavior of Mn oxide electrodes, Co-doped and Fe-doped Mn oxide electrodes with a rod-like morphology and antifluorite-type crystal structure were synthesized by anodic electrodeposition, on Au coated Si substrates, from dilute solutions of Mn acetate and Co sulphate and Mn acetate and Fe chloride. Also, Mn-Co oxide/PEDOT coaxial core/shell rods were synthesized by applying a shell of PEDOT on Mn-Co oxide electrodes. Mn-Co oxide/PEDOT electrodes consisted of MnO2, with partial Co 2+ and Co3+ ion substitution for Mn4+, and amorphous PEDOT. Mn-Fe oxide electrodes consisted of MnO2, with partial Fe2+ and Fe3+ ion substitution for Mn4+. Electrochemical analysis showed that the capacitance values for all deposits increased with increasing scan rate to 100 mVs -1, and then decreased after 100 mVs-1. The Mn-Co oxide/PEDOT electrodes showed improved specific capacity and electrochemical cyclability relative to uncoated Mn-Co oxides and Mn-Fe oxides. Mn-Co oxide/PEDOT electrodes with rod-like structures had high capacitances (up to 310 Fg -1) at a scan rate of 100 mVs-1 and maintained their capacitance after 500 cycles in 0.5 M Na2SO4 (91% retention). Capacitance reduction for the deposits was mainly due to the loss of Mn ions by dissolution in the electrolyte solution. To better understand the nucleation and growth mechanisms of Mn oxide electrodes, the effects of supersaturation ratio on the

Babakhani, Banafsheh

151

Modelling of ion convection during electrochemical oxidation of aluminium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscopic electrically induced ionic convection in the electrolyte surrounding the anode is modelled. Dissipative particle dynamics approach is used for the modelling. Simulation shows that the relation between forming voltage and convection cell size is likely nonlinear. Interactions between this nonlinearity and modes in the oxide layer can be the cause of irregularities in the resulting structures.

Zun, Pavel; Svitenkov, Andrey

2014-10-01

152

Orientation and Electrochemical Oxidation of Hydroquinone Chemisorbed on Platinum Electrodes in Various Weakly Surface-Active Supporting Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies on the adsorption, orientation and electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone at smooth polycrystalline Pt electrodes in aqueous solutions of weakly surface-active electrolytes are reported. The electrolytes were compared with respect to how they i...

M. P. Soriaga, V. K.F. Chia, J. H. White, D. Song, A.T. Hubbard

1984-01-01

153

Dynamic Complexity in the Electrochemical Oxidation of Thiourea Jiamin Feng, Qingyu Gao,, Xiaoli Lv, and Irving R. Epstein*,  

E-print Network

Dynamic Complexity in the Electrochemical Oxidation of Thiourea Jiamin Feng, Qingyu Gao,, Xiaoli Lv oxidation of thiourea under potential- control mode and found complex oscillations with one large peak oxidation of thiourea revealed that the reaction is a complex process, and several possible products were

Epstein, Irving R.

154

Electrochemical characteristics of calcium in organic electrolyte solutions and vanadium oxides as calcium hosts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated batteries using calcium as the transfer ion with a view to developing high energy density and safe ion-transfer type batteries as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical behavior of calcium electrodes in various kinds of electrolyte solution was investigated by means of galvanostatic measurements. The anodic dissolution proceeded easily, but there was no cathodic deposition in the solutions we tested in this study. As a result, we used Ca(ClO 4) 2 solute/acetonitrile solution to evaluate the calcium insertion behavior. Moreover, we examined electrochemical insertion and extraction reactions with respect to calcium ions using vanadium oxides as calcium host materials. Their discharge curves indicated that a calcium insertion reaction did indeed occur. Structural changes in vanadium oxides resulting from the insertion and extraction of calcium ions were observed for the first time.

Hayashi, M.; Arai, H.; Ohtsuka, H.; Sakurai, Y.

155

Electrochemical activation of cp* iridium complexes for electrode-driven water-oxidation catalysis.  

PubMed

Organometallic iridium complexes bearing oxidatively stable chelate ligands are precursors for efficient homogeneous water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs), but their activity in oxygen evolution has so far been studied almost exclusively with sacrificial chemical oxidants. In this report, we study the electrochemical activation of Cp*Ir complexes and demonstrate true electrode-driven water oxidation catalyzed by a homogeneous iridium species in solution. Whereas the Cp* precursors exhibit no measurable O2-evolution activity, the molecular species formed after their oxidative activation are highly active homogeneous WOCs, capable of electrode-driven O2 evolution with high Faradaic efficiency. We have ruled out the formation of heterogeneous iridium oxides, either as colloids in solution or as deposits on the surface of the electrode, and found indication that the conversion of the precursor to the active molecular species occurs by a similar process whether carried out by chemical or electrochemical methods. This work makes these WOCs more practical for application in photoelectrochemical dyads for light-driven water splitting. PMID:25188635

Thomsen, Julianne M; Sheehan, Stafford W; Hashmi, Sara M; Campos, Jesús; Hintermair, Ulrich; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W

2014-10-01

156

Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies of a palladium electrode oxidation in a basic electrolyte solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic oxidation of Pd in basic solutions (0.1M KOHaq and 0.1M NaOHaq) has been examined via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). Admittance tests show that Pd(II) layer behaves as a rigid one. The anodic vertex potential influences mass response during formation of the Pd(II) layer. For low anodic vertex potentials, obtained absolute mass per mole

M. Grde?

2009-01-01

157

Controllable synthesis of metal hydroxide and oxide nanostructures by ionic liquids assisted electrochemical corrosion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu(OH)2 nanowires have been synthesized by anodic oxidation of copper through a simple electrolysis process employing ionic liquid as an electrolyte. Controlling the electrochemical conditions can qualitatively modulate the lengths, amounts, and shapes of Cu(OH)2 nanostructures. A rational mechanism based on coordination self-assembly and oriented attachment is proposed for the selective formation of the polycrystalline Cu(OH)2 nanowires. In addition, the

N. Liu; D. Wu; Haoxi Wu; Fang Luo; J. Chen

2008-01-01

158

Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.  

PubMed

Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (?e,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, ?e,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries. PMID:23789816

Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

2013-07-23

159

Electrochemical synthesis and sintering of nanocrystalline cerium(IV) oxide powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline CeOâ powders were prepared electrochemically by the cathodic electrogeneration of base, and their sintering behavior was investigated. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the as-prepared powders were crystalline cerium(IV) oxide with the cubic fluorite structure. The lattice parameter of the electrogenerated material was 0.5419 nm. The powders consisted of nonaggregated, faceted particles. The average crystallite size was

Z. Zhou; Richard J. Phillips; Jay A. Switzer

1995-01-01

160

Phenomenological kinetics of irreversible electrochemical dissolution of metal-oxide microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical dissolution of metal oxides and other stable solid phases composed of nano- to micro-crystalline particles\\u000a is generally a complex process. It can be simplified by distinguishing two main contributions to the reactivity of the solid:\\u000a the potential-dependent rate coefficient k(E), and the conversion-dependent function f(y). These contributions can be evaluated by a combination of potentiostatic and potentiodynamic experiments.

Tomáš Grygar

1998-01-01

161

Electrochemical characteristics of rancieite-type manganese oxide by mechanochemical synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rancieite-type manganese oxide is synthesized by a mechanochemical method and its electrochemical characteristics as a cathode material for lithium secondary batteries are examined. The discharge capacity increases with milling time up to 45h with a maximum of 274mAhg?1. Further increase in milling time causes a decrease in capacity due to a phase transformation. Lithium insertion into the rancieite-type manganese cathode

Sang-gil Woo; Hansu Kim; Churl Kyung Lee; Hun-Joon Sohn; Tak Kang

2003-01-01

162

Effect of oxygen non-stoichiometry on the electrochemical performance of lithium manganese oxide spinels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oxygen non-stoichiometry on the electrochemical performance of lithium manganese oxide spinels is investigated. Spinels with different oxygen contents are obtained from citrate gel synthesis followed by calcination in air in the temperature range 200–850°C. Spinels that were formed at low temperatures are found suitable for 3V applications, whereas those formed at high temperatures perform better at 4V.

A. R Naghash; Jim Y Lee

2001-01-01

163

Electrochemical characterization of commercial lithium manganese oxide powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five commercial lithium manganese oxide powders have been studied. The XRD spectra showed all samples to exhibit the spinel structure. The composition and morphology were analyzed by Jaeger–Vetter titration and scanning electron microscopy. The lithium intercalation\\/de-intercalation characteristics and the cycleability have been studied using state-of-the-art cells. The morphology of the particles and crystallites, as well as the defect structure of

H. Huang; C. H. Chen; R. C. Perego; E. M. Kelder; L. Chen; J. Schoonman; W. J. Weydanz; D. W. Nielsen

2000-01-01

164

Assessment of Electrodes Prepared from Wafers of Boron-doped Diamond for the Electrochemical Oxidation of Waste Lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)

Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

165

Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tong, Hui; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiaoli; Tang, Yuguo

2014-02-01

166

Method of making sulfur tolerant composite cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical apparatus is made containing an exterior electorde bonded to the exterior of a tubular, solid, oxygen ion conducting electrolyte where the electrolyte is also in contact with an interior electrode, said exterior electrode comprising particles of an electronic conductor contacting the electrolyte, where a ceramic metal oxide coating partially surrounds the particles and is bonded to the electrolyte, and where a coating of an ionic-electronic conductive material is attached to the ceramic metal oxide coating and to the exposed portions of the particles.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1989-01-01

167

High-temperature "spectrochronopotentiometry": correlating electrochemical performance with in situ Raman spectroscopy in solid oxide fuel cells.  

PubMed

Carbon formation or "coking" on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes adversely affects performance by blocking catalytic sites and reducing electrochemical activity. Quantifying these effects, however, often requires correlating changes in SOFC electrochemical efficiency measured during operation with results from ex situ measurements performed after the SOFC has been cooled and disassembled. Experiments presented in this work couple vibrational Raman spectroscopy with chronopotentiometry to observe directly the relationship between graphite deposited on nickel cermet anodes and the electrochemical performance of SOFCs operating at 725 °C. Raman spectra from Ni cermet anodes at open circuit voltage exposed to methane show a strong vibrational band at 1556 cm(-1) assigned to the "G" mode of highly ordered graphite. When polarized in the absence of a gas-phase fuel, these carbon-loaded anodes operate stably, oxidizing graphite to form CO and CO(2). Disappearance of graphite intensity measured in the Raman spectra is accompanied by a steep ?0.8 V rise in the cell potential needed to keep the SOFC operating under constant current conditions. Continued operation leads to spectroscopically observable Ni oxidation and another steep rise in cell potential. Time-dependent spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements pass through correlated equivalence points providing unequivocal, in situ evidence that identifies how SOFC performance depends on the chemical condition of its anode. Chronopotentiometric data are used to quantify the oxide flux necessary to eliminate the carbon initially present on the SOFC anode, and data show that the oxidation mechanisms responsible for graphite removal correlate directly with the electrochemical condition of the anode as evidenced by voltammetry and impedance measurements. Electrochemically oxidizing the Ni anode damages the SOFC significantly and irreversibly. Anodes that have been reconstituted following electrochemical oxidation of carbon and Ni show qualitatively different kinetics of carbon removal, and the electrochemical performance of these systems is characterized by low maximum currents and large polarization resistances. PMID:23046116

Kirtley, John D; Halat, David M; McIntyre, Melissa D; Eigenbrodt, Bryan C; Walker, Robert A

2012-11-20

168

Formation and electrochemical characterization of anodic ZrO2-WO3 mixed oxide nanotubular arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZrO2-WO3 mixed oxide nanotubes were synthesized by a simple electrochemical anodization route. The oxide nanotubes contained a mixture of metastable hexagonal WO3 and monoclinic (and orthorhombic) ZrO2 phases, as well as a mixed-oxide ZrW2O8 phase that showed a metastable tetragonal symmetry. Evaluation of photo-activity of the materials showed generation of photo-potentials of -85 mV and -230 mV in the as-anodized and annealed conditions. Because of the mismatch in the band edge positions of the WO3 and ZrO2 phases and the resultant relaxation of photo-generated charge carriers, no significant photo-current density could be observed. The arrays of oxide nanotubes are considered for electrochemical capacitor application because of their morphology-assisted fast charge/discharge kinetics and large surface area. Presence of a large concentration of charge defects (on the order of 1021 cm-3) and the reported high proton conductivity of the ZrO2-WO3 mixed oxide rendered high capacitance, which decreased with an increase in the scan rate of cyclic voltammetry. The highest measured capacitance was 40.03 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 10 mV/s and the lowest was 1.93 mF/cm2 at 1 V/s in 1 M sulfuric acid solution.

Whitman, Stuart R.; Raja, Krishnan S.

2014-06-01

169

Electrochemically-Controlled Compositional Oscillations of Oxide Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically and/or ionically conducting, and thus they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface chemistries is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface chemistry changes of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC113), LaSrCoO4 (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 films (LSC113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr was found for the LSC113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites.

Mutoro, Eva [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Crumlin, Ethan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Pöpke, Hendrik [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; Luerssen, Bjoern [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; Amati, Matteo [Sincrotrone Trieste Elettra; Abyaneh, Majid [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Gregoratti, Luca [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Janek, Jürgen [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; Shao-Horn, Yang [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2012-01-01

170

Coupling digestion in a pilot-scale UASB reactor and electrochemical oxidation over BDD anode to treat diluted cheese whey.  

PubMed

The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey (CW) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated cheese whey was evaluated. The diluted cheese whey, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 6 g/L, was first treated in a 600-L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB process, which was operated for 87 days at mesophilic conditions (32?±?2 °C) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, led to a COD removal efficiency between 66 and 97 %, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 9 and 18 A and in the presence of NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 3-4 h of reaction. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organochlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, alongside free chlorine, are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina. PMID:24793070

Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

2014-11-01

171

Preparation and electrochemical performances of nanoporous/cracked cobalt oxide layer for supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous/cracked structures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) electrodes were successfully fabricated by electroplating of zinc-cobalt onto previously formed TiO2 nanotubes by anodizing of titanium, leaching of zinc in a concentrated alkaline solution and followed by drying and annealing at 400 °C. The structure and morphology of the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were composed of the nanoporous/cracked structures with an average pore size of about 100 nm. The electrochemical capacitive behaviors of the nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M NaOH solution. The electrochemical data demonstrated that the electrodes display good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 430 F g-1 at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 and specific capacitance retention of ca. 80 % after 10 days of being used in electrochemical experiments, indicating to be promising electroactive materials for supercapacitors. Furthermore, in comparison with electrodes prepared by simple cathodic deposition of cobalt onto TiO2 nanotubes(without dealloying procedure), the impedance studies showed improved performances likely due to nanoporous/cracked structures of electrodes fabricated by dealloying of zinc, which provide fast ion and electron transfer routes and large reaction surface area with the ensued fast reaction kinetics.

Gobal, Fereydoon; Faraji, Masoud

2014-07-01

172

Bio-functionalized graphene-graphene oxide nanocomposite based electrochemical immunosensing  

PubMed Central

We report a novel in-situ electrochemical synthesis approach for the formation of functionalized graphene–graphene oxide (fG–GO) nanocomposite on screen-printed electrodes (SPE). Electrochemically controlled nanocomposite film formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Further insight into the nanocomposite has been accomplished by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Configured as a highly responsive screen-printed immunosensor, the fG–GO nanocomposite on SPE exhibits electrical and chemical synergies of the nano-hybrid functional construct by combining good electronic properties of functionalized graphene (fG) and the facile chemical functionality of graphene oxide (GO) for compatible bio-interface development using specific anti-diuron antibody. The enhanced electrical properties of nanocomposite biofilm demonstrated a significant increase in electrochemical signal response in a competitive inhibition immunoassay format for diuron detection, promising its potential applicability for ultra-sensitive detection of range of target analytes. PMID:22884654

Sharma, Priyanka; Tuteja, Satish K.; Bhalla, Vijayender; Shekhawat, G.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Suri, C.Raman

2014-01-01

173

Modular "click" chemistry for electrochemically and photoelectrochemically active molecular interfaces to tin oxide surfaces.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of "click" chemistry to form electrochemically and photoelectrochemically active molecular interfaces to SnO(2) nanoparticle thin films. By using photochemical grafting to link a short-chain alcohol to the surface followed by conversion to a surface azide group, we enable use of the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, a form of "click" chemistry, on metal oxide surfaces. Results are shown with three model compounds to test the surface chemistry and subsequent ability to achieve electrochemical and photoelectrochemical charge transfer. Surface-tethered ferrocene groups exhibit good electron-transfer characteristics with thermal rates estimated at >1000 s(-1). Time-resolved surface photovoltage measurements using a ruthenium terpyridyl coordination compound demonstrate photoelectron charge transfer on time scales of nanoseconds or less, limited by the laser pulse width. The results demonstrate that the CuAAC "click" reaction can be used to form electrochemically and photoelectrochemically active molecular interfaces to SnO(2) and other metal oxide semiconductors. PMID:21766849

Benson, Michelle C; Ruther, Rose E; Gerken, James B; Rigsby, Matthew L; Bishop, Lee M; Tan, Yizheng; Stahl, Shannon S; Hamers, Robert J

2011-08-01

174

Bio-functionalized graphene-graphene oxide nanocomposite based electrochemical immunosensing.  

PubMed

We report a novel in-situ electrochemical synthesis approach for the formation of functionalized graphene-graphene oxide (fG-GO) nanocomposite on screen-printed electrodes (SPE). Electrochemically controlled nanocomposite film formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Further insight into the nanocomposite has been accomplished by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Configured as a highly responsive screen-printed immunosensor, the fG-GO nanocomposite on SPE exhibits electrical and chemical synergies of the nano-hybrid functional construct by combining good electronic properties of functionalized graphene (fG) and the facile chemical functionality of graphene oxide (GO) for compatible bio-interface development using specific anti-diuron antibody. The enhanced electrical properties of nanocomposite biofilm demonstrated a significant increase in electrochemical signal response in a competitive inhibition immunoassay format for diuron detection, promising its potential applicability for ultra-sensitive detection of range of target analytes. PMID:22884654

Sharma, Priyanka; Tuteja, Satish K; Bhalla, Vijayender; Shekhawat, G; Dravid, Vinayak P; Suri, C Raman

2013-01-15

175

Influence of synthesis conditions on the electrochemical properties of nanostructured amorphous manganese oxide cryogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous manganese oxides have received increasing attention in recent years as intercalation cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. The sol-gel method is a versatile method for achieving nanostructured amorphous oxides. In this paper, two different sol-gel routes are investigated, where nanostructured amorphous manganese oxide cryogels are obtained via freeze drying Mn(IV) oxide hydrogels formed in situ. In one route the hydrogels are formed by reaction between a solution of sodium permanganate and a solution of disodium fumarate, and in the other route by reaction between a solution of sodium permanganate and solid fumaric acid. Highly homogeneous monolithic manganese oxide hydrogels are obtained from both synthesis routes with precursor concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2 M. The freeze drying method proves to be an efficient method for obtaining nanostructured amorphous manganese oxide cryogels out of the hydrogels. Depending on the synthesis conditions of the hydrogels, the resultant cryogels can yield very high specific capacities for lithium intercalation and excellent rate performance. The cryogel with the best performance exhibits 289 mAh/g at a C/100 rate and 174 mAh/g at a 2 C rate. Strong dependence of electrochemical properties of the cryogels on the synthesis conditions of the parent hydrogels has been observed. The different electrochemical properties are believed to be due to different surface areas and local structures of the cryogels derived from hydrogels synthesized under different conditions. This strong dependence gives rise to the possibility of achieving promising intercalation materials through tailoring the surface area and the local structure of amorphous manganese oxides by adjusting sol-gel synthesis conditions.

Yang, Jingsi; Xu, Jun John

176

Direct correlation of electrochemical behaviors with anti-thrombogenicity of semiconducting titanium oxide films.  

PubMed

Biomaterials-associated thrombosis is dependent critically upon electrochemical response of fibrinogen on material surface. The relationship between the response and anti-thrombogenicity of biomaterials is not well-established. Titanium oxide appears to have good anti-thrombogenicity and little is known about its underlying essential chemistry. We correlate their anti-thrombogenicity directly to electrochemical behaviors in fibrinogen containing buffer solution. High degree of inherent n-type doping was noted to contribute the impedance preventing charge transfer from fibrinogen into film (namely its activation) and consequently reduced degree of anti-thrombogenicity. The impedance was the result of high donor carrier density as well as negative flat band potential. PMID:23413233

Wan, Guojiang; Lv, Bo; Jin, Guoshou; Maitz, Manfred F; Zhou, Jianzhang; Huang, Nan

2014-01-01

177

Controllable synthesis of metal hydroxide and oxide nanostructures by ionic liquids assisted electrochemical corrosion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu(OH) 2 nanowires have been synthesized by anodic oxidation of copper through a simple electrolysis process employing ionic liquid as an electrolyte. Controlling the electrochemical conditions can qualitatively modulate the lengths, amounts, and shapes of Cu(OH) 2 nanostructures. A rational mechanism based on coordination self-assembly and oriented attachment is proposed for the selective formation of the polycrystalline Cu(OH) 2 nanowires. In addition, the FeOOH nanoribbons, Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets, and ZnO nanospheres were also synthesized by this route, indicative of the universality of the electrochemical route presented herein. The morphologies and structures of the synthesized nanostructures have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric (TG).

Liu, Na; Wu, Di; Wu, Haoxi; Luo, Fang; Chen, Ji

2008-08-01

178

Spinel lithium manganese oxide nanoparticles: unique molten salt synthesis strategy and excellent electrochemical performances.  

PubMed

As a promising candidate cathode material, spinel lithium manganese oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through a novel molten salt synthesis route at relatively low temperature, using manganese dioxide nanowires as precursor. A variety of techniques were applied to characterize the spinel nanomaterial, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The average particle size of the resulting spinel nanoparticles was about 80 nm with narrow distribution. As cathode material for rechargeable lithium ion battery, the electrochemical properties were investigated. All the results show that the electrochemical performances of the homogeneous spinel nanoparticles were improved, which might be ascribed to large specific surface area, fairly narrow size distribution, and the unique synthesis strategy. PMID:19908558

Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Juanjuan; Liu, Yingjie

2009-11-01

179

Electroless Deposition of Conformed Nanoscale Iron Oxide on Carbon Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Charge Storage  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple self-limiting electroless deposition process whereby conformal, nanoscale iron oxide (FeO{sub x}) coatings are generated at the interior and exterior surfaces of macroscopically thick ({approx}90 {micro}m) carbon nanofoam paper substrates via redox reaction with aqueous K{sub 2}FeO{sub 4}. The resulting FeO{sub x}-carbon nanofoams are characterized as device-ready electrode structures for aqueous electrochemical capacitors and they demonstrate a 3-to-7 fold increase in charge-storage capacity relative to the native carbon nanofoam when cycled in a mild aqueous electrolyte (2.5 M Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), yielding mass-, volume-, and footprint-normalized capacitances of 84 F g{sup -1}, 121 F cm{sup -3}, and 0.85 F cm{sup -2}, respectively, even at modest FeO{sub x} loadings (27 wt %). The additional charge-storage capacity arises from faradaic pseudocapacitance of the FeO{sub x} coating, delivering specific capacitance >300 F g{sup -1} normalized to the content of FeO{sub x} as FeOOH, as verified by electrochemical measurements and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The additional capacitance is electrochemically addressable within tens of seconds, a time scale of relevance for high-rate electrochemical charge storage. We also demonstrate that the addition of borate to buffer the Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte effectively suppresses the electrochemical dissolution of the FeO{sub x} coating, resulting in <20% capacitance fade over 1000 consecutive cycles.

Sassin, M.; Mansour, A; Pettigrew, K; Rolison, D; Long, J

2010-01-01

180

Arsenic(iii) detection using electrochemical-chemical-chemical redox cycling at bare indium-tin oxide electrodes.  

PubMed

Sensitive As(iii) detection in ground water is of great importance for evaluating the quality of drinking water. We report a sensitive electrochemical method for As(iii) detection based on electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling involving Ru(iv) [an oxidized species of Ru(III)(NH3)5NH2(2+)], As(iii), and tris(3-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). Electrochemical oxidation of Ru(III)(NH3)5NH2(2+) formed from Ru(III)(NH3)6(3+) generates Ru(iv), which quickly oxidizes As(iii). This electro-mediated oxidation of As(iii) produces As(v), which is reduced back to As(iii) by TCEP. Electrochemically generated Ru(iv) then reoxidizes As(iii), allowing ECC redox cycling to occur at a high rate on bare indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes without modifying the surfaces with electrocatalytic materials. Because most interfering metal ions precipitate in a carbonate buffer, water samples are mixed with carbonate buffers prior to electrochemical measurements, rendering the effects of Cu(+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Pb(2+) insignificant. The detection limit calculated by ECC redox cycling using a chronocoulogram is 1.2 ?M, much lower than that obtained using only the electro-mediated oxidation of As(iii) (90 ?M). PMID:25209319

Jeong, Jinkyo; Das, Jagotamoy; Choi, Moonjung; Jo, Jinkyung; Aziz, Md Abdul; Yang, Haesik

2014-10-15

181

Simultaneous electrochemical detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid using an iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.  

PubMed

The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1-9 mM and 0.5-100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively. PMID:25195850

Peik-See, Teo; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Nay-Ming, Huang; Hong-Ngee, Lim; Sulaiman, Yusran

2014-01-01

182

Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 ?M, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 ?M for AA and DA, respectively. PMID:25195850

Peik-See, Teo; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Nay-Ming, Huang; Hong-Ngee, Lim; Sulaiman, Yusran

2014-01-01

183

The kinetics of the oxidation of pyrite by ferric ions and dissolved oxygen: an electrochemical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of pyrite is important in the geochemical cycling of iron and sulphur, in the formation of acid mine drainage, and in the extraction of metals by bacterial leaching. Many researchers have studied the kinetics of dissolution, and the rate of dissolution has often been found to be half-order in ferric ions or oxygen. Previous work has not adequately explained the kinetics of dissolution of pyrite. The dissolution of pyrite is an oxidation-reduction reaction. The kinetics of the oxidation and reduction half-reactions was studied independently using electrochemical techniques of voltammetry. The kinetics of the overall reaction was studied by the electrochemical technique of potentiometry, which consisted of measuring the mixed potential of a sample of corroding pyrite in solutions of different compositions. The kinetics of the half reactions are related to the kinetics of the overall dissolution reaction by the condition that there is no accumulation of charge. This principle is used to derive expressions for the mixed potential and the rate of dissolution, which successfully describe the mixed potential measurements and the kinetics of dissolution reported in the literature. It is shown that the observations of half-order kinetics and that the oxygen in the sulphate product arises from water are both a direct consequence of the electrochemical mechanism. Thus it is concluded that the electrochemical reaction steps occurring at the mineral-solution interface control the rate of dissolution. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze reaction products formed on the pyrite surface. The results indicated that small amounts of polysulphides form on the surface of the pyrite. However, it was also found that the mixed (corrosion) potential does not change over a 14-day leaching period. This indicates that even though polysulphide material is present on the surface, it does not influence the rate of the reactions occurring at the surface. Measurements of the sulphur yields as a function of electrode potential indicate that thiosulphate is not the only source of the sulphur product.

Holmes, Paul R.; Crundwell, Frank K.

2000-01-01

184

Redox deposition of nanoscale metal oxides on carbon for next-generation electrochemical capacitors.  

PubMed

Transition metal oxides that mix electronic and ionic conductivity are essential active components of many electrochemical charge-storage devices, ranging from primary alkaline cells to more advanced rechargeable Li-ion batteries. In these devices, charge storage occurs via cation-insertion/deinsertion mechanisms in conjunction with the reduction/oxidation of metal sites in the oxide. Batteries that incorporate such metal oxides are typically designed for high specific energy, but not necessarily for high specific power. Electrochemical capacitors (ECs), which are typically composed of symmetric high-surface-area carbon electrodes that store charge via double-layer capacitance, deliver their energy in time scales of seconds, but at much lower specific energy than batteries. The fast, reversible faradaic reactions (typically described as "pseudocapacitance") of particular nanoscale metal oxides (e.g., ruthenium and manganese oxides) provide a strategy for bridging the power/energy performance gap between batteries and conventional ECs. These processes enhance charge-storage capacity to boost specific energy, while maintaining the few-second timescale of the charge-discharge response of carbon-based ECs. In this Account, we describe three examples of redox-based deposition of EC-relevant metal oxides (MnO2, FeOx, and RuO2) and discuss their potential deployment in next-generation ECs that use aqueous electrolytes. To extract the maximum pseudocapacitance functionality of metal oxides, one must carefully consider how they are synthesized and subsequently integrated into practical electrode structures. Expressing the metal oxide in a nanoscale form often enhances electrochemical utilization (maximizing specific capacitance) and facilitates high-rate operation for both charge and discharge. The "wiring" of the metal oxide, in terms of both electron and ion transport, when fabricated into a practical electrode architecture, is also a critical design parameter for achieving characteristic EC charge-discharge timescales. For example, conductive carbon must often be combined with the poorly conductive metal oxides to provide long-range electron pathways through the electrode. However, the ad hoc mixing of discrete carbon and oxide powders into composite electrodes may not support optimal utilization or rate performance. As an alternative, nanoscale metal oxides of interest for ECs can be synthesized directly on the surfaces of nanostructured carbons, with the carbon surface acting as a sacrificial reductant when exposed to a solution-phase, oxidizing precursor of the desired metal oxide (e.g., MnO4(-) for MnO2). These redox deposition methods can be applied to advanced carbon nanoarchitectures with well-designed pore structures. These architectures promote effective electrolyte infiltration and ion transport to the nanoscale metal oxide domains within the electrode architecture, which further enhances high-rate operation. PMID:22380783

Sassin, Megan B; Chervin, Christopher N; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

2013-05-21

185

Cobalt (hydro)oxide electrodes under electrochemical conditions: a first principle study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently much interest in photoelectrochemical water splitting as a promising pathway towards sustainable energy production. A major issue of such photoelectrochemical devices is the limited efficiency of the anode, where the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) takes place. Cobalt (hydro)oxides, particularly Co3O4 and Co(OH)2, have emerged as promising candidates for use as OER anode materials. Interestingly, recent in-situ Raman spectroscopy studies have shown that Co3O4 electrodes undergo progressive oxidation and transform into oxyhydroxide, CoO(OH), under electrochemical working conditions. (Journal of the American Chemical Society 133, 5587 (2011))Using first principle electronic structure calculations, we provide insight into these findings by presenting results on the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of cobalt oxide, hydroxide and oxydroxide CoO(OH), and on their relative stabilities when in contact with water under external voltage.

Chen, Jia; Selloni, Annabella

2013-03-01

186

Tin oxide nanoparticles-polymer modified single-use sensors for electrochemical monitoring of label-free DNA hybridization.  

