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Sample records for electrodynamic tether system

  1. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture is an artist's concept of an orbiting vehicle using the Electrodynamic Tethers Propulsion System. Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to push against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant.

  2. Electrodynamic tether system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to define an Electrodynamic Tether System (ETS) that could be erected from the space station and/or platforms to function as an energy storage device. A schematic representation of the ETS concept mounted on the space station is presented. In addition to the hardware design and configuration efforts, studies are also documented involving simulations of the Earth's magnetic fields and the effects this has on overall system efficiency calculations. Also discussed are some preliminary computer simulations of orbit perturbations caused by the cyclic/night operations of the ETS. System cost estimates, an outline for future development testing for the ETS system, and conclusions and recommendations are also provided.

  3. Systems analysis of electrodynamic tethers

    SciTech Connect

    Samantha, R.I.; Hastings, D.E.; Ahedo, E. )

    1992-06-01

    A dynamic simulation model is developed and employed in a new system study to investigate the performance of electrodynamic tethers, both as power generators and thrusters. The electron collection performance of a contactor and a bare wire tether, both separately and in combination, are compared and contrasted. The power and thrust generated by a bare wire tether is found to have a higher dependence on the geomagnetic and ionospheric fluctuations. However, depending on the performance of the contactor, the combination of a bare tether and contactor can substantially boost performance for power generation. As a pure thruster, the contactor tether is examined at constant current, voltage, thrust, and power. It is found that the best mode of operation is with constant power, with resulting power/thrust ratios better than those for ion or magnetoplasmadynamic engines. It is concluded that tethers offer greater potential than previously envisioned. 13 refs.

  4. Combination Solar Sail and Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles L. (Inventor); Matloff, Gregory L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A propulsion system for a spacecraft includes a solar sail system and an electrodynamic tether system is presented. The solar sail system is used to generate propulsion to propel the spacecraft through space using solar photons and the electrodynamic tether system is used to generate propulsion to steer the spacecraft into orbit and to perform orbital maneuvers around a planet using the planet's magnetic field. The electrodynamic tether system can also be used to generate power for the spacecraft using the planet's magnetic field.

  5. Electrodynamic Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles L. (Inventor); Ballance, Judy L. (Inventor); Welzyn, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Vaughn, Jason A. (Inventor); Lorenzini, Enrico (Inventor); Schuler, Peter S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A tether system for providing thrust to or power subsystems of an artificial satellite in a low earth orbit. The tether has three main sections, an insulated section connected to the satellite, a conducting section connected to the insulating section for drawing in and releasing electrons from the space plasma and a non-conducting section for providing a tension to the other sections of the tether. An oxygen resistant coating is applied to the bare wire of the conducting section as well as the insulated wires of the insulated section that prevents breakdown during tether operations in the space plasma. The insulated and bare wire sections also surround a high tensile flexible polymer core to prevent any debris from breaking the tether during use.

  6. Lyapunov Orbits in the Jupiter System Using Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokelmann, Kevin; Russell, Ryan P.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Various researchers have proposed the use of electrodynamic tethers for power generation and capture from interplanetary transfers. The effect of tether forces on periodic orbits in Jupiter-satellite systems are investigated. A perturbation force is added to the restricted three-body problem model and a series of simplifications allows development of a conservative system that retains the Jacobi integral. Expressions are developed to find modified locations of equilibrium positions. Modified families of Lyapunov orbits are generated as functions of tether size and Jacobi integral. Zero velocity curves and stability analyses are used to evaluate the dynamical properties of tether-modified orbits.

  7. Electrodynamic Bare Tether Systems as a Thruster for the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost(MXER)Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of electrodynamic tether propulsion has a number of attractive features and has been widely discussed for different applications. Different system designs have been proposed and compared during the last 10 years. In spite of this, the choice of proper design for any particular mission is a unique problem. Such characteristics of tether performance as system acceleration, efficiency, etc., should be calculated and compared on the basis of the known capability of a tether to collect electrical current. We discuss the choice of parameters for circular and tape tethers with regard to the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) tether project.

  8. Conductive Tether Coating for Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schuler, Pete

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), which is an on-orbit demonstration of the propulsion capabilities of electrodynamic tethers in space, is a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned expendable booster. The ProSEDS tether consists of a 5 km bare electrodynamic tether and a 1 0-km non-conductive leader tether. Near the Delta 11, 160 m of the conductive tether is insulated to prevent plasma electron collection from the plasma contactor and for other science requirements. The remainder of the 5-km conductive tether is coated with a new conductive coating to collect plasma electrons. A bare metal tether easily collects electrons from the plasma, but thermal concerns preclude this design. A highly emissive conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems, Inc. has been optimized for both conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with an atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR (Colorless Oxygen Resistant) and polyanaline (PANI) known as C-COR (Conductive-Colorless Oxygen Resistant). The conductive-coated wire strands are cold-welded to individually coated strands of the insulated tether. The insulated tether is coated with 1 mil of polyimide and an atomic oxygen resistant polymer TOR-BP. The insulated tether must stand off the entire voltage of the tether (1 200 V) at various times during the mission. All seven wires are twisted around a Kevlar-29 core using the Hi-wire design. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify both the conductive coating and insulating coating for use on the ProSEDS tether. The conductive coating has been exposed to a plasma to verify the coatings ability to collect electrons from the space plasma from 0 to 1500 V, and to verify the coatings ability to collect electrons after atomic oxygen exposure. The insulated coating has been

  9. Electrodynamic Propulsion System Tether Experiment (T-REX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Fujii, H. A.; Sanmartin, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    A Japanese-led international team is developing a suborbital test of orbital-motion-limited (OML) bare wire anode current collection for application to electrodynamic tether (EDT) propulsion. The tether is a tape with a width of 25 mm, thickness of 0.05 mm, and is 300 m in length. This will be the first space test of OML theory. The mission will launch in the summer of 2010 using an S520 Sounding Rocket. During ascent, and above approximately 100 km in attitude, the tape tether will be deployed at a rate of approximately8 m/s. Once deployed, the tape tether will serve as an anode, collecting ionospheric electrons. The electrons will be expelled into space by a hollow cathode device, thereby completing the circuit and allowing current to flow. The total amount of current collected will be used to assess the validity of OML theory. This paper will describe the objectives of the proposed mission, the technologies to be employed, and the application of the results to future space missions using EDTs for propulsion or power generation

  10. The tethered satellite electrodynamics experiment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, John M.

    1988-01-01

    NASA and Italy's PSN have undertaken the Tethered Satellite Electrodynamics Experiment, in which two tethered bodies will be equipped with data-collecting scientific instruments, as the first stage of the development of the Tethered Satellite System that can be deployed by the Space Shuttle. The experiment will give attention to the electromagnetic interaction between the satellite/tether/orbiter system and the ambient space plasma, and should demonstrate the operation of both satellite- and Shuttle-borne electrodynamic instruments with a conductive tether.

  11. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  12. Calculating the electromagnetic field on the earth due to an electrodynamic tethered system in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the electromagnetic wave field on the earth's surface associated with the operation of an electrodynamic tethered satellite system of constant or slowly varying current in the upper ionosphere. The wave field at the ionospheric boundary and on the earth's surface is obtained by numerical integration. The results suggest that the ionospheric waves do not propagate into the atmosphere and that the image of the Alfven wings from a steady-current tether should be greatly broadened on the earth's surface.

  13. Polymeric Coatings for Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Schuler, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Two polymeric coatings have been developed for the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission. ProSEDS is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster scheduled for launch in August 2000. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, the other end of which is attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire individually coated with 8.7 micrometers (0.35 mil) of an atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of 87% Clear Oxygen-Resistant polymer (COR) and 13% polyanaline (PANi), wrapped around a braided Kevlar (TM) 49 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure was performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Conductivity was measured before and after atomic oxygen exposure. High voltage tests, up to 1500 V, of the current collecting ability of the COR/PANi have been completed. Approximately 160 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta 11 second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulation is composed of polyimide overcoated with TOR-BP, another polymeric coating developed by Triton for this mission. TOR-BP acts as both insulator

  14. An electrodynamic tether system for propulsion and power generation in a Jovian mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castronuovo, M. M.; Laneve, G.; Ulivieri, C.

    2002-01-01

    The paper concerns an innovative propulsive/power system exploiting the magnetic field and the charged atmosphere present on some planets of our solar system. In fact a conductive tether moving in the above mentioned environment is able to provide a low thrust for orbital control and/or power generation for on-board systems. This solution is considered particularly promising for the exploration of outer planets where the low solar luminosity makes the use of solar panels unsuitable. On the other end the use of radioactive thermoelectric generators (RTG) might be ruled out on future missions due to the finite risk of releasing plutonium into the terrestrial environment. The main objective of the present paper is the assessment of the feasibility and applicability of an electrodynamic tether system to missions devoted to the exploration of the Jovian system. Among the outer planets, at the present stage of knowledge, Jupiter is by far the most promising target for the proposed system application. In fact, it has a large and energetic magnetosphere ideally suited for electrodynamic tether operations and due to its rapid rotation, its magnetic field sweeps the tether rather than being swept by it (as in the Earth case). The net effect will be the increase of spacecraft momentum, thus allowing the raise of its orbit, and/or on-board power generation, without any expenditure of propellants. .

  15. Space Station Reboost with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vas, Irwin E.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Scarl, Ethan A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an electrodynamic tether system to reboost the International Space Station (ISS). One recommendation is to use a partially bare tether for electron collection. Locations are suggested as to where the tether system is to be attached at the space station. The effects of the tether system on the microgravity environment may actually be beneficial, because the system can neutralize aerodrag during quiescent periods and, if deployed from a movable boom, can permit optimization of laboratory positioning with respect to acceleration contours. Alternative approaches to tether deployment and retrieval are discussed. It is shown that a relatively short tether system, 7 km long, operating at a power level of 5 kW could provide cumulative savings or over a billion dollars during a 10-year period ending in 2012. This savings is the direct result of a reduction in the number or nights that would otherwise be required to deliver propellant for reboost, with larger cost savings for higher tether usage. In addition to economic considerations, an electrodynamic tether promises a practical backup system that could ensure ISS survival in the event of an (otherwise) catastrophic delay in propellant delivery.

  16. Dynamics of an Electrodynamic Tether System in a Varying Space-Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeski, John A.

    Electrodynamic tethers have a wide range of proposed applications in the fields of satellite propulsion and space plasma research. The fundamental purpose of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of the behavior of an electrodynamic tether (EDT) system in Earth's ionosphere. An electrodynamic tether system consists of two satellites connected by a long tether that generates current to produce either power or thrust via the system's electromagnetic interaction with the space environment. Previous electrodynamic tether investigations decouple the interaction between the tether and the constantly changing plasma environment. The limiting factor inhibiting the development of a full system model that has an accurate characterization of the tether/plasma interaction is that the understanding of that interaction is not well developed over a wide range of system parameters. The EDT system model developed in this study uses a high fidelity dynamics model that includes a tether current described by an analytical current collection model whose plasma parameters are determine by the International Reference Ionosphere. It is first shown that new instabilities are induced in the system dynamics under a basic analytical current model versus a constant current model. A 2-D3v Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code has been developed to study the plasma dynamics near a positively charged EDT system end-body and their impact on the current collected. Simulations are run over a range of system parameters that occur throughout a LEO orbit. The azimuthal current structures observed during the TSS-1R mission are found to enhance the current collected by the satellite when the magnetic field is slightly off of perpendicular to the orbital velocity. When the in-plane component of the magnetic field becomes large, the electrons are not able to easily cross the field lines causing plasma lobes form above and below the satellite. The lobes limit the current arriving to the satellite and also

  17. Electrodynamic Tethers for Novel LEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantner, Michael; Hoyt, Robert; Scardera, Michael; Johnson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size - and cost - with deltaV makes missions requiring large total impulse cost prohibitive. Northrop Grumman and partners have matured a fundamentally different method for generating propulsion using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) that escapes the limitations of the rocket equation. With essentially unlimited delta V, we can perform new classes of missions that are currently unaffordable or unfeasible.

  18. Electrodynamics of the Getaway Tether Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Michael; Baginski, Michael; Wheelock, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    An electrodynamic circuit model of the interaction of a pair of small tethered satellites and the ionosphere is developed and analyzed. The system under study, the Getaway Tether Experiment (GATE), is composed of two small satellites and 1 km of insulated conducting tether. The nonlinear model has elements representing the emission, collection, and resistive flow of charge through an electrically conductive tether, plasma contactors, and the ionosphere. The circuit model is incorporated into a dynamic orbital simulation to predict mission performance. Simulation results show the feasibility to bilaterally transfer energy between stored electrical energy and orbital momentum. A transient model is also developed using the circuit model and a string of N lumped-parameter modules, each consisting of resistance, capacitance, and induced potential for the tether. Transients are shown via simulation to occur over millisecond intervals.

  19. Implementation Options for the PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael P.; Stone, Nobie H.

    2014-01-01

    The PROPEL flight mission concept will demonstrate the safe use of an electrodynamic tether for generating thrust. PROPEL is being designed to be a versatile electrodynamic-tether system for multiple end users and to be flexible with respect to platform. As such, several implementation options are being explored, including a comprehensive mission design for PROPEL with a mission duration of six months; a space demonstration mission concept design with configuration of a pair of tethered satellites, one of which is the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle; and an ESPA-based system. We report here on these possible implementation options for PROPEL. electrodynamic tether; PROPEL demonstration mission; propellantless propulsion

  20. Spacecraft Solar Sails Containing Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses a proposal to use large, lightweight solar sails embedded with electrodynamic tethers (essentially, networks of wires) to (1) propel robotic spacecraft to distant planets, then (2) exploit the planetary magnetic fields to capture the spacecraft into orbits around the planets. The purpose of the proposal is, of course, to make it possible to undertake long interplanetary missions without incurring the large cost and weight penalties of conventional rocket-type propulsion systems. Through transfer of momentum from reflected solar photons, a sail would generate thrust outward from the Sun. Upon arrival in the vicinity of a planet, the electrodynamic tethers would be put to use: Motion of the spacecraft across the planetary magnetic field would induce electric currents in the tether wires, giving rise to an electromagnetic drag force that would be exploited to brake the spacecraft for capture into orbit. The sail with embedded tethers would be made to spin to provide stability during capture. Depending upon the requirements of a particular application, it could be necessary to extend the tether to a diameter greater than that of the sail.

  1. Optimal Electrodynamic Tether Phasing Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitzer, Matthew S.; Hall, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    We study the minimum-time orbit phasing maneuver problem for a constant-current electrodynamic tether (EDT). The EDT is assumed to be a point mass and the electromagnetic forces acting on the tether are always perpendicular to the local magnetic field. After deriving and non-dimensionalizing the equations of motion, the only input parameters become current and the phase angle. Solution examples, including initial Lagrange costates, time of flight, thrust plots, and thrust angle profiles, are given for a wide range of current magnitudes and phase angles. The two-dimensional cases presented use a non-tilted magnetic dipole model, and the solutions are compared to existing literature. We are able to compare similar trajectories for a constant thrust phasing maneuver and we find that the time of flight is longer for the constant thrust case with similar initial thrust values and phase angles. Full three-dimensional solutions, which use a titled magnetic dipole model, are also analyzed for orbits with small inclinations.

  2. International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

  3. Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.