PubMed

In this study, SnO(2) nanoparticles (SNPs)-poly(vinylferrocenium) (PVF(+)) modified single-use graphite electrodes were developed for electrochemical monitoring of DNA hybridization. The surfaces of polymer modified and polymer-SNP modified pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were firstly characterized by using SEM analysis. The electrochemical behaviours of these electrodes were also investigated using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The polymer-SNP modified PGEs were then tested for the electrochemical sensing of DNA based on the changes at the guanine oxidation signals. Experimental parameters, such as; different modifications in DNA oligonucleotides, DNA probe concentrations were examined to obtain more sensitive and selective electrochemical signals for nucleic acid hybridization. After optimization studies, DNA hybridization was investigated in the case of complementary of hepatitis B virus (HBV) probe, mismatch (MM), and noncomplementary (NC) sequences. PMID:20875563

Muti, Mihrican; Kuralay, Filiz; Erdem, Arzum; Abaci, Serdar; Yumak, Tugrul; Sina?, Ali

2010-10-15

187

Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuel.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of spent nuclear fuel contains a wide variety of oxide fuel types that may be unsuitable for direct repository disposal in their current form. The molten-salt electrometallurgical treatment technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has the potential to simplify preparing and qualifying these fuels for disposal by converting them into three uniform product streams: uranium metal, a metal waste form, and a ceramic waste form. This paper describes the major steps in the electrometallurgical treatment process for oxide fuels and provides the results of recent experiments performed to develop and scale up the process.

Karell, E. J.

1999-06-08

188

Non-destructive transmission electron microscopy study of catalyst degradation under electrochemical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, non-destructive transmission electron microscopy technique is introduced, which enables the observation of the identical locations of a catalyst before and after electrochemical treatment (IL-TEM). The significance of this method is exemplified by the analysis of a standard, commercially available carbon supported platinum catalyst. We demonstrate that the observed changes of the catalyst particles are a direct consequence of

Karl J. J. Mayrhofer; Sean J. Ashton; Josef C. Meier; Gustav K. H. Wiberg; Marianne Hanzlik; Matthias Arenz

2008-01-01

189

Formation of zinc–zinc phosphate composite coatings by cathodic electrochemical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of zinc–zinc phosphate composite coatings by cathodic electrochemical treatment and evaluation of its corrosion resistance is addressed in this paper. The cathodic phosphating process offers some unique advantages—it requires no specific addition of accelerator in the bath, it is capable of producing good quality coatings even at low temperature, it permits deposition of coatings of desired thickness, thus

S. Jegannathan; T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; K. Ravichandran; S. Rajeswari

2006-01-01

190

Performance of zinc phosphate coatings obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment in accelerated corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of zinc phosphate coating by cathodic electrochemical treatment and evaluation of its corrosion resistance is addressed. The corrosion behaviour of cathodically phosphated mild steel substrate in 3.5% sodium chloride solution exhibits the stability of these coatings, which lasts for a week's time with no red rust formation. Salt spray test convincingly proves the white rust formation in the

S. Jegannathan; T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; K. Ravichandran; S. Rajeswari

2005-01-01

191

Combined steam distillation and electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) treatment of river sediment contaminated by PCBs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined treatment process utilizing steam distillation followed by electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) has been utilized to remove >90% of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in St. Lawrence River sediment and destroy 95% of the PCBs recovered in the condensate. 2 l of condensate were collected by boiling 500 grams of sediment containing ?4.3 mg PCBs. Most of the PCBs (82.3%) were

Jeffrey R Chiarenzelli; Ronald J Scrudato; Michele L Wunderlich; James J Pagano

2001-01-01

192

Retarding of electrochemical oxidation of formate on the platinum anode by a coat of Nafion membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that the faradaic efficiency is decreasing with the electrolysis time for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate on a Sn cathode with a Pt anode in an undivided electrolytic cell, because the oxidation of formed formate takes place on the Pt anode, which also limits seriously the highest concentration of formate in the system. Here, we report that a coat of Nafion membrane on the Pt anode can retard the oxidation of formate: even if the concentration of the formate in the electrolyte reaches to 0.12 mol L-1, the faradaic efficiency still maintains above 61.3%; in contrast, the oxidation reaction of the formate on the naked Pt electrode is very fast, when the concentration of the formate in the electrolyte reaches to 0.023 mol L-1, the faradaic efficiency decreases to 35.3%. This is very important because the separation of formic acid could not be economical when its concentration is not high enough, and it is also costly if the depleted solution allows too less of its concentration because the solution has to be reused in the electrochemical process.

Zhang, Rui; Lv, Weixin; Li, Guanghua; Mezaal, Mohammed Adnan; Li, Xiaojing; Lei, Lixu

2014-12-01

193

Influence of laser-generated surface structures on electrochemical performance of lithium cobalt oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The further development of energy storage devices especially of lithium-ion batteries plays an important role in the ongoing miniaturization process towards lightweight, flexible mobile devices. To improve mechanical stability and to increase the power density of electrode materials while maintaining the same footprint area, a three-dimensional battery design is necessary. In this study different designs of three-dimensional cathode materials are investigated with respect to the electrochemical performance. Lithium cobalt oxide is considered as a standard cathode material, since it has been in use since the first commercialization of lithium-ion batteries. Various electrode designs were manufactured in lithium cobalt oxide electrodes via laser micro-structuring. Laser ablation experiments in ambient air were performed to obtain hierarchical and high aspect surface structures. Laser structuring using mask techniques as well as the formation of self-organized conical surface structures were studied in detail. In the latter case a density of larger than twenty million microstructures per square centimeter was obtained with a significant increase of active surface area. Laser annealing was applied for the control of the average grain size and the adjustment of a crystalline phase which exhibits electrochemical capacities in the range of the practical capacity known for lithium cobalt oxide. An investigation of cycling stability with respect to annealing parameters such as annealing time and temperature was performed using a diode laser operating at 940 nm. Information on the phase and crystalline structure were obtained using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical performance of the laser modified cathodes was studied via cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic testing using a lithium anode and a standard liquid electrolyte.

Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Ulrich, S.; Przybylski, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

2012-03-01

194

Physical and chemical properties of nano-sized aluminum hydroxide and oxide particles obtained by the electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxides and oxides obtained by electrochemical, chemical, and\\u000a combined methods were studied by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and atomic emission\\u000a spectroscopy. The influence of synthesis conditions on the structure and morphology of nanoparticles was studied. It was shown\\u000a that the effect of an electrochemical field allows monophasic systems to

A. F. Dresvyannikov; E. V. Petrova; M. A. Tsyganova

2010-01-01

195

The electrochemical performance of thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several benefits are realized by lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) from 1000C to temperatures in the 600 to 800C range. Among the advantages are decreased reaction between fuel cell components, shorter startup times, and the possibility of using metals in stack construction; however, the achievable power density in conventional SOFC's is too low. A strategy for overcoming this limitation is to decrease the thickness of this layer by approximately an order of magnitude. Thin (5 micron electrolyte SOFC's have recently been fabricated by Allied-Signal Aerospace Systems and Equipment Company (ASASE). The electrochemical performance of these cells has been studied and is discussed.

Zurawski, D.; Kueper, T.

1993-04-01

196

Indirect electrochemical treatment of bisphenol A in water via electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been treated with electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent in aqueous medium. Hydroxyl radicals that were formed in Fenton's reagent reacted with the organic substrate producing two different isomers of monohydroxylated product and, upon successive hydroxylation, mainly one dihydroxylated product. Further hydroxylation first degraded one of the aromatic rings, and the side chain thus formed was then cleaved off the other aromatic ring. The second aromatic ring was also degraded upon successive hydroxylations. Small saturated and unsaturated aliphatic acids were the last products prior to mineralization. It was found that use of cuprous/cupric ion pair resulted a faster conversion of BPA and faster mineralization when compared using ferrous/ferric ions, but this happened at the expence of excess electrical charge utilized for an equivalent conversion or mineralization. Degradation by using ferrous/ferric ions was more efficient than cuprous/cupric ions case in terms of total mineralization versus charge utilized, and a mineralization of 82% had been achieved by applying 107.8 mF of charge to a 0.7 mM BPA solution of 0.200 dm3. The rate constant of the monohydroxylation of BPA in the presence of ferrous/ferric ions had been determined as 1.0 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) where BPA and salicylic acid competitively reacted with hydroxyl radicals in aqueous medium with the initial concentrations of Fe2+, BPA, and SA of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 mM, respectively. In a similar experiment where the initial concentrations of Cu2+, BPA, and SA were 1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 mM, respectively, the corresponding rate constant was determined to be the same as the rate constant obtained for Fe2+ (i.e., 1.0 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)). While the use of Cu2+ cannot be advised for processing BPA and similar substrates by using the electro-Fenton technique for both technical and economical reasons, the use of [Fe2+]/[BPA]0 values in the range 3-4 will be sufficient to achieve an efficient mineralization of BPA and similar substrates by the electro-Fenton process in aqueous medium. PMID:12953886

Gözmen, Belgin; Oturan, Mehmet A; Oturan, Nihal; Erbatur, Oktay

2003-08-15

197

Electrochemical tuning of layered lithium transition metal oxides for improvement of oxygen evolution reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searching for low-cost and efficient catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction has been actively pursued owing to its importance in clean energy generation and storage. While developing new catalysts is important, tuning the electronic structure of existing catalysts over a wide electrochemical potential range can also offer a new direction. Here we demonstrate a method for electrochemical lithium tuning of catalytic materials in organic electrolyte for subsequent enhancement of the catalytic activity in aqueous solution. By continuously extracting lithium ions out of LiCoO2, a popular cathode material in lithium ion batteries, to Li0.5CoO2 in organic electrolyte, the catalytic activity is significantly improved. This enhancement is ascribed to the unique electronic structure after the delithiation process. The general efficacy of this methodology is demonstrated in several mixed metal oxides with similar improvements. The electrochemically delithiated LiCo0.33Ni0.33Fe0.33O2 exhibits a notable performance, better than the benchmark iridium/carbon catalyst.

Lu, Zhiyi; Wang, Haotian; Kong, Desheng; Yan, Kai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Zheng, Guangyuan; Yao, Hongbin; Liang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming; Cui, Yi

2014-07-01

198

Simple and label-free electrochemical impedance Amelogenin gene hybridization biosensing based on reduced graphene oxide.  

PubMed

The increasing desire for sensitive, easy, low-cost, and label free methods for the detection of DNA sequences has become a vital matter in biomedical research. For the first time a novel label-free biosensor for sensitive detection of Amelogenin gene (AMEL) using reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/RGO) has been developed. In this work, detection of DNA hybridization of the target and probe DNA was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The optimum conditions were found for the immobilization of probe on RGO surface and its hybridization with the target DNA. CV and EIS carried out in an aqueous solution containing [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox pair have been used for the biosensor characterization. The biosensor has a wide linear range from 1.0×10(-20) to 1.0×10(-14)M with the lower detection limit of 3.2×10(-21)M. Moreover, the present electrochemical detection offers some unique advantages such as ultrahigh sensitivity, simplicity, and feasibility for apparatus miniaturization in analytical tests. The excellent performance of the biosensor is attributed to large surface-to-volume ratio and high conductivity of RGO, which enhances the probe absorption and promotes direct electron transfer between probe and the electrode surface. This electrochemical DNA sensor could be used for the detection of specific ssDNA sequence in real biological samples. PMID:24632459

Benvidi, Ali; Rajabzadeh, Nooshin; Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Mulchandani, Ashok

2014-08-15

199

Mineralization of citric acid wastewater by photo-electrochemical chlorine oxidation.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates a novel chloride photo-electrochemical method for mineralizing citric acid. The electrolytic reactor with a length of 12 cm, a width of 12 cm and a height of 30 cm held 2.5 L of solution, which was involved in the batch reaction. Both anode and cathode were made of titanium coated with RuO2/IrO2. The results revealed that the solution pH dominated the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) oxidant in the presence of NaCl as direct current electricity was used. The chloride electrochemical process at pH 5.5 removed 59% of total organic carbon (TOC) in 4 h (NaCl = 200 mM, current = 5 A). UV irradiation (254 nm) in the reactor induced the photo-electrochemical reaction, increasing the TOC removal from 59% to 99.4%. Finally, the reaction pathway for citric acid mineralization was discussed with reference to the detection of intermediates using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). PMID:23500176

Chen, Kuan-Hsiang; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

2013-05-30

200

Electrochemical tuning of layered lithium transition metal oxides for improvement of oxygen evolution reaction.  

PubMed

Searching for low-cost and efficient catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction has been actively pursued owing to its importance in clean energy generation and storage. While developing new catalysts is important, tuning the electronic structure of existing catalysts over a wide electrochemical potential range can also offer a new direction. Here we demonstrate a method for electrochemical lithium tuning of catalytic materials in organic electrolyte for subsequent enhancement of the catalytic activity in aqueous solution. By continuously extracting lithium ions out of LiCoO2, a popular cathode material in lithium ion batteries, to Li0.5CoO2 in organic electrolyte, the catalytic activity is significantly improved. This enhancement is ascribed to the unique electronic structure after the delithiation process. The general efficacy of this methodology is demonstrated in several mixed metal oxides with similar improvements. The electrochemically delithiated LiCo0.33Ni0.33Fe0.33O2 exhibits a notable performance, better than the benchmark iridium/carbon catalyst. PMID:24993836

Lu, Zhiyi; Wang, Haotian; Kong, Desheng; Yan, Kai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Zheng, Guangyuan; Yao, Hongbin; Liang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

201

An electrochemical capacitor electrode based on porous carbon spheres hybrided with polyaniline and nanoscale ruthenium oxide.  

PubMed

Nanoscopic ruthenium oxide (RuO(2))/polyaniline (PANI)/carbon double-shelled hollow spheres (CS) composites, RuO(2)/PANI/CS, have been prepared via electro-polymerization of aniline and redox deposition of RuO(2) on the surface of CS. The structures and morphologies of the resulting ternary composites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The electrochemical properties of the ternary composites as active electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors have been investigated by different electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the specific capacitance of RuO(2)/PANI/CS composites is 531 F g(-1) at 1 mA cm(-2) in 1.0 M H(2)SO(4) electrolyte, which is higher than many other currently available ternary composites based on RuO(2)/PANI. At the same time, the composites display a good rate capability and 70% of the initial specific capacitance is retained with the charge-discharge current density up to 10 mA cm(-2). PMID:22988980

Zhao, Dan; Guo, Xinying; Gao, Yue; Gao, Feng

2012-10-24

202

Surface-modified reduced graphene oxide electrodes for capacitors by ionic liquids and their electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ionic liquids (IL) composites with different weight ratios of IL to rGO were synthesized by a simple method. In these composites, IL contributed to the exfoliation of rGO sheets and to the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the resulting composites by enhancing the ion diffusion and charge transport. The structure of the composites was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The TEM images showed that IL was coated on the surface of rGO in a translucent manner. The electrochemical analysis of the prepared composites was carried out by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Among the prepared composites, the one with a weight ratio of rGO to IL of 1:7 showed the highest specific capacitance of 147.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. In addition, the rate capability and cycle performance of the composites were enhanced compared to pristine rGO. These enhanced properties make the composites suitable as electrode materials for the better performance supercapacitors.

Kim, Jieun; Kim, Seok

2014-03-01

203

Facile and novel electrochemical preparation of a graphene-transition metal oxide nanocomposite for ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing of acetaminophen and phenacetin.  

PubMed

A facile and novel preparation strategy based on electrochemical techniques for the fabrication of electrodeposited graphene (EGR) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite was developed. The morphology and structure of the EGR-based nanocomposite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Due to the synergistic effect of EGR and ZnO nanoparticles, an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for acetaminophen (AC) and phenacetin (PCT) was successfully fabricated. The linearity ranged from 0.02 to 10 ?M for AC and 0.06 to 10 ?M for PCT with high sensitivities of 54,295.82 ?A mM(-1) cm(2) for AC and 21,344.66 ?A mM(-1) cm(2) for PCT, respectively. Moreover, the practical applicability was validated to be reliable and desirable in pharmaceutical detections. The excellent results showed the promise of the proposed preparation strategy of EGR-transition metal oxide nanocomposite in the field of electroanalytical chemistry. PMID:24201458

Jiang, Lin; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Zhen

2014-01-01

204

Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of ferulic acid in A. sinensis and biological samples.  

PubMed

An electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as a new voltammetric sensor for the determination of ferulic acid (FA). The morphology and microstructure of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the modified electrodes were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. Sensing properties of the electrochemical sensor were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that ERGO was electrodeposited on the surface of GCE by using potentiostatic method. The proposed electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity to the redox of FA because of excellent electrochemical properties of ERGO. The transfer electron number (n), electrode reaction rate constant (ks) and electron-transfer coefficient (?) were calculated as 1.12, 1.24s(-1), and 0.40, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration at 8.49 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) to 3.89 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) with detection limit of 2.06 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect FA in A. sinensis and biological samples with recovery values in the range of 99.91%-101.91%. PMID:25063114

Liu, Linjie; Gou, Yuqiang; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Wenxia; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Li, Yingdong

2014-09-01

205

Biological and Electrochemical Treatment of Used Metalworking Fluids: A Toxicity-Reduction Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of spent metalworking fluids (MWFs) and two different effluents\\u000a obtained by biologic and electrochemical treatment of spent MWFs toward aquatic organisms of different trophic levels. The\\u000a obtained toxicity data was used to calculate safe concentrations of both effluents. The spent MWFs without treatment showed\\u000a the highest toxicity among

A. Muszy?ski; M. ?ebkowska; D. Nowak

2007-01-01

206

Engineering Aspects of Electrochemical Generation of Ferrate: A Step Towards Its Full Scale Application for Water and Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to design a pilot plant electrochemical reactor and to prove the operational concept of the\\u000a electrochemical production of ferrate in situ and its online application for sewage treatment. To that end, the first part\\u000a of this paper focuses on the analysis of the main engineering aspects of the reactor and the electrochemical process that

Mohammad Alsheyab; Jia-Qian Jiang; Cécile Stanford

2010-01-01

207

Effects of electrochemical-deposition method and microstructure on the capacitive characteristics of nano-sized manganese oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amorphous nano-structured manganese oxide was electrochemically deposited onto a stainless-steel electrode. The structure and surface morphology of the obtained manganese oxide were studied by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The capacitive characteristics of the manganese oxide electrodes were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge–discharge cycling. The morphological and capacitive characteristics of

Takuya Shinomiya; Vinay Gupta; Norio Miura

2006-01-01

208

Electrochemical regeneration of field spent GAC from two water treatment plants.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of on-site thermal regeneration of field-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) from two municipal drinking water facilities was compared with bench-scale electrochemical regeneration, a novel regeneration technology. The regeneration method was evaluated using aqueous natural organic material (NOM) adsorption, iodine number analysis, and surface area analysis. In contrast to the large electrochemical regeneration efficiencies reported in the literature for GAC loaded with phenolics and other individual organic compounds, the electrochemical reactor tested was only able to regenerate 8-15% of the NOM adsorption capacity of the field spent GAC. In contrast, thermal reactivation achieved up to 103% regeneration efficiency. To more accurately assess the efficiency of regeneration processes for water treatment applications, GAC should be loaded in continuous-flow columns and not batch rectors. The iodine number analysis yielded higher efficiency values, however it did not give an accurate estimate of the regeneration efficiency. The small changes in GAC pore size distribution were consistent with the low electrochemical regeneration efficiencies. These low efficiencies appear to be related to the low reversibility of NOM adsorption and to pH-induced adsorbate desorption being the primary mechanism for this type of electrochemical regeneration system. PMID:22749905

Narbaitz, Roberto M; McEwen, Jeff

2012-10-01

209

Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Udovich, Carl A. (Joliet, IL)

1994-01-01

210

Surface-initiated synthesis of poly(3-methylthiophene) from indium tin oxide and its electrochemical properties.  

PubMed

Poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) was synthesized directly from indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with a phosphonic acid initiator, using Kumada catalyst transfer polymerization (KCTP). This work represents the first time that polymer thickness has been controlled in a surface initiated KCTP reaction, highlighting the utility of KCTP in achieving controlled polymerizations. Polymer film thicknesses were regulated by the variation of the solution monomer concentration and ranged from 30 to 265 nm. Electrochemical oxidative doping of these films was used to manipulate their near surface composition and effective work function. Doped states of the P3MT film are maintained even after the sample is removed from solution and potential control confirming the robustness of the films. Such materials with controllable thicknesses and electronic properties have the potential to be useful as interlayer materials for organic electronic applications. PMID:22149001

Doubina, Natalia; Jenkins, Judith L; Paniagua, Sergio A; Mazzio, Katherine A; MacDonald, Gordon A; Jen, Alex K-Y; Armstrong, Neal R; Marder, Seth R; Luscombe, Christine K

2012-01-24

211

Influence of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria on the corrosion of low carbon steel: Local electrochemical investigations.  

PubMed

Low carbon steel has been considered a suitable material for component of the multi-barrier system employed on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). A non negligible amount of dihydrogen (H2) is expected to be produced over the years within the geological repository due to the anoxic corrosion of metallic materials and also to the water radiolysis. The influence of the activity of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) on carbon steel corrosion is considered in this study because of the high availability of energetic nutriments (H2, iron oxides and hydroxides) produced in anoxic disposal conditions. Local electrochemical techniques were used for investigating the activity of IRB as a promoter of local corrosion in the presence of H2 as electron donor. A local consumption of H2 by the bacteria has been evidenced and impedance measurements indicate the formation of a thick layer of corrosion products. PMID:24177135

Moreira, Rebeca; Schütz, Marta K; Libert, Marie; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

2014-06-01

212

Electrochemical oxidation of polyethylene glycol in electroplating solution using paraffin composite copper hexacyanoferrate modified (PCCHM) anode.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an acidic (pH 0.18 to 0.42) and high ionic strength electroplating solution was investigated. The electroplating solution is a major source of wastewater in the printing wiring board industry. A paraffin composite copper hexacyanoferrate modified (PCCHM) electrode was used as the anode and a bare graphite electrode was used as the cathode. The changes in PEG and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations during the course of the reaction were monitored. The efficiency of the PCCHM anode was compared with bare graphite anode and it was found that the former showed significant electrocatalytic property for PEG and TOC removal. Chlorides present in the solution were found to contribute significantly in the overall organic removal process. Short chain organic compounds like acetic acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and ethylene glycol formed during electrolysis were identified by HPLC method. Anode surface area and applied current density were found to influence the electro-oxidation process, in which the former was found to be dominating. Investigations of the kinetics for the present electrochemical reaction suggested that the two stage first-order kinetic model provides a much better representation of the overall mechanism of the process if compared to the generalized kinetic model. PMID:15559827

Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Basu, Abir; Cementi, Max

2004-01-01

213

Highly hydrogenated graphene through microwave exfoliation of graphite oxide in hydrogen plasma: towards electrochemical applications.  

PubMed

Hydrogenated graphenes exhibit a variety of properties with potential applications in devices, ranging from a tunable band gap to fluorescence, ferromagnetism, and the storage of hydrogen. We utilize a one-step microwave-irradiation process in hydrogen plasma to create highly hydrogenated graphene from graphite oxides. The procedure serves the dual purposes of deoxygenation and concurrent hydrogenation of the carbon backbone. The effectiveness of the hydrogenation process is investigated on three different graphite oxides (GOs), which are synthesized by using the Staudenmaier, Hofmann, and Hummers methods. A systematic characterization of our hydrogenated graphenes is performed using UV/Vis spectroscopy, SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), combustible elemental analysis, and electrical conductivity measurements. The highest hydrogenation extent is observed in hydrogenated graphene produced from the Hummers-method GO, with a hydrogen content of 19 atomic?% in the final product. In terms of the removal of oxygen groups, microwave exfoliation yields graphenes with very similar oxygen contents despite differences in their parent GOs. In addition, we examine the prospective application of hydrogenated graphenes as electrochemical transducers through a cyclic voltammetry (CV) study. The highly hydrogenated graphenes exhibit fast heterogeneous electron-transfer rates, suggestive of their suitability for electrochemical applications in electrodes, supercapacitors, batteries, and sensors. PMID:24123303

Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Sofer, Zdenek; Šimek, Petr; Kosina, Jiri; Pumera, Martin

2013-11-11

214

Amine functionalized graphene oxide/CNT nanocomposite for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of trinitrotoluene.  

PubMed

Binding of electron-deficient trinitrotoluene (TNT) to the electron rich amine groups on a substrate form specific charge-transfer Jackson-Meisenheimer (JM) complex. In the present work, we report formation of specific JM complex on amine functionalized reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes- (a-rGO/CNT) nanocomposite leading to sensitive detection of TNT. The CNT were dispersed using graphene oxide that provides excellent dispersion by attaching to CNT through its hydrophobic domains and solubilizes through the available OH and COOH groups on screen printed electrode (SPE). The GO was reduced electrochemically to form reduced graphene that remarkably increases electrochemical properties owing to the intercalation of high aspect CNT on graphene flakes as shown by TEM micrograph. The surface amine functionalization of dropcasted and rGO/CNT was carried out using a bi-functional cross linker ethylenediamine. The extent of amine functionalization on modified electrodes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal microscopy. The FTIR and Raman spectra further suggested the formation of JM complex between amine functionalized electrodes and TNT leading to a shift in peak intensity together with peak broadening. The a-rGO/CNT nanocomposite prepared electrode surface leads to ultra-trace detection of TNT upto 0.01 ppb with good reproducibility (n=3). The a-rGO/CNT sensing platform could be an alternate for sensitive detection of TNT explosive for various security and environmental applications. PMID:23416475

Sablok, Kavita; Bhalla, Vijayender; Sharma, Priyanka; Kaushal, Roohi; Chaudhary, Shilpa; Suri, C Raman

2013-03-15

215

Processing, microstructural evolution and electrochemical performance relationships in solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the processing parameters, microstructures and electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components were investigated. The operating regimes (i.e., reducing vs. oxidizing) as well as the elevated temperatures (e.g. 800°C) for their operation introduce several material challenges. Therefore, composite materials are employed to withstand operating conditions while providing sufficient electrochemical performance for fuel cell operation. Analyses on lanthanum-strontium manganite (LSM) - yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) compositions (45 vol%-55 vol%) by impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that two competing polarization mechanisms (i.e. charge-exchange and surface adsorption-diffusion of oxygen) limit performance. Optimization of microstructures resulted in total resistances as low as 0.040 Ohm cm2. Studies on Ag composites revealed that incorporation of up to 25 vol% oxide particles (LSM and YSZ) with sizes comparable to the Ag grains (~0.5 microm) can minimize the densification and coarsening of the Ag matrix. While the powder based oxide additions increased the stability limit of porous Ag composites from <550°C to 800°C, the use of nanostructured coatings increased the stability limit to 900°C for cathodes and current collectors. Investigations of Ni-YSZ anode microstructures demonstrated that uniform distribution of percolating isometric pores (>5 microm) allows forming desired continuous percolation of all phases (Ni, YSZ and pores) lowering activation polarization below 0.100 Ohm cm2 and maintaining significant electrical conductivity (>1000 S/cm). Identification of polarization mechanisms by deconvolution of impedance spectra and tailoring the corresponding microstructures was demonstrated as an effective method for optimization of SOFC components.

Sarikaya, Ayhan

216

Nanoporous zeolite and solid-state electrochemical devices for nitrogen-oxide sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state electrochemical gas sensing devices composed of stabilized-zirconia electrolyte have used extensively in the automobile and chemical industry. Two types of electrochemical devices, potentiometric and amperometric, were developed in this thesis for total NOx (NO + NO2) detection in harsh environments. In potentiometric devices, Pt covered with Pt containing zeolite Y (PtY) and WO3 were examined as the two electrode materials. Significant reactivity differences toward NOx between PtY and WO 3 led to the difference in non-electrochemical reactions and resulted in a electrode potential. With gases passing through a PtY filter, it was possible to remove interferences from 2000 ppm CO, 800 ppm propane, 10 ppm NH3, as well as to minimize effects of 1˜13% O2, CO2, and H2O. Total NOx concentration was measured by maintaining a temperature difference between the filter and the sensor. The sensitivity was significantly improved by connecting sensors in series. Amperometic devices were also developed to detect NOx passing through the PtY filter. By applying a low anodic potential of 80 mV, NO in the NOx equilibrated mixture can be oxidized at a Pt working electrode on the YSZ electrolyte at 500°C. The PtY can be held separate from the YSZ or coated onto the YSZ as a film. This design was demonstrated to exhibit total-NOx detection capability, a low NOx detection limit (< 1 ppm), high NOx selectivity relative to CO and oxygen, and linear dependence on NOx concentration. The non-electrochemical reactions around the triple-phase boundary were studied to understand the origin of the superior performance of WO3 on potentiometric NOx sensing. From TPD, DRIFTS, XRD, Raman, and catalytic activity measurements, the interfacial reactions between WO 3 and YSZ were found to dramatically reduce the NOx catalytic activity of YSZ. WO3 reacted with surface Y2O3 on YSZ and formed less catalytically active yttrium tungsten oxides and monoclinic ZrO2, which suppressed the non-electrochemical reactions around the triple-phase boundary. These two products also decreased the oxygen vacancy density around the triple-phase boundary, slowed down the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction, and in turn increased the NOx signal. The surface nanostructure of electrodes was modified by wet chemical processes to change the non-electrochemical NOx reactions. A thin WO3 coating prepared from the peroxytungstate solution with well-defined triple-phase boundaries resulted in higher sensitivity and better response times than the electrode fabricated from commercial WO3 powders. The electrodeposited porous Pt layer greatly increased the surface area and led to a similar catalytic activity with PtY on NOx sensing. The modified electrodes demonstrated the importance of the surface nanostructure and interfacial species for potentiometric NOx sensing. The sensors composed of tungsten/H2O2 deposited sensing electrodes and more hydrothermal stable Pt-loaded siliceous zeolite Y (PtSY) reference electrodes have stable NO2 signal at 5-10% water in 600°C.

Yang, Jiun-Chan

217

Toward tailored functional design of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs): electrochemical and antimicrobial activity enhancement via oxidation and selective reduction.  

PubMed

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are utilized in a number of sectors as a result of their favorable electronic properties. In addition, MWNT antimicrobial properties can be exploited or considered a potential liability depending on their intended application and handling. The ability to tailor electrochemical and antimicrobial properties using economical and conventional treatment processes introduces the potential to significantly enhance product performance. Oxygen functional groups are known to influence several MWNT properties, including redox activity. Here, MWNTs were functionalized with oxygen groups using standard acid treatments followed by selective reduction via annealing. Chemical derivatization coupled to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to quantify specific surface oxygen group concentration after variable treatment conditions, which were then correlated to observed trends in electrochemical and antimicrobial activities. These activities were evaluated as the potential for MWNTs to participate in the oxygen reduction reaction and to have the ability to promote the oxidation of glutathione. The compiled results strongly suggest that the reduction of surface carboxyl groups and the redox activity of carbonyl groups promote enhanced MWNT reactivity and elucidate the opportunity to design functional MWNTs for enhanced performance in their intended electrochemical or antimicrobial application. PMID:24754302

Gilbertson, Leanne M; Goodwin, David G; Taylor, André D; Pfefferle, Lisa; Zimmerman, Julie B

2014-05-20

218

High selectivity of benzene electrochemical oxidation to p-benzoquinone on modified PbO2 electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a modified Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3/PbO2 electrode was successfully synthesized. The interlayer SnO2-Sb2O3 was obtained through thermal decomposition and the surface layer by electrochemical deposition. The structures and morphology of the layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical property was carried out by cyclic voltammogrametry (CV) and the products obtained from electrochemical oxidation of benzene were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the surface of the prepared electrode was mainly composed of tetragonal-shaped ?-PbO2 crystal with a pyramidal-angular structure. The oxidation potential of benzene was +1.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical oxidation of benzene showed the high selectivity toward p-benzoquinone on the modified Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3/PbO2 electrode. And the optimal oxidation temperature for oxidation of benzene was 75 °C and the optimal temperature was 60 min.