    2013-09-01

    Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will

  4. The effects of a realistic hollow cathode plasma contactor model on the simulation of bare electrodynamic tether systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blash, Derek M.

    The region known as Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) has become populated with artificial satellites and space debris since humanities initial venture into the region. This has turned LEO into a hazardous region. Since LEO is very valuable to many different countries, there has been a push to prevent further buildup and talk of even deorbiting spent satellites and debris already in LEO. One of the more attractive concepts available for deorbiting debris and spent satellites is a Bare Electrodynamic Tether (BET). A BET is a propellantless propulsion technique in which two objects are joined together by a thin conducting material. When these tethered objects are placed in LEO, the tether sweeps across the magnetic field lines of the Earth and induces an electromotive force (emf) along the tether. Current from the space plasma is collected on the bare tether under the action of the induced emf, and this current interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to create a drag force that can be used to deorbit spent satellites and space debris. A Plasma Contactor (PC) is used to close the electrical circuit between the BET and the ionospheric plasma. The PC requires a voltage and, depending on the device, a gas flow to emit electrons through a plasma bridge to the ionospheric plasma. The PC also can require a plasma discharge electrode and a heater to condition the PC for operation. These parameters as well as the PC performance are required to build an accurate simulation of a PC and, therefore, a BET deorbiting system. This thesis focuses on the development, validation, and implementation of a simulation tool to model the effects of a realistic hollow cathode PC system model on a BET deorbit system.

  5. Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) electrodynamic tether experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, Mario D.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) flight of June 26, 1993 has been the most sophisticated and most successful mission that has been carried out thus far with an electrodynamic tether. Three papers from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Washington, DC concerned with the PMG, submitted at the Fourth International Space Conference on Tethers in Space, in Washington, DC, in April 1995, are contained in this document. The three papers are (1) Electromagnetic interactions between the PMG tether and the magneto-ionic medium of the Ionosphere; (2) Tether-current-voltage characteristics, as determined by the Hollow Cathode Operation Modes; and (3) Hawaii-Hilo ground observations on the occasion for the PMG flight of June 23, 1993.

  6. Tethered satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A reusable system is to be developed to enable a variety of scientific investigations to be accomplished from the shuttle, considering the use of a tethered system with manual or automated control, deployment of a satellite toward or away from the Earth, up to 100 km, and conducting or nonconducting tether. Experiments and scientific investigations are to be performed using the tether system for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, and chemical release. A program is being implemented as a cooperative U.S./Italian activity. The proposed systems, investigations, and the program are charted and briefly discussed.

  7. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion and Power Generation at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Johnson, L.; Moore, J.; Bagenal, F.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a study performed to evaluate the feasibility and merits of using an electrodynamic tether for propulsion and power generation for a spacecraft in the Jovian system are presented. The environment of the Jovian system has properties which are particularly favorable for utilization of an electrodynamic tether. Specifically, the planet has a strong magnetic field and the mass of the planet dictates high orbital velocities which, when combined with the planet's rapid rotation rate, can produce very large relative velocities between the magnetic field and the spacecraft. In a circular orbit close to the planet, tether propulsive forces are found to be as high as 50 N and power levels as high as 1 MW.

  8. Electrodynamic Tether as a Thruster for LEO Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Johnson, L.

    2006-01-01

    Electrodynamic tether propulsion has a number of attractive features and has been widely discussed for different low earth orbit applications. Despite the commonality of application, the choice of the proper design for any particular mission is a unique problem. The flight trajectory, duration, available power and voltage, and drag force should be taken into consideration with other mission requirements. Characteristics of tether performance such as system acceleration and electrical efficiency should be calculated and assessed based on the system's capability to collect electrical current. We discuss the choice of parameters for circular, tape, and grid-sphere tether anodes and their applicability to International Space Station (ISS) reboost and Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) applications.

  9. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Mission and Connecting to the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Brian; Bilen, Sven; Hoyt, Rob; Stone,Nobie; Vaughn, Jason; Fuhrhop, Keith; Krause, Linda; Khazanov, George; Johnson, Les

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size.and cost.with delta-V makes missions that require large total impulse cost prohibitive. Led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, a team from government, industry, and academia has developed a flight demonstration mission concept of an integrated electrodynamic (ED) tethered satellite system called PROPEL: "Propulsion using Electrodynamics". The PROPEL Mission is focused on demonstrating a versatile configuration of an ED tether to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation, enable new classes of missions currently unaffordable or infeasible, and significantly advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to an operational level. We are also focused on establishing a far deeper understanding of critical processes and technologies to be able to scale and improve tether systems in the future. Here, we provide an overview of the proposed PROPEL mission. One of the critical processes for efficient ED tether operation is the ability to inject current to and collect current from the ionosphere. Because the PROPEL mission is planned to have both boost and deboost capability using a single tether, the tether current must be capable of flowing in both directions and at levels well over 1 A. Given the greater mobility of electrons over that of ions, this generally requires that both ends of the ED tether system can both collect and emit electrons. For example, hollow cathode plasma contactors (HCPCs) generally are viewed as state-of-the-art and high TRL devices; however, for ED tether applications important questions remain of how efficiently they can operate as both electron collectors and emitters. Other technologies will be highlighted that are being investigated as possible alternatives to the HCPC such as Solex that generates a plasma cloud from a solid material (Teflon) and electron emission (only) technologies such as cold-cathode electron field emission or photo-electron beam generation (PEBG) techniques.

  10. Laboratory experiments on the electrodynamic behavior of tethers in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, Reiner L.; Urrutia, Manuel J.

    1991-01-01

    The transient current systems between tethered plasmas in a large magnetoplasma are investigated experimentally for extrapolation to electrodynamic tethers in space. The studies measure the perturbed magnetic fields and the current density associated with pulsed currents to electrodes in three-dimensional space and time. The electrodes excite electron whistlers because they produce fields that dominantly couple to electrons, allowing pulsed currents to propagate and disperse as whistler wave packets. The wave packets evolve into force-free, flux-ropelike field configurations, and a whistler 'wedge' is formed in the plasma due to 'eddy' currents caused by insulated tethers with dc currents. Substantial radiation into the whistler mode happens with moving VLF antennas as well as tethers, and the wave spread within the ray cone is the most significant characteristic event. The wave spread widens the current channel, incites current closure, and is also associated with a 'phantom loop' phenomenon.

  11. Electrodynamics of long metallic tethers in the ionospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolny, M.

    1978-01-01

    A study is presented of the electrodynamic interactions of long metallic tethers (lengths up to 100 km) with the ionospheric plasma. The study, which is of interest in view of possible future experiments using long tethers in space, includes the derivation of current and potential distribution along the tether, taking also the effects of internal resistance into account. Electrostatic and electrodynamic drag forces are computed and compared with aerodynamic drag.

  12. Power Generation for a JUNO-type Mission using Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, C.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Sanmartin, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    Electrodynamic tethers are known to exhibit high performance in the Jupiter environment , both as propellantless propulsion devices and as power generating systems. In spite of the considerable amount of research work of electrodynamic tethers in the Jupiter environment the case involving high inclination orbit has never been addressed so far. We present a power generation scheme for rotating electrodynamic tethers which can be applied to a generic Jupiter science missions employing polar orbits. We show that when the orbit inclination reaches 90 degrees and the tether rotates in the orbital plane the effect of the tether electrodynamic force does not impact orbital energy but orbit inclination. Thanks to favorable environmental conditions at Jupiter (i.e. strong magnetic field and fast rotating plasmasphere) relatively high power levels can be obtained with tethers of modest length when the tether transits the low altitude regions around the planet. In addition the impact on orbit inclination is minimal thanks to the high specific angular momentum of jovian orbits. As a numerical example we consider an electrodynamic tether subsystem consisting of two 3- km-long 5-cm wide and 0.05-mm-thick tape tether arms deployed radially from a main central spacecraft whose orbit has the characteristic of the current baseline JUNO orbit. The tether subsystem, whose total mass is less than 50 kg, can provide kW level average power along a 120 degrees orbital arc around the equatorial plane crossing. The inclination variation induced by the Lorentz force in this case is below 1/1000 of a degree per orbit. Applications of the concept to future Jupiter exploration missions are discussed.

  13. Implementation Options for the PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael; Stone, Nobie

    2014-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") flight demonstration mission concept will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether (EDT) for generating thrust, which will allow the propulsion system to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation. The mission concept has been developed by a team of government, industry, and academia partners led by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). PROPEL is being designed for versatility of the EDT system with multiple end users in mind and to be flexible with respect to platform. Previously, we reported on a comprehensive mission design for PROPEL with a mission duration of six months or longer with multiple mission goals including demonstration of significant boost, deboost, inclination change, and drag make-up activities. To explore a range of possible configurations, primarily driven by cost considerations, other mission concept designs have been pursued. In partnership with the NASA's Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Program, NASA MSFC Leadership, and the MSFC Advanced Concepts Office, a mission concept design was developed for a near-term EDT propulsion flight validation mission. The Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion Study (ETPS) defined an EDT propulsion system capable of very large delta-V for use on future missions developed by NASA, DoD, and commercial customers. To demonstrate the feasibility of an ETPS, the study focused on a space demonstration mission concept design with configuration of a pair of tethered satellite busses, one of which is the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The HTV would fly its standard ISS resupply mission. When resupply mission is complete, the ISS reconfigures and releases the HTV to perform the EDT experiment at safe orbital altitudes below the ISS. Though the focus of this particular mission concept design addresses a scenario involving the HTV or a similar vehicle, the propulsion system's capability is relevant to a number of applications, as noted above

  14. Plasma Interactions With a Negative Biased Electrodynamic Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Curtis, Leslie; Welzyn, Ken J.

    2004-01-01

    The ProSEDS conductive tether design incorporates two distinct types of tethers from a plasma interaction viewpoint. The 200 m closest to the Delta II spacecraft is insulated from the plasma, and the remaining 4800 m is semi-bare. This latter portion is considered semi-bare because a conductive coating, which is designed to collect electrons from the plasma, was applied to the wires to regulate the overall tether temperature. Because the tether has both insulating and conductive tether sections, a transition point exists between the two that forms a triple point with the space plasma. Also, insulated tethers can arc to the space plasma if the insulation is weakened or breached by pinholes caused by either improper handling or small meteoroid and orbital debris strikes. Because electrodynamic tethers are typically long, they have a high probability of these impacts. The particles, which strike the tether, may not have sufficient size to severe the tether, but they can easily penetrate the tether insulation producing a plasma discharge to the ambient plasma. Samples of both the ProSEDS tether transition region and the insulated tether section with various size of pinholes were placed into the MSFC plasma chamber and biased to typical ProSEDS open circuit tether potentials (-500 V to -1600 V). The results of the testing showed that the transition region of the tether (i.e. the triple point) arced to the ambient plasma at -900 V, and the tethers damaged by a pinhole or simulated debris strike arced to the plasma between -700 V and -900 V. Specific design steps were taken to eliminate the triple point issue in the ProSEDS tether design and make it ready for flight. To reduce the pinhole arcing risk, ProSEDS mission operations were changed to eliminate the high negative potential on the insulated tether. The results of the testing campaign and the design changes implemented to ensure a successful flight are described.

  15. Plasma Interactions with a Negative Biased Electrodynamic Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Welzyn, Ken J.; Curtis, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    The ProSEDS conductive tether design incorporates two distinct types of tethers from a plasma interaction viewpoint. The 200 m closest to the Delta 11 spacecraft is insulated from the plasma, and the remaining 5000 m is semi-bare. This latter portion is semi-bare because it has a conductive coating applied to the wires to permit electron collection while also regulating the overall tether temperature. Because the tether possesses these two distinct types of tethers, a transition point exists between the two types that form a triple point with the space plasma. Insulated tethers can suffer from a second plasma interaction if the insulation is weakened or breached, such as by pinholes caused by small particle debris strikes. Because electrodynamic tethers are typically long, they have a high probability of such impacts. These impacting particles may not be of sufficient size to severe the tether, but they can easily be of sufficient size to damage the tether insulation. Samples of both the ProSEDS tether transition region and the insulated tether section (with various degrees of pinhole damage) were placed into the MSFC plasma chamber and biased to typical ProSEDS open circuit tether potentials (-500 V to -1600 V). The results of the testing showed that the transition region of the tether (i.e. the triple point) arced and burned the tether in two at -900 V, and the damaged insulated sections arced and burned in two between -1000 V and -1600, depending on the pinhole damage geometry. tether design and make the tether ready for flight. To reduce the pinhole arcing risk, ProSEDS mission operations were changed to eliminate the negative potential on the tether. The results of the testing campaign and the design changes implemented to ensure a successful flight will be described.

  16. Electrodynamic-tether time-domain reflectometer for analyzing tether faults and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilén, Sven G.; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2001-02-01

    We propose using time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) systems to locate and track faults along electrodynamic tether (EDT) systems. Inclusion of a TDR on long-duration EDT missions would facilitate tracking of the expected performance degradation due to faults caused by hazards such as micrometeors. The TDR technique has long been an effective tool for determining the location of loads and faults along common transmission lines (TLs) such as coaxial cables. Also sometimes known as pulse reflectometry, TDR works by sending an impulse down a TL and recording the reflected energy as a function of time. Measurement of the reflected TDR waveform provides insight into the physical structure of the TL and any loads, i.e., faults, along its length. In addition, the delay between launched and reflected signals determines the location of the load or fault. Hence, the TDR technique requires knowledge of the propagation characteristics of the TL under test. To examine the feasibility of extending the technique to EDTs we use a previously developed model for the tether transmission line. This model has temporal, and hence spatial, limitations, which may be overcome with enhancements to the tether TL model. We present some general parameters governing the development of such a tether TDR system as well as computer simulations of the TDR system's response. .

  17. System engineering study of electrodynamic tether as a spaceborne generator and radiator of electromagnetic waves in the ULF/ELF frequency band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    An electrodynamic tether deployed from a satellite in low-Earth orbit can perform, if properly instrumented, as a partially self-powered generator of electromagnetic waves in the ULF/ELF band, potentially at power levels high enough to be of practical use. Two basic problems are examined. The first is that of the level of wave power that the system can be expected to generate in the ULF/ELF radiation band. The second major question is whether an electrodynamic tethered satellite system for transmitting waves can be made partially self-powering so that power requirements for drag compensation can be met within economical constraints of mass, cost, and complexity. The theoretical developments and the system applications study are presented. The basic design criteria, the drag-compensation method, the effects on the propagation paths from orbit to Earth surface of high-altitude nuclear debris patches, and the estimate of masses and sizes are covered. An outline of recommended analytical work, to be performed as a follow-on to the present study, is contained.

  18. Exploration of the Galilean Moons using Electrodynamic Tethers for Propellantless Maneuvers and Self-Powering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Curreli, D.; Zanutto, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of using electrodynamic tethers (EDT) for the exploration of the inner region of the Jovian system. Intense planetary magnetic field and reasonable environmental plasma density make the electrodynamic interaction of the conductive tether with the plasmasphere strong. The interaction is responsible for a Lorentz force that can be conveniently used for propellantless maneuvers and extraction of electrical power for on board use. Jupiter and the four Galilean Moons represent an exceptional gravitational environment for the study of the orbital dynamics of an EDT. The dynamics of such a system was analyzed using a 3-body model, consisting of the planet plus one of its moons (Io in this work) and the EDT itself. New and interesting features appear, like for example the possibility to place the tether in equilibrium with respect to a frame co-rotating with the moon at points that do not coincide with the classical Lagrangian points for non-null electrodynamic forces.

  19. Electrodynamic Tether Operations beyond the Ionosphere in the Low-Density Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2007-01-01

    In the classical concept for the operation of electrodynamic tethers in space, a voltage is generated across the tether, either by the tether's orbital motion through the earth's planetary magnetic field or by a power supply; electrons are then collected from the ionospheric plasma at the positive pole; actively emitted back into space at the negative pole; and the circuit is closed by currents driven through the ambient conducting ionosphere. This concept has been proven to work in space by the Tethered Satellite System TSS-1 and TSS-1R Space Shuttle missions; and the Plasma Motor-Generator (PMG) tether flight experiment. However, it limits electrodynamic tether operations to the F-region of the ionosphere where the plasma density is sufficient to conduct the required currents--in other words, between altitudes of approximately 200 to 1000 km in sunlight. In the earth's shadow, the ionospheric density drops precipitously and tether operations, using the above approach, are not effective--even within this altitude range. There are numerous missions that require in-space propulsion in the Earth's shadow and/or outside of the above altitude range. This paper will, therefore, present the fundamentals of a concept that would allow electrodynamic tethers to operate almost anywhere within the magnetosphere, the region of space containing the earth's planetary magnetic field. In other words, because operations would be virtually independent of any ambient plasma, the range of electrodynamic operations would be extended into the earth's shadow and out to synchronous orbit--forty times the present operational range. The key to this concept is the active generation of plasma at each pole of the tether so that current generation ,does not depend on the conductivity of the ambient ionosphere. Arguments will be presented, based on ,existing flight data, which shed light on the behavior of charge emissions in space and show the plausibility of the concept.

  20. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tethered satellite system (TSS) dynamics were studied. The dynamic response of the TSS during the entire stationkeeping phase for the first electrodynamic mission was investigated. An out of plane swing amplitude and the tether's bowing were observed. The dynamics of the slack tether was studied and computer code, SLACK2, was improved both in capabilities and computational speed. Speed hazard related to tether breakage or plasma contactor failure was examined. Preliminary values of the potential difference after the failure and of the drop of the electric field along the tether axis have been computed. The update of the satellite rotational dynamics model is initiated.

  1. Benefits and risks of using electrodynamic tethers to de-orbit spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Hanada, Toshiya; Krisko, Paula H.

    2009-03-01

    By using electrodynamic drag to greatly increase the orbital decay rate, an electrodynamic space tether can remove spent or dysfunctional spacecraft from low Earth orbit (LEO) rapidly and safely. Moreover, the low mass requirements of such tether devices make them highly advantageous compared to conventional rocket-based de-orbit systems. However, a tether system is much more vulnerable to space debris impacts than a typical spacecraft and its design must be proved to be safe up to a certain confidence level before being adopted for potential applications. To assess space debris related concerns, in March 2001 a new task (Action Item 19.1) on the "Potential Benefits and Risks of Using Electrodynamic Tethers for End-of-life De-orbit of LEO Spacecraft" was defined by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). Two tests were proposed to compute the fatal impact rate of meteoroids and orbital debris on space tethers in circular orbits, at different altitudes and inclinations, as a function of the tether diameter to assess the survival probability of an electrodynamic tether system during typical de-orbiting missions. IADC members from three agencies, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), participated in the study and different computational approaches were specifically developed within the framework of the IADC task. This paper summarizes the content of the IADC AI 19.1 Final Report. In particular, it introduces the potential benefits and risks of using tethers in space, it describes the assumptions made in the study plan, it compares and discusses the results obtained by ASI, JAXA and NASA for the two tests proposed. Some general conclusions and recommendations are finally extrapolated from this massive and intensive piece of research.

  2. Command Generation and Control of Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost Tethered Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The research completed for this NASA Graduate Student Research Program Fellowship sought to enhance the current state-of-the-art dynamic models and control laws for Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost satellite systems by utilizing command generation, specifically Input Shaping. The precise control of tethered spacecraft with flexible appendages is extremely difficult. The complexity is magnified many times when the satellite must interact with other satellites as in a momentum exchange via a tether. The Momentum Exchange Electronic Reboost Tether (MXER) concept encapsulates all of these challenging tasks [l]. Input Shaping is a command generation technique that allows flexible spacecraft to move without inducing residual vibration [2], limit transient deflection [3] and utilize fuel-efficient actuation [4]. Input shaping is implemented by convolving a sequence of impulses, known as the input shaper, with a desired system command to produce a shaped input that is then used to drive the system. This process is demonstrated in Figure 1. The shaped command is then use to drive the system without residual vibration while meeting many other performance specifications. The completed work developed tether control algorithms for retrieval. A simple model of the tether response has been developed and command shaping was implemented to minimize unwanted dynamics. A model of a flexible electrodynamic tether has been developed to investigate the tether s response during reboost. Command shaping techniques have been developed to eliminate the tether oscillations and reduce the tether s deflection to pre-specified levels during reboost. Additionally, a model for the spin-up of a tethered system was developed. This model was used in determining the parameters for optimization the resulting angular velocity.

  3. 2006 Status of the Momentum eXchange Electrodynamic Re-Boost (MXER) Tether Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.; Sorensen, Kirk F.; Dankanich, John W.; Frame, Kyle L.

    2006-01-01

    The MXER Tether technology development is a high-payoff/high-risk investment area within the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program. The ISPT program is managed by the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate and implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The MXER concept was identified and competitively ranked within NASA's comprehensive Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan (IISTP); an agency-wide technology assessment activity. The objective of the MXER tether project within ISPT is to advance the technological maturation level for the MXER system, and its subsystems, as well as other space and terrestrial tether applications. Recent hardware efforts have focused on the manufacturability of space-survivable high-strength tether material and coatings, high-current electrodynamic tether, lightweight catch mechanism, high-accuracy propagator/predictor code, and efficient electron collection/current generation. Significant technical progress has been achieved with modest ISPT funding to the extent that MXER has evolved to a well-characterized system with greater capability as the design has been matured. Synergistic efforts in high-current electrodynamic tethers and efficient electron collection/current generation have been made possible through SBIR and STTR support. The entire development endeavor was orchestrated as a collaborative team effort across multiple individual contracts and has established a solid technology resource base, which permits a wide variety of future space cable/tether applications to be realized.

  4. Plasma issues associated with the use of electrodynamic tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of an electrodynamic tether to generate power or thrust on the space station raises important plasma issues associted with the current flow. In addition to the issue of current closure through the space station, high power tethers (equal to or greater than tens of kilowatts) require the use of plasma contactors to enhance the current flow. They will generate large amounts of electrostatic turbulence in the vicinity of the space station. This is because the contactors work best when a large amount of current driven turbulence is excited. Current work is reviewed and future directions suggested.

  5. Applications of the Electrodynamic Tether to Interstellar Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Johnson, Les

    2005-01-01

    After considering relevant properties of the local interstellar medium and defining a sample interstellar mission, this paper considers possible interstellar applications of the electrodynamic tether, or EDT. These include use of the EDT to provide on-board power and affect trajectory modifications and direct application of the EDT to starship acceleration. It is demonstrated that comparatively modest EDTs can provide substantial quantities of on-board power, if combined with a large-area electron-collection device such as the Cassenti toroidal-field ramscoop. More substantial tethers can be used to accomplish large-radius thrustless turns. Direct application of the EDT to starship acceleration is apparently infeasible.

  6. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in tethered satellite system dynamics research is reported. A retrieval rate control law with no angular feedback to investigate the system's dynamic response was studied. The initial conditions for the computer code which simulates the satellite's rotational dynamics were extended to a generic orbit. The model of the satellite thrusters was modified to simulate a pulsed thrust, by making the SKYHOOK integrator suitable for dealing with delta functions without loosing computational efficiency. Tether breaks were simulated with the high resolution computer code SLACK3. Shuttle's maneuvers were tested. The electric potential around a severed conductive tether with insulator, in the case of a tether breakage at 20 km from the Shuttle, was computed. The electrodynamic hazards due to the breakage of the TSS electrodynamic tether in a plasma are evaluated.

  7. The Momentum-eXchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) Tether Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, K. F.

    2004-12-01

    Within NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Projects Office exists Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) Investment Area that is advancing emerging propulsion concepts that have potential to lower the cost of space transportation, enable new missions, and/or increase the payload capability. The current, primary investment of EPT is the Momentum-eXchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) tether concept. The MXER tether is a long, rotating cable in an elliptical Earth orbit whose rapid rotation allows it to catch a payload in a low Earth orbit and throw it to a high-energy orbit. The orbital energy transferred by the MXER tether to the payload is restored to the tether via electrodynamic tether propulsion. This technique uses solar power to drive electrical current collected from the ionosphere through the tether, resulting in a magnetic interaction with the terrestrial field. Since the Earth itself serves as the reaction mass, the thrust force is generated without propellant, and allows the MXER facility to be repeatedly reused without resupply. Essentially, the MXER facility is a `propellantless' upper stage that could assist nearly every mission going beyond low Earth orbit. Payloads to interplanetary destinations would especially benefit from the boost provided by the MXER facility, resulting in launch vehicle cost reductions, increased payload fractions, and more frequent mission opportunities. Some of the benefits to space exploration include: (1) Multi-use, in-space, `propellantless' infrastructure, (2) Useable by essentially all missions beyond LEO, (3) Lowers overall mission costs and/or enables larger payloads, (4) ``Panama Canal" of space transportation, (5) A spiral development for future generations, (6) Readily scales up or down, (7) Future transportation to and from Lunar surface.

  8. Application of the NASCAP Spacecraft Simulation Tool to Investigate Electrodynamic Tether Current Collection in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi; HabashKrause, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) for orbital maneuvering in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has prompted the development of the Marshall ElectroDynamic Tether Orbit Propagator (MEDTOP) model. The model is comprised of several modules which address various aspects of EDT propulsion, including calculation of state vectors using a standard orbit propagator (e.g., J2), an atmospheric drag model, realistic ionospheric and magnetic field models, space weather effects, and tether librations. The natural electromotive force (EMF) attained during a radially-aligned conductive tether results in electrons flowing down the tether and accumulating on the lower-altitude spacecraft. The energy that drives this EMF is sourced from the orbital energy of the system; thus, EDTs are often proposed as de-orbiting systems. However, when the current is reversed using satellite charged particle sources, then propulsion is possible. One of the most difficult challenges of the modeling effort is to ascertain the equivalent circuit between the spacecraft and the ionospheric plasma. The present study investigates the use of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) to calculate currents to and from the tethered satellites and the ionospheric plasma. NASCAP is a sophisticated set of computational tools to model the surface charging of three-dimensional (3D) spacecraft surfaces in a time-varying space environment. The model's surface is tessellated into a collection of facets, and NASCAP calculates currents and potentials for each one. Additionally, NASCAP provides for the construction of one or more nested grids to calculate space potential and time-varying electric fields. This provides for the capability to track individual particles orbits, to model charged particle wakes, and to incorporate external charged particle sources. With this study, we have developed a model of calculating currents incident onto an electrodynamic tethered satellite system, and first results are shown

  9. System engineering study of electrodynamic tether as a spaceborne generator and radiator of electromagnetic waves in the ULF/ELF frequency band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. D.; Grossi, M. D.; Lorenzini, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The transmission and generation by orbiting tethered satellite systems of information carrying electromagnetic waves in the ULF/ELF frequency band to the Earth at suitably high signal intensities was examined and the system maintaining these intensities in their orbits for long periods of time without excessive onboard power requirements was investigated. The injection quantity power into electromagnetic waves as a function of system parameters such as tether length and orbital height was estimated. The basic equations needed to evaluate alternataing current tethered systems for external energy requirements are presented. The energy equations to tethered systems with various lengths, tether resistances, and radiation resistances, operating at different current values are applied. Radiation resistance as a function of tether length and orbital height is discussed. It is found that ULF/ELF continuously radiating systems could be maintained in orbit with moderate power requirements. The effect of tether length on the power going into electromagnetic waves and whether a single or dual tether system is preferable for the self-driven mode is discussed. It is concluded that the single tether system is preferable over the dual system.

  10. Investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.; Arnold, D.

    1984-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in tether modelling among participants in the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Program, the slack tether and its behavior, and certain advanced applications of the tether to problems in orbital mechanics are identified. The features and applications of the TSS software set are reviewed. Modelling the slack tether analytically with as many as 50 mass points and the application of this new model to a study of the behavior of a broken tether near the Shuttle are described. A reel control algorithm developed by SAO and examples of its use are described, including an example which also demonstrates the use of the tether in transferring a heavy payload from a low-orbiting Shuttle to a high circular orbit. Capture of a low-orbiting payload by a Space Station in high circular orbit is described. Energy transfer within a dumbbell-type spacecraft by cyclical reeling operations or gravitational effects on the natural elasticity of the connecting tether, it is shown, can circularize the orbit of the spacecraft.

  11. Practicality of using a Tether for electrodynamic reboost of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumer, John H.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Bangham, Michal E.

    2001-02-01

    ElectroDynamic (ED) Tethers can generate continuous low thrust in a low Earth orbit. An induced current running through the length of the tether reacts with the geomagnetic field to produce thrust. The amount of thrust scales with tether length and current. The International Space Station (ISS) requires periodic reboost to maintain an approximately circular orbit above the Earth. The baseline reboost method is a traditional bi-propellant rocket thruster and tankage system which must to be refueled via Soyuz/Progress or other launch vehicle. The estimated propellant costs associated with keeping ISS in the designated orbit over a 10-year life have been extremely high. The ED Tether would draw energy from the renewable ISS Solar Array electrical power system. Propulsion requirements for ISS vary depending on solar wind and other conditions. It is projected that a ED Tether could provide the majority of the required reboost thrust for ISS for a nominal solar year. For above nominal solar wind years the ISS would have to use the rocket reboost system, but at a greatly reduced level. Thus resulting in substantial cost savings, via the reduction in the number of Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle flights to the ISS that must bring reboost propellant. However, the purposes of this paper is to further previous research on an ISS ED Tether and examine the operational and technical issues working against using a ED Tether on ISS. Issues such as Shuttle rendezvous and flight path concerns raise serious safety concerns and restrictions on tether use. Tether issues such as tether librations and off angle thrust raise concerns about impacts to microgravity payloads and the long-term effect on ISS orbital path and inclination. Operational issues such as peak power available to an ED Tether and allowable duty cycle may impose severe restrictions on tether design and ultimately limit the practicality of an ED Tether on ISS. Thus while at first glance the cost numbers appear to be

  12. Grid Sphere Electrodes used for Current Collection at the Positive Pole of Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, N. H.; Moore, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    The generation of either electrical power or propulsive thrust with an electrodynamic tether system necessarily depends on driving a return current through the system's ambient space plasma environment. An electrical connection is, therefore, required between the plasma and each end of the tether. The voltage required to drive current through the system is derived either from the orbital motion of the conducting tether through the magnetic field of the Earth, or from a high-voltage power supply that taps into an external energy source (e.g., the sun). In either case, one end of the tether will receive a positive bias. This positive bias, between the tether and the ambient plasma, allows electrons to be collected effectively with a simple, passive electrode. Passive electrode contactors offer several important advantages, including simplification of the upper end-body design and operations, minimization of system mass, and an increase of system reliability and robustness. A preliminary analysis of an inflatable Grid-Sphere end-body concept is presented that is interesting because of the potential for collecting arbitrarily large currents independent of tether length, while the device has the physical characteristics of a high area-to-mass ratio, a low drag coefficient, and simplicity. In particular, we will discuss the physics of current collection by a biased Grid-Sphere and the present state-of-the-art of materials, attainable area-to-mass ratios, and deployment techniques.