Li, Xiaolin; Li, Xueming; Tang, Sui; Yang, Jianchun; Li, Wulin; Luo, Binbin; Yu, Yajiao; Li, Shanya

2014-08-01

219

Use of electrochemical oxidation and model peptides to study nucleophilic biological targets of reactive metabolites: the case of rimonabant.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of drug molecules is a useful tool to generate several different types of metabolites. In the present study we developed a model system involving electrochemical oxidation followed by characterization of the oxidation products and their propensity to modify peptides. The CB1 antagonist rimonabant was chosen as the model drug. Rimonabant has previously been shown to give high covalent binding to proteins in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes and the iminium ion and/or the corresponding aminoaldehyde formed via P450 mediated ?-carbon oxidation of rimonabant was proposed to be a likely contributor. This proposal was based on the observation that levels of covalent binding were significantly reduced when iminium species were trapped as cyanide adducts but also following addition of methoxylamine expected to trap aldehydes. Incubation of electrochemically oxidized rimonabant with peptides resulted in peptide adducts to the N-terminal amine with a mass increment of 64 Da. The adducts were shown to contain an addition of C5H4 originating from the aminopiperidine moiety of rimonabant. Formation of the peptide adducts required further oxidation of the iminium ion to short-lived intermediates, such as dihydropyridinium species. In addition, the metabolites and peptide adducts generated in human liver microsomes were compared with those generated by electrochemistry. Interestingly, the same peptide modification was found when rimonabant was coincubated with one of the model peptides in microsomes. This clearly indicated that reactive metabolite(s) of rimonabant identical to electrochemically generated species are also present in the microsomal incubations. In summary, electrochemical oxidation combined with peptide trapping of reactive metabolites identified a previously unobserved bioactivation pathway of rimonabant that was not captured by traditional trapping agents and that may contribute to the in vitro covalent binding. PMID:25210840

Thorsell, Annika; Isin, Emre M; Jurva, Ulrik

2014-10-20

220

Electrochemical incineration of wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low temperature electrolysis process has been developed for the treatment of solid waste material and urine. Experiments are described in which organic materials are oxidized directly at the surface of an electrode. Also, hypochlorite is generated electrochemically from chloride component of urine. Hypochlorite can act as a strong oxidizing agent in solution. The oxidation takes place at 30-60 C and the gaseous products from the anodic reaction are carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen. Hydrogen is formed at the cathode. Carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides and methane were not detected in the off gases. Chlorine was evolved at the anode in relatively low amounts.

Kaba, L.; Hitchens, G. D.; Bockris, J. O'M.

1989-01-01

221

Surface Composition, Work Function, and Electrochemical Characteristics of Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide  

SciTech Connect

Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) possesses the electric conductivity, thermal stability, and earth abundance to be a promising transparent conductive oxide replacement for indium tin oxide electrodes in a number of molecular electronic devices, including organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. The surface chemistry of GZO is complex and dominated by the hydrolysis chemistry of ZnO, which influences the work function via charge transfer and band bending caused by adsorbates. A comprehensive characterization of the surface chemical composition and electrochemical properties of GZO electrodes is presented, using both solution and surface adsorbed redox probe molecules. The GZO surface is characterized using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy after the following pretreatments: (i) hydriodic acid etch, (ii) potassium hydroxide etch, (iii) RF oxygen plasma etching, and (iv) high-vacuum argon-ion sputtering. The O 1s spectra for the GZO electrodes have contributions from the stoichiometric oxide lattice, defects within the lattice, hydroxylated species, and carbonaceous impurities, with relative near-surface compositions varying with pretreatment. Solution etching procedures result in an increase of the work function and ionization potential of the GZO electrode, but yield different near surface Zn:Ga atomic ratios, which significantly influence charge transfer rates for a chemisorbed probe molecule. The near surface chemical composition is shown to be the dominant factor in controlling surface work function and significantly influences the rate of electron transfer to both solution and tethered probe molecules.

Ratcliff, E. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Macech, M. R.; Nebesny, K.; Lee, P. A.; Ginley, D. S.; Armstrong, N. R.; Berry, J. J.

2012-06-30

222

Influences of graphene oxide support on the electrochemical performances of graphene oxide-MnO2 nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

MnO2 supported on graphene oxide (GO) made from different graphite materials has been synthesized and further investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The structure and morphology of MnO2-GO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption. As demonstrated, the GO fabricated from commercial expanded graphite (denoted as GO(1)) possesses more functional groups and larger interplane gap compared to the GO from commercial graphite powder (denoted as GO(2)). The surface area and functionalities of GO have significant effects on the morphology and electrochemical activity of MnO2, which lead to the fact that the loading amount of MnO2 on GO(1) is much higher than that on GO(2). Elemental analysis performed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy confirmed higher amounts of MnO2 loading on GO(1). As the electrode of supercapacitor, MnO2-GO(1) nanocomposites show larger capacitance (307.7 F g-1) and better electrochemical activity than MnO2-GO(2) possibly due to the high loading, good uniformity, and homogeneous distribution of MnO2 on GO(1) support. PMID:21951643

2011-01-01

223

Study and characterization of porous copper oxide produced by electrochemical anodization for radiometric heat absorber  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to optimize the different parameters for realization of an absorbing cavity to measure the incident absolute laser energy. Electrochemical oxidation is the background process that allowed the copper blackening. A study of the blackened surface quality was undertaken using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu spectrophotometer. A two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization by AFM of the formed oxide coating showed that the copper surfaces became porous after electrochemical etching with different roughness. This aspect is becoming more and more important with decreasing current density anodization. In a 2 mol L -1 of NaOH solution, at a temperature of 90°C, and using a 16 mA cm2 constant density current, the copper oxide formed has a reflectivity of around 3% in the spectral range between 300 and 1,800 nm. Using the ‘mirage effect’ technique, the obtained Cu2O diffusivity and thermal conductivity are respectively equal to (11.5?±?0.5) 10 to 7 m2 s-1 and (370?±?20) Wm-1 K-1. This allows us to consider that our Cu2O coating is a good thermal conductor. The results of the optical and thermal studies dictate the choice of the cavity design. The absorbing cavity is a hollow cylinder machined to its base at an angle of 30°. If the included angle of the plane is 30° and the interior surface gives specular reflection, an incoming ray parallel to the axis will undergo five reflections before exit. So the absorption of the surface becomes closely near 0.999999. PMID:25349555

2014-01-01

224

Electrochemical Characterization of a Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolyzer for Production of High-Purity Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-scale solid oxide membrane (SOM) steam electrolyzer that can potentially use energy value in waste or any source of carbon or hydrocarbon to produce high-purity hydrogen has been fabricated and evaluated. The SOM electrolyzer comprises an oxygen-ion-conducting yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte with a Ni-YSZ cermet cathode coated on one side and liquid-metal anode on the other side. The SOM electrolyzer is operated at 1000 °C by providing a steam-rich gas feed to the Ni-YSZ cermet cathode and feeding a reductant source into the liquid-metal anode. The steam is reduced over the cathode, and oxygen ions are transported through the YSZ electrolyte and are oxidized at the molten metal electrode by the reductant feed. The advantage of SOM electrolyzer over the state-of-the-art solid oxide electrolyzer is its ability to use solid, liquid, and gaseous reductant feed in the liquid-metal anode to reduce the oxygen chemical potential and drive the reaction for hydrogen production. In this study, an electrochemical process model for a SOM electrolyzer was developed. The condition of the liquid-metal anode with reductant was simulated by bubbling humidified hydrogen (3 pct H2O) in the liquid metal, and the electrochemical performance of the SOM electrolyzer was modeled. The experimental data were curve-fitted into the model to identify the various polarization losses. It showed that the performance of the SOM electrolyzer was dominated by the ohmic resistance of the YSZ membrane. Based on the results of this study, future work is needed toward increasing the performance efficiency of the SOM electrolyzer.

Pati, Soobhankar; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.

2009-12-01

225

Study and characterization of porous copper oxide produced by electrochemical anodization for radiometric heat absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to optimize the different parameters for realization of an absorbing cavity to measure the incident absolute laser energy. Electrochemical oxidation is the background process that allowed the copper blackening. A study of the blackened surface quality was undertaken using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu spectrophotometer. A two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization by AFM of the formed oxide coating showed that the copper surfaces became porous after electrochemical etching with different roughness. This aspect is becoming more and more important with decreasing current density anodization. In a 2 mol L -1 of NaOH solution, at a temperature of 90°C, and using a 16 mA cm2 constant density current, the copper oxide formed has a reflectivity of around 3% in the spectral range between 300 and 1,800 nm. Using the `mirage effect' technique, the obtained Cu2O diffusivity and thermal conductivity are respectively equal to (11.5 ± 0.5) 10 to 7 m2 s-1 and (370 ± 20) Wm-1 K-1. This allows us to consider that our Cu2O coating is a good thermal conductor. The results of the optical and thermal studies dictate the choice of the cavity design. The absorbing cavity is a hollow cylinder machined to its base at an angle of 30°. If the included angle of the plane is 30° and the interior surface gives specular reflection, an incoming ray parallel to the axis will undergo five reflections before exit. So the absorption of the surface becomes closely near 0.999999.

Ben Salem, Sonia; Achour, Zahra Ben; Thamri, Kamel; Touayar, Oualid

2014-10-01

226

Electrochemical treatment of black liquor from straw pulping  

SciTech Connect

The conventional black liquor regeneration process is not always suitable for pulping plants of nonwood fibers due to the unfavorable ratio of organic to inorganic solids. This paper presents an alternative treatment based on an electrolysis process of the soda black liquor from straw pulping. This alternative method minimizes the environmental impact by recovering the caustic at the same time that the liquor is acidified, which favors the later separation of the lignin.

Blanco, M.A.; Negro, C.; Tijero, J. [Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain)] [and others

1996-11-01

227

Fabrication of cobalt porphyrin. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide hybrid films for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Here we report on an experimental study of an electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) based on cobalt porphyrin and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) functional multilayer films, which are prepared by the alternating layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) and positively charged [tetrakis (N-methylpyridyl) porphyrinato] cobalt (CoTMPyP) in combination with an electrochemical reduction procedure. The resulting [ERGO@CoTMPyP]n multilayer films display relatively high electrocatalytic activity and superior stability toward HER in alkaline media. Electrochemical studies indicate that CoTMPyP in the multilayer films is the active catalyst for the reduction of protons to dihydrogen. PMID:24856539

Huang, Dekang; Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Shaohui; Luo, Yanping; Zhao, Chen; Hu, Bin; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

2014-06-17

228

Influence of the heat treatment in the electrochemical corrosion of Al-Zn-Mg alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localized corrosion of Al-(5.03%)Zn-(1.67%)Mg-(0.23%)Cu alloys and high purity Al has been studied using electrochemical techniques, optical microscopy, SEM and EDX. The samples were previously submitted to different heat treatments in which coherent and incoherent MgZn2 precipitates with different distribution and aggregation degree were produced. The influence of NaCl and Na2SO4, dissolved oxygen, immersion time and convection were studied. In

P. L. Cabot; F. Centellas; J. A. Garrido; R. M. Rogríguez; E. Brillas; E. Pérez; A. V. Benedetti; P. T. A. Sumodjo

1992-01-01

229

Preparation of Binary and Ternary Oxides by Molten Salt Method and its Electrochemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report simple binary oxides namely SnO2, TiO2, CuO, MnO2, Fe2O3, Co3O4 and ternary oxides like MnCo2O4 by molten salt method at a temperature range of 280°C to 950°C in air and discuss the effect of morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical properties of binary and ternary oxides. Materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area methods. XRD patterns showed all MSM prepared materials exhibited characteristic lattice parameter values. BET surface area varies depending on the nature of the material, molten salt and preparation temperature and the obtained values are in the range, 1 to 160 m2/g. Electrochemical properties were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical performance studies were carried in the voltage range, 0.005-1.0V for SnO2, 1.0-2.8V for TiO2 and Fe2O3, MCo2O4 (M = Co, Mn), MnO2 and CuO were cycled in the range, 0.005-3.0V. At a current rates of 30-100 mA/g and a scan rate of 0.058 mV/sec was used for galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. SnO2 showed that an alloying-de-alloying reaction occurs at ˜0.2 and ˜0.5 V vs. Li. TiO2 main intercalation and de-interaction reactions at ˜1.7 and ˜1.8 V vs. Li. Co3O4, MnCo2O4, and MnO2 main discharge potentials at ˜1.2, 0.9V and 0.4V, resp. and charge potentials peak ˜2.0V and 1.5V vs. Li. CuO prepared at 750°C exhibited main anodic peak at ˜2.45V and cathodic peaks at ˜0.85V and ˜1.25V. We discussed the possible reaction mechanisms and Li-storage performance values in detail.

Reddy, M. V.; Theng, L. Pei; Soh, Hulbert; Beichen, Z.; Jiahuan, F.; Yu, C.; Ling, A. Yen; Andreea, L. Y.; Ng, C. H. Justin; Liang, T. J. L. Galen; Ian, M. F.; An, H. V. T.; Ramanathan, K.; Kevin, C. W. J.; Daryl, T. Y. W.; Hao, T. Yi; Loh, K. P.; Chowdari, B. V. R.

2013-07-01

230

Electrochemical wastewater treatment directly powered by photovoltaic panels: electrooxidation of a dye-containing wastewater.  

PubMed

Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, but to enhance their green characteristics it seems interesting to use a green electric energy such as that provided by photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are actually under active research to decrease the economic cost of solar kW. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using an electrooxidation system directly powered by a photovoltaic array for the treatment of a wastewater. The experimental system used was an industrial electrochemical filter press reactor and a 40-module PV array. The influence on the degradation of a dye-containing solution (Remazol RB 133) of different experimental parameters such as the PV array and electrochemical reactor configurations has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the electrical configuration of the PV array has a strong influence on the optimal use of the electric energy generated. The optimum PV array configuration changes with the intensity of the solar irradiation, the conductivity of the solution, and the concentration of pollutant in the wastewater. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EO-PV system operation conditions to the wastewater treatment is proposed. PMID:20540540

Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

2010-07-01

231

Electrochemical growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on oxidized bi-layer graphene electrode  

E-print Network

seed layer, oxygen (O2) bubble or supporting electrolyte.2,4 However, the disordered polycrystalline ZnO- chemical synthesis of vertical ZnO NR arrays on graphene without a ZnO seed layer, O2 bubble or electrolyteElectrochemical growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on oxidized bi-layer graphene

Hwang, Sung Woo

232

Electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of conducting polymer/copper nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was used to support Cu nanoparticles. As electro-active electrodes for supercapacitors composites of reduced graphene oxide/Cu nanoparticles (rGO/CuNPs) and polytyramine (PT) with good uniformity are prepared by electropolymerization. Composite of rGO/CuNPs-PT was synthesized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) methods and electrochemical properties of film were investigated by using electrochemical techniques. The results show that, the rGO/CuNPs-PT/G has better capacitance performance. This is mainly because of the really large surface area and the better electronic and ionic conductivity of rGO/CuNPs-PT/G, which lead to greater double-layer capacitance and faradic pseudo capacitance. Modified graphite electrodes (rGO/CuNPs-PT/G) were examined for their redox process and electrocatalytic activities towards the oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions. The methods of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed. In comparison with a Cu-PT/G (Graphite), rGO/CuNPs-PT/G modified electrode shows a significantly higher response for methanol oxidation. A mechanism based on the electro-chemical generation of Cu(III) active sites and their subsequent consumptions by methanol have been discussed.

Ehsani, Ali; Jaleh, Babak; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

2014-07-01

233

Influence of process parameters on electrochemical and physical properties of sputtered iron-doped nickel oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron-doped nickel oxide films used as oxygen evolution catalysts in the photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from solar energy were deposited by means of RF reactive magnetron sputtering from a Ni-Fe alloy target in oxygen and argon atmosphere. The effects of processing parameters on the film properties, such as overpotential, composition, surface morphology and preferred orientation, were investigated. The electrochemical

Jin-zhao HUANG; Zhen XU; Hai-ling LI; Guo-hu KANG; Wen-jing WANG

2006-01-01

234

Dip-coated Ru-V oxide electrodes for electrochemical capacitors  

SciTech Connect

RuO{sub 2}-VO{sub x} electrodes prepared by a dip-coating method provide a large electrochemically active surface area. A RuO{sub 2}(33%)-VO{sub x}(67%)/Ti electrode calcined at 450 C gave the highest value of voltammetric charge, about 50 times larger as that of a RuO{sub 2}/Ti electrode. The large electrochemically active surface areas of the RuO{sub 2}-VO{sub x}/Ti electrodes were characterized by a dispersion of fine V{sub 2}O{sub 5} particles as well as the formation of the ruthenium vanadium double oxide, Ru{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, while the presence of ultrafine RuO{sub 2} particles cannot be ruled out. The electric charge capacity of the electrode between 0.3 and 1.1 V (vs RHE) at a 50 mV/s sweep rate corresponds to 0.76 protons contributed to the adsorption on every ruthenium ion loaded on a titanium substrate.

Takasu, Yoshio; Nakamura, Takashi; Ohkawauchi, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yasushi [Shinshu Univ., Ueda (Japan). Dept. of Fine Materials Engineering

1997-08-01

235

Multi-resistive reduced graphene oxide diode with reversible surface electrochemical reaction induced carrier control.  

PubMed

The extended application of graphene-based electronic devices requires a bandgap opening in order to realize the targeted device functionality. Since the bandgap tuning of pristine graphene is limited to 360 meV, the chemical modification of graphene is considered essential to achieve a large bandgap opening at the expense of electrical properties degradation. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has attracted significant interest for fabricating graphene-based semiconductors since it has several advantages over other forms of chemically modified graphene; such as tunable bandgap opening, decent electrical properties, and easy synthesis. Because of the reduced bonding nature of RGO, the role of metastable oxygen in the RGO matrix is recently highlighted and it may offer emerging ionic devices. In this study, we show that multi-resistivity RGO/n-Si diodes can be obtained by controlling the RGO thickness at a nanometer scale. This is made possible by (1) a metastable lattice-oxygen drift within bulk RGO and (2) electrochemical ambient hydroxyl (OH) formation at the RGO surface. The effect demonstrated in a p-RGO/n-Si heterojunction diode is equivalent to electrochemically driven reversible electronic manipulation and therefore provides an important basis for the application of O bistability in RGO for chemical sensors and electrocatalysis. PMID:25007942

Seo, Hyungtak; Ahn, Seungbae; Kim, Jinseo; Lee, Young-Ahn; Chung, Koo-Hyun; Jeon, Ki-Joon

2014-01-01

236

Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1?10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

2012-01-01

237

Highly efficient electrochemical responses on single crystalline ruthenium-vanadium mixed metal oxide nanowires.  

PubMed

Highly efficient single crystalline ruthenium-vanadium mixed metal oxide (Ru1-xVxO2, 0?x?1) nanowires were prepared on a SiO2 substrate and a commercial Au microelectrode for the first time through a vapor-phase transport process by adjusting the mixing ratios of RuO2 and VO2 precursors. Single crystalline Ru1-xVxO2 nanowires show homogeneous solid-solution characteristics as well as the distinct feature of having remarkably narrow dimensional distributions. The electrochemical observations of a Ru1-xVxO2 (x=0.28 and 0.66)-decorated Au microelectrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrate favorable charge-transfer kinetics of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- and Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) couples compared to that of a bare Au microelectrode. The catalytic activity of Ru1-xVxO2 for oxygen and H2O2 reduction at neutral pH increases as the fraction of vanadium increases within our experimental conditions, which might be useful in the area of biofuel cells and biosensors. PMID:23977880

Chun, Sung Hee; Choi, Hyun-A; Kang, Minkyung; Koh, Moonjee; Lee, Nam-Suk; Lee, Sang Cheol; Lee, Minyung; Lee, Youngmi; Lee, Chongmok; Kim, Myung Hwa

2013-09-11

238

Multi-resistive Reduced Graphene Oxide Diode with Reversible Surface Electrochemical Reaction induced Carrier Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended application of graphene-based electronic devices requires a bandgap opening in order to realize the targeted device functionality. Since the bandgap tuning of pristine graphene is limited to 360 meV, the chemical modification of graphene is considered essential to achieve a large bandgap opening at the expense of electrical properties degradation. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has attracted significant interest for fabricating graphene-based semiconductors since it has several advantages over other forms of chemically modified graphene; such as tunable bandgap opening, decent electrical properties, and easy synthesis. Because of the reduced bonding nature of RGO, the role of metastable oxygen in the RGO matrix is recently highlighted and it may offer emerging ionic devices. In this study, we show that multi-resistivity RGO/n-Si diodes can be obtained by controlling the RGO thickness at a nanometer scale. This is made possible by (1) a metastable lattice-oxygen drift within bulk RGO and (2) electrochemical ambient hydroxyl (OH) formation at the RGO surface. The effect demonstrated in a p-RGO/n-Si heterojunction diode is equivalent to electrochemically driven reversible electronic manipulation and therefore provides an important basis for the application of O bistability in RGO for chemical sensors and electrocatalysis.

Seo, Hyungtak; Ahn, Seungbae; Kim, Jinseo; Lee, Young-Ahn; Chung, Koo-Hyun; Jeon, Ki-Joon

2014-07-01

239

In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry during electrochemical treatment of zinc in alkaline carbonate electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE, 297-820 nm, 4.4-1.5 eV) during electrochemical oxidation/reduction of zinc in alkaline carbonate electrolyte was performed using a specially designed optical-electrochemical cell. The growth and shrinkage of the interfacial layer on Zn was analysed on the basis of Lekner's first order perturbation theory. For non-absorbing thin films on metal surfaces, an algorithm has been derived to extract the thickness of a surface film directly from ellipsometric data without the need of optical modelling. During cyclic voltammetry (CV), a rapid decrease/increase in the layer thickness in the reduction/oxidation peak has been found. In the potential regime where the surface is oxide-covered, the layer thickness increases/decreases linearly with potential in anodic/cathodic scans. The density of the interfacial region in this regime is constant. During chronoamperometric experiments, a fast correlating jump in thickness was found after potential jumps. An ageing of the films is observed in the absorption spectrum (from the ellipsometric parameter ?), which shows changes until ? 30 min after potential jumps. Analysis of the current transients points to continuous dissolution of Zn.

Chen, Ying; Erbe, Andreas

2013-01-01

240

Effects of sulfuric acid treatment on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether acid treatment of a non-graphitizing hard carbon influences positively or negatively its electrochemical anodic performance, this study reports the effects of sulfuric acid treatment on the microstructural changes and electrochemical performance of PAN-based hard carbons prepared at various temperatures. It was found that PAN-based hard carbons heat treated at 900°C (TAN9) exhibit an increased reversible capacity by

Y. J. Kim; H. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; B. W. Cho; C. R. Park

2005-01-01

241

Graphene oxide as nanocarrier for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of clenbuterol based on labeling amplification strategy.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of clenbuterol (CLB) is fabricated using glucose oxidase (GOD)-functionalized grahene oxide (GO) nanocomposites to label CLB. The immunosensor was constructed by layer-by-layer assembly colloidal prussian blue (PB), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and CLB antibodies (Abs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this competitive immunoassay system, PB acts as the redox mediator to reduce H2O2 originated from the catalyst cycle of GOD. The high ratio of GOD to GO effectively amplified the signal for this competitive-type immunoassay. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor shows a wide linear range from 0.5 to 1,000 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL. The dual signal amplification of GOD-functionalized GO nanocomposites as a label is promising to be applied to design other sensitive immunosenseors. PMID:23598209

Lai, Yanjun; Bai, Jing; Shi, Xinhao; Zeng, Yanbo; Xian, Yuezhong; Hou, Jie; Jin, Litong

2013-03-30

242

Spinel manganese-nickel-cobalt ternary oxide nanowire array for high-performance electrochemical capacitor applications.  

PubMed

Aligned spinel Mn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (MNCO) nanowires are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. As an electrode of supercapacitors, the MNCO nanowire array on nickel foam shows an outstanding specific capacitance of 638 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent cycling stability. This exceptional performance benefits from its nanowire architecture, which can provide large reaction surface area, fast ion and electron transfer, and good structural stability. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) with high energy density is assembled successfully by employing the MNCO nanowire array as positive electrode and carbon black as negative electrode. The excellent electrochemical performances indicate the promising potential application of the ASC device in the energy storage field. PMID:25247606

Li, Lu; Zhang, Yongqi; Shi, Fan; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Jiaheng; Gu, Changdong; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

2014-10-22

243

Lithium manganese oxide with excellent electrochemical performance prepared from chemical manganese dioxide for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical manganese dioxide (CMD) is synthesized by the SEDEMA process and adopted as a precursor for lithium manganese oxide with a spinel structure (LMO). LMO is also prepared from electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) as a reference for comparison. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that CMD is composed of ?-MnO2, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the nanorods cover a spherical core with a diameter < 1 ?m. The LMO prepared from CMD shows a much better rate capability and cycle life performance than that from EMD at high temperatures and high current densities. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the structural stability during charge and discharge and the morphology of the LMO, a loose aggregation of the octahedral particles with a uniform size (<1 ?m) and shape, which originated from that of CMD.

Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Jun-Il; Roh, Kwang Chul

2012-09-01

244

A Novel Electrochemical Detector using Prussian Blue Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel electrochemical detector (ECD) to catalyze redox efficiently by electrodepositing Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate) on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and amperometric methods were used. We investigated the PB surface properties by topography from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PB film on dense and smooth surfaces could catalyze redox reaction efficiently. Compared with CE-ECD microchips using a bare-ITO electrode, the proposed CE-ECD microchip using a PB modified electrode has shown better sensitivity of the electropherograms. It has been verified that wide-ranging detection can be performed under the limits of 0.01 mM of dopamine and catechol respectively when we use a PB modified electrode.

Yi, In-Je; Kim, Ju-Ho; Kang, C. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, Kisay; Kim, Yong-Sang

2006-01-01

245

Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide fabricated via sol-gel combustion for electrochemical luminescence cells.  

PubMed

Nanoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) was synthesized via a sol-gel combustion hybrid method using Ketjenblack as a fuel. The effects of the sol-gel combustion conditions on the structures and morphology of the ITO particles were studied. The size of the nanoporous powder was found to be 20-30 nm in diameter. The layer of the nanoporous ITO electrode (-10 microm thickness) with large surface area (-360 m2/g) was fabricated for an electrochemical luminescence (ECL) cell. At 4 V bias, the ECL efficiency of the cell consisting of the nanoporous ITO layer was approximately 1050 cd/m2, which is significantly higher than the cell using only the FTO electrode (450 cd/m2). The nanoporous ITO layer was effective in increasing the ECL intensities. PMID:22849163

Chaoumead, Accarat; Kim, Tae-Woo; Park, Min-Woo; Sung, Youl-Moon

2012-04-01

246

TiO2 nanotube arrays via electrochemical anodic oxidation: Prospective electrode for sensing phenyl hydrazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were grown on Ti foil substrate by electrochemical anodic oxidation and utilized as working electrode to fabricate a highly sensitive and reproducible chemical sensor for the detection of harmful phenyl hydrazine chemical. The fabricated chemical sensor based on TiO2 NT arrays electrode exhibited high sensitivity of ˜40.9?A mM-1 cm-2 and detection limit of ˜0.22 ?M with short response time (10 s). The enhanced sensing properties were attributed to the presence of depleted oxygen layer on the surface of grown TiO2 NT arrays and its high electron transfer process via good electrocatalytic activity towards phenyl hydrazine chemical.

Ameen, Sadia; Shaheer Akhtar, M.; Seo, Hyung-Kee; Shin, Hyung-Shik

2013-08-01

247

Electrochemical Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a compendium of 44 articles in electrochemistry. The articles cover a number of different topics including electrochemical capacitors, the electrochemistry of plant life, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolytic capacitors.

2011-06-09

248

3D CFD ELECTROCHEMICAL AND HEAT TRANSFER MODEL OF AN INTERNALLY MANIFOLDED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in an internally manifolded planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) stack. This design is being evaluated at the Idaho National Laboratory for hydrogen production from nuclear power and process heat. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, operating potential, steam-electrode gas composition, oxygen-electrode gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Single-cell and five-cell results will be presented. Flow distribution through both models is discussed. Flow enters from the bottom, distributes through the inlet plenum, flows across the cells, gathers in the outlet plenum and flows downward making an upside-down ''U'' shaped flow pattern. Flow and concentration variations exist downstream of the inlet holes. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, oxygen-electrode and steam-electrode current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Greg Tao

2011-11-01

249

Graphene oxide functionalized with silver@silica-polyethylene glycol hybrid nanoparticles for direct electrochemical detection of quercetin.  