  13. From the Rocket Equation to Maxwell's Equations: Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion Nears Space Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Estes, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The US space program is facing a growing challenge to its decades-long, global leadership position, as current launch costs consume valuable resources and limit achievements in science, exploration, and commercial development. More than 40% of projected launches over the next 10 years have payloads with intended destinations beyond low-Earth orbit. Therefore, more cost-effective upper stages and on-board propulsion systems are critical elements in reducing total space transportation costs. A new type of space propulsion, using electrodynamic tethers, may be capable of performing multiple sequential missions without resupply and have a potential usable lifetime of several years. They may provide an in-space infrastructure that has a very low life cycle cost and greatly enhanced mission flexibility, thus supporting the goal of reducing the cost of access to space. Electrodynamic tether thrusters work by virtue of the force the Earth's magnetic field exerts on a wire carrying an electrical current. The effect is the basis for electric motors and generators. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment, planned for launch in the summer of 2000, will demonstrate the use electrodynamic tether thrust by lowering the altitude of a Delta-H rocket's upper stage on which it will be flying. Applications of the technology include a passive deorbit system for spacecraft at their end-of-life, reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicles, propellantless reboost of the International Space Station, and propulsion and power generation for future missions to Jupiter.

  14. Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew Hall; Carroll, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    A tether of sufficient strength, capable of being lengthened or shortened and having appropriate apparatuses for capturing and releasing bodies at its ends, may be useful in propulsion applications. For example, a tether could allow rendezvous between spacecraft in substantially different orbits without using propellant. A tether could also allow co-orbiting spacecraft to exchange momentum and separate. Thus, a reentering spacecraft (such as the Shuttle) could give its momentum to one remaining on orbit (such as the space station). Similarly, a tether facility could gain momentum from a high I(sub sp)/low thrust mechanism (which could be an electrodynamics tether) and transfer than momentum by means of a tether to payloads headed for many different orbits. Such a facility would, in effect, combine high I(sub sp) with high thrust, although only briefly. An electrodynamic tether could propel a satellite from its launch inclination to a higher or lower inclination. Tethers could also allow samples to be taken from bodies such as the Moon. Three types of tether operations are illustrated. The following topics are discussed: (1) tether characteristics; (2) tether propulsion methods--basics, via momentum transfer, and electrodynamic tether propulsion; and (3) their use in planetary exploration.

  15. The TSS-1R Electrodynamic Tether Experiment: Scientific and Technological Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.; Raitt, John

    1998-01-01

    The bi-national, US-Italian, Tethered Satellite System (TSS) program was designed to provide a unique opportunity to explore certain space plasma- electrodynamic processes and the orbital mechanics of a gravity-gradient stabilized system of two satellites linked by a long conducting tether. The second flight, TSS-LR, was launched February 22, 1996 on STS-75 and satellite deployment began at MET 3/00:27. A unique data set was obtained over the next five hours, as the tether was deployed to a length of 19695 meters, which has allowed significant science to be accomplished. This presentation will focus on electrodynamic processes generated by the tether--in particular, the collection of electrical current from the ionospheric plasma. Of particular significance is an apparent transition of the physics of current collection when the potential of the collecting body becomes greater than the ram energy of the ionospheric atomic oxygen ions. Previous theoretical models of current collection were electrostatic--assuming that the orbital motion of the system, which is highly subsonic with respect to electron thermal motion, was un- important. This may still be acceptable for the case of relatively slow-moving sounding rockets. However, the TSS-LR results show that motion relative to the plasma must be accounted for in orbiting systems.

  16. Dynamics analysis of electrodynamic satellite tethers. Equations of motion and numerical solution algorithms for the tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacozy, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    The equations of motion are developed for a perfectly flexible, inelastic tether with a satellite at its extremity. The tether is attached to a space vehicle in orbit. The tether is allowed to possess electrical conductivity. A numerical solution algorithm to provide the motion of the tether and satellite system is presented. The resulting differential equations can be solved by various existing standard numerical integration computer programs. The resulting differential equations allow the introduction of approximations that can lead to analytical, approximate general solutions. The differential equations allow more dynamical insight of the motion.

  17. Tethered Satellite System (TSS) core equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.

    1986-01-01

    To date, three Tethered Satellite System (TSS) missions of the Italian provided scientific satellite orbiting in the ionosphere connected to U.S. Space Shuttle is foreseen. The first mission will use an electrically conductive tether of 20 km deployed upward from the orbiter flying at 300 km altitude. This mission will allow investigation of the TSS electrodynamic interaction with the ionosphere due to the high voltage induced across the two terminators of the system during its motion throughout the geomagnetic field. The second mission will use a dielectric tether of 100 km deployed downward from the Orbiter flying at 230 km altitude. Tethered-vehicle access to altitude as low as 120 to 150 km from the Orbiter would permit direct long term observation of phenomena in the lower thermosphere and determination of other dynamical physical processes. The third mission would use the same configuration of the first electrodynamic mission with the complete Core Equipment. Study of power generation by tethered systems would be possible by operating the Core Equipment in the inverted current mode. This mode of operation would allow ion current collection upon the TSS satellite by controlling its potential with respect to the ambient ionospheric plasma. The main requirements of the Core Equipment configuration to date foreseen for the first TSS electrodynamic mission is described. Besides the Core Equipment purposes, its hardware and operational sub-modes of operation are described.

  18. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Project overview; tether deployment; satellite system description; tether fundamentals; science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation; artificial gravity; and constellations; were described.

  19. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Project overview; tether deployment; satellite system description; tether fundamentals; science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation; artificial gravity; and constellations; were described.

  20. Plasma motor generator tether system for orbit reboost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulkower, Neal D.; Rusch, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive study of an electrodynamic tether used as a Plasma Motor Generator (PMG). The paper summarizes the work performed in the study and includes: (1) a detailed design of a 2 kW PMG tether system to be used for orbit reboost, (2) the selection of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) as the primary candidate spacecraft to host the experimental system, (3) analysis of the integration of the PMG tether system with these two spacecraft, (4) the simulation of the deployment of the tether, and (5) an engineering design and development plan leading to a flight demonstration of this PMG tether.

  1. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include tethered satellites, tether deployment, satellite systems, science applications, electrodynamic interactions, transportation applications, artificial gravity, constellations, and technology and testing.

  2. The TSS-1R Electrodynamic Tether Experiment: Scientific and Technological Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.; Raitt, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) program was designed to provide the opportunity to explore certain space plasma-electrodynamic processes (associated with high-voltage bodies and electrical currents in space) and the orbital mechanics of a gravity-gradient stabilized system of two satellites linked by a long conducting tether. A unique data set was obtained during the TSS-1 R mission in which the tether emf and current reached values in excess of 3500 volts and 1 amp, respectively. The insight this has allowed into the current collection process and the physics of high-voltage plasma sheaths is significant. Previous theoretical models of current collection were electro-static assuming that the orbital motion of the system, which is highly sub-sonic with respect to electron thermal motion, was unimportant. This may still be acceptable for the case of relatively slow-moving sounding rockets. However, the TSS-1 R results show that motion relative to the plasma does affect current collection and must be accounted for in orbiting systems.

  3. Tether Transportation System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, M. E.; Lorenzini, E.; Vestal, L.

    1998-01-01

    The projected traffic to geostationary earth orbit (GEO) is expected to increase over the next few decades. At the same time, the cost of delivering payloads from the Earth's surface to low earth orbit (LEO) is projected to decrease, thanks in part to the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). A comparable reduction in the cost of delivering payloads from LEO to GEO is sought. The use of in-space tethers, eliminating the requirement for traditional chemical upper stages and thereby reducing the launch mass, has been identified as such an alternative. Spinning tethers are excellent kinetic energy storage devices for providing the large delta vee's required for LEO to GEO transfer. A single-stage system for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO was proposed some years ago. The study results presented here contain the first detailed analyses of this proposal, its extension to a two-stage system, and the likely implementation of the operational system.

  4. Modeling of induced currents from electrodynamic tethers in a laboratory plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The presently accepted picture of the current path for electrodynamic tethers envisions a quasi-dc current flow in a 'phantom loop' consisting of the tether, two field-aligned current channels into the ionosphere and a cross-field closing current in the E-layer. Predictions are made on the establishment and maintenance of a current loop in space based on observations of time-dependent currents between tethered electrodes in a large laboratory magnetoplasma. In addition to radiation from the contactors ('whistler wings'), the insulated tether is observed to emit waves (a 'whistler wedge'). The 'wedge' provides closure during loop formation by carrying cross-field polarization currents. Whistler spread within the ray cone leads to overlapping of the current wings not far from the tether hence minimizing the role of the ionospheric closure. Maintenance of the loop requires the continuous emission of whistler waves by the entire tether thereby providing severe radiation losses.

  5. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1985-01-01

    The tether control law to retrieve the satellite was modified in order to have a smooth retrieval trajectory of the satellite that minimizes the thruster activation. The satellite thrusters were added to the rotational dynamics computer code and a preliminary control logic was implemented to simulate them during the retrieval maneuver. The high resolution computer code for modelling the three dimensional dynamics of untensioned tether, SLACK3, was made fully operative and a set of computer simulations of possible tether breakages was run. The distribution of the electric field around an electrodynamic tether in vacuo severed at some length from the shuttle was computed with a three dimensional electrodynamic computer code.

  6. Study of certain tether safety issues. Continuation of investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.; Grossi, M. D.; Arnold, D.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of long tethers (10-100 km) in space are addressed under two failure situations with potential safety impact: instantaneous jamming of the reel controlling the tether during deployment and cutting of the tether due to a meteor strike or other similar phenomena. Dual and multiple mass point models were used in the SAO SKYHOOK program to determine this behavior. The results of the program runs were verified analytically or by comparison with previously verified results. The study included the effects of tether damping and air drag where appropriate. Most runs were done with the tether system undamped since we believe this best represents the true behavior of the tether. Means for controlling undesirable behavior of the tether, such as viscous dampers in the subsatellite, were also studied.

  7. Near Space Environments: Tethering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucht, Nolan R.

    2013-01-01

    Near Space Environments, the Rocket University (Rocket U) program dealing with high altitude balloons carrying payloads into the upper earth atmosphere is the field of my project. The tethering from balloon to payload is the specific system I am responsible for. The tethering system includes, the lines that tie the payload to the balloon, as well as, lines that connect payloads together, if they are needed, as well as how to sever the tether to release payloads from the balloon. My objective is to design a tethering system that will carry a payload to any desired altitude and then sever by command at any given point during flight.

  8. Free Re-boost Electrodynamic Tether on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.; Sorenson, Kirk F.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Dankanich, John W.; Frame, Kyle L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently experiences significant orbital drag that requires constant make up propulsion or the Station will quickly reenter the Earth's Atmosphere. The reboost propulsion is presently achieved through the firing of hydrazine rockets at the cost of considerable propellant mass. The problem will inevitably grow much worse as station components continue to be assembled, particularly when the full solar panel arrays are deployed. This paper discusses many long established themes on electrodynamic propulsion in the context of Exploration relevance, shows how to couple unique ISS electrical power system characteristics and suggests a way to tremendously impact ISS's sustainability. Besides allowing launch mass and volume presently reserved for reboost propellant to be reallocated for science experiments and other critically needed supplies, there are a series of technology hardware demonstrations steps that can be accomplished on ISS, which are helpful to NASA s Exploration mission. The suggested ElectroDynamic (ED) tether and flywheel approach is distinctive in its use of free energy currently unusable, yet presently available from the existing solar array panels on ISS. The ideas presented are intended to maximize the utility of Station and radically increase orbital safety.

  9. Power and charge dissipation from an electrodynamic tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The Plasma Motor-Generator project utilizes the influence of the geomagnetic field on a conductive tether attached to a LEO spacecraft to provide a reversible conversion of orbital energy into electrical energy. The behavior of the current into the ionospheric plasma under the influence of the geomagnetic field is of significant experimental and theoretical interest. Theoretical calculations are reviewed which start from Maxwell's equations and treat the ionospheric plasma as a linear dielectric medium. These calculations show a charge emitting tether moving in a magnetic field will generate electromagnetic waves in the plasma which carry the charge in the direction of the magnetic field. The ratio of the tether's speed to the ion cyclotron frequency which is about 25 m for a LEO is a characteristic length for the phenomena. Whereas for the dimensions of the contact plasma much larger than this value the waves are the conventional Alfven waves, when the dimensions are comparable or smaller, diffraction effects occur similar to those associated with Fresnel diffraction in optics. The power required to excite these waves for a given tether current is used to estimate the impedance associated with this mode of charge dissipation.

  10. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  11. Orbital Propagation of Momentum Exchange Tether Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerhoff, John

    2002-01-01

    An advanced concept in in-space transportation currently being studied is the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost Tether System (MXER). The system acts as a large momentum wheel, imparting a Av to a payload in low earth orbit (LEO) at the expense of its own orbital energy. After throwing a payload, the system reboosts itself using an electrodynamic tether to push against Earth's magnetic field and brings itself back up to an operational orbit to prepare for the next payload. The ability to reboost itself allows for continued reuse of the system without the expenditure of propellants. Considering the cost of lifting propellant from the ,ground to LEO to do the same Av boost at $10000 per pound, the system cuts the launch cost of the payload dramatically, and subsequently, the MXER system pays for itself after a small number of missions.1 One of the technical hurdles to be overcome with the MXER concept is the rendezvous maneuver. The rendezvous window for the capture of the payload is on the order of a few seconds, as opposed to traditional docking maneuvers, which can take as long ets necessary to complete a precise docking. The payload, therefore, must be able to match its orbit to meet up with the capture device on the end of the tether at a specific time and location in the future. In order to be able to determine that location, the MXER system must be numerically propagated forward in time to predict where the capture device will be at that instant. It should be kept in mind that the propagation computation must be done faster than real-time. This study focuses on the efforts to find and/or build the tools necessary to numerically propagate the motion of the MXER system as accurately as possible.

  12. Investigation of EM Emissions by the Electrodynamic Tether, Inclusive of an Observational Program (EMET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Our TSS-1/R investigation, which we shall refer to as EMET in this report, was an integral part of the effort by the TSS-1/R Investigators' Working Group (IWG) to come to an understanding of the complex interaction between the tethered satellite system and the ionosphere. All of the space-borne experiments were designed to collect data relevant to the local interaction. Only the ground- based experiments, EMET and its Italian counterpart Observations on the Earth's Surface of Electromagnetic Emissions (OESEE), held out any hope of characterizing the long range effects of the interaction. This was to be done by detecting electromagnetic waves generated by the system in the ionosphere, assuming the signal reached the Earth's surface with sufficient amplitude. As the type of plasma waves excited to carry charge away from the charge-exchange regions of the system at each end of the tether is one of the theoretical points about which there is greatest disagreement, a definitive identification of tether-generated waves could mark significant progress in the so-called current closure problem of electrodynamic tethers. Dr. Mario Grossi of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) initiated the investigation, and his experience in the field of ULF-ELF waves and their detection was invaluable throughout its course. Rice University had the responsibility of setting up the EMET ULF-VLF ground stations under a subcontract from SAO. Principal Investigator (PI) for the Rice effort was Prof. William E. Gordon, who was primary observer at the Arecibo Observatory during TSS-LR. Dr. Steve Noble handled major day-to-day operations, training, and planning for the ground-based measurements. Dr. James McCoy of NASA JSC, a member of the Mona/Arecibo team, was pilot for the numerous flights ferrying personnel and equipment between Puerto Rico and Mona Island. Final responsibility for the measurements rested with SAO, and the activities of field personnel and SAO investigators were

  13. Preliminary investigation of the electrodynamics of a conducting tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    An introductory study of the properties of an electrically conducting tether flown from the shuttle is presented. Only a single configuration is considered: a vertical conductor moving normally across the Earth's field, connecting the shuttle to a large conducting balloon that passively extracts electrons from the ionosphere. The distortions in the plasma at maximum current collection are described, as are the local and distant wakes. Numerical values are given.

  14. Theoretical investigation of EM wave generation and radiation in the ULF, ELF, and VLF bands by the electrodynamic orbiting tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.; Grossi, Mario D.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic wave generation by an electrodynamic tethered satellite system is important both for the ordinary operation of such systems and for their possible application as orbiting transmitters. The tether's ionospheric circuit closure problem is closely linked with the propagation of charge-carrying electromagnetic wave packets away from the tethered system. Work is reported which represents a step towards a solution to the problem that takes into account the effects of boundaries and of vertical variations in plasma density, collision frequencies, and ion species. The theory of Alfen wave packet generation by an electrodynamic tethered system in an infinite plasma medium is reviewed, and brief summary of previous work on the problem is given. The consequences of the presence of the boundaries and the vertical nonuniformity are then examined. One of the most significant new features to emerge when ion-neutral collisions are taken into account is the coupling of the Alfven waves to the fast magnetosonic wave. This latter wave is important, as it may be confined by vertical variations in the Alfven speed to a sort of leaky ionospheric wave guide, the resonances of which could be of great importance to the signal received on the Earth's surface. The infinite medium solution for this case where the (uniform) geomagnetic field makes an arbitrary angle with the vertical is taken as the incident wave-packet. Even without a full solution, a number of conclusions can be drawn, the most important of which may be that the electromagnetic field associated with the operation of a steady-current tethered system will probably be too weak to detect on the Earth's surface, even for large tethered currents. This is due to the total reflection of the incident wave at the atmospheric boundary and the inability of a steady-current tethered system to excite the ionospheric wave-guide. An outline of the approach to the numerical problem is given. The use of

  15. Electrodynamic Tethers. 1: Power Generator in LEO. 2: Thrust for Propulsion and Power Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrodynamic tether consists of a long insulated wire in space whose orbital motion cuts across lines of magnetic flux to produce an induce voltage that in typical low orbits averages about 200 v/km. Such a system should be capable of generating substantial electrical power, at the expense of IXB drag acting on its orbital energy. If a reverse current is driven against the induced voltage, the system should act as a motor producing IXB thrust. A reference system was designed, capable of generating 20 KW of power into an electrical load located anywhere along the wire at the expense of 2.6N (20,000 J/sec) drag on the wire. In an ideal system, the conversion between mechanical and electrical energy would reach 100% efficiency. In the actual system part of the 20 KW is lost to internal resistance of the wire, plasma and ionosphere, while the drag force is increased by residual air drag. The 20 KW PMG system as designed is estimated to provide 18.7 KW net power to the load at total drag loss of 20.4 KJ/sec, or an overall efficiency of 92%. Similar systems using heavier wire appear capable of producing power levels in excess of 1 Megawatt at voltages of 2-4 KV, with conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical power better than 95%. The hollow cathode based system should be readily reversible from generator to motor operation by driving a reverse current using onboard power.

  16. Tethered Satellite System Tip Canister - Thermal design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapter, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is scheduled for launch, on STS-46 in mid-1992. The major mission objective is to investigate electrodynamic phenomena associated with long electrically conductive tether, in the earth orbital environment. A spherical Satellite (1.6-m diameter), remains connected to the Orbiter throughout TSS-1 mission by a conductive tether. The Satellite operates at up to 20 km above the Orbiter during the TSS mission. The Tip Canister (TPC), that is mounted on the end of a 12-m retractable boom, contains mechanisms that control and monitor tether movement. The TPC is an independent thermal system from the base 'Deployer/Spacelab Pallet'. This paper presents the TPC thermal design verification approach that includes a description of thermal design and thermal balance testing. Flight TPC temperature predictions are also presented.

  17. Survivability to Hypervelocity Impacts of Electrodynamic Tape Tethers for Deorbiting Spacecraft in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Lorenzini, E. C.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the results of 16 hypervelocity impact experiments on a composite flat electrodynamic tether for LEO spacecraft end-of-life deorbiting. The system is being developed within the EU FP7 BETs program. Impact tests were carried out at CISAS impact facility, with the aim of deriving failure equations that include the impact angle dependence up to grazing incidence. Experiments were realised with 1.5 and 2.3 mm aluminium spheres, at velocities between 3 and 5 km/s and impact angle from 0° to 90° from the tape normal. After a preliminary post-impact inspection of the target, the damage extension on the tape was evaluated using an automatic image processing technique. Ballistic limit equations were developed in the experimental range using a procedure that allows to estimate the uncertainty in the failure predictions starting from the measurement of the damage area. Experiments showed that the impact damage is very close to the projectile size in case of normal impact, while it increases significantly at highly oblique impact angles.

  18. The Tethered Satellite System: Scientific and Technological Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    1997-01-01

    The bi-national, US-Italian, Tethered Satellite System (TSS) program was designed to provide a unique opportunity to explore certain space plasma- electrodynamic processes and the orbital mechanics of a gravity-gradient stabilized system of two satellites linked by a long conducting tether. The second flight, TSS-LR, was launched February 22, 1996 on STS-75 and satellite deployment began at MET 3/00:27. A unique data set was obtained over the next five hours as the tether was deployed to a length of 19695 meters, which has allowed significant science to be accomplished. This presentation will focus on results from the TSS-LR mission that are most important to the future technological applications of electrodynamic tethers in space - in particular, the current collection process. Of particular significance is an apparent transition of the physics of current collection when the potential of the collecting body becomes greater than the ram energy of the ionospheric atomic oxygen ions. Previous theoretical models of current collection were electro- static - assuming that the orbital motion of the system, which is highly sub-sonic with respect to electron thermal motion, was unimportant. This may still be acceptable for the case of relatively slow-moving sounding rockets. However, the TSS-LR results show that motion relative to the plasma must be accounted for in orbiting systems.

  19. Three-dimensional currents of electrodynamic tethers obtained from laboratory models

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, J.M.; Stenzel, R.L.; Rousculp, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Magnetic probe measurements in three dimensions (greater than 15,000 positions) and time in a large laboratory plasma (n(sub e) greater than or equal to 10(exp 11)/cc, kTe greater than or equal to 1eV, B(sub 0) = 20 G, 1 m diam. x 2.5 m length) reveal the plasma currents J = del(vector differential operator) x B/mu(sub 0) excited by a pulsed (delta-t = 100 ns), stationary, tethered pair of electrodes (approximately equals 1 cm diam., 20 cm spacing perpendicular to B(sub 0)). The plasma currents for a moving, dc-current carrying electrodynamic tether are obtained by a superposition of delayed pulses emitted at successively displaced tether positions. The transient plasma currents are carried by low-frequency whistlers instead of Alfven waves and form a 3D wing structure but no long phantom loop due to cross-field Hall current shunting.

  20. Three-dimensional currents of electrodynamic tethers obtained from laboratory models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.; Rousculp, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic probe measurements in three dimensions (greater than 15,000 positions) and time in a large laboratory plasma (n(sub e) greater than or equal to 10(exp 11)/cc, kTe greater than or equal to 1eV, B(sub 0) = 20 G, 1 m diam. x 2.5 m length) reveal the plasma currents J = del(vector differential operator) x B/mu(sub 0) excited by a pulsed (delta-t = 100 ns), stationary, tethered pair of electrodes (approximately equals 1 cm diam., 20 cm spacing perpendicular to B(sub 0)). The plasma currents for a moving, dc-current carrying electrodynamic tether are obtained by a superposition of delayed pulses emitted at successively displaced tether positions. The transient plasma currents are carried by low-frequency whistlers instead of Alfven waves and form a 3D wing structure but no long phantom loop due to cross-field Hall current shunting.

  1. Theoretical investigation of EM wave generation and radiation in the ULF, ELF and VLF bands by the electrodynamic orbiting tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    The goal is to extend the previous analysis of electromagnetic wave generation by an electrodynamic tethered satellite system to a more realistic model that includes the effects on wave propagation and reflection to the boundaries between ionosphere, atmosphere, and earth. One of the major activities was searching the scientific literature for publications that might be relevant to the problem. The software developed as SAO to follow the path of waves along field lines through the ionosphere to the atmosphere starting from an arbitary position in the atmosphere is described. Some preliminary results are presented from applying the code to the location of wave reception hot spots on the earth's surface for satellites operating at 300 and 600 km altitudes. A generalization of the Alfven wing analysis is presented to allow for arbitrary angles between the velocity vector, geomagnetic field, and the veritcal. This will be utilized in the modeling of the problem with boundaries included.

  2. Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R)-Post Flight (STS-75) Engineering Performance Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    1996-01-01

    The first mission of the Tethered Satellite deployer was flown onboard Atlantis in 1992 during the Space Transportation System (STS) flight STS-46. Due to a mechanical interference with the level wind mechanism the satellite was only Deployed to 256 m rather than the planned 20,000 m. Other problems were also experienced during the STS-46 flight and several modifications were made to the Deployer and Satellite. STS-75 was a reflight of the Tethered Satellite System 1 (TSS-1) designated as Tethered Satellite System 1 Reflight (TSS-1 R) onboard Columbia. As on STS-46, the TSS payload consisted of the Deployer, the Satellite, 3 cargo bay mounted experiments: Shuttle Electrodynamic Tether System (SETS), Shuttle Potential and Return Electron Experiment (SPREE), Deployer Core Equipment (DCORE) 4 Satellite mounted experiments: Research on Electrodynamics Tether Effects (RETE), Research on Orbital Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE), Satellite Core Instruments (SCORE), Tether Magnetic Field Experiment (TEMAG) and an aft flight deck camera: Tether Optical Phenomena Experiment (TOP). Following successful pre-launch, launch and pre-deployment orbital operations, the Deployer deployed the Tethered Satellite to 19,695 m at which point the tether broke within the Satellite Deployment Boom (SDB). The planned length for On-Station I (OST1) was 20,700 m The Satellite flew away from the Orbiter with the tether attached. The satellite was "safed" and placed in a limited power mode via the RF link. The Satellite was contacted periodically during overflights of ground stations. Cargo bay science activities continued for the period of time allocated to TSS-1 R operations.

  3. Active Space Debris Removal using European Modified Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Equipped with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Ali S.; Emanuelli, Matteo; Raval, Siddharth; Turconi, Andrea; Becker, Cristoph

    2013-08-01

    During the past few years, several research programs have assessed the current state and future evolution of the Low Earth Orbit region. These studies indicate that space debris density could reach a critical level such that there will be a continuous increase in the number of debris objects, primarily driven by debris-debris collision activity known as the Kessler effect. This cascade effect can be even more significant when intact objects as dismissed rocket bodies are involved in the collision. The majority of the studies until now have highlighted the urgency for active debris removal in the next years. An Active Debris Removal System (ADRS) is a system capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, establishing physical connection, stabilizing its attitude and finally de-orbiting the debris object using a type of propulsion system in a controlled manoeuvre. In its previous work, this group showed that a modified Fregat (Soyuz FG's 4th stage) or Breeze-M upper stage (Proton-M) launched from Plesetsk (Russian Federation) and equipped with an electro-dynamic tether (EDT) system can be used, after an opportune inclination's change, to de-orbit a Kosmos-3M second stage rocket body while also delivering an acceptable payload to orbit. In this paper, we continue our work on the aforementioned concept, presented at the 2012 Beijing Space Sustainability Conference, by comparing its performance to ADR missions using only chemical propulsion from the upper stage for the far approach and the de-orbiting phase. We will also update the EDT model used in our previous work and highlight some of the methods for creating physical contact with the object. Moreover, we will assess this concept also with European launch vehicles (Vega and Soyuz 2-1A) to remove space debris from space. In addition, the paper will cover some economic aspects, like the cost for the launches' operator in term of payload mass' loss at the launch. The entire debris removal

  4. Current-voltage characteristics of a cathodic plasma contactor with discharge chamber for application in electrodynamic tether propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kan; Martinez, Rafael A.; Williams, John D.

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the net electron-emission current as a function of bias voltage of a plasma source that is being used as the cathodic element in a bare electrodynamic tether system. An analysis is made that enables an understanding of the basic issues determining the current-voltage (C-V) behaviour. This is important for the efficiency of the electrodynamic tether and for low impedance performance without relying on the properties of space plasma for varying orbital altitudes, inclinations, day-night cycles or the position of the plasma contactor relative to the wake of the spacecraft. The cathodic plasma contactor considered has a cylindrical discharge chamber (10 cm in diameter and ˜11 cm in length) and is driven by a hollow cathode. Experiments and a 1D spherical model are both used to study the contactor's C-V curves. The experiments demonstrate how the cathodic contactor would emit electrons into space for anode voltages in the range of 25-40 V, discharge currents in the range of 1-2.5 A, and low xenon gas flows of 2-4 sccm. Plasma properties are measured and compared with (3 A) and without net electron emission. A study of the dependence of relevant parameters found that the C-V behaviour strongly depends on electron temperature, initial ion energy and ion emission current at the contactor exit. However, it depended only weakly on ambient plasma density. The error in the developed model compared with the experimental C-V curves is within 5% at low electron-emission currents (0-2 A). The external ionization processes and high ion production rate caused by the discharge chamber, which dominate the C-V behaviour at electron-emission currents over 2 A, are further highlighted and discussed.

  5. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  6. Electrodynamics panel presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) concept is explained in detail. The PMG tether systems being used to calculate the estimated performance data is described. The voltage drops and current contact geometries involved in the operation of an electrodynamic tether are displayed illustrating the comparative behavior of hollow cathodes, electron guns, and passive collectors for current coupling into the ionosphere. The basic PMG design involving the massive tether cable with little or no satellite mass at the far end(s) are also described. The Jupiter mission and its use of electrodynamic tethers are given. The need for demonstration experiments is stressed.

  7. Design Concept for a Reusable/Propellantless MXER Tether Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, B., II; Kustas, F. m.; Marshall, L. S.; Lytle, W. B.; Hansen, N. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Momentum Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) tether facility is a transformational concept that significantly reduces the fuel requirements (and associated costs) in transferring payloads above low earth orbit (LEO). Facility reboost is accomplished without propellant by driving current against a voltage created by a conducting tether's interaction with the Earth's magnetic field (electrodynamic reboost). This system can be used for transferring a variety of payloads (scientific, cargo, and human space vehicles) to multiple destinations including geosynchronous transfer orbit, the Moon or Mars. MXER technology advancement requires development in two key areas: survivable, high tensile strength non-conducting tethers and reliable, lightweight payload catch/release mechanisms. Fundamental requirements associated with the MXER non-conducting strength tether and catch mechanism designs will be presented. Key requirements for the tether design include high specific-strength (tensile strength/material density), material survivability to the space environment (atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation), and structural survivability to micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MM/OD) impacts. The driving mechanism key,gequirements include low mass-to-capture-volume ratio, positional and velocity error tolerance, and operational reliability. Preliminary tether and catch mechanism design criteria are presented, which have been used as guidelines to "screen" and down-select initial concepts. Candidate tether materials and protective coatings are summarized along with their performance in simulated space environments (e.g., oxygen plasma, thermal cycling). A candidate catch mechanism design concept is presented along with examples of demonstration hardware.