PubMed

A direct electrochemical detection of quercetin based on functionalized graphene oxide modified on gold-printed circuit board chip was demonstrated in this study. Functionalized graphene oxide materials are prepared by the covalent reaction of graphene oxide with silver@silica-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles (~12.35nm). Functionalized graphene oxide electrode shows a well-defined voltammetric response in phosphate buffered saline and catalyzes the oxidation of quercetin to quinone without the need of an enzyme. Significantly, the functionalized graphene oxide modified electrode exhibited a higher sensitivity than pristine gold-printed circuit board and graphene oxide electrodes, a wide concentration range of 7.5 to 1040nM and detection limit of 3.57nM. Developed biosensor platform is selective toward quercetin in the presence of an interferent molecule. PMID:24637169

Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

2014-08-15

250

Electrochemical preparation of few layer-graphene nanosheets via reduction of oriented exfoliated graphene oxide thin films in acetamide–urea–ammonium nitrate melt under ambient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide, prepared from pre-exfoliated graphite, in acetamide–urea–ammonium nitrate ternary eutectic melt results in few layer-graphene thin films. Negatively charged exfoliated graphene oxide is attached to positively charged cystamine monolyer self-assembled on a gold surface. Electrochemical reduction of the oriented graphene oxide film is carried out in a room temperature, ternary molten electrolyte. The reduced film

V. S. Dilimon; S. Sampath

2011-01-01

251

Measuring fundamental properties in operating solid oxide electrochemical cells by using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Photoelectron spectroscopic measurements have the potential to provide detailed mechanistic insight by resolving chemical states, electrochemically active regions and local potentials or potential losses in operating solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs), such as fuel cells. However, high-vacuum requirements have limited X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of electrochemical cells to ex situ investigations. Using a combination of ambient-pressure XPS and CeO(2-x)/YSZ/Pt single-chamber cells, we carry out in situ spectroscopy to probe oxidation states of all exposed surfaces in operational SOCs at 750 °C in 1 mbar reactant gases H(2) and H(2)O. Kinetic energy shifts of core-level photoelectron spectra provide a direct measure of the local surface potentials and a basis for calculating local overpotentials across exposed interfaces. The mixed ionic/electronic conducting CeO(2-x) electrodes undergo Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) oxidation-reduction changes with applied bias. The simultaneous measurements of local surface Ce oxidation states and electric potentials reveal the active ceria regions during H(2) electro-oxidation and H(2)O electrolysis. The active regions extend ~150 ?m from the current collectors and are not limited by the three-phase-boundary interfaces associated with other SOC materials. The persistence of the Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) shifts in the ~150 ?m active region suggests that the surface reaction kinetics and lateral electron transport on the thin ceria electrodes are co-limiting processes. PMID:20871607

Zhang, Chunjuan; Grass, Michael E; McDaniel, Anthony H; DeCaluwe, Steven C; El Gabaly, Farid; Liu, Zhi; McCarty, Kevin F; Farrow, Roger L; Linne, Mark A; Hussain, Zahid; Jackson, Gregory S; Bluhm, Hendrik; Eichhorn, Bryan W

2010-11-01

252

The oriented growth of tungsten oxide in ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrochemical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and methanol oxidation are the heart of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In spite of tremendous efforts, developing low-cost anodic electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and corrosion resistance is still a great challenge. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of oriented WO3 nanorods grown in ordered mesoporous carbon as a high-performance functional catalyst carrier for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. As a result of the catalytic graphitization effect of tungsten compounds, the degree of graphitization and conductivity of mesoporous carbon film were improved even at a low temperature. Furthermore, compared with ordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous C-WO3 nanocomposites possess favorable hydrophilicity, excellent corrosion resistance and notable electrocatalytic activities. The unusual electrocatalytic activities arise from the ideal physical properties of the carrier and synergetic catalysis between Pt and WO3.Electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and methanol oxidation are the heart of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In spite of tremendous efforts, developing low-cost anodic electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and corrosion resistance is still a great challenge. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of oriented WO3 nanorods grown in ordered mesoporous carbon as a high-performance functional catalyst carrier for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. As a result of the catalytic graphitization effect of tungsten compounds, the degree of graphitization and conductivity of mesoporous carbon film were improved even at a low temperature. Furthermore, compared with ordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous C-WO3 nanocomposites possess favorable hydrophilicity, excellent corrosion resistance and notable electrocatalytic activities. The unusual electrocatalytic activities arise from the ideal physical properties of the carrier and synergetic catalysis between Pt and WO3. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional structural characterizations and electrochemical measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00396a

Wang, Tao; Tang, Jing; Fan, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jianhua; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; He, Jianping

2014-04-01

253

Electrochemical waste water treatment using high overvoltage anodes Part II: Anode performance and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of highly doped SnO2 anodes for the oxidative treatment of biologically refractory waste water was compared with PbO2 and Pt. The oxidation of a wide range of organic compounds proceeds with an efficiency which is about 5 times higher than with platinum anodes. The oxidation efficiency was found to be independent of the pH of the water. In

S. Stucki; R. Kötz; B. Carcer; W. Suter

1991-01-01

254

Aerosol synthesis and electrochemical analysis of niobium mixed-metal oxides for the ethanol oxidation reaction in acid and alkaline electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct ethanol fuel cells are especially important among emerging electrochemical power systems with the potential to offset a great deal of the energy demand currently met through the use of fossil fuels. Ethanol can be refined from petroleum sources or attained from renewable biomass, and is more easily and safely stored and transported than hydrogen, methanol or gasoline. The full energy potential of ethanol in fuel cells can only be realized if the reaction follows a total oxidation pathway to produce CO2. This must be achieved by the development of advanced catalysts that are electrically conductive, stable in corrosive environments, contain a high surface area on which the reaction can occur, and exhibit a bi-functional effect for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The latter criterion is achievable in mixed-metal systems. Platinum is an effective metal for catalyzing surface reactions of many adsorbates and is usually implemented in the form of Pt nanoparticles supported on inexpensive carbon. This carbon is believed to be neutral in the catalysis of Pt. Instead, carbon can be replaced with carefully designed metals and metal oxides as co-catalysis or support structures that favorably alter the electronic structure of Pt slightly through a strong metal support interaction, while also acting as an oxygen source near adsorbates to facilitate the total oxidation pathway. Niobium mixed-metal-oxides were explored in this study as bi-functional catalyst supports to Pt nanoparticles. We developed a thermal aerosol synthesis process by which mesoporous powders of mixed-metal-oxides decorated with Pt nanoparticles could be obtained from liquid precursors within ˜5 seconds or less, followed by carefully refined chemical and thermal post-treatments. Exceptionally high surface areas of 170--180m2/g were achieved via a surfactant-templated 3D wormhole-type porosity, comparable on a per volume basis to commercial carbon blacks and high surface area silica supports. For the first time, in situ FTIR measurements in acid electrolyte showed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles (2--5nm) on NbRuyO z (at% 8Nb:1Ru) catalyze the formation of CO2 from ethanol in greater yield, and 0.35--0.4V lower, than Pt(111). Compared to conventional Pt/carbon, this indicates that, (1) Pt supported on NbRuyO z can be more effective at splitting the C---C bond in ethanol and, (2) the scission occurs at potentials more ideal for a higher efficiency fuel cell anode. Ex situ-microscopy revealed the polarization-induced two- and three-dimensional formation of Pt-NbOx interfacial adsorption sites responsible for the facilitation of the total oxidation pathway of ethanol. The results show that synthesis and post-treatment of niobia supports can bias the utility of Pt/niobia systems towards the ethanol oxidation reaction at the anode or the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode. Experimental and computational-theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of interfacial site formation is dependent upon the local oxygen concentration, as well as the availability of multiple, energetically accessible oxidation states like those inherent to niobia. Future directions for the development of highly active, niobium-based materials tailored for efficient catalysis of the total oxidation pathway of ethanol are discussed.

Konopka, Daniel A.

255

Surface characteristics and electrochemical corrosion behavior of a pre-anodized microarc oxidation coating on titanium alloy.  

PubMed

A porous bioactive titania coating on biomedical ? titanium alloy was prepared by pre-anodization followed by micro arc oxidation technology. The effects of pre-anodization on the phase constituent, morphology and electrochemical corrosion behavior of the microarc oxidation coating were investigated. The results show that pre-anodization has less influence on the phase constituent and the surface morphology of the microarc oxidation coating, but improves the inner layer density of the microarc oxidation coating. The decrease of plasma discharge strength due to the presence of the pre-anodized oxide film contributes to the formation of the compact inner layer. The pre-anodized microarc oxidation coating effectively inhibits the penetration of the electrolyte in 0.9% NaCl solution and thus increases the corrosion resistance of the coated titanium alloy in physiological solution. PMID:23910276

Cui, W F; Jin, L; Zhou, L

2013-10-01

256

THERMAL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL THREE DIMENSIONAL CFD MODEL OF A PLANAR SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model represents a single cell, as it would exist in an electrolysis stack. Details of the model geometry are specific to a stack that was fabricated by Ceramatec , Inc. and tested at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT2. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean model results are shown to compare favorably with experimental results obtained from an actual ten-cell stack tested at INL.

Grant Hawkes; Jim O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Steve Herring; Mehrdad Shahnam

2005-07-01

257

Electrochemical deposition and characterization of mixed-valent rhenium oxide films prepared from a perrhenate solution.  

PubMed

Cathodic electrodeposition of mixed-valent rhenium oxides at indium tin oxide, gold, rhenium, and glassy carbon electrodes from acidic perrhenate solutions (pH = 1.5 +/- 0.1) prepared from hydrogen peroxide and zerovalent rhenium metal is described. Cyclic voltammetry, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry, and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) data indicate that the chemical nature of the electrodeposited rhenium species depends mainly upon the potential and supporting electrolyte. The presence of SO4(2-) as a supporting electrolyte inhibits the adsorption of perrhenate, ReO4-, at non-hydrogen adsorbing electrode materials. However, in acidic perrhenate solutions containing only protons and ReO4- anions, strong adsorption of ReO4- at potentials preceding hydrogen evolution occurs. This leads to the formation of an unstable ReIII2O3 intermediate which catalytically disproportionates to form mixed-valent rhenium films consisting of 72% ReIVO2 and 28% Re0. During the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen polarization causes the principle deposit to be more reduced, consisting of roughly 64% ReIVO2 and 36% Re0. Conclusively, metallic rhenium can be deposited at potentials preceding the HER at non-hydrogen adsorbing electrode materials, especially in the absence of SO4(2-) anions. PMID:17854210

Hahn, Benjamin P; May, R Alan; Stevenson, Keith J

2007-10-01

258

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

Isenberg, A.O.

1987-03-10

259

Preparation and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their sensor applications for electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid hybridization.  

PubMed

In this study, ZnO nanoparticles (ZNP) of approximately 30 nm in size were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Braun-Emmet-Teller (BET) N2 adsorption analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ZnO nanoparticles enriched with poly(vinylferrocenium) (PVF+) modified single-use graphite electrodes were then developed for the electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid hybridization related to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Firstly, the surfaces of polymer modified and polymer-ZnO nanoparticle modified single-use pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behavior of these electrodes was also investigated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Subsequently, the polymer-ZnO nanoparticle modified PGEs were evaluated for the electrochemical detection of DNA based on the changes at the guanine oxidation signals. Various modifications in DNA oligonucleotides and probe concentrations were examined in order to optimize the electrochemical signals that were generated by means of nucleic acid hybridization. After the optimization studies, the sequence-selective DNA hybridization was investigated in the case of a complementary amino linked probe (target), or noncomplementary (NC) sequences, or target and mismatch (MM) mixture in the ratio of (1:1). PMID:21600741

Yumak, Tugrul; Kuralay, Filiz; Muti, Mihrican; Sinag, Ali; Erdem, Arzum; Abaci, Serdar

2011-09-01

260

In-situ treatment of surfactant-contaminated soil by electrochemical methods  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of removing a surfactant - ammonium perfluoro-octanoate - from a contaminated soil. in this study, two separate electrochemical-related methods were explored. First, electro-kinetic remediation technique was employed as s tool to transport the surfactant out of the contaminated soil. The method relies in applying an external voltage between electrodes (cathode and anode) inserted in the soil medium to induce the water movement towards the negatively charged electrode (cathode) and enhance the transport of the contaminant Under the conditions tested, a 97 % removal was achieved. The second step taken was to destroy the target compound in solution by indirect oxidation process. The method involves the generation of hydrogen peroxide by reduction of dissolved molecular oxygen in aqueous solution at the cathode electrode. In the presence of ferrous ions, hydrogen peroxide reacts producing hydroxyl radicals. This reaction is well known as Fenton`s Reagent. Hydroxyl radicals are strong oxidizing agents and are able to oxidize a variety of organic compounds. The results demonstrated that indirect oxidation process could reduce the surfactant concentrations from 50, 30, 20, and 10 ppm to 1 ppm in 30 minutes of electrolysis at low pH conditions.

Huang, C.P.; Takiyama, L.R.; Chu, C.S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

1995-12-31

261

Sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on graphene served as platform and graphene oxide as enhancer.  

PubMed

A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor was developed with conductive graphene served as platform and inert graphene oxide (GO) as enhancer. An electrodeposited nano-Au layer was firstly formed on conductive graphene modified glass carbon electrode surface for further immobilizing of electrochemical redox probe hexacyanoferrates nanoparticles (NiHCFNPs). Subsequently, another nano-Au layer was formed for immobilizing of thrombin aptamer (TBA). In the presence of thrombin, the TBA on the electrode surface could bind with thrombin, which made a barrier for electrons and inhibited the electro-transfer, resulting in the decreased electrochemical signals of NiHCFNPs. Owing to the non-conductivity property of graphene oxide, further decreased electrochemical signals of NiHCFNPs could be obtained via the sandwich reaction with GO-labeled TBA. According to the signal changes before the thrombin recognition and after sandwich reaction, trace detection of thrombin could be achieved. As a result, the proposed approach showed a high sensitivity and a wider linearity to thrombin in the range from 0.005 nM to 50 nM with a detection limit of 1 pM. PMID:24142359

He, Chun; Xu, Zenghong; Sun, Tao; Wang, Li

2014-01-01

262

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PEROX-PURE CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Technology Description: The perox-pure™ chemical oxidation treatment technology was developed by Peroxidation Systems, Inc. (PSI), to destroy dissolved organic contaminants in water. The technology uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic co...

263

Ceramic processing and electrochemical analysis of proton conductive solid oxide fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ba(Zr0.8-xCexY0.2)O3-delta (0?x?0.4) (BZCYs) powders were successfully fabricated by both solid state reaction and glycine-nitrate process. Lithium fluoride (LiF) was selected as a liquid phase sintering additive to lower the sintering temperature of BZCYs. Using LiF as an additive, high density BZCYs ceramics can be obtained at sintering temperatures 200˜300 °C lower than the usual 1700 °C with much shorter soaking time. Nuclear reaction investigations showed no lithium and a small amount of fluorine reside in the sample which indicates the non-concomitant evaporation of lithium and fluorine during the sintering process. Scanning electron microscopic investigations showed the bimodal structure of BZCY ceramics and grain growth as Ce content increases. In a water saturated hydrogen containing atmosphere, BZCY ceramics have higher conductivity when LiF is used in the sintering process. LiF-added BZCY electrolyte-supported fuel cells with different cathodes were tested at temperatures from 500˜850 °C. Results show that Pt cathode gives much higher power output than ceramic cathodes, indicating much larger polarization from ceramic cathodes than Pt. Ba(Zr0.6Ce 0.2Y0.2)O3-delta anode supported proton conductive solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs) show low power output due to its low proton conductivity. Ba(Ce0.8Y0.2)O3-delta anode supported H-SOFCs show excellent power output. Different H2 and O2 partial pressures were used for fuel and oxidative gas, respectively, to obtain information for V(i) modeling. Different thicknesses of supporting anode were used to obtain saturation current densities of H-SOFC. Using the dusty-gas model which includes Stefan-Maxwell equation and Knudsen terms, the calculation gave tortuosity of our supporting anode 1.95+/-0.1. The gas concentrations across the anode were also calculated by knowing the tortuosity of the supporting anode. An electrochemical model of H-SOFC was developed. The excellent agreement between model and experimental data implies that our model is close to the true physical picture of H-SOFC. The more accurate prediction of our model, based on a physical picture of electrochemical processes, also provides a replacement for using the Butler-Volmer equation in SOFC modeling. In the parametric analysis, our model shows that ohmic polarization and cathodic polarization limit the performance of H-SOFC. Research for improving H-SOFC performance should be focused on reducing electrolyte thickness, increasing proton conductivity of electrolyte and finding a compatible cathode material.

Tsai, Chih-Long

264

A combined CaO/electrochemical treatment of the acid mine drainage from the "Robule" Lake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was development and application of the purification system suitable for the treatment of the acid mine drainage (AMD) accumulated in the "Robule" Lake, which represents the part of the Bor copper mining and smelting complex, Serbia. The study was undertaken in order to minimize adverse effect on the environment caused by the discharge of untreated AMD, which was characterized with low pH value (2.63) and high concentration of heavy metals (up to 610 mg/L) and sulfates (up to 12,000 mg/L). The treatment of the effluent included pretreatment/pH adjustment with CaO followed by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrode sets. Following the final treatment, the decrease in the concentration of heavy metals ranged from 40 up to 61000 times depending on the metal and its initial concentration. The parameters, color and turbidity were removed completely in the pretreatment step, while the removal efficiencies for other considered parameters were as follows: EC = 55.48%, SO(4) (2-) = 70.83%, Hg = 98.36%, Pb = 97.50%, V = 98.43%, Cr = 99.86%, Mn = 97.96%, Fe = 100.00%, Co = 99.96%, Ni = 99.78%, Cu = 99.99% and Zn = 99.94%. Because the concentrations of heavy metals in the electrochemically treated AMD (ranging from 0.001 to 0.336 mg/L) are very low, the negative impact of this effluent on the aquatic life and humans is not expected. The sludge generated during the treatment of AMD is suitable for reuse for at least two purposes (pretreatment of AMD and covering of the flotation waste heap). From the presented results, it could be concluded that electrochemical treatment is a suitable approach for the treatment of AMD. PMID:22506711

Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert

2012-01-01

265

Electrochemical investigation of atenolol oxidation and detection by using a multicomponent nanostructural assembly of amino acids and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel nanostructured assembly based on poly(glutamic) acid/cysteine/gold nanoparticles was designed to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and used to study the atenolol oxidation. The GCE surface was initially covered by poly(glutamic) acid/cysteine layers followed by covalent attachment of citrate-capped 40 nm-AuNPs. The system excellent electrochemical performance was tested by Linear Sweep Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and allowed the detection of an atenolol oxidation peak (around +0.65 V/SCE) with a detection limit of 3.9 × 10-7 M. Such findings could be incorporated in highly sensitive detection technologies of various biological or chemical compounds and molecules.

Pruneanu, Stela; Pogacean, Florina; Grosan, Camelia; Pica, Elena Maria; Bolundut, Liviu Calin; Biris, Alexandru Sorin

2011-02-01

266

A reliable aerosol-spray-assisted approach to produce and optimize amorphous metal oxide catalysts for electrochemical water splitting.  

PubMed

An aerosol-spray-assisted approach (ASAA) is proposed and confirmed as a precisely controllable and continuous method to fabricate amorphous mixed metal oxides for electrochemical water splitting. The proportion of metal elements can be accurately controlled to within (5±5)?%. The products can be sustainably obtained, which is highly suitable for industrial applications. ASAA was used to show that Fe6Ni10O(x) is the best catalyst among the investigated Fe-Ni-O(x) series with an overpotential of as low as 0.286?V (10?mA?cm(-2)) and a Tafel slope of 48?mV/decade for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction. Therefore, this work contributes a versatile, continuous, and reliable way to produce and optimize amorphous metal oxide catalysts. PMID:24899118

Kuai, Long; Geng, Jing; Chen, Changyu; Kan, Erjie; Liu, Yadong; Wang, Qing; Geng, Baoyou

2014-07-14

267

Electrochemical hydrogen property improved in nano-structured perovskite oxide LaFeO3 for Ni/MH battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite oxide LaFeO3, as a novel candidate for the electrode of Ni/MH battery, holds high specific capacity and good cyclical durability at elevated temperatures. However, the poor electrochemical kinetics is a bottleneck for the application of this type of material. By use of nano-structured materials, there are greatly enhanced values of exchange current density I0 and hydrogen diffusion coefficient D, which resulted in an improvement of electrochemical kinetics, a much higher specific capacity and excellent stability during cycling for nano-structured LaFeO3. In theory, there is a significant possibility of further advancing the hydrogen reaction kinetics of perovskite type oxides for Ni/MH battery.

Wang, Qiang; Deng, Gang; Chen, Zhiqian; Chen, Yungui; Cheng, Nanpu

2013-02-01

268

Electrochemical studies on selected oxides for intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cell technology holds the promise to change the way power is generated, transmitted, and utilized in our increasing demanding lifestyles. State of the art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize an all ceramic design and operate at 750--1000°C. Lower operating temperatures will significantly improve the economics of power generation using SOFCs. The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate and develop component materials for SOFCs, which could work efficiently at temperatures between 500--750°C. Erbia stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) shows one of the highest oxygen ion conductivity among all solid electrolytes. However, due to positional and occupational ordering the conductivity decays below the transition temperature (˜600°C). The effect of direct current bias on the ordering phenomenon in ESB was studied using symmetrical cells with Ag-ESB electrodes. At 500°C, the endotherm, related to reverse transition, is enhanced by the applied bias at short time but with negligible change in conductivity decay. It is proposed that the conductivity decay with anneal time is related more to the positional ordering than occupational ordering. Ag-ESB electrodes showed good performance, though were unstable under high currents at 625°C due to Ag migration with oxygen flux. Novel bismuth ruthenate based cathodes were evaluated using impedance spectroscopy with symmetric cells on gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) electrolytes. Undoped bismuth ruthenate electrode showed area specific resistance (ASR) of 55.64 Ocm2 at 500°C and 1.45 Ocm 2 at 700°C in air. Doping with similar size Ca2+, Ag+, or Sr2+ on Bi3+ site did not improve the electrode performance significantly, while bismuth ruthenate-ESB composites showed 3--4 times lower electrode ASR. Bismuth ruthenate-ESB (62.5:37.5 wt%) composite showed the best performance of 18.4 Ocm 2 at 500°C and 0.32 Ocm2 at 700°C in air. Addition of the ESB phase is believed to reduce the rate limiting surface diffusion in oxygen reduction reaction. Anode supported thick film GDC electrolyte unit cells were developed for IT-SOFCs. A colloidal deposition technique was used to fabricate dense, thick GDC electrolyte films on porous Ni-GDC anode supports. Pre-sintering temperature of the anode and final sintering temperature of the anode/electrolyte bilayer were found to be the primary parameters determining the density of the film. The sintering temperature of LSCF-GDC (70:30 wt%) composite cathode was optimized to 1250--1350°C, which resulted in a maximum power density of 0.338 W/cm2 at 0.771 A/cm2, 700°C. Current interrupt showed that apart from the electrolyte layer, the ohmic polarization across the cell has significant contributions from the electrodes.

Jaiswal, Abhishek

269

Enhanced oxidation of diclofenac sodium at a nano-structured electrochemical sensing film constructed by multi-wall carbon nanotubes–surfactant composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)–dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate (DHP) film-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated, and the voltammetric determination method of diclofenac sodium was investigated on this modified electrode by using different kinds of electrochemical techniques. The results showed that this nano-structured film electrode exhibits excellent enhancement effects on the electrochemical oxidation of diclofenac sodium. The oxidation peak current of

Xiaofeng Yang; Fang Wang; Shengshui Hu

2008-01-01

270

Amperometric detection of acetaminophen by an electrochemical sensor based on cobalt oxide nanoparticles in a flow injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the use of a carbon ceramic electrode as a highly-porous substrate for the electrochemical formation of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The electrocatalyst was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry techniques, and it was used in a homemade flow injection analysis (FIA) system for acetaminophen determination using 0.1M KOH as the

Habib Razmi; Esmaeil Habibi

2010-01-01

271

Electrochemical promotion of propane oxidation on Pt deposited on a dense ??-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor  

PubMed Central

A new kind of electrochemical catalyst based on a Pt porous catalyst film deposited on a ??-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor was developed and evaluated during propane oxidation. It was observed that, upon anodic polarization, the rate of propane combustion was significantly electropromoted up to 400%. Moreover, for the first time, exponential increase of the catalytic rate was evidenced during galvanostatic transient experiment in excellent agreement with EPOC equation. PMID:24790942

Tsampas, Mihalis N.; Kambolis, Anastasios; Obeid, Emil; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Sapountzi, Foteini M.; Vernoux, Philippe

2013-01-01

272

In-situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Investigation of a Bifunctional Manganese Oxide Catalyst with High Activity for Electrochemical Water Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction  

PubMed Central

In-situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique that can be applied to electrochemical systems, with the ability to elucidate the chemical nature of electrocatalysts under reaction conditions. In this study, we perform in-situ XAS measurements on a bifunctional manganese oxide (MnOx) catalyst with high electrochemical activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), we find that exposure to an ORR-relevant potential of 0.7 V vs. RHE produces a disordered Mn3II,III,IIIO4 phase with negligible contributions from other phases. After the potential is increased to a highly anodic value of 1.8 V vs. RHE, relevant to the OER, we observe an oxidation of approximately 80% of the catalytic thin film to form a mixed MnIII,IV oxide, while the remaining 20% of the film consists of a less oxidized phase, likely corresponding to unchanged Mn3II,III,IIIO4. XAS and electrochemical characterization of two thin film catalysts with different MnOx thicknesses reveals no significant influence of thickness on the measured oxidation states, at either ORR or OER potentials, but demonstrates that the OER activity scales with film thickness. This result suggests that the films have porous structure, which does not restrict electrocatalysis to the top geometric layer of the film. As the portion of the catalyst film that is most likely to be oxidized at the high potentials necessary for the OER is that which is closest to the electrolyte interface, we hypothesize that the MnIII,IV oxide, rather than Mn3II,III,IIIO4, is the phase pertinent to the observed OER activity. PMID:23758050

Benck, Jesse D.; Gul, Sheraz; Webb, Samuel M.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

273

A novel approach for analyzing electrochemical properties of mixed conducting solid oxide fuel cell anode materials by impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

For application of acceptor-doped mixed conducting oxides as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes, high electrochemical surface activity as well as acceptable electronic and ionic conductivity are crucial. In a reducing atmosphere, particularly the electronic conductivity of acceptor-doped oxides can become rather low and the resulting complex interplay of electrochemical reactions and charge transport processes makes a mechanistic interpretation of impedance measurements very complicated. In order to determine all relevant resistive and capacitive contributions of mixed conducting electrodes in a reducing atmosphere, a novel electrode design and impedance-based analysis technique is therefore introduced. Two interdigitating metallic current collectors are placed in a microelectrode, which allows in-plane measurements within the electrode as well as electrochemical measurements versus a counter electrode. Equivalent circuit models for quantifying the spectra of both measurement modes are developed and applied to simultaneously fit both spectra, using the same parameter set. In this manner, the electronic and ionic conductivity of the material as well as the area-specific resistance of the surface reaction and the chemical capacitance can be determined on a single microelectrode in a H2-H2O atmosphere. The applicability of this new tool was demonstrated in SrTi0.7Fe0.3O3-? (STFO) thin film microelectrodes, deposited on single-crystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. All materials parameters that contribute to the polarization resistance of STFO electrodes in a reducing atmosphere could thus be quantified. PMID:25219525

Nenning, A; Opitz, A K; Huber, T M; Fleig, J

2014-09-24

274

Preparation of an electrochemically-formed spinel lithium manganese oxide and its charge–discharge behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese hydroxides were prepared by a cathodic electrochemical precipitation from a manganese nitrate solution. The grass blade-like precipitate, which is ascribed to manganese hydroxide was 20–80?m long and 1–5?m wide and was spread out on a Pt substrate after the electrochemical precipitation. When the electrochemically precipitated manganese hydroxides were kept in an alkali metal hydroxide aqueous solution, such as NaOH,

Katsumi Katakura; Shin-ichi Nishimura; Zempachi Ogumi

2005-01-01

275

Application of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on screen-printed ion-selective electrode.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel disposable all-solid-state ion-selective electrode using graphene as the ion-to-electron transducer was developed. The graphene film was prepared on screen-printed electrode directly from the graphene oxide dispersion by a one-step electrodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to demonstrate the large double layer capacitance and fast charge transfer of the graphene film modified electrode. On the basis of these excellent properties, an all-solid-state calcium ion-selective electrode as the model was constructed using the calcium ion-selective membrane and graphene film modified electrode. The mechanism about the graphene promoting the ion-to-electron transformation was investigated in detail. The disposable electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope (29.1 mV/decade), low detection limit (10(-5.8) M), and fast response time (less than 10 s). With the high hydrophobic character of graphene materials, no water film was formed between the ion-selective membrane and the underlying graphene layer. Further studies revealed that the developed electrode was insensitive to light, oxygen, and redox species. The use of the disposable electrode for real sample analysis obtained satisfactory results, which made it a promising alternative in routine sensing applications. PMID:22380625

Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Ying, Yibin; Wu, Jian

2012-04-01

276

Seedless growth of zinc oxide flower-shaped structures on multilayer graphene by electrochemical deposition.  

PubMed

A seedless growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) structures on multilayer (ML) graphene by electrochemical deposition without any pre-deposited ZnO seed layer or metal catalyst was studied. A high density of a mixture of vertically aligned/non-aligned ZnO rods and flower-shaped structures was obtained. ML graphene seems to generate the formation of flower-shaped structures due to the stacking boundaries. The nucleation of ZnO seems to be promoted at the stacking edges of ML graphene with the increase of applied current density, resulting in the formation of flower-shaped structures. The diameters of the rods/flower-shaped structures also increase with the applied current density. ZnO rods/flower-shaped structures with high aspect ratio over 5.0 and good crystallinity were obtained at the applied current densities of -0.5 and -1.0 mA/cm(2). The growth mechanism was proposed. The growth involves the formation of ZnO nucleation below 80°C and the enhancement of the growth of vertically non-aligned rods and flower-shaped structures at 80°C. Such ZnO/graphene hybrid structure provides several potential applications in sensing devices. PMID:25024694

Aziz, Nur Suhaili Abd; Nishiyama, Tomoya; Rusli, Nurul Izni; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

2014-01-01

277

Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay based on graphene oxide-Ag composites for rapid determination of clenbuterol.  

PubMed

We report the development of an ultrasensitive amperometric biosensor based on Ag nanoparticles-decorated graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) (Ag-GO) for the rapid detection of clenbuterol (CLB). The morphology and structure of the Ag-GO labeled CLB (Ag-GO-CLB) were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscope (UV-vis). The immunosensor was prepared by covalently immobilizing capture antibodies on a multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode. Through competitive immunoreactions, the Ag-GO-CLB nanocomposites were captured on the immunosensor and the silver was measured by positive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in KCl solution for the detection of antigen. The experimental results show a linear response over the range from 0.01 to 10.0 ng mL(-1) with a lower detection limit of 6.8 pg mL(-1) (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The Ag-GO based immunosensor offers a simple and convenient route for metal-immunoassay labels, which can avoid the complicated and time-consuming dissolving of metal component for ultrasensitive determination. Moreover, the electrochemical immunoassay shows acceptable specificity and stability and is suitable for the determination of CLB in real samples. PMID:22830075

Bai, Jing; Lai, Yanjun; Jiang, Dawei; Zeng, Yanbo; Xian, Yuezhong; Xiao, Fei; Zhang, Ningdan; Hou, Jie; Jin, Litong

2012-09-21

278

Magnetic behaviors of cerium oxide-based thin films deposited using electrochemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zn and Co multi-doped CeO2 thin films have been prepared using an anodic electrochemical method. The structures and magnetic behaviors are characterized by several techniques, in which the oxygen states in the lattice and the absorptive oxygen bonds at the surface are carefully examined. The absorptive oxygen bond is about 50% of the total oxygen bond by using a semi-quantitative method. The value of actual stoichiometry ?' is close to 2. The experimental results indicate that the thin films are of a cerium oxide-based solid solution with few oxygen vacancies in the lattice and many absorptive oxygen bonds at the surface. Week ferromagnetic behaviors were evidenced by observed M—H hysteresis loops at room temperature. Furthermore, an evidence of relative ferromagnetic contributions was revealed by the temperature dependence of magnetization. It is believed that the ferromagnetic contributions exhibited in the M—H loops originate from the absorptive oxygen on the surface rather than the oxygen vacancies in the lattice.