  8. A two-dimensional theory of plasma contactor clouds used in the ionosphere with an electrodynamic tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.; Gatsonis, N. A.; Rivas, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma contactors have been proposed as a means of making good electrical contact between biased surfaces such as found at the ends of an electrodynamic tether and the space environment. A plasma contactor is a plasma source which emits a plasma cloud which facilitates the electrical connection. The physics of this plasma cloud is investigated for contactors used as electron collectors and it is shown that contactor clouds in space will consist of a spherical core possibly containing a shock wave. Outside of the core the cloud will expand anisotropically across the magnetic field leading to a turbulent cigar shape structure along the field. This outer region is itself divided into two regions by the ion response to the electric field. A two-dimensional theory of the motion of the cloud across the magnetic field is developed. The current voltage characteristic of an Argon plasma contactor cloud is estimated for several ion currents in the range of 1-100 Amperes. It is shown that small ion current contactors are more efficient than large ion current contactors. This suggests that if a plasma contactor is used on an electrodynamic tether then a miltiple tether array will be more efficient than a single tether.

  9. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  10. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report is presented that deals with three major topics related to Tethered Satellite System Dynamics. The SAO rotational dynamics computer code was updated. The program is now suitable to deal with inclined orbits. The output has been also modified in order to show the satellite Euler angles referred to the rotating orbital frame. The three-dimensional high resolution computer program SLACK3 was developed. The code simulates the three-dimensional dynamics of a tether going slack taking into account the effect produced by boom rotations. Preliminary simulations on the three-dimensional dynamics of a recoiling slack tether are shown in this report. A program to evaluate the electric potential around a severed tether is immersed in a plasma. The potential is computed on a three-dimensional grid axially symmetric with respect to the tether longitudinal axis. The electric potential variations due to the plasma are presently under investigation.

  11. Orbital transfer and release of tethered payloads. Continuation of investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.; Grossi, M. D.; Arnold, D.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of reeling operations on the orbital altitude of the tether system and the development of control laws to minimize tether rebound upon payload release were studied. The use of the tether for LEO/GEO payload orbital transfer was also investigated. It was concluded that (1) reeling operations can contribute a significant amount of energy to the orbit of the system and should be considered in orbit calculations and predictions, (2) deployment of payloads, even very large payloads, using tethers is a practical and fully stable operation, (3) tether augmented LEO/GEO transfer operations yield useful payload gains under the practical constraint of fixed size OTV's, and (4) orbit to orbit satellite retrieval is limited by useful revisit times to orbital inclinations of less than forty-five degrees.

  12. MSFC MXER Tether Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Alexander, Reginald; Bonometti, Joseph; Chapman, Jack; Garza, Lucas; Glaese, John; Glasgow, Shaun; Guendel, Herb; Houston, Vance; Johnson, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the proposed Momentum-eXchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) space hardware system. The tether system would be position cart-wheeling cables above the Earth and then, rotating like a giant sling, would capture spacecraft or payloads from space shuttles in low Earth orbits and launch them into higher orbits. This study focuses on system validation and structural design issues for MXER. Topics examined include: tether facility design, ED tether system, payload capture/catch mechanism, payload accomodations assembly (PAA), PAA rendezvous capability, and PAA capability to correct tether misthrows.

  13. Tethered satellite system dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musetti, B.; Cibrario, B.; Bussolino, L.; Bodley, C. S.; Flanders, H. A.; Mowery, D. K.; Tomlin, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The first tethered satellite system, scheduled for launch in May 1991, is reviewed. The system dynamics, dynamics control, and dynamics simulations are discussed. Particular attention is given to in-plane and out-of-plane librations; tether oscillation modes; orbiter and sub-satellite dynamics; deployer control system; the sub-satellite attitude measurement and control system; the Aeritalia Dynamics Model; the Martin-Marietta and NASA-MSFC Dynamics Model; and simulation results.

  14. The space station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  15. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The tethered satellite system is described including tether fundamentals. Applications of very long tethers in space to a broad spectrum of future space missions are explored. Topics covered include: science, transportation, constellations, artificial gravity, technology and test, and electrodynamic interactions. Recommendations to NASA are included.

  16. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the Golgi associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, proteins that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus, it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic. PMID:27243003

  17. Tether deployment monitoring system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An operational Tether Deployment Monitoring System (TEDEMS) was constructed that would show system functionality in a terrestrial environment. The principle function of the TEDEMS system is the launching and attachment of reflective targets onto the tether during its deployment. These targets would be tracked with a radar antenna that was pointed towards the targets by a positioning system. A spring powered launcher for the targets was designed and fabricated. An instrumentation platform and launcher were also developed. These modules are relatively heavy and will influence tether deployment scenarios, unless they are released with a velocity and trajectory closely matching that of the tether. Owing to the tracking range limitations encountered during field trails of the Radar system, final TEDEMS system integration was not completed. The major module not finished was the system control computer. The lack of this device prevented any subsystem testing or field trials to be conducted. Other items only partially complete were the instrumentation platform launcher and modules and the radar target launcher. The work completed and the tests performed suggest that the proposed system continues to be a feasible approach to tether monitoring, although additional effort is still necessary to increase the range at which modules can be detected. The equipment completed and tested, to the extent stated, is available to NASA for use on any future program that requires tether tracking capability.

  18. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  19. Overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tether activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA research concerning the use of tethers in space is reviewed, including joint research with the Italian Space Agency. Tether applications under consideration are described, such as a tethered fuel depot and a tethered gravity laboratory platform for the Space Station, providing artificial gravity to and from Mars, payload recovery and waste management, aerothermodynamic magnetospheric physics, and electrodynamic propulsion, braking, and power generation for the Space Shuttle. Also, tether flight demonstrations are examined, including the Small Expendable Deployer System, the Get-Away Tether Experiment, the Tether Elevator Crawler System, and the Kinetic Isolation Tether Experiment.

  20. UAH/NASA Workshop on The Uses of a Tethered Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Potential applications of the system are categorized into four areas: geological applications, atmospheric applications, electrodynamics and plasma studies, and technology applications. The multiple-use tethered system with feedback control, will be capable of supporting a payload or satellite suspended from the Shuttle cargo bay, at distances up to 100 kilometers from the Shuttle. Experiments proposed include: geomagnetic mapping, lower atmospheric measurements, ionospheric interactions with large space structures, solar wind transport, and magnetohydrodynamic measurements.

  1. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  2. The first mission of the Tethered Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, C. Blake (Editor); Shea, Charlotte; Mcmahan, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    The era of space-age tethered operations moves toward reality with the launch of Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1). The primary objective of this mission is to demonstrate the technology of long tethered systems in space and to demonstrate, through scientific investigations, that such systems are useful for research.

  3. Modeling tether-ballast asteroid diversion systems, including tether mass and elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David B.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    2014-10-01

    The risk of an impact between a large asteroid and the Earth has been significant enough to attract the attention of many researchers. This paper focuses on a mitigation technique that involves the use of a long tether and ballast mass to divert an asteroid. When such a tether is modeled as massless and inelastic, results show that the method may be viable for diverting asteroids away from a collision with the Earth; the next step towards demonstrating the viability of the approach is to conduct a study which uses a more realistic tether model. This paper presents such a study, in which the tether models include tether mass and elasticity. These models verify that a tether-ballast system is capable of diverting Earth-threatening asteroids. Detailed parametric studies are presented which illustrate how system performance depends on tether mass and elasticity. Also, case studies are presented which show how more realistic models can aid in the design of tether-ballast asteroid mitigation systems. Key findings include the dangers imposed by periods during which the tether goes slack and ways to preclude this.

  4. Investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers. [space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, D. A.; Dobrowolny, M.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for using electric currents to control pendular oscillations induced by various perturbing forces on the Skyhook wire is considered. Transverse and vertical forces on the tether; tether instability modes and causes during retrieval by space shuttle; simple and spherical pendulum motion and vector damping; and current generation and control are discussed. A computer program for numerical integration of the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of the tether vs time was developed for heuristic study. Some techniques for controlling instabilities during payload retrieval and methods for employing the tether for launching satellites from the space shuttle are considered. Derivations and analyses of a general nature used in all of the areas studied are included.

  5. Overview of Future NASA Tether Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Enrico

    1998-01-01

    The groundwork has been laid for tether applications in space. NASA has developed tether technology for space applications since the 1960's. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions-power and thrust modes (PMG, 1993). Various types of tethers and systems can be used for space transportation. Short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will demonstrate electrodynamic tether thrust during its flight in early 2000. Utilizing completely different physical principles, long non-conducting tethers can exchange momentum between two masses in orbit to place one body into a higher orbit or a transfer orbit for lunar and planetary missions. Recently completed system studies of this concept indicate that it would be a relatively low-cost in-space asset with long-term multi-mission capability. Tethers can also be used to support space science by providing a mechanism for precision formation flying and for reaching regions of the upper atmosphere that were previously inaccessible.

  6. Report of the Electrodynamic Interactions Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, N. H.; Taylor, R. S.; Benford, S.; Binsack, J. H.; Dobrowolny, M.; Finnegan, P.; Grossi, M. D.; Hudson, M.; Intriligator, D.; Kaminskas, R.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of opportunities is provided by the electrodynamic tether to more fully understand the generation of waves in plasmas, the behavior of field aligned currents, the behavior of large body-space plasma interactions, and for process simulation, using the electrodynamic tether to study processes and phenomena relevant to solar system and astrophysics plasma physics. The electrodynamic tether offers a means of study and experimentation in space which will provide a rich yield in new scientific results and will enhance the understanding of space plasma physics. It also has promising technological applications (e.g., the generation of electrical power and thrust) which may be highly significant to future space operations.

  7. Tethered Forth system for FPGA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździkowski, Paweł; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the tethered Forth system dedicated for testing and debugging of FPGA based electronic systems. Use of the Forth language allows to interactively develop and run complex testing or debugging routines. The solution is based on a small, 16-bit soft core CPU, used to implement the Forth Virtual Machine. Thanks to the use of the tethered Forth model it is possible to minimize usage of the internal RAM memory in the FPGA. The function of the intelligent terminal, which is an essential part of the tethered Forth system, may be fulfilled by the standard PC computer or by the smartphone. System is implemented in Python (the software for intelligent terminal), and in VHDL (the IP core for FPGA), so it can be easily ported to different hardware platforms. The connection between the terminal and FPGA may be established and disconnected many times without disturbing the state of the FPGA based system. The presented system has been verified in the hardware, and may be used as a tool for debugging, testing and even implementing of control algorithms for FPGA based systems.

  8. Tether Technologies for Future Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frame, Kyle L.; Dankanich, John W.; Bonometti, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on several types of spacecraft tethers, and possible applications for them. The tethers profiled include: 1) Mechanical tethers; 2) Electrodynamic (ED) tethers; 3) Momentum eXchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) tethers; 4) Synergistic technologies. Tethers can have low Earth orbit (LEO), lunar, and interplanetary applications.

  9. Shuttle/tethered satellite system conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A closed-loop control system was added to the tether reel which improves control over the tethered satellite. In addition to increasing the stability of the tethered satellite along local vertical, this control system is used for deployment and retrieval of tethered satellites. This conceptual design study describes a tether system for suspending a science payload at an altitude of 120 km from space shuttle orbiter flying at an altitude of 200 km. In addition to the hardware conceptual designs, various aspects concerning Orbiter accommodations are discussed.

  10. On vibration control of tethered satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, D. M.; Misra, A. K.; Modi, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    The general dynamics of a shuttle supported tethered subsatellite system taking into account the longitudinal and three dimensional transverse vibrations is considered. It is noted that control of inherently unstable dynamics during retrieval of the subsatellite can be carried out by letting the rate of change length depend on the state variables in an appropriate manner. Control laws using linear feedback of inplane state variables and nonlinear feedback of out-of-plane state variables are proposed.

  11. Summary Presentation of the Electrodynamics Interactions Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, N. H.

    1985-01-01

    Technological and scientific uses of electrodynamic tethers in space are considered. Areas of concern for such applications of electrodynamic tethers are enumerated. Thrust and power generation using tethers are discussed.

  12. GTOSS: Generalized Tethered Object Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David D.

    1987-01-01

    GTOSS represents a tether analysis complex which is described by addressing its family of modules. TOSS is a portable software subsystem specifically designed to be introduced into the environment of any existing vehicle dynamics simulation to add the capability of simulating multiple interacting objects (via multiple tethers). These objects may interact with each other as well as with the vehicle into whose environment TOSS is introduced. GTOSS is a stand alone tethered system analysis program, representing an example of TOSS having been married to a host simulation. RTOSS is the Results Data Base (RDB) subsystem designed to archive TOSS simulation results for future display processing. DTOSS is a display post processors designed to utilize the RDB. DTOSS extracts data from the RDB for multi-page printed time history displays. CTOSS is similar to DTOSS, but is designed to create ASCII plot files. The same time history data formats provided for DTOSS (for printing) are available via CTOSS for plotting. How these and other modules interact with each other is discussed.

  13. The use of tethers for payload orbital transfer. Continuation of investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Arnold, D.

    1982-01-01

    The SKYHOOK program was used to do simulations of two cases of the use of the tether for payload orbital transfer. The transport of a payload along the tether from a heavy lower platform to an upper launching platform is considered. A numerical example of the Shuttle launching a payload using an orbital tether facility is described.

  14. Electrodynamics of long conducting tethers in the near-earth environment. [in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolny, M.; Colombo, G.; Grossi, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical approach was developed to evaluate the electrodynamic interactions affecting a thin, bare metallic wire moving in the ionosphere. The wire's diameter was smaller than the Debye length; therefore, the plasma sheath around the wire was taken into account in computing inducing drag force and torque. Computer programs were prepared for the numerical evaluation of mathematical functions that were required to compute the distribution of the potential along the wire and of the current in the wire. Numerical calculations based on this software are shown.

  15. TESSX: A Mission for Space Exploration with Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosmo, Mario L.; Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gramer, Daniel J.; Hoffman, John H.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    2005-01-01

    Tethers offer significant potential for substantially increasing payload mass fraction, increasing spacecraft lifetime, enhancing long-term space travel, and enabling the understanding and development of gravity-dependent technologies required for Moon and Mars exploration. The development of the Tether Electrodynamic Spin-up and Survivability Experiment (TESSX) will support applications relevant to NASA's new exploration initiative, including: artificial gravity generation, formation flying, electrodynamic propulsion, momentum exchange, and multi-amp current collection and emission. Under the broad term TESSX, we are currently evaluating several different tether system configurations and operational modes. The initial results of this work are presented, including hardware development, orbital dynamics simulations, and electrodynamics design and analysis.

  16. Development testing of TSS-1 Deployer tether control system mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, D. P.; Tisdale, D.