Peng, Ying-Zi; Li, Yuan; Bai, Ru; Huo, De-Xuan; Qian, Zheng-Hong

2014-09-01

279

Electrochemical detection of catecholamine exocytosis using planar iridium oxide electrodes in nanoliter microfluidic cell culture volumes  

PubMed Central

Release of neurotransmitters and hormones by Ca2+ regulated exocytosis is a fundamental cellular/molecular process that is disrupted in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, and endocrine disorders. Therefore, this area represents a relevant target for drug and therapeutic development, efforts that will be aided by novel analytical tools and devices that provide mechanistically rich data with increased throughput. Toward this goal, we have electrochemically deposited iridium oxide (IrOx) films onto planar thin film platinum electrodes (20×300µm2) and utilized these for quantitative detection of catecholamine exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells trapped in a microfluidic network. The IrOx electrodes show a linear response to norepinephrine in the range of 0–400µM, with a sensitivity of 23.1±0.5mA/(M·mm2). The sensitivity of the IrOx electrodes does not change in the presence of ascorbic acid, a substance commonly found in biological samples. A replica molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with nanoliter sensing volumes was aligned and sealed to a glass substrate with the sensing electrodes. Small populations of chromaffin cells were trapped in the microfluidic sensing chamber and stimulated by rapid perfusion with high potassium (50mM) containing Tyrode’s solution at a flow rate of 1nL/s. Stimulation of the cells produced a rapid increase in current due to oxidation of the released catecholamines, with an estimated maximum concentration in the microfluidic device ~52µM. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of an integrated microfluidic network with IrOx electrodes for real-time quantitative detection of catecholamines released from small populations of cells. PMID:22398270

Ges, Igor A.; Currie, Kevin P.M.; Baudenbacher, Franz

2013-01-01

280

Electrospray ionization of alkali and alkaline earth metal species. Electrochemical oxidation and pH effects  

PubMed

The utility of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for characterizing dissolved metal species has generated considerable interest in the use of this technique for metal speciation. However, the development of accurate speciation methods based on ESI-MS requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which dissolved metal species are ionized during electrospray. We report how the analysis of alkali and alkaline earth metal species provides new information about some of the processes that affect electrospray ion yield. Selected metal ions and organic ligands were combined in 50 : 50 water-acetonitrile buffered with acetic acid or ammonium acetate and analyzed by flow injection ESI-MS using mild electrospray conditions. Species formed by alkali metal ions with thiol and oxygen-donating ligands were detected in acidic and neutral pH solutions. Electrochemical oxidation of N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate and glutathione during electrospray was indicated by detection of the corresponding disulfides as protonated or alkali metal species. The extent of ligand oxidation depended on solution pH and the dissociation constant of the thiol group. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments suggested that radical cations such as [NaL](+.) (where L=N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) can be generated by in-source fragmentation of disulfide species. Greater complexation of alkali metals at neutral pH was indicated by a corresponding decrease in the relative abundance of the free metal ion. The number of alkali metal ions bound by glutathione and phthalic acid also increased with increasing pH, in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium theory. Alkaline earth metal species were detected only in acidic solutions, the absence of 8-hydroxyquinoline complexes being attributed to their relative instability and subsequent dissociation during electrospray. Hence, accurate speciation by ESI-MS depends on experimental conditions and the intrinsic properties of each analyte. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10972998

Ross; Ikonomou; Orians

2000-08-01

281

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Chiba, Zoher (Moraga, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Norvell (Palo Alto, CA); Steward, G. Anthony (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1999-01-01

282

Iron Oxide Hyperthermia And Radiation Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

It is established that heat can enhance the effect of radiation cancer treatment. Due to the ability to localize thermal energy using nanoparticle hyperthermia, as opposed to other, less targeted, hyperthermia modalities, it appears such enhancement could be accomplished without complications normally associated with systemic or regional hyperthermia. This study employs non-curative (suboptimal), doses of heat and radiation, in an effort to determine the therapeutic enhancement potential for IONP hyperthermia and radiation. Methods MTG-B murine breast adenocarcinoma cell are inoculated into the right flanks of female CH3/HEJ mice and grown to volumes of 150mm3 +/? 40 mm3. A single dose of 15 Gy (6 MeV) radiation was uniformly delivered to the tumor. A pre-defined thermal dose is delivered by direct injection of iron oxide nanoparticles into the tumor. By adjusting the field strength of the 160 KHz alternating magnetic field (AMF) an intra-tumoral temperature between 41.5 and 43 degrees Celsius was maintained for 10min. The alternating magnetic field was delivered by a water-cooled 36mm diameter square copper tube induction coil operating at 160 kHz with variable magnet field strengths up to 450 Oe. The primary endpoint of the study is the number of days required for the tumor to achieve a volume 3 fold greater than the volume at the time of treatment (tumor regrowth delay). Results Preliminary results suggest the addition of a modest IONP hyperthermia to 15 Gy radiation achieved an approximate 50% increase in tumor regrowth delay as compared to a 15 Gy radiation treatment alone. The therapeutic effects of IONP heat and radiation combined were considered additive, however in mice that demonstrated complete response (no tumor present after 30 days), the effect was considered superadditive or synergistic. Although this data is very encouraging from a multimodality cancer therapy standpoint, additional temporal and dose related information is clearly necessary to optimize the therapy.

Cassim, SM; Giustini, AJ; Petryk, AA; Strawbridge, RA; Hoopes, PJ

2014-01-01

283

Nanometer-scale electrochemical lithography on the spinel oxide LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect

A scheme for nanometer-scale patterning of the surface of a conducting lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by scanning probe microscopy is described. A significant feature of this work is the demonstration that a localized surface chemical change can be confined to a depth which depends on the oxide-tip voltage bias and ambient humidity. Processing strategies exploiting this localized pattern generation vary from shallow surface property modification to localized etching of the oxide and the formation of nanometer-size pits, wells, or trenches. Unlike the scanning probe based surface oxidation of metals and semiconductors, the electroactive material is altered via electrochemically generated species. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Kostecki, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); McLarnon, Frank [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2000-05-01

284

High-sensitivity paracetamol sensor based on Pd/graphene oxide nanocomposite as an enhanced electrochemical sensing platform.  

PubMed

Well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles were facilely anchored on graphene oxide (Pd/GO) via a one-pot chemical reduction of the Pd(2+) precursor without any surfactants and templates. The morphology and composition of the Pd/GO nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). The stepwise fabrication process of the Pd/GO modified electrode and its electrochemical sensing performance towards paracetamol was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The experimental results indicate that the as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles are relatively uniform in size (5-10 nm) without large aggregation and uniformly distributed in the carbon matrix with the overall Pd content of 28.77 wt% in Pd/GO. Compared with the GO modified electrode, the Pd/GO modified electrode shows a better electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of paracetamol with lower oxidation potential and larger peak current, so the Pd/GO nanocomposite can be used as an enhanced sensing platform for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol. The kinetic parameters of the paracetamol electro-oxidation at Pd/GO electrode were studied in detail, and the determination conditions were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current is linear to the paracetamol concentration in the ranges of 0.005-0.5 ?M and 0.5-80.0 ?M with a detection limit of 2.2 nM. Based on the high sensitivity and good selectivity of the Pd/GO modified electrode, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamol in commercial tablets and human urines, and the satisfactory results confirm the applicability of this sensor in practical analysis. PMID:24315879

Li, Junhua; Liu, Jinlong; Tan, Gongrong; Jiang, Jianbo; Peng, Sanjun; Deng, Miao; Qian, Dong; Feng, Yonglan; Liu, Youcai

2014-04-15

285

Graphene oxide/poly-L-lysine assembled layer for adhesion and electrochemical impedance detection of leukemia K562 cancer cells.  

PubMed

A novel biocompatible film assembled by combining of graphene oxide (GO) and poly-L-lysine (PLL) for adhesion and electrochemical impedance detection of leukemia K562 cells was proposed. The biocompatible film showed an improved immobilization capacity for living cells and a good biocompatibility for preserving the activity of the immobilized living cells. The immobilized K562 cells on the biocompatible film-modified electrode can be directly monitored with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)?]³?/?? as redox probes. A highly sensitive electrochemical impedance method for the detection of leukemia K562 cancer cells was developed. Under the optimized conditions, the increased electron-transfer resistance with a good correlation to the logarithmic value of concentration of K562 cells ranging from 10² to 10? cells mL?¹, and with the detection limit of 30 cells mL?¹ (S/N=3). Additionally, the proposed method was used to describe the viability of cells and to evaluate the effectiveness of antitumor drug Nilotinib on K562 cells. The obtained results of Nilotinib cytotoxicity are well agreed with those from WST-1 assays. Furthermore, the work demonstrates that a highly biocompatible film of PLL/GO assembled is also expected to be an appropriate matrix for the electrochemical investigation of adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis of other relevant mammalian cells which is not limited to adherent cells, and the study of cell-based biosensors. PMID:23202339

Zhang, Dongdong; Zhang, Yanmin; Zheng, Lei; Zhan, Yingzhuan; He, Langchong

2013-04-15

286

Effects of direct current on dog liver: Possible mechanisms for tumor electrochemical treatment  

SciTech Connect

Mechanisms of tumor electrochemical treatment (ECT) were studied using normal dog liver. Five physical and chemical methods were used. Two platinum electrodes were inserted into an anesthetized dog`s liver at 3 cm separation. A voltage of 8.5 V direct current (DC) at an average current of 30 mA was applied for 69 min; total charge was 124 coulombs. Concentrations of selected ions near the anode and cathode were measured. The concentrations of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions were higher around the cathode, whereas the concentration of Cl{sup {minus}} ions was higher around the anode. Water contents and pH were determined near the anode and the cathode at the midpoint between the two electrodes and in an untreated area away from the electrodes. Hydration occurred around the cathode, and dehydration occurred around the anode. The pH values were 2.1 near the anode and 12.9 near the cathode. Spectrophotometric scans of the liver sample extract were obtained, and the released gases were identified by gas chromatography as chlorine at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. These results indicate that a series of electrochemical reactions take place during ECT. The cell metabolism and its environment are severely disturbed. Both normal and tumor cells are rapidly and completely destroyed in this altered environment. The authors believe that the above reactions are the ECT mechanisms for treating tumors.

Li, K.H.; Gu, Y.N.; Xu, B.I.; Fan, D.J.; Ni, B.F. [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Dept. of Electrochemistry] [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Dept. of Electrochemistry; Xin, Y.L. [China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery] [China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery

1997-03-01

287

Electrochemical detection of Cu2+ through Ag nanoparticle assembly regulated by copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of Cu(2+) by the assembly of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] encapsulated Au nanoparticles (DSP-AuNPs), which was regulated by copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine (Cys). The electrochemical sensor was constructed by layer-by-layer modification of glassy carbon electrode with carbon nanotubes, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and DSP-AuNPs. In the absence of Cu(2+), Cys could bind to the surface of citrate-stabilized AgNPs via Ag-S bond, thus AgNPs could be assembled on the sensor surface through the reaction between DSP and Cys. In contrast, the copper-catalyzed oxidation of Cys by dissolved oxygen in the presence of Cu(2+) inhibited the Cys-induced aggregation of AgNPs, leading to the decrease of the electrochemical stripping signal of AgNPs. Under the optimized conditions, this method could detect Cu(2+) in the range of 1.0-1000 nM with a detection limit of 0.48 nM. The proposed Cu(2+) sensor showed good reproducibility, stability and selectivity. It has been satisfactorily applied to determine Cu(2+) in water samples. PMID:24389390

Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Li, Jie; Ge, Yanqiu; Ju, Huangxian

2014-05-15

288

Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

E-print Network

Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-­Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2SStructural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

289

Vanadium oxide fluoride-graphite intercalation compounds: Structural characteristics and electrochemical insertion of lithium cations  

SciTech Connect

Graphite intercalation compounds of vanadium oxide fluoride, C{sub x}(VOF{sub 3})F, were synthesized in a fluorine atmosphere. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements were used for their structural characterization. These experiments have suggested that cointercalation of fluorine and VOF{sub 3} in the carbon occurs involving local structural modifications and that excess oxygen was present in the graphite layers. The study of electrochemical insertion of lithium was carried out at 25 C in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte by chronopotentiometry and ac impedance measurements. The interfacial charge-transfer process, associated to the half-reaction occurring during the intercalation, was found to be independent of the intercalation ratio of lithium cations, y. The chemical diffusion coefficient, {tilde D}{sub Li}, and the conductivity, {sigma}{sub Li}, obtained were deduced from impedance data by considering the geometric surface area. Both are roughly constant for all the y-range: {tilde D}{sub Li} = 3.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/s and {sigma}{sub Li} = 9.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} for C{sub 17.7}(VOF{sub 3})F; {tilde D}{sub Li} = 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/s and {sigma}{sub Li} = 2.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} for C{sub 20.4}(VOF{sub 3})F.

Groult, H.; Devilliers, D. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. d`Electrochimie; Kumagai, N. [Iwate Univ., Ueda, Morioka (Japan); Nakajima, T.; Matsuo, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-07-01

290

Zero Liquid Discharge approach in plating industry: treatment of degreasing effluents by electrocoagulation and anodic oxidation.  

PubMed

Degreasing waste effluents issued from a surface treatment plant were treated by electrochemical techniques in an attempt to reduce COD so that clean water can be returned to the rinse bath. Electrocoagulation, both with iron and aluminium anodes, and anodic oxidation with boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes were tested. In the electrocoagulation tests, the nature of the anodes did not impact significantly the reduction of COD. Electrocoagulation showed good COD removal rates, superior to 80%, but it was not able to reduce COD down to low levels. Anodic oxidation was able to reduce COD down to discharge limits; the oxidation efficiency was superior to 50%. Economical calculations show that anodic oxidation is best used as a polishing step after electrocoagulation. The bulk of the COD would be reduced by electrocoagulation and, then, anodic oxidation would reduce COD below discharge limits. The maximum treatable flow is somewhat hindered by the small sizes of current BDD installation but it would reach 600 m(3)/year if anodic oxidation is coupled with electrocoagulation, the operational cost being 2.90 Euros /m(3). PMID:18725717

Hermon, S; Grange, D; Pellet, Y; Lloret, G; Oyonarte, S; Bosch, F; Coste, M

2008-01-01

291

Degradation of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene from aqueous solutions by electrochemical oxidation: role of anodic material.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation (ECOx) of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene (or 2,4-dinitrophenol: 2,4-DNP) in aqueous solutions by electrolysis under galvanostatic control was studied at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2, Ti/IrxRuySnO2 and Si/BDD anodes as a function of current density applied. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-DNP has clearly shown that electrode material and the current density applied were important parameters to optimize the oxidation process. It was observed that 2,4-DNP was oxidized at few substrates to CO2 with different results, obtaining good removal efficiencies at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2 and Si/BDD anodes. Trends in degradation way depend on the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) on these anodic materials, as confirmed in this study. Furthermore, HPLC results suggested that two kinds of intermediates were generated, polyhydroxylated intermediates and carboxylic acids. The formation of these polyhydroxylated intermediates seems to be associated with the denitration step and substitution by OH radicals on aromatic rings, this being the first proposed step in the reaction mechanism. These compounds were successively oxidized, followed by the opening of aromatic rings and the formation of a series of carboxylic acids which were at the end oxidized into CO2 and H2O. On the basis of these information, a reaction scheme was proposed for each type of anode used for 2,4-D oxidation. PMID:24462986

Quiroz, Marco A; Sánchez-Salas, José L; Reyna, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-03-15

292

Dip-coated Ru-V oxide electrodes for electrochemical capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

RuOâ-VOâ electrodes prepared by a dip-coating method provide a large electrochemically active surface area. A RuOâ(33%)-VOâ(67%)\\/Ti electrode calcined at 450 C gave the highest value of voltammetric charge, about 50 times larger as that of a RuOâ\\/Ti electrode. The large electrochemically active surface areas of the RuOâ-VOâ\\/Ti electrodes were characterized by a dispersion of fine VâOâ particles as well as

Yoshio Takasu; Takashi Nakamura; Hiroyuki Ohkawauchi; Yasushi Murakami

1997-01-01

293

Occurrence and behaviour of dissolved, nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron in waste waters and treatment systems: new insights from electrochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Cyclic-, Differential Pulse- and Steady-state Microdisc Voltammetry (CV, DPV, SMV) techniques have been used to quantify the occurrence and fate of dissolved Fe(ii)/Fe(iii), nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron over a 12 month period in a series of net-acidic and net-alkaline coal mine drainages and passive treatment systems. Total iron in the mine waters is typically 10-100 mg L(-1), with values up to 2100 mg L(-1). Between 30 and 80% of the total iron occurs as solid phase, of which 20 to 80% is nano-particulate. Nano-particulate iron comprises 20 to 70% of the nominally "dissolved" (i.e. <0.45 ?m) iron. Since coagulation and sedimentation are the only processes required to remove solid phase iron, these data have important implications for the generation or consumption of acidity during water treatment. In most waters, the majority of truly dissolved iron occurs as Fe(ii) (average 64 ± 22%). Activities of Fe(ii) do not correlate with pH and geochemical modelling shows that no Fe(ii) mineral is supersaturated. Removal of Fe(ii) must proceed via oxidation and hydrolysis. Except in waters with pH < 4.4, activities of Fe(iii) are strongly and negatively correlated with pH. Geochemical modelling suggests that the activity of Fe(iii) is controlled by the solubility of hydrous ferric oxides and oxyhydroxysulfates, supported by scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of solids. Nevertheless, the waters are generally supersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite and schwertmannite, and are not at redox equilibrium, indicating the key role of oxidation and hydrolysis kinetics on water treatment. Typically 70-100% of iron is retained in the treatment systems. Oxidation, hydrolysis, precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation occur in all treatment systems and - independent of water chemistry and the type of treatment system - hydroxides and oxyhydroxysulfates are the main iron sinks. The electrochemical data thus reveal the rationale for incomplete iron retention in individual systems and can thus inform future design criteria. The successful application of this low cost and rapid electrochemical method demonstrates its significant potential for real-time, on-site monitoring of iron-enriched waters and may in future substitute traditional analytical methods. PMID:22370608

Matthies, R; Aplin, A C; Horrocks, B R; Mudashiru, L K

2012-04-01

294

Zeolite A functionalized with copper nanoparticles and graphene oxide for simultaneous electrochemical determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

A novel Cu-zeolite A/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) has been described. The Cu-zeolite A/graphene composites were prepared using Cu(2+) functionalized zeolite A and graphene oxide as the precursor, and subsequently reduced by chemical agents. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the Cu-zeolite A/graphene-modified electrode, the potential difference between the oxidation peaks of DA and AA was over 200mV, which was adequate for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of DA and AA. Also the proposed Cu-zeolite/graphene-modified electrode showed higher electrocatalytic performance than zeolite/graphene electrode or graphene-modified electrode. The electrocatalytic oxidation currents of DA and AA were linearly related to the corresponding concentration in the range of 1.0×10(-7)-1.9×10(-5)M for DA and 2.0×10(-5)-2.0×10(-4)M for AA. Detection limits (S/N=3) were estimated to be 4.1×10(-8)M for DA and 1.1×10(-5)M for AA, respectively. PMID:22819046

He, Ping; Wang, Wei; Du, Licheng; Dong, Faqin; Deng, Yuequan; Zhang, Tinghong

2012-08-20

295

Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate  

SciTech Connect

Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

Cooper, J.F.

1998-01-01

296

Fabrication and electrochemical performance of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells with large area nanostructured membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with large (5-mm square) membranes and ultra-thin La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3?? (LSCF) cathodes have been fabricated and their electrochemical performance was measured up to 500°C. A grid of plated nickel on the cathode with 5–10?m linewidth and 25–50?m pitch successfully supported a roughly 200-nm-thick LSCF\\/yttria-stabilized zirconia\\/platinum membrane while covering less than 20% of the membrane area. This

Alex C. Johnson; Antonio Baclig; Daniel V. Harburg; Bo-Kuai Lai; Shriram Ramanathan

2010-01-01

297

Electrochemical sensor based on magnetic graphene oxide@gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers for determination of dibutyl phthalate.  

PubMed

A novel composite of magnetic graphene oxide @ gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers (MGO@AuNPs-MIPs) was synthesized and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dibutyl phthalate (DBP) electrochemical sensor. The composite of MGO@AuNPs was first synthesized using coprecipitation and self-assembly technique. Then the template molecules (DBP) were absorbed at the MGO@AuNPs surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was further achieved at the MGO@AuNPs surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DBP molecules from the imprinted polymers film rapidly and completely. As a consequence, an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DBP was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized MGO@AuNPs-MIPs composite. Under optimal experimental conditions, selective detection of DBP in a linear concentration range of 2.5 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-6)mol/L was obtained. The new DBP electrochemical sensor also exhibited excellent repeatability, which expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was about 2.50% for 30 repeated analyses of 2.0 × 10(-6)mol/L DBP. PMID:25281114

Li, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiaojiao; Li, Leilei; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

2015-01-01

298

Electrochemical properties of spinel-type manganese oxide/porous carbon nanocomposite powders in 1 M KOH aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinel-type manganese oxide/porous carbon (Mn3O4/C) nanocomposite powders have been simply prepared by a thermal decomposition of manganese gluconate dihydrate under an Ar gas flow at above 600 °C. The structure and texture of the Mn3O4/C nanocomposite powders are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) equipped scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area-electron diffraction (SA-ED), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and adsorption/desorption of N2 gas at -196 °C. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposite powders in 1 M KOH aqueous solution are studied, focusing on the relationship between their structures and electrochemical capacitance.In the nanocomposite powders, Mn3O4 nano particles approximately 5 nm in size are dispersed in a porous carbon matrix. The nanocomposite powders prepared at 800 °C exhibit a high specific capacitance calculated from cyclic voltammogram of 350 and 600 F g-1 at a sweep rate of 1 and 0.1 mV s-1, respectively. The influence of the heating temperature on the structure and the electrochemical properties of nanocomposite powders is also discussed.

Tsumura, Tomoki; Tsumori, Koichiro; Shimizu, Goichi; Toyoda, Masahiro

2012-02-01

299

Nitrogen doped holey graphene as an efficient metal-free multifunctional electrochemical catalyst for hydrazine oxidation and oxygen reduction.  

PubMed

Electrocatalysts for anode or cathode reactions are at the heart of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. Molecular design of carbon based nanomaterials may create the next generation electrochemical catalysts for broad applications. Herein, we present the synthesis of a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure with a large surface area (784 m(2) g(-1)) composed of nitrogen doped (up to 8.6 at.%) holey graphene. The holey structure of graphene sheets (~25% of surface area is attributed to pores) engenders more exposed catalytic active edge sites. Nitrogen doping further improves catalytic activity, while the formation of the 3D porous nanostructure significantly reduces graphene nanosheet stacking and facilitates the diffusion of reactants/electrolytes. The three factors work together, leading to superb electrochemical catalytic activities for both hydrazine oxidation (its current generation ability is comparable to that of 10 wt% Pt-C catalyst) and oxygen reduction (its limiting current is comparable to that of 20 wt% Pt-C catalyst) with four-electron transfer processes and excellent durability. PMID:23474688

Yu, Dingshan; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Wang, Hong; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Goh, Kunli; Si, Rongmei; Chen, Yuan

2013-04-21

300

Surface Stress during Electro-Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Bulk Stress Evolution during Electrochemical Intercalation of Lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates in-situ stress evolution of interfacial and bulk processes in electrochemical systems, and is divided into two projects. The first project examines the electrocapillarity of clean and CO-covered electrodes. It also investigates surface stress evolution during electro-oxidation of CO at Pt{111}, Ru/Pt{111} and Ru{0001} electrodes. The second project explores the evolution of bulk stress that occurs during intercalation (extraction) of lithium (Li) and formation of a solid electrolyte interphase during electrochemical reduction (oxidation) of Li at graphitic electrodes. Electrocapillarity measurements have shown that hydrogen and hydroxide adsorption are compressive on Pt{111}, Ru/Pt{111}, and Ru{0001}. The adsorption-induced surface stresses correlate strongly with adsorption charge. Electrocatalytic oxidation of CO on Pt{111} and Ru/Pt{111} gives a tensile surface stress. A numerical method was developed to separate both current and stress into background and active components. Applying this model to the CO oxidation signal on Ru{0001} gives a tensile surface stress and elucidates the rate limiting steps on all three electrodes. The enhanced catalysis of Ru/Pt{111} is confirmed to be bi-functional in nature: Ru provides adsorbed hydroxide to Pt allowing for rapid CO oxidation. The majority of Li-ion batteries have anodes consisting of graphite particles with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as binder. Intercalation of Li into graphite occurs in stages and produces anisotropic strains. As batteries have a fixed size and shape these strains are converted into mechanical stresses. Conventionally staging phenomena has been observed with X-ray diffraction and collaborated electrochemically with the potential. Work herein shows that staging is also clearly observed in stress. The Li staging potentials as measured by differential chronopotentiometry and stress are nearly identical. Relative peak heights of Li staging, as measured by these two techniques, are similar during reduction, but differ during oxidation due to non-linear stress relaxation phenomena. This stress relaxation appears to be due to homogenization of Li within graphite particles rather than viscous flow of the binder. The first Li reduction wave occurs simultaneously with formation of a passivating layer known as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Preliminary experiments have shown the stress of SEI formation to be tensile (˜+1.5 MPa).

Mickelson, Lawrence

301

Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers  

SciTech Connect

Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R. S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

2013-02-05

302

Continuous electrochemical treatment of simulated industrial textile wastewater from industrial components in a tubular reactor.  

PubMed

The continuous electrochemical treatment of industrial textile wastewater in a tubular reactor was investigated. The synthetic wastewater was based on the real process information of pretreatment and dyeing stages of the industrial mercerized and non-mercerized cotton and viscon production. The effects of residence time on chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity removals and pH change were studied under response surface optimized conditions of 30 degrees C, 25 g/L electrolyte concentration and 3505 mg/L COD feed concentration with 123.97 mA/cm(2) current density. Increasing residence time resulted in steady profiles of COD and color removals with higher treatment performances. The best column performance was realized at 3h of residence time as 53.5% and 99.3% for COD and color removals, respectively, at the expense of 193.1 kWh/kg COD with a mass transfer coefficient of 9.47 x 10(-6) m/s. PMID:19524357

Körbahti, Bahadir K; Tanyolaç, Abdurrahman

2009-10-30

303

Effect of Li ion in transition metal sites on electrochemical behavior of layered lithium manganese oxides solid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two solid solutions of Li[Li1\\/5Ni1\\/10Co1\\/5Mn1\\/2]O2 and Li[Ni1\\/4Co1\\/2Mn1\\/4]O2 compositions were synthesized using a sol–gel method. The solid solutions with layered manganese oxides were both formed with typical hexagonal structure with maintaining the manganese oxidation state of 4+. The electrochemical characterization of the synthesized materials showed a monotonous discharge curve shape without structural transformation to spinel during charge–discharge processes. The Li[Li1\\/5Ni1\\/10Co1\\/5Mn1\\/2]O2 and

K. S Park; M. H Cho; S. J Jin; K. S Nahm; Y. S Hong

2004-01-01

304

Solid polymer electrolytes based on cross-linked polysiloxane- g-oligo(ethylene oxide): ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(siloxanes- g-oligo(ethylene oxide)) with acrylate groups at the terminal position were prepared and examined for the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) by curing them. Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) was added as a plasticizer. Conductivity of the resulting polymer electrolytes was greatly enhanced with increasing amounts of low molecular weight PEGDME. Maximum conductivity was found to be 8×10 -4 S/cm at 30 °C with an [EO]/[Li] ratio of about 8. These electrolytes showed oxidation stability up to 4.95 V against the lithium reference electrode. Reversible electrochemical plating/stripping of lithium was observed on the nickel electrode. The plating/stripping efficiency of lithium on nickel was measured to be about 53%.

Kang, Yongku; Lee, Wonsil; Hack Suh, Dong; Lee, Changjin

305

Preparation and electrochemical performance of composite oxide of alpha manganese dioxide and Li–Mn–O spinel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-sized composite powder which consisted of two manganese-based oxides, alpha manganese dioxide (?-MnO2) and spinel Li–Mn–O, was successfully formed by intergrowth of the spinel phase inside ?-MnO2. This composite oxide was synthesized by precipitation and heat treatment in air; ?-manganese dioxide powder was firstly prepared by oxidative precipitation of Mn(II) with K2S2O8 in an aqueous solution, and then a mixture

Shinichi Komaba; Tomoya Sasaki; Naoaki Kumagai

2005-01-01

306

Electrochemical characteristics of the reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composites for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypyrrole (PPy) has been polymerized onto reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (rGO/CNT) to form an rGO/CNT/PPy composite using the chemical oxidation method. The electrochemical characteristics of the above composite in various aqueous electrolytes are systematically compared for the asymmetric supercapacitor application. The electrochemical characteristics of rGO/CNT/PPy in the electrolytes containing K+ show improved reversibility and higher stability. Introducing XC-72 in preparing the electrode has been found to enhance the specific capacitance and the cycle stability of rGO/CNT/PPy. The charge storage stability of rGO/CNT/PPy + XC-72 in various potential windows has been evaluated through the potential bias stress test. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) with a positive electrode of Mn3O4 and a negative electrode of rGO/CNT/PPy + XC-72 is successfully demonstrated, which shows specific energy and power of 14. Wh kg-1 and 6.62 kW kg-1 with a cell voltage of 1.6 V. This ASC with a cell voltage of 1.6 V shows excellent charge-discharge cycle stability and ideal capacitive behavior in NaNO3 even after the application of 3250 charge-discharge cycles.

Peng, Yu-Jung; Wu, Tzu-Ho; Hsu, Chun-Tsung; Li, Shin-Ming; Chen, Ming-Guan; Hu, Chi-Chang

2014-12-01

307

Selective activation of glycosyl donors utilising electrochemical techniques: a study of the thermodynamic oxidation potentials of a range of chalcoglycosides.  

PubMed

A series of six chalcoglycosides (phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-1-seleno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-seleno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-tolyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzoyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-tolyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and phenyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) are voltammetrically interrogated in dimethyl sulfoxide, so as to determine their formal (i.e. thermodynamic) redox potentials. The electrochemical oxidation of the chalcoglycoside is shown to follow an overall EC-type mechanism, in which the electro-generated cation radical undergoes an irreversible carbon-chalcogen bond rupture to produce the corresponding glycosyl cation, which may react further. The kinetics of the initial heterogeneous electron transfer process and subsequent irreversible homogeneous chemical degradation of the radical cation are reported, with values for the standard electrochemical rate constant k(0) in the order of 10(-2) cm s(-1) and the first order homogeneous rate constant, k(1), of the order of 10(3) s(-1). The formal oxidation potentials were found to vary according to the identity of the chalcogenide, such that OPh > SPh similar to STol > SePh. PMID:15280954

France, Robert R; Rees, Neil V; Wadhawan, Jay D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Compton, Richard G

2004-08-01

308

The effect of As, Co, and Ni impurities on pyrite oxidation kinetics: An electrochemical study of synthetic pyrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic pyrite crystals doped with As, Co, or Ni, undoped pyrite, and natural arsenian pyrite from Leadville, Colorado were investigated with electrochemical techniques and solid-state measurements of semiconducting properties to determine the effect of impurity content on pyrite's oxidation behavior. Potential step experiments, cyclic voltammetry, and AC voltammetry were performed in a standard three-electrode electrochemical cell setup. A pH 1.78 sulfuric acid solution containing 1 mM ferric iron, open to atmospheric oxygen, was chosen to approximate water affected by acid drainage. Van der Pauw/Hall effect measurements determined resistivity, carrier concentration and carrier mobility. The anodic dissolution of pyrite and the reduction of ferric iron half-reactions are taken as proxies for natural pyrite oxidation. Pyrite containing no impurities is least reactive. Pyrite with As is more reactive than pyrite with either Ni or Co despite lower dopant concentration. As, Co, and Ni impurities introduce bulk defect states at different energy levels within the band gap. Higher reactivity of impure pyrite suggests that introduced defect levels lead to higher density of occupied surface states at the solid-solution interface and increased metallic behavior. The current density generated from potential step experiments increased with increasing As concentration. The higher reactivity of As-doped pyrite may be related to p-type conductivity and corrosion by holes. The results of this study suggest that considering the impurity content of pyrite in mining waste may lead to more accurate risk assessment of acid producing potential.