    1989-01-01

    Successful tether deployment and retrieval, consistent with established control laws, is predicated upon statusing real time tether dynamic conditions. This paper reports on the initial phase of engineering tests performed on various components and subassemblies integral to the TSS-1 tether control system as part of the TSS Deployer. The tests were conducted as part of the tether control system development and verification plan to confirm the functionality and map the performance of the hardware in both ambient and environmental test conditions. The result of this development effort is a lessons-learned list and design upgrades to both the flight and test hardware and to the test methods and procedures.

  17. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. Topics disscussed include: orbit and orbit transfer equations; orbital perturbations; aerodynamic drag; thermal balance; micrometeoroids; gravity gradient effects; tether control strategies; momentum transfer; orbit transfer by tethered release/rendezvous; impact hazards for tethers; electrodynamic tether principles; and electrodynamic libration control issues.

  18. Mission-function control of tethered satellite/climber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Fukatsu, Kosei; Trivailo, Pavel M.

    2015-01-01

    Because the tether of a tethered satellite system (TSS) can be extremely long, it would be difficult to inspect the damage to the tether. The ultimate configuration of a TSS could be a space elevator (SE). The tether needs to carry a crawler or climber to inspect damage to the tether or transport travelers on the SE. Coriolis force due to the climber motion causes librational motion of the tether. The numerical simulations have shown that the original mission-function (MF) control is not applicable to a TSS with a climber because it was intended for subsatellite deployment and retrieval control using a tether, not for a climber on the tether. This paper proposes a new MF control to suppress the librational motion of a tether with a climber. The proposed MF control is a modified version of the original MF control. The active force to drive the climber is determined from the MF. A simplified dynamic model of a TSS with a single climber is used to evaluate the derived controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through numerical simulations.

  19. Project 'VOLCANO': Electronics of tethered satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, N. A.

    The main goal of the 'VOLCANO' project developed jointly by the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics and space concern 'ENERGIA' is experimental investigation of the current-voltage characteristics of the 'Collector-Boom-Emitter' system simulating the long Tethered Satellite System (TSS) in the real space flight conditions on the transport ship 'PROGRESS'. These measurements will allow scientists to determine the attainable current values for different combinations of collectors and emitters (passive metallic sphere, thermocathode, hollow cathodes and show up some prospects of active TSS. The report is concerned with the concept, purpose and tasks of the project, the planned set up of the measurement equipment on the 'PROGRESS' ship and in the container extended on the deployable 100 m long boom end.

  20. TETHERED BALLOON SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of recent studies in which balloons, usually tethered, have been used to investigate the structure and air quality of the planetary boundary layer. It also describes a number of lightweight tethered balloon sampling systems, developed to investigate parti...

  1. Multi-Tethered Space-Based Interferometers: Particle System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Stephen S.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics models are presented for a class of space-based interferometers comprised of multiple component bodies, interconnected in various arrangements, by low-mass flexible tethers of variable length. The tethered constellations are to perform coordinated rotational scanning accompanied by baseline dimensional changes, as well as spin axis realignments and spin-up/spin-down maneuvers. The mechanical idealization is a system of N point masses interconnected by massless tethers of variable length. Both extensible and inextensible tethers are considered. Expressions for system angular and linear momenta are developed. The unrestricted nonlinear motion equations are derived via Lagranges equations. Rheonomic constraints are introduced to allow prescribed motion of any degrees of freedom, and the associated physical forces are determined. The linearized equations of motion are obtained for the steady rotation of a system with extensible tethers of constant unstrained length.

  2. Why Not Space Tethers?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Noble H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development. Since NASA's investment of some $200M and two Shuttle missions in those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated and shown to perform as, or better than, expected in earth orbit. While it is true that the TSS-1, TSS-1R and SEDS-2 missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to be design or materials flaws that are (1) unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) they are readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology. Finally, it is shown that (1) all problems experienced during early development of the technology now have solutions; and (2) the technology has been matured by advances made in strength and robustness of tether materials, high voltage engineering in the space environment, tether health and status monitoring, and the elimination of the broken tether hazard. In view of this, it is inexplicable why this flight-validated technology has not been utilized in the past decade, considering the powerful and unique capabilities that space tethers can afford that are, not only required to carryout, otherwise, unobtainable missions, but can also greatly reduce the cost of certain on-going space operations.

  3. Study of tethered satellite active attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.

    1982-01-01

    Existing software was adapted for the study of tethered subsatellite rotational dynamics, an analytic solution for a stable configuration of a tethered subsatellite was developed, the analytic and numerical integrator (computer) solutions for this "test case' was compared in a two mass tether model program (DUMBEL), the existing multiple mass tether model (SKYHOOK) was modified to include subsatellite rotational dynamics, the analytic "test case,' was verified, and the use of the SKYHOOK rotational dynamics capability with a computer run showing the effect of a single off axis thruster on the behavior of the subsatellite was demonstrated. Subroutines for specific attitude control systems are developed and applied to the study of the behavior of the tethered subsatellite under realistic on orbit conditions. The effect of all tether "inputs,' including pendular oscillations, air drag, and electrodynamic interactions, on the dynamic behavior of the tether are included.

  4. Tether Technology Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, James K. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This is a compilation of 25 papers presented at a tether technical interchange meeting in Huntsville, AL, on September 9-10, 1997. After each presentation, a technical discussion was held to clarify and expand the salient points. A wide range of subjects was covered including tether dynamics, electrodynamics, space power generation, plasma physics, ionospheric physics, towing tethers, tethered reentry schemes, and future tether missions.

  5. Tethered airfoil wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L.I.

    1982-01-05

    A generally toric lighter-than-air gas bag-type airfoil is tethered to the ground at a plurality of angularly widely distributed points about the periphery of the gas bag. A wind turbine is mounted at the entrance to the axially central vent. The tether lines are entrained about individually operable power winches, preferably controlled by a microprocessor which takes in wind direction and tether line tension data and operates the winches and inflation gas inlet and outlet valves to orient the wind turbine into the wind for maximum power output.

  6. The Italian participation to the Tethered Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, G.; Bergamaschi, S.; Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-09-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS), a device whereby measurement platforms and other objects can be deployed by means of a connecting tether to station points as far as 100 km from the Space Shuttle, is discussed. In connection with the agreement between the U.S. and Italy, it is noted that NASA will be responsible for the design and development of the deployer and CNR will be responsible for the design and development of the subsatellite. Scientific applications of the TSS include those which use the tether as a means of carrying instrumentation to a suitable distance from the Shuttle and those which use the tether as a part of the instrumentation. Among the low-altitude scientific applications are studies of the earth's magnetic and gravitational fields, aeronomy, research on the problem of re-entry, earth observations, and plasma physics. The technological applications of the TSS are those in which the tether is used as a structure or a crane

  7. Get-Away tether experiment - Experimental plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Michael; Walls, Justin; Carter, J. Theron; Rupp, Charles C.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental capabilities of the Get-Away Tether Experiment (GATE) are presented and a series of demonstration mission are proposed. The GATE is a free-flying tether system that will develop or demonstrate technology in the areas of tether dynamics (deployment and stabilization, retrieval, stationkeeping, and severance), tether electrodynamics, micrometeor hazards to tethers, and disturbance rejection. The system consists of two subsatellites connected by 1 km of tether. The free-flying system is ejected from the Orbiter via a Getaway Special (GAS) canister. Two dynamics missions are profiled along with a description of electrodynamic mission capabilities. The dynamic interactions of the end body and tether may be observed from the Orbiter or from an on-board video tracking system. Hence, GATE provides a unique, low cost capability to demonstrate various tether technologies, and address critical design and safety issues associated with future tether applications. An assessment of the significant measurable parameters and associated instrumentation is given. Future work and system development projection schedules are also outlined.

  8. Artificial or variable gravity attained by tether systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    The simplest orbiting tethered system demands for stability that the mass centers of two end bodies be displaced above and below the position of zero acceleration. Therefore, the contents of the end bodies are subjected necessarily to acceleration fields or artificial gravity whose magnitudes depend on the dimensions and masses of the system. If the length of the tether changes, so do the fields. Even for a fixed tether length, the acceleration field at a location in the system may be somewhat variable unless special means are employed to maintain a constant value. These fundamental properties of a tethered system can be used to advantage if small or variable acceleration fields are desired for experimental or operational reasons. This potential use involves a few expressions from a formulation of tether system dynamics. Some of these formulae were collected for convenient use. Two and three body tethered equilibrium equations are explained. A special application of acceleration field control using a tether system is attainment of near-zero gravity. In this applicaition, even small variations about zero become a critical matter.

  9. Theory of plasma contactors for electrodynamic tethered satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1987-01-01

    Recent data from ground and space experiments indicate that plasma releases from an object dramatically reduce the sheath impedance between the object and the ambient plasma surrounding it. Available data is in qualitative accord with the theory developed to quantify the flow of current in the sheath. Electron transport in the theory is based on a fluid model of a collisionless plasma with an effective collision frequency comparable to frequencies of plasma oscillations. The theory leads to low effective impedances varying inversely with the square root of the injected plasma density. To support such a low impedance mode of operation using an argon plasma source, for example, requires that only one argon ion be injected for each thirty electrons extracted from the ambient plasma. The required plasma flow rates are quite low; to extract one ampere of electron current requires a mass flow rate of about one gram of argon per day.

  10. Enhanced current flow through a plasma cloud by induction of plasma turbulence. [electrodynamic tethers for generating power for spacecraft in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.; Gioulekas, A.

    1987-01-01

    Electrodynamic tethers have been proposed as a means of generating power in low earth orbit. One of the limitations on the power generated is the relatively low electron current that can be collected. It is proposed that the electron current can be significantly enhanced by means of current induced plasma turbulence in a plasma cloud around the collecting anode. This is examined for the specific case of lower hybrid turbulence. An important conclusion is that the use of plasma clouds in the ionosphere will entail a high impedance (no instability) and a low impedance (lower hybrid instability) mode of operation depending on the current density.

  11. STEP Tether Dynamics Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.

    2000-01-01

    The General Tethered Object Simulation System (GTOSS) has been successfully converted to the PC environment. GTOSS has been run under Microsoft Windows 95, 98 and NT4.0 with no problems noted. Adaptation to the PC environment and definition of the 3 three body configuration required resizing some of the GTOSS internal data arrays. To allow studies of the tether dynamics accompanying electrodynamic thrust, a tether current flow model has also been developed for GTOSS. This model includes effects due to the earth's magnetic field and ionosphere, tether conductivity, temperature, motion, shape and available power. Sample cases have been defined for a proposed STEP-AIRSEDS (Space Transfer using Electrodynamic Propulsion-The Michigan Technic Corporation proposed tether missions for commercial applications) three body configuration. This required definition of a 6th power scenario for GTOSS. This power scenario allows a user to specify whether orbit raising or orbit lowering is to be performed by selecting the number of the tether. Orbit raising and orbit lowering sample cases have been run successfully. Results from these runs have been included in this report. Results have only been generated so far for a three body configuration. Only point end masses have been represented. No attitude dynamics have been included. Initial results suggest that tether current can have significant and detrimental effects on tether dynamics and provisions will have to be made for control of it. This control will have to be considered in connection with desired target orbits for electrodynamic thrusting, as well as end body attitude control, momentum management of proposed control moment gyros, solar array pointing. All of these items will interact and thus, any system simulation will have to have each of these effects modeled in sufficient detail to display these interactions.

  12. Analysis of an electrodynamic maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.

    1999-09-01

    Electrodynamic systems (EDS's) for maglev have an advantage over electromagnetic systems (EMS's) in that the stability is built into the system. EDS's induce the currents used for levitation and guidance, while EMS's impose those currents with controlled feedback. The movement of a magnet over properly designed EDS coils results in forces to keep the system fixed in the lowest energy or null flux spot. In the past such systems have been examined through two-dimensional boundary element techniques. An approximation to the full three-dimensional time harmonic problem is obtained through LaPlace transform theory after using boundary element methods to predict the mutual coupling of the magnets with the track coils. The analytic solution offers helpful design and operation guidelines.

  13. Dual-keel electrodynamic Maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.; Wang, Zian; Coffey, H.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a new concept for an electrodynamic-suspension maglev system that has a dual-keel arrangement. Each keel consists of a row of superconducting magnets aboard the vehicle. The keels move in troughs in the guideway that are each lined with pairs of figure-eight-shaped null-flux coils. Each pair of null-flux coils is cross-connected to produce null-flux suspension and guidance force. The cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coils in each trough are also energized by a three-phase power supply to produce propulsive force. Preliminary analysis shows that the new system has many advantages over other EDS systems in terms of system performance and dynamic stability.

  14. Tethered lifting systems for measurements in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Michael Lamar

    2000-10-01

    This work defines a Tethered Lifting System for measurements in the lower atmosphere, its design and development, and applications for its use. Using historical kite research and the unique capabilities of tethered lifting platforms as motivation, a complete system has been created offering the complementary benefits of parafoil kites and tethered balloons as lifting platforms. Support systems including tethers, winching systems and payload data collection and telemetry systems round out the Tethered Lifting System to provide a complete atmospheric measurement system. The kite platforms have been enhanced by the invention and development of a wind-powered Tether Rover for Atmospheric Research (WindTRAM), providing rapid profiling and precise positioning capabilities. Design of the WindTRAM and implementation of onboard feedback control are covered in detail, as they comprise the most novel contribution of this research. The breadth of possible applications for these technologies is touched upon by examination of some of the specific research applications undertaken by the researchers at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences during the last decade.

  15. On tethered sample and mooring systems near irregular asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Shan, Jinjun

    2014-10-01

    A tethered asteroid sample and mooring system is investigated in this paper. In this system the spacecraft is moored to the surface of an irregular asteroid such as 216 Kleopatra by using a rocket-propelled anchor with a cable. The rocket-propelled anchor is a kind of space penetrator, which can inject into asteroids at high speeds generated by its own rocket engine. It can be used to explore the interior structure of asteroids, and it can also be used as a sample collector. When the sampling mission is done, the sample can be pulled back to the spacecraft with the anchor. Using this method, the spacecraft can be kept in a safe region in which it cannot be trapped by the gravitational field of the asteroid. This work is concerned with the dynamics of the tethered system near irregular asteroids. First, a shape model and gravitational field model of irregular asteroids are built. Then, the configuration and the stability of the tethered system are investigated, and the quasi-periodic motion near the equilibrium point of the tethered system is analyzed. Finally, the non-uniform density distribution of the asteroids is considered. The deployment process and the oscillation of the tethered system in the uncertain asteroid gravity field are simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The feasibility of the tethered asteroid sample and mooring system is proved.

  16. Applications of Tethers in Space: Workshop Proceedings, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracat, W. A. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: tethered orbital transfer vehicle operations, Centaur and Shuttle tether technology; tethered constellations, gravitational effects; Shuttle continuous open wind tunnel; optimal control laws, electrodynamic tether technology; and space station facilities.

  17. Applications of Tethers in Space: Workshop proceedings, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Baracat, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    Topics addressed include: tethered orbital transfer vehicle operations, Centaur and Shuttle tether technology; tethered constellations, gravitational effects; Shuttle continuous open wind tunnel; optimal control laws, electrodynamic tether technology; and space station facilities.