Lehner, Stephen; Savage, Kaye; Ciobanu, Madalina; Cliffel, David E.

2007-05-01

309

Leakage Current Reduction Mechanism of Oxide-Nitride-Oxide Inter-Poly Dielectrics through the Post Plasma Oxidation Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) inter-poly dielectrics were successfully fabricated by the optimized plasma oxidation without H2. The bottom low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) oxides treated by the conventional N2O annealing step were subjected to the post deposition process using a plasma treatment. This process reduces both the leakage current and the stress-induced leakage current (SILC), while no thickness increase of the bottom LPCVD oxides was observed due to the plasma treatment. Based on the photo electron injection technique, it is found that the O2 plasma oxidation method significantly reduces the defect centers located at 1.67 nm away from the bottom oxide/floating gate interface.

Lee, Woong; Jee, Jeonggeun; Yoo, Dae-Han; Lee, Eun-Young; Bok, Jinkwon; Hyung, Younwoo; Kim, Seoksik; Kang, Chang-Jin; Moon, Joo-Tae; Roh, Yonghan

2011-04-01

310

Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets film: layer-by-layer electrochemical preparation, characterization and rifampicin sensory application.  

PubMed

Electrochemical deposition, as a well-controlled synthesis procedure, has been used for subsequently layer-by-layer preparation of nickel hydroxide nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Ni(OH)2-RGO) on a graphene oxide (GO) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The surface morphology and nature of the nano-hybrid film (Ni(OH)2-RGO) was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The modified electrode appeared as an effective electro-catalytic model for analysis of rifampicin (RIF) by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The prepared modified electrode exhibited a distinctly higher activity for electro-oxidation of RIF than either GO, RGO nanosheets or Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles. Enhancement of peak currents is ascribed to the fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics that arise from the synergistic coupling between the excellent properties of RGO nanosheets (such as high density of edge plane sites, subtle electronic characteristics and attractive ?-? interaction) and unique properties of metal nanoparticles. Under the optimized analysis conditions, the modified electrode showed two oxidation processes for rifampicin at potentials about 0.08 V (peak I) and 0.69 V (peak II) in buffer solution of pH 7.0 with a wide linear dynamic range of 0.006-10.0 µmol L(-1) and 0.04-10 µmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 4.16 nmol L(-1) and 2.34 nmol L(-1) considering peaks I and II as an analytical signal, respectively. The results proved the efficacy of the fabricated modified electrode for simple, low cost and highly sensitive medicine sensor well suited for the accurate determinations of trace amounts of rifampicin in the pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. PMID:24401398

Rastgar, Shokoufeh; Shahrokhian, Saeed

2014-02-01

311

Electrochemical methane sensor  

DOEpatents

A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

1984-08-27

312

Simultaneous reduction and surface functionalization of graphene oxide via an ionic liquid for electrochemical sensors.  

PubMed

A facile approach was developed to prepare well-dispersed ionic liquid functionalized graphene composites using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid salt ionic liquid as a reducing reagent and functionalization reagent. The resulting material showed excellent electrochemical activity to catechol and hydroquinone. PMID:23505634

Wang, Chunfeng; Chen, Yujuan; Zhuo, Kelei; Wang, Jianji

2013-04-25

313

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-print Network

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01

314

OXIDATION DITCH TREATMENT OF MEATPACKING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The analysis of 18 months of early operation for a channel aeration activated sludge wastewater treatment plant is presented. The treatment plant receives an average flow of 2.8 million gallons per day from the John Morrell and Company, Ottumwa, Iowa hog and beef meatpacking plan...

315

Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes  

SciTech Connect

This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

Ge, Jisheng

1996-01-08

316

An electrochemical treatment to improve corrosion and contact resistance of stainless steel bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrochemical surface treatment is presented that improves the properties of stainless steel (316SS) used as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The process is an anodic treatment, whereby the material is polarised beyond the transpassive region. Potentiodynamic corrosion testing, chemical and morphological surface characterisation and interfacial contact resistance measurements indicate that the improved properties of 316SS are primarily a consequence of an enrichment of Cr at the near-surface of the material. The surface treatment increases the corrosion resistance and significantly reduces interfacial contact resistance.

Gabreab, Ebrahim M.; Hinds, Gareth; Fearn, Sarah; Hodgson, David; Millichamp, Jason; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

2014-01-01

317

Electrochemical treatment of rice grain-based distillery effluent: chemical oxygen demand and colour removal.  

PubMed

The electrochemical (EC) treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 1.5 dm3 electrolytic batch reactor using aluminium plate electrodes. With the four-plate configurations, a current density (j) of 89.3 A/m2 and pH 8 was found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 93% and 87%, respectively. The chemical dissolution of aluminium was strongly influenced by initial pH (pHi). At higher pHi (pH 9.5) anode consumption decreased while energy consumption increased. At the optimal current density 89.3 A/m2, the aluminium electrode consumption was 16.855 g/dm3 wastewater and energy consumption was 31.4 Wh/dm3 achieving a maximum COD removal of 87%. The settling and filterability characteristics ofelectrochemically treated sludge were also analysed at different pH. It was noted that treated slurry at pHi 9.5 gave best settling characteristic, which decreased with increase in pH. EC-treated effluent at pHi 8 had provided best filterability. Characteristics of scum and residues are also analysed at different pH. PMID:24600862

Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar

2014-01-01

318

Influence of electrochemical properties in determining the sensitivity of [4Fe-4S] clusters in proteins to oxidative damage.  

PubMed Central

Interconversion between [4Fe-4S] cubane and [3Fe-4S] cuboidal states represents one of the simplest structural changes an iron-sulphur cluster can undertake. This reaction is implicated in oxidative damage and in modulation of the activity and regulation of certain enzymes, and it is therefore important to understand the factors governing cluster stability and the processes that activate cluster conversion. In the present study, protein film voltammetry has been used to induce and monitor the oxidative conversion of [4Fe-4S] into [3Fe-4S] clusters in different variants of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I (AvFdI; the 8Fe form of the native protein), and DeltaThr(14)/DeltaAsp(15), Thr(14)-->Cys (T14C) and C42D mutants. The electrochemical results have been correlated with the differing oxygen sensitivities of [4Fe-4S] clusters, and comparisons have been drawn with other ferredoxins (Desulfovibrio africanus FdIII, Clostridium pasteurianum Fd, Thauera aromatica Fd and Pyrococcus furiosus Fd). In contrast with high-potential iron-sulphur proteins (HiPIPs) for which the oxidized species [4Fe-4S](3+) is inert to degradation and can be isolated, the hypervalent state in these ferredoxins (most obviously the 3+ level) is very labile, and the reduction potential at which this is formed is a key factor in determining the cluster's resistance to oxidative damage. PMID:11736664

Tilley, G J; Camba, R; Burgess, B K; Armstrong, F A

2001-01-01

319

Influence of magnetic water treatment on the calcium carbonate phase formation and the electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the influence of magnetic water treatment on the calcium carbonate phase formation and the electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel was carried out. The water was exposed to a magnetic field of 1T with a speed of flow through the magnet of 0.77m\\/s (1.56ml\\/s). The observations demonstrated that the calcite is the main form of calcium carbonate,

M. E Botello-Zubiate; A Alvarez; A Mart??nez-Villafañe; F Almeraya-Calderon; J. A Matutes-Aquino

2004-01-01

320

Study of the toxicity of diuron and its metabolites formed in aqueous medium during application of the electrochemical advanced oxidation process "electro-Fenton".  

PubMed

Diuron (N'-[3,4-dichlorophenyl]-N,N-dimethylurea) is a herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family, widely used to destroy weeds on uncultivated surfaces. Because of its toxicity for aquatic organisms and suspicion of being carcinogenic for humans, diuron is the object of growing environmental concern. Therefore, we have developed the electro-Fenton method, an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP), to degrade diuron in aqueous medium, and we have studied the evolution of the toxicity of treated solution during the process. Indeed, the EAOPs catalytically generate hydroxyl radicals that oxidize the persistent organic pollutants, and can ultimately destroy and mineralize them. But, sometimes, relatively toxic organic metabolites are formed during the oxidation reaction. In this work, the evolution of toxicity of diuron aqueous solutions was studied at different initial concentrations, during treatment by the electro-Fenton method. Samples were collected at various electrolysis times and mineralization degrees during the treatment. The toxicity of the samples was measured using the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) and the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Our results demonstrated that the toxicity of diuron aqueous solutions (concentrations=3.0-27.6 mg L(-1)) varied considerably with time. The formation and disappearance of several metabolites, having toxicity often stronger than that of the initial herbicide, were observed. To improve the efficiency of water decontamination, the electro-Fenton method should be applied during a time long enough (several hours) and at relatively high electrolysis current (I=250 mA) to reach a nearly complete mineralization of the herbicide in the aqueous medium. PMID:18812249

Oturan, Nihal; Trajkovska, Snezana; Oturan, Mehmet A; Couderchet, Michel; Aaron, Jean-Jacques

2008-11-01

321

Effect of heat treatment temperature on the electrochemical properties of SnSb-based Cu electrodes for lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SnSb alloys have been directly electro-co-deposited on Cu substrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat treatment temperature on morphology, composition, phase structure, chemical states and electrochemical performance of the SnSb deposits on Cu electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The results showed that the pristine SnSb deposits was composed of SnSb intermetallic and a small amount of Sn. The results also showed that heat treatment strongly influenced the morphology, composition, structure, chemical states and these differences in electrode characteristics are expected to reflect in differences in the electrochemical behavior. Electrochemical measurements showed that appropriate heat treatment temperature can effectively alleviate the volume expansion and improve the cycling stability. The SnSb-based Cu electrode heat-treated at 400 °C for 2 h has the best reversible capacity and capacity retention. The best electrode cycled with a high reversible capacity of over 600.0 mA h/g with no decay after 100 cycles.

Jiang, Qianlei; Hu, Daozhong; Jia, Mengqiu; Xue, Ruisheng

2014-12-01

322

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-print Network

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful deployment of MOE hinges upon the existence of an inert anode capable of ...

Wang, Dihua

323

The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the main applications of ozonation and associated oxidation processes in the treatment of natural waters (surface and ground waters) for drinking water production. In fact, oxidants may be added at several points throughout the treatment: pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection. So, the numerous effects of chemical oxidation are discussed along the water treatment: removal of inorganic

V Camel; A Bermond

1998-01-01

324

Electrochemical characteristics of zinc oxide-polyethyleneglycol complex films using EQCM.  

PubMed

ZnO-PEG-ZnO complex film was fabricated by forming ZnO thin film on the Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) thin film. ZnO thin films were formed by an electrostatic method and ZnO-PEG complex films were fabricated by adsorbing PEG on the ZnO thin films surface with hydrogen bond. The electrochemical characteristic of the ZnO-PEG-ZnO film was analyzed by EQCM techniques. The resonance frequency, resistance and current changes were measured simultaneously with scan rate 100 mV/s, sweep range -1.4-1.2 V in 5 mM ZnCl2 aqueous solution. The electrochemical characteristic of the ZnO-PEG-ZnO complex film was compared with that of the ZnO thin film, and the possible electrode applications of ZnO-PEG-ZnO complex films were examined. PMID:24758020

Kim, Jong Min; Woo, Sun-Young; Lee, Haeng-Ja; Kim, Kwan-Do; Kim, Woo-Sik; Chang, Sang-Mok; Lee, Sang-Rok

2014-07-01

325

Spray absorption and electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides from flue gas.  

PubMed

This work developed an electrochemical reduction system which can effectively scrub NO× from flue gas by using aqueous solution of Fe(II)(EDTA) (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) as absorbent and electrolyte. This new system features (a) complete decomposition of NOX to harmless N2; and (b) fast regeneration of Fe(II)(EDTA) through electrochemical reaction. The Fe(II)(EDTA) solution was recycled and reused continuously during entire process, and no harmful waste was generated. The reaction mechanism was thoroughly investigated by using voltammetric, chromatographic and spectroscopic approaches. The operating conditions of the system were optimized based on NOX removal efficiency. Approximately 98% NO removal was obtained at the optimal condition. The interference of SO2 in flue gas and the system operating stability was also evaluated. PMID:23875953

Guo, Qingbin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; He, Yi; Jia, Jinping

2013-08-20

326

The mechanical, electrochemical, and morphological characteristics of passivating oxide films covering cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys: A study of five microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys possess a combination of properties that make them well suited for employment as biomaterials, such as high-strength and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. They receive this excellent corrosion resistance from passive oxide films which cover their surface. Because of the important role these oxide films play in protecting Co-Cr Mo alloys used in biological applications, there is a need to better understand them. This thesis investigated the structural and physical properties of the passivating oxide films covering Co-Cr Mo alloys with five different microstructures. The Co-Cr-Mo alloys were separated into the following groups: cast, wrought high carbon, wrought high carbon aged, forged high carbon, and forged low carbon. Electrochemical scratch tests were performed which provided information on the electrochemical kinetics of oxide fracture and repassivation for the different Co-Cr-Mo alloys. Furthermore, the stability and mechanical integrity of the oxide films covering the alloys were also evaluated. Step-polarization impedance spectroscopy tests were also performed on the different Co-Cr-Mo alloys, which provided valuable information about their electrochemical behavior when immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. For instance, it was observed that the corrosion properties of the different alloy types did not vary significantly with respect to the behavior of their individual polarization curves. Likewise, impedance values (maximum early resistance, maximum polarization resistance, and minimum capacitance) for the five alloy groups did not reveal any statistically meaningful differences. The similar passive electrochemical behavior of the five alloy groups suggests that the oxide films covering them were not significantly altered by changes in carbon content and processing. This research also showed that it was possible to monitor changes in the surface morphology of the cast Co-Cr-Mo alloys over a wide range of potentials using in-situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy. In addition, the collection of SPIS information in conjunction with the AFM images revealed several distinct relationships between surface morphology and electrochemical behavior for the alloys. Thus, it was demonstrated that the combination of electrochemical atomic force microscopy with simultaneous SPIS allowed careful, direct correlation of surface structure and electrochemical properties.

Megremis, Spiro John

2001-07-01

327

Essential role of Glu-C66 for menaquinol oxidation indicates transmembrane electrochemical potential generation by Wolinella succinogenes fumarate reductase  

PubMed Central

Quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) is a membrane protein complex that couples the reduction of fumarate to succinate to the oxidation of quinol to quinone, in a reaction opposite to that catalyzed by the related enzyme succinate:quinone reductase (succinate dehydrogenase). In the previously determined structure of QFR from Wolinella succinogenes, the site of fumarate reduction in the flavoprotein subunit A of the enzyme was identified, but the site of menaquinol oxidation was not. In the crystal structure, the acidic residue Glu-66 of the membrane spanning, diheme-containing subunit C lines a cavity that could be occupied by the substrate menaquinol. Here we describe that, after replacement of Glu-C66 with Gln by site-directed mutagenesis, the resulting mutant is unable to grow on fumarate and the purified enzyme lacks quinol oxidation activity. X-ray crystal structure analysis of the Glu-C66 ? Gln variant enzyme at 3.1-? resolution rules out any major structural changes compared with the wild-type enzyme. The oxidation-reduction potentials of the heme groups are not significantly affected. We conclude that Glu-C66 is an essential constituent of the menaquinol oxidation site. Because Glu-C66 is oriented toward a cavity leading to the periplasm, the release of two protons on menaquinol oxidation is expected to occur to the periplasm, whereas the uptake of two protons on fumarate reduction occurs from the cytoplasm. Thus our results indicate that the reaction catalyzed by W. succinogenes QFR generates a transmembrane electrochemical potential. PMID:11186225

Lancaster, C. Roy D.; Gross, Roland; Haas, Alexander; Ritter, Michaela; Mantele, Werner; Simon, Jorg; Kroger, Achim

2000-01-01

328

Electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles of magnetic mixed oxides of Sr-Fe and Sr-Co-Fe.  

PubMed

The electrochemical synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles of new Sr-Fe and Sr-Co-Fe oxides using an undivided cell with two Fe electrodes is reported in this work. These materials are collected as precipitates by electrolyzing acidic solutions containing mixtures of chlorides and nitrates of Sr2+, Fe3+ and, optionally, Co2+ at temperatures between 40 degrees C and 80 degrees C. Sr-Fe oxides are produced with energy costs lower than 2.7 kWh kg-1 in the pH range 2.0-6.0 at 50 mA cm-2, whereas Sr-Co-Fe oxides are obtained with a cost of 3.0 kWh kg-1 at pH 1.5 and at 35 mA cm-2. Inductively coupled plasma analysis of materials and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of single particles confirm that they are composed of pure mixed oxides, without metallic Fe impurities. All synthesized compounds crystallize as inverse cubic spinels, with structures similar to those of maghemite and magnetite. They are formed by round-shape nanoparticles with sizes lower than 50 nm, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Thermal desorption spectrometry allows us to detect the presence of hydrogen and volatiles proceeding from water decomposition in their lattices. After heating the electrogenerated materials at 300 degrees C during 1 h to eliminate such species, Sr-Co-Fe oxides with similar magnetic properties to those of hard ferrites are obtained, but magnetic Sr-Fe oxides only behave as soft ferrites. PMID:12914086

Asenjo, J; Amigó, R; Krotenko, E; Torres, F; Tejada, J; Brillas, E; Sardin, G

2001-12-01

329

Electrochemical treatments for selective growth of different calcium carbonate allotropic forms on carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different allotropic forms of calcium carbonate scales (calcite and aragonite) were electrochemically deposited on carbon steel surfaces, using different electrochemical techniques: cyclic voltammetry or potentiostatic pulses. To simulate conditions of Mexican refinery cooling systems, this study was performed in the presence of known concentrations of other salts at pH 7.8 and 40°C with low and high calcium carbonate concentrations. Reduction

J. Mar??n-Cruz; E. Garc??a-Figueroa; M. Miranda-Hernández; I. González

2004-01-01

330

Diode laser heat treatment of lithium manganese oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization of lithium manganese oxide thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates under 10 Pa argon pressure is demonstrated by a laser annealing technique. Laser annealing processes were developed as a function of annealing time and temperature with the objective to form an electrochemically active lithium manganese oxide cathode. It is demonstrated, that laser annealing with 940 nm diode laser radiation and an annealing time of 2000 s at 600 °C delivers appropriate parameters for formation of a crystalline spinel-like phase. Characteristic features of this phase could be detected via Raman spectroscopy, showing the characteristic main Raman band at 627 cm-1. Within cyclic voltammetric measurements, the two characteristic redox pairs for spinel lithium manganese oxide in the 4 V region could be detected, indicating that the film was well-crystallized and de-/intercalation processes were reversible. Raman post-analysis of a cycled cathode showed that the spinel-like structure was preserved within the cycling process but mechanical degradation effects such as film cracking were observed via scanning electron microscopy. Typical features for the formation of an additional surface reaction layer could be detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Mangang, A.; Ulrich, S.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

2012-04-01

331

Investigation of electrochemical lithium insertion in lamellar ternary oxides of the M x MnO y · zH 2O group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of various X-birnessites (X = Na, Al, Mg) was performed from the oxidation of manganese hydroxide by an aqueous permanganate solution. Their structural and electrochemical characteristics are investigated. The influence of the exchanged cations and water content on the galvanostatic cycling curves has been studied. The best results are obtained for Mg-birnessite with a specific capacity of 130 Ah

S. Bach; J. P. Pereira-Ramos; N. Baffier

1997-01-01

332

At point of use sono-electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide for chemical synthesis: the green oxidation of benzonitrile to benzamide.  

PubMed

At point of use generation of synthetically useful quantities of hydrogen peroxide in a non-optimized sono-electrochemical cell is reported. Proof-of-concept of the use of this procedure for green synthesis is given through the oxidation of benzonitrile to benzamide with yields similar to those obtained via bulk chemical synthesis. PMID:16870485

González-García, José; Drouin, Ludovic; Banks, Craig E; Sljuki?, Biljana; Compton, Richard G

2007-02-01

333

Oxidative electrolyte solvent degradation in lithium-ion batteries. An in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry investigation  

SciTech Connect

Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) was used to study the electrochemical decomposition of organic carbonate electrolyte solutions at practical lithium metal oxide composite electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries. For propylene carbonate (PC), CO{sub 2} evolution was detected at LiNiO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite electrodes. The starting point of gas evolution was 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} at LiNiO{sub 2}, whereas at LiCoO{sub 2} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} evolution was observed only above 4.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In addition, various other volatile electrolyte decomposition products of PC were detected when using LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and carbon black electrodes. In ethylene carbonate/dimethylcarbonate, CO{sub 2} evolution was detected only at LiNiO{sub 2} electrodes, again starting at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}.

Imhof, R.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Electrochemistry Section] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Electrochemistry Section

1999-05-01

334

Evaluation of the efficiency of monopolar and bipolar BDD electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of anthraquinone textile synthetic effluent for reuse.  

PubMed

The efficiency of the electrochemical degradation of synthetic wastewater containing an anthraquinone dye has been comparatively studied in two electrolytic cells with a synthetic boron-doped diamond (Si/BDD) as an anode. The first is an individual cell (Cell 1) with monopolar electrode BDD and the second (Cell 2) has two bipolar electrodes BDD self-polarized. The bulk electrolysis was performed at the same initial operating conditions in order to quantify the influence of the initial pH and current density on dye discoloration and global mineralization removal. The current efficiency and the consumption energy were also evaluated. When the same solutions have been comparatively treated with the two cells, a quite good mineralization is found in Cell 2. This result supposed more fraction of the applied current is used for the electrocombustion reaction on Cell 2 if compared to Cell 1 and small amount rest for the side reaction of oxygen evolution. The HPLC analyses confirmed this hypothesis and showed that the concentration trend of intermediates (sulfanilic acid, phthalate acid and salicylic acid) with electrolysis time was different on two cells. Phototoxicity tests show that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD electrodes could be useful as a pretreatment technique for reducing hazardous wastewater toxicity. PMID:23916748

Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Elghniji, Kais; Ksibi, Mohamed; Bousselmi, Latifa

2013-10-01

335

Effects of synthetic parameters on structure and electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide by citric acid-assisted sol–gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinel lithium manganese oxide cathode materials were prepared by citric acid-assisted sol–gel method at 623–1073K in air. The effects of pH value, raw material, synthesis temperature and time on structure and electrochemical performance of spinel lithium manganese oxide are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). XRD data results strongly suggest that the

Tingfeng Yi; Changsong Dai; Kun Gao; Xinguo Hu

2006-01-01

336

Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL 1 and HL 2) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as Gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated.

Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uru?, Serhan; Demirta?, ?brahim; Elmasta?, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet

2011-10-01

337

3D CFD Electrochemical and Heat Transfer Model of an Integrated-Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in a new novel integrated planar porous-tube supported solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model is of several integrated planar cells attached to a ceramic support tube. This design is being evaluated with modeling at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean per-cell area-specific-resistance (ASR) values decrease with increasing current density. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, cathode and anode exchange current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

Grant Hawkes; James E. O'Brien

2008-10-01

338

Leaf-templated synthesis of 3D hierarchical porous cobalt oxide nanostructure as direct electrochemical biosensing interface with enhanced electrocatalysis.  

PubMed

A novel three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) architecture was first synthesized through a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly leaf-templated strategy. The Co3O4 nanoparticles (30-100nm) with irregular shapes were interconnected with each other to form a 3D multilayer porous network structure, which provided high specific surface area and numerous electrocatalytic active sites. Subsequently, Co3O4 was successfully utilized as direct electrochemical sensing interface for non-enzymatic detection of H2O2 and glucose. By using chronoamperometry, the current response of the sensor at +0.31V was linear with H2O2 concentration within 0.4-200?M with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.24?M (S/N=3) and a high sensitivity of 389.7?AmM(-1)cm(-2). Two linear ranges of 1-300?M (with LOD of 0.1?M and sensitivity of 471.5?AmM(-1)cm(-2)) and 4-12.5mM were found at +0.59V for glucose. In addition, the as-prepared sensor showed excellent stability and anti-interference performance for possible interferents such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, acetaminophen and especially 0.15M chloride ions. Similarly, other various metal oxide nanostructures may be also prepared using this similar strategy for possible applications in catalysis, electrochemical sensors, and fuel cells. PMID:25078713

Han, Lei; Yang, Da-Peng; Liu, Aihua

2015-01-15

339

Electroreduction-based electrochemical-enzymatic redox cycling for the detection of cancer antigen 15-3 using graphene oxide-modified indium-tin oxide electrodes.  

PubMed

We compare herein biosensing performance of two electroreduction-based electrochemical-enzymatic (EN) redox-cycling schemes [the redox cycling combined with simultaneous enzymatic amplification (one-enzyme scheme) and the redox cycling combined with preceding enzymatic amplification (two-enzyme scheme)]. To minimize unwanted side reactions in the two-enzyme scheme, ?-galactosidase (Gal) and tyrosinase (Tyr) are selected as an enzyme label and a redox enzyme, respectively, and Tyr is selected as a redox enzyme label in the one-enzyme scheme. The signal amplification in the one-enzyme scheme consists of (i) enzymatic oxidation of catechol into o-benzoquinone by Tyr and (ii) electroreduction-based EN redox cycling of o-benzoquinone. The signal amplification in the two-enzyme scheme consists of (i) enzymatic conversion of phenyl ?-d-galactopyranoside into phenol by Gal, (ii) enzymatic oxidation of phenol into catechol by Tyr, and (iii) electroreduction-based EN redox cycling of o-benzoquinone including further enzymatic oxidation of catechol to o-benzoquinone by Tyr. Graphene oxide-modified indium-tin oxide (GO/ITO) electrodes, simply prepared by immersing ITO electrodes in a GO-dispersed aqueous solution, are used to obtain better electrocatalytic activities toward o-benzoquinone reduction than bare ITO electrodes. The detection limits for mouse IgG, measured with GO/ITO electrodes, are lower than when measured with bare ITO electrodes. Importantly, the detection of mouse IgG using the two-enzyme scheme allows lower detection limits than that using the one-enzyme scheme, because the former gives higher signal levels at low target concentrations although the former gives lower signal levels at high concentrations. The detection limit for cancer antigen (CA) 15-3, a biomarker of breast cancer, measured using the two-enzyme scheme and GO/ITO electrodes is ca. 0.1 U/mL, indicating that the immunosensor is highly sensitive. PMID:24428396

Park, Seonhwa; Singh, Amardeep; Kim, Sinyoung; Yang, Haesik

2014-02-01

340

Electrochemical biosensors for on-chip detection of oxidative stress from immune cells  

PubMed Central

Seamless integration of biological components with electrochemical sensors is critical in the development of microdevices for cell analysis. The present paper describes the integration miniature Au electrodes next to immune cells (macrophages) in order to detect cell-secreted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Photopatterning of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels was used to both immobilize horseradish peroxidase molecules onto electrodes and to define regions for cell attachment in the vicinity of sensing electrodes. Electrodes micropatterned in such a manner were enclosed inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) fluid conduits and incubated with macrophages. The cells attached onto the exposed glass regions in the vicinity of the electrodes and nowhere else on the non-fouling PEG hydrogel surface. A microfluidic device was converted into an electrochemical cell by placing flow-through Ag?AgCl reference and Pt wire counter electrodes at the outlet and inlet, respectively. This microdevice with integrated H2O2-sensing electrodes had sensitivity of 27 ?A?cm2 mM with a limit of detection of 2 ?M. Importantly, this microdevice allowed controllable seeding of macrophages next to electrodes, activation of these cells and on-chip monitoring of H2O2 release in real time. In the future, this biosensor platform may be utilized for monitoring of macrophage responses to pathogens or for the study of inflammatory signaling in micropatterned cell cultures. PMID:22007269

Yan, Jun; Pedrosa, Valber A.; Enomoto, James; Simonian, Aleksandr L.; Revzin, Alexander

2011-01-01

341

Report on the flowsheet model for the electrochemical treatment of liquid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to describe the modeling and optimization procedure for the electrochemical removal of nitrates and nitrites from low level radioactive wastes. The simulation is carried out in SPEEDUP{trademark}, which is a state of the art flowsheet modeling package. The flowsheet model will provide a better understanding of the process and aid in the scale-up of the system. For example, the flowsheet model has shown that the electrochemical cell must be operated in batch mode to achieve 95% destruction. The present status of the flowsheet model is detailed in this report along with a systematic description of the batch optimization of the electrochemical cell. Results from two batch runs and one optimization run are also presented.

Hobbs, D.T.

1995-04-11

342

Toxicological characterization of the landfill leachate prior/after chemical and electrochemical treatment: a study on human and plant cells.  

PubMed

In this research, toxicological safety of two newly developed methods for the treatment of landfill leachate from the Piškornica (Croatia) sanitary landfill was investigated. Chemical treatment procedure combined chemical precipitation with CaO followed by coagulation with ferric chloride and final adsorption by clinoptilolite. Electrochemical treatment approach included pretreatment with ozone followed by electrooxidation/electrocoagulation and final polishing by microwave irradiation. Cell viability of untreated/treated landfill leachate was examined using fluorescence microscopy. Cytotoxic effect of the original leachate was obtained for both exposure periods (4 and 24 h) while treated samples showed no cytotoxic effect even after prolonged exposure time. The potential DNA damage of the untreated/treated landfill leachate was evaluated by the comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay using either human or plant cells. The original leachate exhibited significantly higher comet assay parameters compared to negative control after 24 h exposure. On the contrary, there was no significant difference between negative control and chemically/electrochemically treated leachate for any of the parameters tested. There was also no significant increase in either CBMN assay parameter compared to the negative control following the exposure of the lymphocytes to the chemically or electrochemically treated landfill leachate for both exposure periods while the original sample showed significantly higher number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds for both exposure times. Results suggest that both methods are suitable for the treatment of such complex waste effluent due to high removal efficiency of all measured parameters and toxicological safety of the treated effluent. PMID:23790829

Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreš?anin, Višnja; Gajski, Goran; Geri?, Marko; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Radi? Brkanac, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra

2013-10-01

343

Analysis of iron oxide precipitates in constructed mine wastewater treatments  

SciTech Connect

The purpose or this research project is to characterize iron oxide precipitates collected from abandoned mine drainage (AMD) treatment facilities in order to determine whether these precipitates have possible commercial value. The treatment facilities use constructed wetlands to raise pH levels to near neutral levels and to remove iron and other heavy metals from AMD polluted water. The main commercial value of interest is in the use of pigments in products such as paints, clay and brick. The precipitates arc characterized for composition and quality against natural and synthetic commercial pigment products. Various processing techniques were developed for sample preparation. Analysis tests include: general pigment tests, heavy metals, anions, particle size, and particle composition. Results show that the iron oxide precipitates are chemically similar to the commercial iron oxide but will require additional processing to meet pigment qualifications.

Partezana, J.M. [Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, PA (United States)

1996-10-01

344

Preparation and electrochemical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes-nickel oxide porous composite for supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect

Porous nickel oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NiO/MWNTs) composite material was synthesized using sodium dodecyl phenyl sulfate as a soft template and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the as-prepared nickel oxide nanoflakes aggregate to form a submicron ball shape with a porous structure, and the MWNTs with entangled and cross-linked morphology are well dispersed in the porous nickel oxide. The composite shows an excellent cycle performance at a high current of 2 A g{sup -1} and keeps a capacitance retention of about 89% over 200 charge/discharge cycles. A specific capacitance approximate to 206 F g{sup -1} has been achieved with NiO/MWNTs (10 wt.%) in 2 M KOH electrolyte. The electrical conductivity and the active sites for redox reaction of nickel oxide are significantly improved due to the connection of nickel nanoflakes by the long entangled MWNTs.

Zheng Yanzhen [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: dhyzyz@yahoo.com.cn; Gao Peng [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

2007-09-04

345

Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides  

E-print Network

Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

Sivakumar, Vikram

2008-01-01

346

Cytochrome P450 modified polycrystalline indium tin oxide film as a drug metabolizing electrochemical biosensor with a simple configuration.  

PubMed

The development of a biocatalytic electrode consisting of cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins would be a key technology with which to establish simple drug metabolizing biosensors or screening devices for drug inhibitors. We have successfully detected the direct electron transfer (DET) from a human CYP layer or a CYP microsome adsorbed on a bare indium tin oxide (ITO) film electrode without any modification layers and applied it to drug metabolism evaluation. We compared the electrocatalytic properties of the two ITO films with different surface nanostructures (polycrystalline or amorphous). CYP on polycrystalline ITO film enhanced the electron transfer rate of oxygen reduction about fifteen times more than with amorphous film. The polycrystalline ITO film was a suitable electrode for the adsorption of CYP proteins while maintaining efficient DET and enzymatic activity, probably because of its larger surface area and negatively charged surface. The oxygen reduction current at the polycrystalline ITO film electrodes had increased 3- to 4-fold, specifically coupled with the oxidation of drugs (testosterone and quinidine) by the monooxygenase activity of CYP. In contrast, the oxygen reduction current completely disappeared in the presence of the CYP inhibitor (ketoconazole). Similar results could be obtained from the CYP microsome with sufficiently clear responses. These results indicate that the CYP modified polycrystalline ITO electrode offers the potential for electrochemically evaluating CYP activity for drug metabolism with a simple configuration. PMID:24117377

Yoshioka, Kyoko; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

2013-11-01

347

Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of Ti-incorporated tungsten trioxides as platinum support for methanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum supported on high surface area tungsten trioxide (WO 3) has received intensive attention in recent years, mainly because of its improved tolerance towards carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during methanol oxidation and its enhanced electrocatalytic activity. However, the chemical instability of WO 3 in acid medium is a major issue that hinders its application in fuel cell electrodes. In the present work, the stability of WO 3 is shown to be improved by suitable Ti 4 substition in the WO 3 framework. However, the improvement in the stability of WO 3 in acid medium was found to be significant only at lower amounts of Ti 4 in the framework. On the other hand, the electrocatalytic activity of Pt loaded W 1- xTi xO 3/C ( x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.09 and 0.17) for methanol oxidation, evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, in acid medium follows the order: Pt-W 0.83Ti 017O 3/C > Pt-WO 3/C > Pt-W 0.91Ti 0.09O 3/C ˜ Pt-W 0.95Ti 0.05O 3/C. The trend in the activity observed correlates well with that of the increase in the ohmic resistance of the electrode determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Raghuveer, V.; Viswanathan, B.

348

Vapor-Diffusion-Controlled Sol-Gel Synthesis of Flaky Lithium Vanadium Oxide and Its Electrochemical Behavior  

SciTech Connect

Effectively modifying an existing synthesis method for materials can prove as useful as developing a new one. In this work, we revisited a conventional sol?gel synthesis of lithium vanadium oxide, a promising electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Employing a kinetically controlled, vapor diffusion strategy (in which ammonia vapor was slowly diffused into the solution), we modified the conventional method to obtain a thin, flaky, lithium vanadium oxide with an average thickness of ?120 nm. In comparison, material prepared by the conventional sol?gel route (in which aqueous ammonia was dropwise added to the solution) exhibited an agglomeration of irregular particles with a typical size of ?10 ?m. When evaluated as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries, this flaky material displayed a stable, reversible capacity of ?250 and ?115 mAh/g at discharge rates of 0.1 C and 2 C, respectively, considerably better than the agglomerated sample. The reasons for this improved performance were investigated by evaluating the electrochemical reaction kinetics, morphological and structural stability using cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

Zhang, Hong-Li; Neilson, James R.; Morse, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

349

Kinetic behavior of anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen in aqueous medium during its degradation by electrochemical advanced oxidation.  

PubMed

The electrochemical abatement of the drug ibuprofen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid) from aqueous solution has been carried out by anodic oxidation. The electrolyses have been performed at constant current using a small, undivided cell equipped with a Pt or thin-film boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-felt cathode. The results have shown that ibuprofen has been destroyed under all the conditions tested, following pseudo-first-order kinetics; however, BDD enables higher removal rates than Pt, because the former produces greater quantity of (•)OH. Using BDD anode, the pseudo-first-order rate constant increased with applied current and when NaCl replaced Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte, while it is almost unaffected by ibuprofen concentration. Mineralization of ibuprofen aqueous solutions was followed by total organic carbon (TOC) measurements. After 8 h of electrolysis, TOC removal varied from 91% to 96% applying a current in the range of 50-500 mA. The reaction by-products were quantified by chromatographic techniques, and in particular, aliphatic acids (oxalic, glyoxylic, formic, acetic, and pyruvic) have been the main intermediates formed during the electrolyses. The absolute rate constant for the oxidative degradation of ibuprofen have also been determined, by competition kinetic method, as 6.41 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). PMID:22903814

Ambuludi, Silvia Loaiza; Panizza, Marco; Oturan, Nihal; Özcan, Ali; Oturan, Mehmet A

2013-04-01

350

Studies on electrochemical oxidation of azithromycin and Hemomycin ® at gold electrode in neutral electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the oxidative properties and an assay of azithromycin and Hemomycin® at a gold electrode in neutral electrolyte using cyclic linear sweep voltammetry. The maximum value of the current of the oxidation peak of pure azithromycin and azithromycin from Hemomycin® at 0.6V versus SCE in 0.05M NaHCO3 and in a mixture methanol

M. L. Avramov Ivi?; S. D. Petrovi?; D. Ž. Mijin; P. M. Živkovi?; I. M. Kosovi?; K. M. Drljevi?; M. B. Jovanovi?

2006-01-01

351

A novel electrochemical reconstruction in nickel oxide nanowalls on Ni foam and the fine electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiO nanowalls are directly grown on porous Ni foam via a facile electrochemical corrosion method and subsequent annealing, which show excellent cycle stability and rate capability as anode for lithium ion batteries. It delivers initial discharge and charge capacity of 1029 and 761 mAh g-1 at 0.15C, maintaining of 721 and 704 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. After 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 10C, the discharge capacity of the NiO/Ni can gradually restore when lowering the charge/discharge, finally arriving at 745 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles at 0.06C. The excellent electrochemical performance of the NiO/Ni electrode is relevant to a novel electrochemical reconstruction in cycling, which can be described as the initial formation of a large number of nanosized particles and the subsequent reassembly of these nanoparticles into a unique porous architecture.

Ni, Shibing; Lv, Xiaohu; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Xuelin; Zhang, Lulu

2014-12-01

352

Direct electrochemical synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/copper composite films and their electrical/electroactive properties.  

PubMed

Electrical contact materials with excellent performances are crucial for the development and safe use of electrical contacts in different applications. In our work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/copper (Cu) composite films, as potential electrical contact materials, have been synthesized on copper foil with one-step electrochemical reduction deposition method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to define the deposition conditions, and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the chemical compositions, molecular and micro- and nano-structures of the composite films. Atomic force microscopy/scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (AFM/SKPFM), conductive AFM (C-AFM) as well as impedance analysis were employed to evaluate the electroactive/electrical properties of the prepared composite films, respectively. The CRM and XPS results suggest that the rGO/Cu composite films can be synthesized through one-step electrochemical codeposition using suitable precursor solutions. Within a short deposition period, the growth of discrete nanograins in the composite film predominates, whereas pine-tree-leaf nanostructures are formed in the composite film when the deposition period is long, due to the chelating role of GO or rGO to regulate the growth rate of metallic copper nanograins. The electrical resistivity of the composite films is lower than the polished Cu foil and the electrodeposited Cu film, probably due to the higher conductivity (enhanced transfer of charge carriers) of the rGO incorporated in the composite films. The Volta potential variation in the rGO/Cu composite film is quite different from that in the electrodeposited Cu film. The electroactivity of the rGO/Cu composite films is higher than the electrodeposited Cu film, but lower than polished Cu foil, and the underlying mechanisms have been discussed. PMID:24787038

Xie, Guoxin; Forslund, Mattias; Pan, Jinshan

2014-05-28

353

Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr) sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au) and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular) and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current was determined to be well-defined, even at relatively low concentration (10?5 M), for the Au/Gr-AuAg-1.5 electrode. In contrast, the signals recorded with the Au/Gr-AuAg-1 electrode were poorly defined within a 5×10?6 to 5×10?3 M concentration range, and many of them overlapped with the background. Such composite materials could find significant applications in nanotechnology, sensing, or nanomedicine. PMID:24596464

Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Coros, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela Diana; Watanabe, Fumiya; Kannarpady, Ganesh K; Al Said, Said A Farha; Biris, Alexandru S; Pruneanu, Stela

2014-01-01

354

Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr) sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au) and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular) and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current was determined to be well-defined, even at relatively low concentration (10(-5) M), for the Au/Gr-AuAg-1.5 electrode. In contrast, the signals recorded with the Au/Gr-AuAg-1 electrode were poorly defined within a 5×10(-6) to 5×10(-3) M concentration range, and many of them overlapped with the background. Such composite materials could find significant applications in nanotechnology, sensing, or nanomedicine. PMID:24596464

Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Coros, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela Diana; Watanabe, Fumiya; Kannarpady, Ganesh K; Al Said, Said A Farha; Biris, Alexandru S; Pruneanu, Stela

2014-01-01

355

Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

2014-12-01

356

Modelling and Ni/Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia pattern anode experimental validation of a new charge transfer reactions mechanism for hydrogen electrochemical oxidation on solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good understanding of the H2 electrochemical reaction mechanism helps optimize SOFC anode design and improve its performance. Controversies still exist regarding H2 oxidation mechanism despite extensive studies performed. In this work, a new charge transfer reactions mechanism proposed by Shishkin and Ziegler (2010) based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) study was investigated through kinetic modelling and pattern anode experimental validation. The new charge transfer reactions mechanism considers hydrogen oxidation at the interface of Ni and YSZ. It involves a hydrogen atom reacting with the oxygen ions bound to both Ni and YSZ to produce hydroxyl (Charge transfer reaction 1), the latter reacting with the other hydrogen atom to form water (Charge transfer reaction 2). The predictive capability of this reaction mechanism to represent our experimental results was evaluated. The simulated Tafel plots were compared with our experimental data for a wide range of H2 and H2O partial pressures and at different temperatures. Good agreements between simulation and experimental results were obtained. Charge transfer reaction 1 was found to dominate the overall charge transfer reaction under cathodic polarization. Under anodic polarization, a change in the dominating charge transfer reaction from charge transfer reaction 1 to charge transfer reaction 2 was found when increasing the H2O partial pressure.

Yao, Weifang; Croiset, Eric

2014-02-01

357

An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Nanostructured Hollandite-type Manganese Oxide for Detection of Potassium Ions  

PubMed Central

The participation of cations in redox reactions of manganese oxides provides an opportunity for development of chemical sensors for non-electroactive ions. A sensor based on a nanostructured hollandite-type manganese oxide was investigated for voltammetric detection of potassium ions. The detection is based on the measurement of anodic current generated by oxidation of Mn(III) to Mn(IV) at the surface of the electrode and the subsequent extraction of the potassium ions into the hollandite structure. In this work, an amperometric procedure at an operating potential of 0.80 V (versus SCE) is exploited for amperometric monitoring. The current signals are linearly proportional to potassium ion concentration in the range 4.97 × 10?5 to 9.05 × 10?4 mol L?1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. PMID:22399969

Lima, Alex S.; Bocchi, Nerilso; Gomes, Homero M.; Teixeira, Marcos F. S.

2009-01-01

358

Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticles-poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic Acid) nanocomposite-based electrochemical biosensor.  

PubMed

A conducting poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) copolymer nanocomposite film (AuNP-PPy-PPa) incorporating gold nanoparticles (AuNP) was electrochemically grown using a single step procedure over electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flakes deposited on a silane-modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate. The RGO support base provided excellent mechanical and chemical stability to the polymer nanocomposite matrix. The porous nanostructure of AuNP-PPy-PPa/RGO provided a huge accessible area to disperse AuNP, and it avoided metallic agglomeration within the polymer matrix. The AuNP-PPy-PPa/RGO was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electrochemical techniques. The pendant carboxyl group of AuNP-PPy-PPa/RGO was covalently bonded with myoglobin protein antibody, Ab-Mb, for the construction of a bioelectrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used for the characterization of the bioelectrode and as an impedimetric biosensor for the detection of human cardiac biomarker, Ag-cMb. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear impedimetric response to Ag-cMb in the range of 10 ng mL(-1) to 1 ?g mL(-1), in phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (pH 7.4, 0.1 M KCl) with a sensitivity of 92.13 ? cm(2) per decade. PMID:24928550

Puri, Nidhi; Niazi, Asad; Srivastava, Avanish K; Rajesh

2014-10-01

359

Electrochemical fabrication and optical properties of porous tin oxide films with structural colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystals with porous features not only provide the capability to control light but also enable structural colors that are environmentally sensitive. Here, we report a novel kind of tin oxide-based photonic crystal featuring periodically arranged air pores fabricated by the periodic anodization of tin foil. The existence of a photonic band gap in the fabricated structure is verified by its vivid color, and its reflective spectra which are responsive to environmental stimuli. Furthermore, the sample colors (i.e., the photonic band gap positions) can be easily adjusted by manipulating the anodization parameters. The theoretical modeling results of these tin oxide photonic crystals agree well with the reported experimental ones.

Cheng, Hua; Shu, Shiwei; Lu, Zhouguang; Lee, Chris; Zeng, Shanshan; Lu, Jian; Li, Yang Yang

2014-10-01

360

Influence of alloy content and a cerium surface treatment on the oxidation behavior of Fe-Cr ferritic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) can be significantly reduced by using interconnects made from ferritic stainless steels. In fact, several alloys have been developed specifically for this application (Crofer 22APU and Hitachi ZMG323). However, these steels lack environmental stability in SOFC environments, and as a result, degrade the performance of the SOFC. A steel interconnect can contribute to performance degradation through: (i) Cr poisoning of electrochemically active sites within the cathode; (ii) formation of non-conductive oxides, such as SiO2 or Al2O3 from residual or minor alloying elements, at the base metal-oxide scale interface; and/or (iii) excessive oxide scale growth, which may also retard electrical conductivity. Consequently, there has been considerable attention on developing coatings to protect steel interconnects in SOFC environments and controlling trace elements during alloy production. Recently, we have reported on the development of a Cerium surface treatment that improves the oxidation behavior of a variety alloys, including Crofer 22APU [1-5]. Initial results indicated that the treatment may improve the performance of Crofer 22APU for SOFC application by: (i) retarding scale growth resulting in a thinner oxide scale; and (ii) suppressing the formation of a deleterious continuous SiO2 layer that can form at the metal-oxide scale interface in materials with high residual Si content [5]. Crofer 22 APU contains Fe-22Cr-0.5Mn-0.1Ti (weight percent). Depending on current market prices and the purity of raw materials utilized for ingot production, Cr can contribute upwards of 90 percent of the raw materials cost. The present research was undertaken to determine the influence of Cr content and minor element additions, especially Ti, on the effectiveness of the Ce surface treatment. Particular emphasis is placed on the behavior of low Cr alloys.

Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

2006-01-01

361

Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Surfactant or polymer directed self-assembly has been widely investigated to prepare nanostructured metal oxides, semiconductors and polymers, but this approach is mostly limited to two-phase materials, organic/inorganic hybrids, and nanoparticle or polymer-based nanocomposites. Self-assembled nanostructures from more complex, multiscale and multiphase building blocks have been explored with limited success. Here, we demonstrate a ternary self-assembly approach using graphene as fundamental building blocks to construct metal oxide-graphene nanocomposites. A new class of layered nanocomposites is formed containing stable, ordered alternating layers of nanocrystalline metal oxides with graphene/graphene stacks. Alternatively, the graphene material can be incorporated into liquid-crystal-templated nanoporous structures to form high surface area, conductive networks. The self-assembly method can be also used to fabricate free standing, flexible metal oxide-graphene nanocomposite films and electrodes. We investigate the Li-ion insertion properties of the self-assembled electrodes for energy storage and show that the SnO2-graphene nanocomposite films can achieve near theoretical specific energy density without a significant charge/discharge degradation.

Wang, Donghai; Kou, Rong; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Nie, Zimin; Li, Juan; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Pope, Michael A.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

2010-02-25

362

Development of a proton-exchange membrane electrochemical reclaimed water post-treatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-cell electrochemical reactor that utilizes a proton exchange membrane (PEM) as a solid electrolyte is being investigated for posttreatment of reclaimed waste waters with low or negligible electrolyte content. Posttreatment is a final 'polishing' of reclaimed waste waters prior to reuse, and involves removing organic impurities at levels as high as 100 ppm to below 500 ppb total organic carbon (TOC) content to provide disinfection. The system does not utilize or produce either expendable hardware components or chemicals and has no moving parts. Test data and kinetic analysis are presented. The feasibility and application for water reclamation processes in controlled ecological environments (e.g., lunar/Mars habitats) are also presented. Test results show that the electrochemical single cell reactor provides effective posttreatment.

Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.; Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.

1991-01-01

363

Simulation of Triple Oxidation Ditch Wastewater Treatment Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presented the modeling mechanism and method of a sewage treatment system. A triple oxidation ditch process of a WWTP was simulated based on activated sludge model ASM2D with GPS-X software. In order to identify the adequate model structure to be implemented into the GPS-X environment, the oxidation ditch was divided into several completely stirred tank reactors depended on the distribution of aeration devices and dissolved oxygen concentration. The removal efficiency of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and SS were simulated by GPS-X software with influent quality data of this WWTP from June to August 2009, to investigate the differences between the simulated results and the actual results. The results showed that, the simulated values could well reflect the actual condition of the triple oxidation ditch process. Mathematical modeling method was appropriate in effluent quality predicting and process optimizing.

Yang, Yue; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Lixiang; Hu, Yongfeng; Xu, Ziming

2010-11-01

364

Cobalt oxide hollow microspheres with micro- and nano-scale composite structure: Fabrication and electrochemical performance  

SciTech Connect

Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres with micro- and nano-scale composite structure self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully fabricated by the template-free wet-chemical approach. This method is simple, facile and effective. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres with good purity and homogeneous size were well characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP). The formation mechanism was deeply studied. The micro- and nano-scale composite structure constructed by the porous nanosheets promotes to improve the electrochemical properties of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres. The high discharge capacity of 1048 mAh g{sup -1} indicates it to be the potential application in electrode materials of Li-ion battery. - Graphical Abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres self-assembled by nanosheets are successfully fabricated by a template-free wet-chemical approach. The hollow microspheres are in good morphology purity and homogeneous size. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres constructed by porous nanosheets show the high discharge capacity of 1048 mAh g{sup -1}, indicating it to be the potential electrode material of Li-ion battery.

Tao Feifei [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Gao Cuiling [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wen Zhenhai; Wang Qiang; Li Jinghong [Department of Chemistry, Qinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Zheng, E-mail: zhengxu@netra.nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2009-05-15

365

Smart copper oxide nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, electrochemical and potent antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

We report herein the synthesis and characterization of novel CuO nanocrystals and their electrochemical and potent antibacterial activity. The utilized CuO nanocrystals were prepared by wet chemical method using copper acetate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as precursors. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized CuO nanocrystals having size ~6 nm were determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The antibacterial study was carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E. coli as model organism. The MIC of the CuO nanocrystals was found to be 2.5 ?g/ml and the TEM analysis reveals that CuO nanocrystals caused disturbance to the cell wall which led to the irreversible damage to the cell envelope eventually leading to cell death. Furthermore, mechanism of bactericidal action of novel CuO nanocrystals is discussed in the light of our findings. Additionally, the synthesized CuO nanocrystals were applied as electrode material for supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of CuO nanocrystals measured at a potential scan rate of 5 mV/s was as high as 164.9 F g(-1). PMID:22609604

Hassan, M Shamshi; Amna, Touseef; Yang, O-Bong; El-Newehy, Mohamed H; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Khil, Myung-Seob

2012-09-01

366

High resolution electrochemical micro-capacitors based on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the preparation of all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors in planar interdigitated configuration based on MWCNTs via the electrophoretic deposition technique. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic groups via a HNO3 concentric solution in order to prevent their agglomeration and obtain a stable aqueous suspension, and to add a pseudo-capacitance contribution to the predominant double-layer capacitance. The electrode materials were characterized in a 3 electrode configuration, and the micro-devices in a two-electrode configuration using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M sulfuric acid and a gel of PVA-H3PO4-H2O doped by SiWA electrolyte. Spatial resolution down to 10 ?m was obtained for the device with specific capacitance up to 1.8 mF.cm-2 in electrolyte based PVA and a high power density of 1.28 W.cm-2 in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

Dinh, T. M.; Pech, D.; Brunet, M.; Achour, A.

2013-12-01

367

An electrochemical ELISA-like immunosensor for miRNAs detection based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

We design an electrochemical immunosensor for miRNA detection, based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. An original immunological approach is followed, using antibodies directed to DNA.RNA hybrids. An electrochemical ELISA-like amplification strategy was set up using a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Hydroquinone is oxidized into benzoquinone by the HRP/H2O2 catalytic system. In turn, benzoquinone is electroreduced into hydroquinone at the electrode. The catalytic reduction current is related to HRP amount immobilized on the surface, which itself is related to miRNA.DNA surface density on the electrode. This architecture, compared to classical optical detection, lowers the detection limit down to 10 fM. Two miRNAs were studied: miR-141 (a prostate biomarker) and miR-29b-1 (a lung cancer biomarker). PMID:24973539

Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Huy Nguyen, L; Dung Nguyen, T; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

2014-12-15

368

Electrochemical treatment of the antibiotic sulfachloropyridazine: kinetics, reaction pathways, and toxicity evolution.  

PubMed

The electro-Fenton treatment of sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), a model for sulfonamide antibiotics that are widespread in waters, was performed using cells with a carbon-felt cathode and Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, aiming to present an integral assessment of the kinetics, electrodegradation byproducts, and toxicity evolution. H(2)O(2) electrogeneration in the presence of Fe(2+) yielded (•)OH in the solution bulk, which acted concomitantly with (•)OH adsorbed at the anode (BDD((•)OH)) to promote the oxidative degradation of SCP (k(abs,SCP) = (1.58 ± 0.02) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) and its byproducts. A detailed scheme for the complete mineralization was elucidated. On the basis of the action of (•)OH onto four different SCP sites, the pathways leading to total decontamination includes fifteen cyclic byproducts identified by HPLC and GC-MS, five aliphatic carboxylic acids, and a mixture of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), and NO(3)(-) that accounted for 90-100% of initial Cl, S, and N. The time course of byproducts was satisfactorily correlated with the toxicity profiles determined from inhibition of Vibrio fischeri luminescence. 3-Amino-6-chloropyridazine and p-benzoquinone were responsible for the increased toxicity during the first stages. Independent electrolyses revealed that their toxicity trends were close to those of SCP. The formation of the carboxylic acids involved a sharp toxicity decrease, thus ensuring overall detoxification. PMID:22332959

Dirany, Ahmad; Sirés, Ignasi; Oturan, Nihal; Ozcan, Ali; Oturan, Mehmet A

2012-04-01

369

Electrochemical oxidation of tannic acid contaminated wastewater by RuO2\\/IrO2\\/TaO2?coated titanium and graphite anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of tannic acid contaminated wastewater by RuO2\\/IrO2\\/TaO2?coated titanium and graphite anodes has been investigated. The effect of the process variables, such as initial pH, current density, processing time, concentration of the electrolyte and anode materials, on the degradation of tannic acid was studied. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, chloride ion concentration and

M. Govindaraj; M. Muthukumar; G. Bhaskar Raju

2010-01-01

370

Electrochemical oxidation of adsorbed alkenoic acids as a function of chain length at Pt(111) electrodes. Studies by cyclic voltammetry, EELS and Auger spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the electrochemical oxidation of a series of straight-chain terminal alkenoic acids adsorbed at a Pt(111) electrode surface are reported. Compounds adsorbed were: propenoic acid (acrylic acid, PPA); 3-butenoic acid (vinylacetic acid, 3BTA); 4-pentenoic acid (allylacetic acid, 4PTA); 6-heptenoic acid (6HPA); and 10-undecenoic acid (10UDA). Vibrational spectra of adsorbed layers were obtained by use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS).

Nikola Batina; Scott A. Chaffins; Bruce E. Kahn; Frank Lu; James W. McCargar; John W. Rovang; Donald A. Stern; Arthur T. Hubbard

1989-01-01

371

Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater  

SciTech Connect

An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Garland, S.B. II (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Peyton, G.R. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Rice, L.E. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (USA). Kansas City Div.)

1990-01-01

372

Laser-induced electrochemical de- and repassivation investigations on plasma-oxidized aluminium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ laser depassivation of plasma electrolytically oxididized (PEO) coatings on aluminium was investigated with nanosecond pulses. Ultraviolet radiation of 266 nm was chosen in order to achieve a high absorption in the dielectric coating. The additive accumulation of laser-induced material defects (incubation) affected the depassivation processes. Incubation occurred only at the edges of the ablation craters irradiated by the outer region of the Gaussian beam profile, where the local fluence is below the ablation threshold. The ablation rate in the spot center did not exhibit an incubation effect. Repassivation was interpreted by a linear combination of a high-field and a point defect growth model. At low overpotentials, field gradients affect the process driving the oxide growth at the buried interface. At high fields, corrosion reactions dominate at the oxide/solution interface.

Nagy, Tristan O.; Pacher, Ulrich; Giesriegl, Ariane; Soyka, Lukas; Trettenhahn, Günter; Kautek, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

373

The oriented growth of tungsten oxide in ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrochemical performance.  

PubMed

Electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and methanol oxidation are the heart of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In spite of tremendous efforts, developing low-cost anodic electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and corrosion resistance is still a great challenge. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of oriented WO3 nanorods grown in ordered mesoporous carbon as a high-performance functional catalyst carrier for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. As a result of the catalytic graphitization effect of tungsten compounds, the degree of graphitization and conductivity of mesoporous carbon film were improved even at a low temperature. Furthermore, compared with ordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous C-WO3 nanocomposites possess favorable hydrophilicity, excellent corrosion resistance and notable electrocatalytic activities. The unusual electrocatalytic activities arise from the ideal physical properties of the carrier and synergetic catalysis between Pt and WO3. PMID:24733640

Wang, Tao; Tang, Jing; Fan, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jianhua; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; He, Jianping

2014-05-21

374

Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant or polymer directed self-assembly has been widely investigated to prepare nanostructured metal oxides, semiconductors and polymers, but this approach is mostly limited to two-phase materials, organic\\/inorganic hybrids, and nanoparticle or polymer-based nanocomposites. Self-assembled nanostructures from more complex, multiscale and multiphase building blocks have been explored with limited success. Here, we demonstrate a ternary self-assembly approach using graphene as fundamental

Donghai Wang; Rong Kou; Daiwon Choi; Zhenguo Yang; Zimin Nie; Juan Li; Laxmikant V. Saraf; Dehong Hu; Jiguang Zhang; Gordon L. Graff; Jun Liu; Michael A. Pope; Ilhan A. Aksay

2010-01-01

375

Synthesis and electrochemical studies of manganese oxides with spinel structure in aqueous electrolyte (9 M KOH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxides with spinel structure have received widespread attention as being suitable electrode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. So far they have mostly been synthesized at relatively high temperatures of between 700 and 800 °C. Here, we describe a new synthesis route to LiMn2O4 and manganese dioxides with spinel structure based on the freeze-drying of aqueous solutions and allowing the preparation

H. Schlörb; M. Bungs; W. Plieth

1997-01-01

376

Preparation of lithium manganese oxide fine particles by spray pyrolysis and their electrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly crystalline nano-sized lithium manganese oxide particles were fabricated by spray pyrolysis. The resultant particles had well-developed facet planes in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image and electron diffraction pattern from a single particle also showed clear diffraction spots, indicating that the prepared particles were highly crystalline. The mean crystallite size estimated from X-ray diffraction peaks was ca. 18nm, which

Y. Iriyama; Y. Tachibana; R. Sasasoka; N. Kuwata; T. Abe; M. Inaba; A. Tasaka; K. Kikuchi; J. Kawamura; Z. Ogumi

2007-01-01

377

Synthesis and H2 Gas Sensing Properties of Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays via Electrochemical Anodization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly ordered titania nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated via anodization process in electrolytes containing HF and NH4F in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy images show the size and microstructure of arrays. Electrolyte and oxidation conditions optimized to get well-ordered TNTs. A hydrogen gas sensor based on TNT semiconductor was developed. The hydrogen sensor's results of arrays show high sensing amplitude which related to the anodizing conditions.

Alavi, Babak; Asl, Shahin Khameneh; Asl, Shahab Khameneh; Jale, Valiollah

2011-12-01

378

Economic comparison of conventional maintenance and electrochemical oxidation to warrant water safety in dental unit water lines  

PubMed Central

Background: In preparation for implementation of a central water processing system at a dental department, we analyzed the costs of conventional decentralized disinfection of dental units against a central water treatment concept based on electrochemical disinfection. Methods: The cost evaluation included only the costs of annually required antimicrobial consumables and additional water usage of a decentralize conventional maintenance system for dental water lines build in the respective dental units and the central electrochemical water disinfection system, BLUE SAFETY™ Technologies. Results: In total, analysis of costs of 6 dental departments reviled additional annual costs for hygienic preventive measures of € 4,448.37. For the BLUE SAFETY™ Technology, the additional annual total agent consumption costs were € 2.18, accounting for approximately 0.05% of the annual total agent consumption costs of the conventional maintenance system. For both water processing concepts, the additional costs for energy could not be calculated, since the required data was not obtainable from the manufacturers. Discussion: For both concepts, the investment and maintenance costs were not calculated due to lack of manufacturer's data. Therefore, the results indicate the difference of costs for the required consumables only. Aside of the significantly lower annual costs for required consumables and disinfectants; a second advantage for the BLUE SAFETY™ Technology is its constant and automatic operation, which does not require additional staff resources. This not only safety human resources, but add additionally to cost saving. Conclusion: Since the antimicrobial disinfection capacity of the BLUE SAFETY™ was demonstrated previously and is well known, this technology, which is comparable or even superior in its non-corrosive effect, may be regarded as method of choice for continuous disinfection and prevention of biofilm formation in dental units’ water lines. PMID:22558042

Fischer, Sebastian; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

2012-01-01

379

Electrochemical cortisol immunosensors based on sonochemically synthesized zinc oxide 1D nanorods and 2D nanoflakes.  

PubMed

We report on label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical immunosensors based on one-dimensional 1D ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two-dimensional 2D ZnO nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) which were synthesized on Au-coated substrates using simple one step sonochemical approach. Selective detection of cortisol using cyclic voltammetry (CV) is achieved by immobilizing anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) on the ZnO nanostructures (NSs). 1D ZnO-NRs and 2D ZnO-NFs provide unique sensing advantages over bulk materials. While 1D-NSs boast a high surface area to volume ratio, 2D-NSs with large area in polarized (0001) plane and high surface charge density could promote higher Anti-Cab loading and thus better sensing performance. Beside large surface area, ZnO-NSs also exhibit higher chemical stability, high catalytic activity, and biocompatibility. TEM studies showed that both ZnO-NSs are single crystalline oriented in (0001) plane. The measured sensing parameters are in the physiological range with a sensitivity of 11.86µA/M exhibited by ZnO-NRs and 7.74µA/M by ZnO-NFs with the lowest detection limit of 1pM which is 100 times better than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbant immunoassay (ELISA). ZnO-NSs based cortisol immunosensors were tested on human saliva samples and the performance were validated with conventional (ELISA) method which exhibits a remarkable correlation. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and such developed protocol can be used in personalized health monitoring/diagnostic. PMID:25064820

Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Pokhrel, Nimesh; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

2015-01-15

380

Electrochemical and magnetic properties of lithium manganese oxide spinels prepared by oxidation at low temperature of hydrothermally obtained LiMnO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cubic and tetragonally distorted lithium manganese oxide spinels (LiMnO2 + x) were obtained by progressive oxidation of LiMnO2 between 300 and 400 °C. Orthorhombic LiMnO2 was prepared by hydrothermal treatment of either ?-MnOOH or Mn(COOCH3)3 · 2H2O with LiOH · H2O in large excess. The reversible specific capacity for LiMnO2 + x was found to be sensitive to average manganese

Mitsuharu Tabuchi; Kazuaki Ado; Christian Masquelier; Ichiro Matsubara; Hikari Sakaebe; Hiroyuki Kageyama; Hironori Kobayashi; Ryoji Kanno; Osamu Nakamura

1996-01-01

381

Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for cancer biomarker with signal enhancement based on nitrodopamine-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarker prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on nitrodopamine (NDA) functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (NDA-Fe(3)O(4)) is described. NDA-Fe(3)O(4) was used both for the immobilization of primary anti-PSA antibody (Ab(1)) and as secondary anti-PSA antibody (Ab(2)) label. For the preparation of the label, mediator thionine (TH) was first conjugated onto NDA-Fe(3)O(4) based on the amino groups of NDA, and then the amino group of TH was used to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Ab(2). Due to the high amount of NDA anchored onto Fe(3)O(4) surface, the loading of antibodies as well as mediator and enzyme onto NDA-Fe(3)O(4) was substantially increased, which increased the sensitivity of the immunosensor. The resulting immunosensor displayed a wide range of linear response (0.005-50 ng/mL), low detection limit (4 pg/mL), good reproducibility and stability. The immunosensor was used to detect the PSA contents in serum samples with satisfactory results. PMID:21195601

Li, He; Wei, Qin; Wang, Gaolei; Yang, Minghui; Qu, Fengli; Qian, Zhiyong

2011-02-15

382

Electrochemical and structural characterization of titanium-substituted manganese oxides based on Na0.44MnO2  

SciTech Connect

A series of titanium-substituted manganese oxides, Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y = 0.11, 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, and 0.55) with the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} structure were prepared from Na{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (x {approx} 0.44) precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of these compounds, which retain the unique double-tunnel structure during ion exchange, were examined in lithium/polymer electrolyte cells operating at 85 C. All of the substituted cathode materials intercalated lithium reversibly, with Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.78}O{sub 2} exhibiting the highest capacity in polymer cells, about 10-20% greater than that of unsubstituted Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} made from Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2}. In common with Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2}, the Ti-substituted materials exhibited good capacity retention over one hundred or more cycles, with some compositions exhibiting a fade rate of less than 0.03% per cycle.

Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Hwang, Kwang-Taek

2004-03-01

383

Intratumoral Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Hyperthermia and Radiation Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

The potential synergism and benefit of combined hyperthermia and radiation for cancer treatment is well established, but has yet to be optimized clinically. Specifically, the delivery of heat via external arrays /applicators or interstitial antennas has not demonstrated the spatial precision or specificity necessary to achieve appropriate a highly positive therapeutic ratio. Recently, antibody directed and possibly even non-antibody directed iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia has shown significant promise as a tumor treatment modality. Our studies are designed to determine the effects (safety and efficacy) of iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia and external beam radiation in a murine breast cancer model. Methods MTG-B murine breast cancer cells (1 × 106) were implanted subcutaneous in 7 week-old female C3H/HeJ mice and grown to a treatment size of 150 mm3 +/? 50 mm3. Tumors were then injected locally with iron oxide nanoparticles and heated via an alternating magnetic field (AMF) generator operated at approximately 160 kHz and 400 - 550 Oe. Tumor growth was monitored daily using standard 3-D caliper measurement technique and formula. specific Mouse tumors were heated using a cooled, 36 mm diameter square copper tube induction coil which provided optimal heating in a 1 cm wide region in the center of the coil. Double dextran coated 80 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (Triton Biosystems) were used in all studies. Intra-tumor, peri-tumor and rectal (core body) temperatures were continually measured throughout the treatment period. Results Preliminary in vivo nanoparticle-AMF hyperthermia (167 KHz and 400 or 550 Oe) studies demonstrated dose responsive cytotoxicity which enhanced the effects of external beam radiation. AMF associated eddy currents resulted in nonspecific temperature increases in exposed tissues which did not contain nanoparticles, however these effects were minor and not injurious to the mice. These studies also suggest that iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia is more effective than nonnanoparticle tumor heating techniques when similar thermal doses are applied. Initial electron and light microscopy studies of iron oxide nanoparticle and AMF exposed tumor cells show a rapid uptake of particles and acute cytotoxicity following AMF exposure.

Hoopes, PJ; Strawbridge, RR; Gibson, UJ; Zeng, Q; Pierce, ZE; Savellano, M; Tate, JA; Ogden, JA; Baker, I; Ivkov, R; Foreman, AR

2014-01-01

384

Electrochemical processing of solid waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation into electrolysis as a means of waste treatment and recycling on manned space missions is described. The electrochemical reactions of an artificial fecal waste mixture was examined. Waste electrolysis experiments were performed in a single compartment reactor, on platinum electrodes, to determine conditions likely to maximize the efficiency of oxidation of fecal waste material to CO2. The maximum current efficiencies for artificial fecal waste electrolysis to CO2 was found to be around 50 percent in the test apparatus. Experiments involving fecal waste oxidation on platinum indicates that electrodes with a higher overvoltage for oxygen evolution such as lead dioxide will give a larger effective potential range for organic oxidation reactions. An electrochemical packed column reactor was constructed with lead dioxide as electrode material. Preliminary experiments were performed using a packed-bed reactor and continuous flow techniques showing this system may be effective in complete oxidation of fecal material. The addition of redox mediator Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) enhances the oxidation process of biomass components. Scientific literature relevant to biomass and fecal waste electrolysis were reviewed.

Bockris, J. OM.; Hitchens, G. D.; Kaba, L.

1988-01-01

385

Electrochemical oxidation of calixarenes: stabilisation by intramolecular ?–? interactions of electrogenerated phenoxylium cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(p-toluenesulfonyl)-26,28-bis(hydroxy)calix[4]arene (3) has been prepared from p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride. The oxidative electrochemistry of 3 was studied in dichloromethane solution at a platinum electrode. As shown by detailed voltammetric, coulometric and spectroelectrochemical experiments the hydroxyl groups of 3 behave as non interacting sites, each hydroxyl group undergoing an irreversible two-electron transfer governed by an ECE mechanism to form the corresponding

Rame Vataj; Alain Louati; Catherine Jeunesse; Dominique Matt

2004-01-01

386

Structural and electrochemical effects of cobalt doping on lithium manganese oxide spinel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure LiMn2O4 and lithium manganese oxide spinels with partial replacement of manganese by cobalt up to 20 mole%, LiCoxMn2?xO4, were prepared. The effect of extended cycling on the crystal structure was investigated. A capacity decrease with increasing\\u000a cobalt content was observed in the potential range about 4100 mV vs. Li\\/Li+. Cycling behavior is significantly improved, compared to LiMn2O4. LiCoxMn2?xO4 is

A. Butz; M. Wohlfahrt-Mehrens; R. Oesten; R. A. Huggins

1996-01-01

387

First-principles density functional theory study of cobalt (hydr)oxides and titanium dioxide for electrochemical oxygen evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinel cobalt oxide Co3O4 is a magnetic semiconductor containing cobalt ions in Co2+ and Co3+ oxidation states. We have studied the electronic, magnetic and bonding properties of Co3O4 using density functional theory (DFT) at the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), GGA+U, and PBE0 hybrid functional levels. (110) is a frequently exposed surface in Co3O4 nanomaterials. We employed DFT+U to study the atomic structures, energetics, magnetic and electronic properties of the two possible terminations, A and B, of this surface. These calculations predict A as the stable termination in a wide range of oxygen chemical potentials, consistent with recent experimental observations. The Co3+ ions do not have a magnetic moment in the bulk, but become magnetic at the surface, which leads to surface magnetic orderings different from the one in the bulk. Surface electronic states are present in the lower half of the bulk band gap and cause partial metallization of both surface terminations. These states are responsible for the charge compensation mechanism stabilizing both polar terminations. We also carried out DFT+U to study the interaction of water with the (110) surface of Co3O4, a widely used oxidation catalyst. Dissociative water adsorption is preferred from low coverage up to one monolayer on the A termination and up to one-half monolayer coverage on the B termination. On the latter, a mixed molecular and dissociated monolayer is more stable at full coverage. The computed structures are used to investigate the free energy changes during water oxidation on both surface terminations. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations we determine the relative Gibbs free energies of CoO, Co(OH)2, Co 3O4, CoO(OH) and CoO2 in electrochemical environment. We find that CoO(OH) and CoO2 are the stable phases under oxidation conditions. These results, combined with surface structure studies of CoO(OH) (0001), show that a CoO2x-- (x=0~0.5) layer is present when the surface is exposed to solution under oxidation conditions. Study of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) reveals however that natural surface of a CoO2x-- layer has a high overpotential, due to the difficulty of first deprotonation to form a surface OH species. Taken previous study of CoO(OH) (0112) surface into consideration, the OER reactivity of CoO(OH) could come from surface step-edge and defects. As a promising candidate electrode material for photoelectrochemical water splitting, TiO2 is perhaps the most studied oxide semiconductor in photocatalysis. Recent computational studies of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have shown that the first proton-coupled electron transfer is responsible for the high overpotential of the OER on TiO2 surfaces. Here, we report a study of the chemical dynamics of the first proton and electron transfers across the TiO2-water interface. Using a periodic model that includes an anatase slab and explicit water molecules, we sample the solvent configurations by ab-initio molecular dynamics and determine the energy profiles of the two electronic states involved in the electron transfer by the hybrid PBE0 functional. Our calculated energy profiles suggest that the first proton and electron transfers are sequential, with the electron transfer (ET) following the proton transfer (PT). The ET is facilitated by a shared-hole state, and there is no significant solvent reorganization barrier during the ET.

Chen, Jia

388

Oxidized graphene in ionic liquids for assembling chemically modified electrodes: a structural and electrochemical characterization study.  

PubMed

Dispersions of graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons in ionic liquids, ILs (either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM-Cl-) or 1-butylpyridinium chloride (-Bupy-Cl-)) have been used to assemble modified screen printed electrodes (SPEs). The graphene oxide/ionic liquid dispersions have been morphologically and structurally characterized by the use of several techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, high-resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The assembled modified SPEs have then been challenged with various compounds and compared to several electro-active targets. In all cases high peak currents were detected, as well as significant potential shifts, especially in the detection of catecholamines and NADH, compared with the bare SPE and the conventional electrodes, such as glassy carbon (GC) and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG). This opens the way to the assembly of new types of sensors and biosensors. The enhanced performances observed are attributed to electrocatalytic effects related to the high electrode surface area, to oxygen-assisted electron transfer, as well as to the disordering effect of the ILs, this latter related to the favorable ?-? interactions with the ILs and the GO plane. PMID:22726213

Valentini, F; Roscioli, D; Carbone, M; Conte, V; Floris, B; Palleschi, G; Flammini, R; Bauer, E M; Nasillo, G; Caponetti, E

2012-07-01

389

AlOOH-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: one-pot hydrothermal synthesis and their enhanced electrochemical activity for heavy metal ions.  

PubMed

This work described the preparation, characterization, and electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions of the AlOOH-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites. This new material was synthesized through a green one-pot hydrothermal method. The morphologic and structure of the nanocomposites were characterized using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical and electrochemical parameters that have influence on deposition and stripping of metal ions, such as pH value, deposition potential, and deposition time, were also studied. Due to the strong affinity of AlOOH to heavy metal ions and the fast electron-transfer kinetics of graphene, the combination of solid-phase extraction and stripping voltammetric analysis allowed fast and sensitive determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in drinking water, making these new nanocomposites promising candidates for practical applications in the fields of detecting heavy metal ions. Most importantly, these new nanocomposites may possess many unknown properties waiting to be explored. PMID:22924704

Gao, Chao; Yu, Xin-Yao; Xu, Ren-Xia; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

2012-09-26

390

The polymerization and electrochemical characterization of polypyrrole and polypyrrole/poly(ethylene oxide)pyrrole copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work contained within this document discusses the polymerization and subsequent characterization of Polypyrrole based electrodes for lithium batteries. Polypyrrole and Polypyrrole/polyethyloxy copolymers were compared and contrasted in an attempt to show the superior kinetics of the copolymer electrode. It was found that the diffusion of dopant ions across the electrode and electrolyte interface was increased by on order of magnitude in the copolymer sample. It was also found that the reversibility of the Polypyrrole electrode was greater than that of the copolymer electrode. While the diffusion coefficient of the copolymer electrode was altered to be comparable to that of the transition metal oxide cathodes in production today, the capacity of the copolymer material is still too low to be considered as an alternative cathode material in the lithium battery industry.

Huntoon, Trey William Stevens

1998-11-01

391

Mineralogical Characterization of Manganese Oxides in Mine Water Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of manganese(II) from mine water is a significant problem for both operating and abandoned mines across the United States. In many situations, manganese removal represents the most costly aspect of mine water treatment. Active treatment of Mn-containing mine water requires adjustment of pH to 9-10, and results in the abiotic precipitation of manganese oxides (MnOx). After manganese removal, this high pH water must be neutralized before release. Alternatively, passive limestone beds can be used for neutralization of low-pH mine water and subsequent manganese removal. Although limestone beds are effective for Mn removal, the processes involved are not clear (e.g., relative importance of biological Mn(II) oxidation versus surface mediated oxidation) and the characteristics of the manganese "crusts" formed are not well studied. In this field-based study, we have collected natural manganese oxides from two different limestone beds designed to treat mine water from abandoned coal strip mines in Pennsylvania. Samples were collected at different locations in the beds and at different seasons to capture possible variations in mineralogical characteristics. Water samples were also collected to measure the corresponding solution chemistry and revealed that manganese removal was strongly temperature dependent. Solid samples have been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by X-ray diffraction. Micro-diffraction XRD has been used to tentatively identify disordered buserite as a predominant mineral in many of these crust samples. Additional characterizations will include particle size distribution and surface charge. Synchroton-based X-ray techniques such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) may also be pursued.

Tan, H.; Heaney, P.; Post, J.; Burgos, W.

2006-05-01

392

Study of degradation intermediates formed during electrochemical oxidation of pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) at boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum-iridium anodes.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technique for degradation of otherwise recalcitrant organic micropollutants in waters. In this study, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation was investigated concerning the degradation of the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) through the electrochemical oxygen transfer process with two anode materials: Ti/Pt90-Ir10 and boron doped diamond (Si/BDD). Besides the efficiency of the degradation of the main pollutant, it is also of outmost importance to control the formation and fate of stable degradation intermediates. These were investigated quantitatively with HPLC-MS and TOC measurements and qualitatively with a combined HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS protocol. 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide was found to be degraded most efficiently by the BDD cell, which also resulted in significantly lower amounts of intermediates formed during the process. The anodic degradation pathway was found to occur via substitution of hydroxyl groups until ring cleavage leading to carboxylic acids. For the BDD cell, there was a parallel cathodic degradation pathway that occurred via dechlorination. The combination of TOC with the combined HPLC-UV/MS was found to be a powerful method for determining the amount and nature of degradation intermediates. PMID:24873711

Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Muff, Jens

2014-08-01

393

Electrochemical degradation of nitrobenzene by anodic oxidation on the constructed TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode.  

PubMed

The interlayer of Sb-doped SnO2 (SnO2-Sb) and TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NTs) on Ti has been introduced into the PbO2 electrode system with the aim to reveal the mechanism of enhanced electrochemical performance of TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode. In contrast with the traditional Ti/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode, the constructed PbO2 electrode has a more regular and compact morphology with better oriented crystals of lower size. The TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb interlayer prepared by electrodeposition process improves PbO2 coating structure effectively, and enhances the electrochemical performance of PbO2 electrode. Kinetic analyses indicated that the electrochemical oxidation of nitrobenzene on the PbO2 electrodes followed pseudo-first-order reaction, and mass transport was enhanced at the constructed electrode. The accumulation of nitrocompounds of degradation intermediates on constructed electrode was lower, and almost all of the nitro groups were eliminated from aromatic rings after 6h of electrolysis. Higher combustion efficiency was obtained on the constructed TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode. The intermediates of nitrobenzene oxidation were confirmed by IC and GC/MS. PMID:25065789

Chen, Yong; Li, Hongyi; Liu, Weijing; Tu, Yong; Zhang, Yaohui; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

2014-10-01

394

pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.  

PubMed

A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor. PMID:24502773

Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

2014-02-18

395

Simulation of oxidative stress of guanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine by electrochemically assisted injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in DNA and RNA damage within biological cells. As a consequence, mutations of DNA can occur, leading to disorders like cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The oxidative attack of guanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine is simulated by electrochemistry coupled to capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. The electrochemical conversion of the compound of interest is implemented in the injection protocol termed electrochemically assisted injection (EAI). In this way, oxidation products of guanosine can be generated electrochemically, separated by capillary electrophoresis, and detected by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (EAI-CE-MS). A fully automated laboratory-made EAI cell with an integrated buffer reservoir and a compartment holding screen-printed electrodes is used for the injection. In this study, parameters like pH of the sample solution and the redox potential applied during the injection were investigated in terms of corresponding formation of well-known markers of DNA damage. The important product species, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, was investigated in a separate study to distinguish between primary and secondary oxidation products. A comparison of product species formed under alkaline, neutral, and acidic conditions is presented. To compare real biological systems with an analytical approach for simulation of oxidative stress, it is desirable to have a well-defined control over the redox potential and to use solutions, which are close to physiological conditions. In contrast to typical HPLC-MS protocols, the hyphenation of EAI, CE, and MS enables the generation and separation of species involved without the use of organic solvents. Thus, information of the electrochemical behavior of the nucleoside guanosine as well as the primary oxidation product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine can be characterized under conditions close to the physiological situation. In addition, the migration behavior found in CE separations of product species can be used to identify compounds if several possible species have the same mass-to-charge values determined by MS detection. PMID:24276253

Scholz, Rebekka; Palatzky, Peter; Matysik, Frank-Michael

2014-01-01

396

Hall effect in electrochemically oxidized La 2CuO 4+ ? and (La 1- xSr x) 2CuO 4+ ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared the superconducting La 2CuO 4+ ? electrochemically oxidized at 333 K. Each sample is a single-phase superconductor; the low- Tc phase ( Tc=32 or 36 K, oxidation time=24 h, ?=0.068) or the high- Tc phase (45 K, 72 h, 0.093). We have studied the relation between the hole concentration nH, determined by the Hall effect measurement as nH?1/ eRH and the valence of Cu 2+ p, determined by the iodometric titration in La 2CuO 4+ ?. In highly oxidized La 2CuO 4+ ?, the p/2-dependence of nH has been found to be different from that of the ordinary (La 1- xSr x) 2CuO 4. Similar phenomena were observed in (La 1- xSr x) 2CuO 4+ ? ( x=0.050, 0.075, 0.100) electrochemically oxidized at 333 K. These results suggest that in La 2CuO 4+ ? or (La 1- xSr x) 2CuO 4+ ?, the intercalated excess oxygen plays a different role in conduction from Sr in the ordinary (La 1- xSr x) 2CuO 4.

Hirayama, Toshikazu; Nakagawa, Masahito; Oda, Yasukage

2000-06-01

397

A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on zinc oxide nanotetrapods for l-lactic acid detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An amperometric biosensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapods was designed to detect l-lactic acid. The lactate oxidase was immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanotetrapods by electrostatic adsorption. Unlike traditional detectors, the special four-leg individual ZnO nanostructure, as an adsorption layer, provides multiterminal charge transfer channels. Furthermore, a large amount of ZnO tetrapods are randomly stacked to form a three-dimensional network naturally that facilitates the exchange of electrons and ions in the phosphate buffer solution. Utilizing amperometric response measurements, the prepared ZnO nanotetrapod l-lactic acid biosensor displayed a detection limit of 1.2 ?M, a low apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.58 mM, a high sensitivity of 28.0 ?A cm-2 mM-1 and a good linear relationship in the range of 3.6 ?M-0.6 mM for the l-lactic acid detection. This study shows that the biosensor based on ZnO tetrapod nanostructures is highly sensitive and able to respond rapidly in detecting lactic acid.

Lei, Yang; Luo, Ning; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Yanguang; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Yue

2012-05-01

398

A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on zinc oxide nanotetrapods for L-lactic acid detection.  

PubMed

An amperometric biosensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapods was designed to detect L-lactic acid. The lactate oxidase was immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanotetrapods by electrostatic adsorption. Unlike traditional detectors, the special four-leg individual ZnO nanostructure, as an adsorption layer, provides multiterminal charge transfer channels. Furthermore, a large amount of ZnO tetrapods are randomly stacked to form a three-dimensional network naturally that facilitates the exchange of electrons and ions in the phosphate buffer solution. Utilizing amperometric response measurements, the prepared ZnO nanotetrapod L-lactic acid biosensor displayed a detection limit of 1.2 ?M, a low apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.58 mM, a high sensitivity of 28.0 ?A cm(-2) mM(-1) and a good linear relationship in the range of 3.6 ?M-0.6 mM for the L-lactic acid detection. This study shows that the biosensor based on ZnO tetrapod nanostructures is highly sensitive and able to respond rapidly in detecting lactic acid. PMID:22538963

Lei, Yang; Luo, Ning; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Yanguang; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Yue

2012-06-01

399

Effect of graphene oxide on the structural and electrochemical behavior of polypyrrole deposited on cotton fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the electrical response of polypyrrole-cotton composite is the key issue in making flexible electrode with favorable mechanical strength and large capacitance. Flexible graphene oxide/cotton (GO/Cotton) composite has been prepared by dipping pristine cotton in GO ink. The composite‘s surface was further modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) via chemical polymerization to obtain Ppy/GO/Cotton composite. The composite was characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD measurements, while the influence of GO in modifying the physicochemical properties of the composite was also examined using TG and cyclic voltammetry. The achieved mean particle size for Ppy/Cotton, Ppy/GO/Cotton and GO estimated using Scherrer formula are 58, 67 and 554 nm, respectively. FTIR spectra revealed prominent fundamental absorption bands in the range of 1400-1800 cm-1. The increased electrical conductivity as much as 2.2 × 10-1 S cm-1 for Ppy/GO/Cotton composite measured by complex impedance, is attributed to the formation of continuous conducting network. The partial reduction of GO on the surface of cotton (GO/Cotton) during chemical polymerization can also affect the conductivity. This simple, economic and environmental-friendly preparation method may contribute towards the controlled growth of quality and stable Ppy/GO/Cotton composites for potential applications in microwave attenuation, energy storage system, static electric charge dissipation and electrotherapy.

Yaghoubidoust, Fatemeh; Wicaksono, Dedy H. B.; Chandren, Sheela; Nur, Hadi

2014-10-01

400

Graphene oxide as nanogold carrier for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of Shewanella oneidensis with silver enhancement strategy.  

PubMed

The genus Shewanella is ubiquitous in environment and has been extensively studied for their applications in bioremediation. A novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Shewanella oneidensis was presented based on graphene oxide (GO) as nanogold carrier with silver enhancement strategy. The enhanced sensitivity was achieved by employing conjugate-featuring gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and antibodies (Ab) assembled on bovine serum albumin (BSA)-modified GO (Ab/AuNPs/BSA/GO). After a sandwich-type antigen-antibody reaction, Ab/AuNPs/BSA/GO conjugate binding on the target analyte produced an enhanced immune-recognition response by the reduction of silver ion in the present of hydroquinone. The deposited silver metal was dissolved with nitric acid and subsequently quantified by anodic stripping voltammetry. The high AuNPs loading capacity of GO and the obvious signal amplification by gold-catalyzed silver deposition offer an excellent detection method with a wide range of linear relationship between 7.0 × 10(1) and 7.0 × 10(7)cfu/mL. Furthermore, the immunoassay developed in this work exhibited high sensitivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. This simple and sensitive assay method has promising application in various fields for rapid detection of bacteria, protein and DNA. PMID:24016538

Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui; Yuan, Yong

2014-02-15

401

Electrochemical Processes for Removing  

E-print Network

Introduction Most unit operations for water treatment either add chemicals or produce a saline liquid waste2013 Electrochemical Processes for Removing Dissolved Minerals from Potable Water WATER Minerals from Potable Water 1 Electrochemical Processes for Removing Dissolved Minerals from Potable Water

Fay, Noah

402

CHARACTERIZATION OF OXIDATION REDUCTION PROCESSES IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands designed and properly operated for treatment of swine wastewater may enhance oxidation -reduction processes and nutrient treatment performance. The objective of this investigation was to characterize soil wetland processes related to nitrogen (N) treatment (nitrification-denitrification) and phosphorus (P) removal using soil oxidation -reduction potential (ORP) data. We evaluated three surface-flow wetland systems constructed for treatment of swine wastewater

A. A. Szögi; P. G. Hunt; E. J. Sadler; D. E. Evans

403

Synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures on graphene/glass substrate by electrochemical deposition: effects of current density and temperature  

PubMed Central

The electrochemical growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on graphene on glass using zinc nitrate hexahydrate was studied. The effects of current densities and temperatures on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of the ZnO structures were studied. Vertically aligned nanorods were obtained at a low temperature of 75°C, and the diameters increased with current density. Growth temperature seems to have a strong effect in generating well-defined hexagonal-shape nanorods with a smooth top edge surface. A film-like structure was observed for high current densities above -1.0 mA/cm2 and temperatures above 80°C due to the coalescence between the neighboring nanorods with large diameter. The nanorods grown at a temperature of 75°C with a low current density of -0.1 mA/cm2 exhibited the highest density of 1.45?×?109 cm-2. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the grown ZnO crystallites were highly oriented along the c-axis. The intensity ratio of the ultraviolet (UV) region emission to the visible region emission, IUV/IVIS, showed a decrement with the current densities for all grown samples. The samples grown at the current density below -0.5 mA/cm2 showed high IUV/IVIS values closer to or higher than 1.0, suggesting their fewer structural defects. For all the ZnO/graphene structures, the high transmittance up to 65% was obtained at the light wavelength of 550 nm. Structural and optical properties of the grown ZnO structures seem to be effectively controlled by the current density rather than the growth temperature. ZnO nanorod/graphene hybrid structure on glass is expected to be a promising structure for solar cell which is a conceivable candidate to address the global need for an inexpensive alternative energy source. PMID:25411567

2014-01-01

404

Detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase using a suite of electrochemical, fluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors.  

PubMed

A suite of biosensors for rapid detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is described. First, a metal-enhanced electrochemical detection (MED) sensor, which relied on the redox properties of a silver monolayer, was developed. The linear detection range was between 8.64×10(-2) and 5.4×10(1)ng/ml with a detection limit of 1.69×10(-4)ng/ml. This method was compared with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors in which polyclonal mouse anti-iNOS was covalently immobilized onto a gold surface using an iNOS antigen. The linear detection range recorded was between 3.37×10(1) and 5.4×10(-2)ng/ml with a detection limit of 2×10(-3)ng/ml. Finally, an ultrasensitive portable capillary (UPAC) fluorescence immunosensor, in which a mouse anti-iNOS antibody was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of a capillary and a rabbit anti-iNOS antibody was employed as the secondary antibody, was developed. The resulting signals were found to be directly proportional to iNOS concentrations between 1.52×10(-1) and 1.52×10(-2)ng/ml with a detection limit of 1.05×10(-3)ng/ml. These immunosensors exhibit low cross-reactivity toward potential interferents such as human serum albumin and ovalbumin. The SPR and UPAC biosensors were validated using simulated blood spiked with recombinant iNOS, resulting in recoveries of 85% and 88.5%, respectively. The research presented in this article could potentially provide new ways of detecting NO for diagnostic and biomarker purposes in medical research. PMID:21316333

Noah, Naumih M; Alam, Saamia; Sadik, Omowunmi A

2011-06-15

405

Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical sensing platform based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide film modified screen-printed electrode was developed. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating bismuth film, the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate stripping peaks for cadmium and lead. Several parameters, including electrolytes environment and electrodeposition conditions, were carefully optimized to achieve best stripping performance. The linear range for both metal ions at the disposable bismuth film electrode was from 1.0 ?g L(-1) to 60.0 ?g L(-1). The detection limit was 0.5 ?g L(-1) for cadmium ion and 0.8 ?g L(-1) for lead ion. Milk sample analysis demonstrates that the developed electrode could be effectively used to detect low levels (?g L(-1)) of cadmium ion and lead ion. Graphene based disposable bismuth film electrode is a sensitive, stable, and reliable sensing platform for heavy metals determination. PMID:24423503

Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

2014-05-15

406