  18. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the rotational dynamics of the satellite was focused on the rotational amplitude increase of the satellite, with respect to the tether, during retrieval. The dependence of the rotational amplitude upon the tether tension variation to the power 1/4 was thoroughly investigated. The damping of rotational oscillations achievable by reel control was also quantified while an alternative solution that makes use of a lever arm attached with a universal joint to the satellite was proposed. Comparison simulations between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Martin Marietta (MMA) computer code of reteival maneuvers were also carried out. The agreement between the two, completely independent, codes was extremely close, demonstrating the reliability of the models. The slack tether dynamics during reel jams was analytically investigated in order to identify the limits of applicability of the SLACK3 computer code to this particular case. Test runs with SLACK3 were also carried out.

  19. Tethering Complexes in the Arabidopsis Endomembrane System.

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Targeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defense against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model-Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF) mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology. PMID:27243010

  20. Tethering Complexes in the Arabidopsis Endomembrane System

    PubMed Central

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Targeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defense against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model—Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF) mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology. PMID:27243010

  1. Selected tether applications in space: Phase 2. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorson, M. H.; Lippy, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of tether technology has the potential to increase the overall performance efficiency and capability of the integrated space operations and transportation systems through the decade of the 90s. The primary concepts for which significant economic benefits were identified are dependent on the space station as a storage device for angular momentum and as an operating base for the tether system. Concepts examined include: (1) tether deorbit of shuttle from space station; (2) tethered orbit insertion of a spacecraft from shuttle; (3) tethered platform deployed from space station; (4) tether-effected rendezvous of an OMV with a returning OTV; (5) electrodynamic tether as an auxiliary power source for space station; and (6) tether assisted launch of an OTV mission from space station.

  2. In-orbit experimentation with the Small Expendable-Tether Deployment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Carroll, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Expendable-Tether Deployment System (SEDS) is a light-weight deployer capable of deploying instrumented packages and other tethered payloads up to a distance of 20 km. The system is simple and inexpensive because it does not retrieve the tethered payloads. The deployer is attached to the second stage of a Delta II which acts as a stabilized platform for the deployment of tethered payloads. SEDS is particularly suitable for complementing the Tethered Satellite missions by providing a flexible system for experimenting with the tether-in-space technology. SEDS can also provide a convenient way for testing instruments and/or procedures which require the use of long tethers.

  3. The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Levin, Eugene; Oldson, John; Carroll, Joseph

    2001-02-01

    The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE) is proposed for a space demonstration. EDDE consists of an autonomous space vehicle powered by lightweight solar arrays, a bi-directional electrodynamic tether, and batteries for power leveling. The EDDE vehicle can modify its orbit repeatedly without rocket fuel, and can change all six orbital parameters by modulating and reversing the current flow in the conducting tether. The base spacecraft is connected to the service module by a 6-km-long electrodynamic tether, and is designed for 2 kW of power and a total mass of 180 kg. Tether lifetime of several years is achieved with a two-strand caduceus, with the strands connected every few meters. Tether libration is minimized by mass distribution and by active current control. The vehicle and tether system concepts are developed, the operational envelopes are examined, and potential applications are evaluated. The EDDE vehicle is about twice as fast as ion rockets for high-inclination orbital plane changes, and has much higher maximum delta-V capability. A proof-of-concept experiment is proposed for a low-cost space demonstration. This on-orbit experiment could include additional secondary payloads; for example, EDDE could place low-ΔV, free-flying inspectors into arbitrary orbits from which they could approach selected objects without concern for tether dynamics or interference. .

  4. Shuttle-tethered satellite system definition study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A system requirements definition and configuration study (Phase B) of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) was conducted during the period 14 November 1977 to 27 February 1979. Subsequently a study extension was conducted during the period 13 June 1979 to 30 June 1980, for the purpose of refining the requirements identified during the main phase of the study, and studying in some detail the implications of accommodating various types of scientific experiments on the initial verification flight mission. An executive overview is given of the Tethered Satellite System definition developed during the study. The results of specific study tasks undertaken in the extension phase of the study are reported. Feasibility of the Tethered Satellite System has been established with reasonable confidence and the groundwork laid for proceeding with hardware design for the verification mission.

  5. A low earth orbit skyhook tether transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design concept of a structure, called the Skyhook Tether Transportation System (STTS) which may be used to transport mass to higher or lower orbits or to capture objects from higher or lower orbits. An analysis is presented for the possibility of the STTS to perform the function of transporting masses suborbitally, capturing the objects, and then releasing them to a higher orbit, the GEO, the moon, or for an escape. It is shown that, although the possibility of such a system is limited by the tether strength, even a modest system can yield considerable benefits in propellant savings if it is used in combination with chemical propulsion.

  6. Analytical investigation of the dynamics of tethered constellations in Earth orbit, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gullahorn, Gordon E.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Grossi, Mario D.

    1994-01-01

    This final report covers nine years of research on future tether applications and on the actual flights of the Small Expendable Deployment System (SEDS). Topics covered include: (1) a description of numerical codes used to simulate the orbital and attitude dynamics of tethered systems during station keeping and deployment maneuvers; (2) a comparison of various tethered system simulators; (3) dynamics analysis, conceptual design, potential applications and propagation of disturbances and isolation from noise of a variable gravity/microgravity laboratory tethered to the Space Station; (4) stability of a tethered space centrifuge; (5) various proposed two-dimensional tethered structures for low Earth orbit for use as planar array antennas; (6) tethered high gain antennas; (7) numerical calculation of the electromagnetic wave field on the Earth's surface on an electrodynamically tethered satellite; (8) reentry of tethered capsules; (9) deployment dynamics of SEDS-1; (10) analysis of SEDS-1 flight data; and (11) dynamics and control of SEDS-2.

  7. Tethered aerostat VLF/LF transmitter system design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Richard L.; Lamanna, Thomas C.; Jordon, Kenneth L.

    1993-05-01

    A tethered aerostat VLF/LF transmitter (TAVT) system is a cost-effective, survivable alternative for reconstituting VLF/LF communications connectivity to strategic forces in a post-attack environment. This paper describes the tradeoff design considerations that led to recommending a TAVT system with a 50,000-cubic-foot aerostat and a 5,000-foot tether used as the transmitting radio antenna. The major tradeoff factors considered in choosing this design were: survivability, transportability, coverage area, operating frequency range, maximum effective radiated power, cost, and corona avoidance.

  8. Application of the Trio-Tri-Star Carpal Wrist for use in a Solar Array Tracking Mechanism for the Momentum-eXchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) Tether Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Trio-Tri-Star Carpal Wrist to the Momentum Exchange Electro-Dynamic Re-boost (MXER) tether, an advanced space transportation concept being developed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Office at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Dr. Joseph Bonometti and Mr. Kirk Sorensen are the principal engineers. In the paper, a brief overview of the MXER concept is given, with an emphasis on the design problem that this wrist is designed to address. The Trio-Tri-Star Carpal Wrist, a three degree of freedom parallel manipulator, invented by Dr. Stephen J. Canfield of Tennessee Tech University, is described with an overview of wrist geometry, kinematics, and stress analysis. A working model of the wrist was assembled at MSFC using Dr. Canfield s prototype to demonstrate its operation. Finally, a design description and supporting analysis of a MXER flight concept wrist is given, with recommendations for future development work.

  9. Tethered satellite system control using electromagnetic forces and reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandi Hallaj, Mohammad Amin; Assadian, Nima

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a novel non-rotating space tethered configuration is introduced which its relative positions controlled using electromagnetic forces. The attitude dynamics is controlled by three reaction wheels in the body axes. The nonlinear coupled orbital dynamics of a dumbbell tethered satellite formation flight are derived through a constrained Lagrangian approach. These equations are presented in the leader satellite orbital frame. The tether is assumed to be mass-less and straight, and the J2 perturbation is included to the analysis. The forces and the moments of the electromagnetic coils are modeled based on the far-filed model of the magnetic dipoles. A guidance scheme for generating the desired positions as a function of time in Cartesian form is presented. The satellite tethered formation with variable length is controlled utilizing a linear controller. This approach is applied to a specified scenario and it is shown that the nonlinear guidance method and the linear controller can control the nonlinear system of the tethered formation and the results are compared with optimal control approach.

  10. Dynamics and control of the tether elevator/crawler system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro- and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while microgravity experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system center of mass can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the system's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  11. Satellite Particle Collection During Active States of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.; Bonifazi, C.; Gilchrist, B.; Mariani, F.; Hardy, D.

    1996-01-01

    The reflight of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R) was carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 22, 1996. After deploying a day later than planned, the satellite almost reached its full deployed distance before the tether broke. Data was collected for over 5 hours during deployment out to a distance of 19.7 km. Maximum emf attained during deployment was 3700 V while the maximum current achieved was just under 0.5 A. The current collected was factors of 2 to 4 greater than the predictions of the conventional Parker-Murphy theory. The microscopic view of the collection process at the satellite showed exotic behavior with the existence of 100 - 200 eV suprathermal electrons and significant spin phase modulation of the electron fluxes. Although the data set acquired from TSS- 1R was considerably less than planned, the quality of the data allows one of the main goals of the mission to be met--characterizing the system I-V response. A "quick look" assessment of the data has already shown that an understanding of the TSS-1R electrodynamic behavior will require modification of the standard picture of current collection in space plasmas

  12. Applications of Tethers in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the first workshop on applications of tethers in space are summarized. The workshop gathered personalities from industry, academic institutions and government to discuss the relatively new area of applied technology of very long tethers in space to a broad spectrum of future space missions. A large number of tethered concepts and configurations was presented covering electrodynamic interaction tethers, tethered transportation through angular momentum exchange, tethered constellations, low gravity utilization, applicable technology, and tethered test facilities. Specific recommendations were made to NASA in each area.

  13. The tethered satellite system for low density aerothermodynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi; Siemers, P. M., III; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of the operation of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) as a continuous open wind tunnel for low-density aerothermodynamic studies (applicable to the design of hypersonic space vehicles including STARFAC, AOTV, and ERV) is considered. The Shuttle Continuous Open Wind Tunnel (SCOWT) program, for the study of the energy and momentum transfer between the tethered satellite and its environmental medium during the TSS/2 mission, is described. Instrumentation and TSS design requirements to meet SCOWT objectives are also considered. SCOWT will provide information on the gasdynamic processes occurring downstream of the bow wave standing in front of the TS, the chemistry and physics of the upper atmosphere related to satellite aerothermodynamics, and TSS's overall experimental envelope of operation.

  14. Tethered Vehicle Control and Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, David D. (Inventor); Aull, Mark J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A kite system includes a kite and a ground station. The ground station includes a sensor that can be utilized to determine an angular position and velocity of the kite relative to the ground station. A controller utilizes a fuzzy logic control system to autonomously fly the kite. The system may include a ground station having powered winding units that generate power as the lines to the kite are unreeled. The control system may be configured to fly the kite in a crosswind trajectory to increase line tension for power generation. The sensors for determining the position of the kite are preferably ground-based.

  15. Operator's Manual for SHEBA Powered Tether Balloon System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lappen, Cara-Lyn; Randall, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) was an intensive field project which took place in the Arctic Ocean from October 1997 through October 1998. Its purpose was to measure as many facets of the Arctic environment as possible so that we would be able to better understand the interaction between the ice, atmosphere, and ocean and their interactions with global climate. One aspect of the atmospheric field component was launching tethered balloons to monitor the profiles of temperature, wind, pressure, and humidity, as well as examine the vertical structure of cloud droplet sizes and distributions. The tethered balloon that we used was one specially designed for use in freezing climates by SPEC Corporation in Boulder, Colorado. A special winch that was able to withstand Arctic temperature and weather became necessary when the testing of simple winch systems used in warmer climates failed under these extreme conditions. The purpose of this manual is to acquaint any new user to the powered tethered balloon system deployed at the The Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA ice camp. It includes a description of the preparations necessary to get ready for a launch, the mechanics of the actual launch, and an account of the proper procedure for taking down the equipment when finished. It will also include tips on how to minimize potential equipment failures, some trouble shooting, and some safety ideas. This manual is designed so that new operators can use the system with minimal previous training. At the end of this manual, the reader will find a quick checklist.

  16. Membrane tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems. PMID:25343031

  17. The development of optimal control laws for orbiting tethered platform systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Woodard, S.; Juang, J.-N.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model of the open and closed loop in-orbit plane dynamics of a space platform-tethered-subsatellite system is developed. The system consists of a rigid platform from which an (assumed massless) tether is deploying (retrieving) a subsatellite from an attachment point which is, in general, offset from the platform's mass center. A Lagrangian formulation yields equations describing platform pitch, subsatellite tether-line swing, and varying tether length motions. These equations are linearized about the nominal station keeping motion. Control can be provided by both modulation of the tether tension level and by a momentum type platform-mounted device; system controllability depends on the presence of both control inputs. Stability criteria are developed in terms of the control law gains, the platform inertia ratio, and tether offset parameter. Control law gains are obtained based on linear quadratic regulator techniques. Typical transient responses of both the state and required control effort are presented.

  18. Prospective of tethered system in space station operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerani, E.; Manarini, G.; Lorenzini, E.

    1983-10-01

    The use of satellite tethers for satellite launching and space station constellations is described. The tethers permit exploitation of the gravity gradient effect for stabilization, and also serve as momentum transfer devices between spacecraft at either end. Satellites can be launched into higher orbits when released outwards (away from the earth) by the unreeling of the tether line. The tether can also serve for rendezvous with a satellite in a higher orbit, allowing soft-docking to occur and enhancing the safety of the Orbiter. Modules of a space station can be separated and stabilized in constellations through the use of tethers. Spinning the tethers about their vertical axis will keep the tethers stretched. Free-flying platforms can be raised or lowered to proper orbits without propulsive maneuvers. Finally, fluid can be pumped downward between spacecraft without using on-board power.

  19. Study of Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) tether system for orbit reboost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Detailed designs were produced for a 2 kW plasma motor generator tether system based largely on existing hardware and hardware designs. Specifically, the hollow cathode design and electronics are derived from ion propulsion equipment. A prototype tether was constructed and will be tested for deployment, strength, resistance to breakage and abrasion and electrical properties. In addition, laboratory development models of the electronics will be used to operate two plasma motor generator hollow cathode assemblies with this tether to verify electrical performance parameters for the complete system. Results show that a low cost demonstration of a plasma motor generator tether system appears to be feasible by the middle of the 1990s.

  20. Prospective lunar, planetary and deep space applications of tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    Projected flights of an internationally managed Tethered Satellite System from the Space Shuttle in the early 1990s will investigate the behavior, first, of an insulated conducting wire 20 km long as it travels at orbital speeds through the ionosphere and earth magnetic field; subsequently, a nonconducting tether will be used to lower an instrumented 'subsatellite' 100 km downward to investigate upper-atmosphere conditions. Further consideration is presently given to other scientific, electrodynamic, transportational, and artificial gravity-generating applications of the tether concept.

  1. Configuration maintaining control of three-body ring tethered system based on thrust compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Panfeng; Liu, Binbin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Space multi-tethered systems have shown broad prospects in remote observation missions. This paper mainly focuses on the dynamics and configuration maintaining control of space spinning three-body ring tethered system for such mission. Firstly, we establish the spinning dynamic model of the three-body ring tethered system considering the elasticity of the tether using Newton-Euler method, and then validate the suitability of this model by numerical simulation. Subsequently, LP (Likins-Pringle) initial equilibrium conditions for the tethered system are derived based on rigid body's equilibrium theory. Simulation results show that tether slack, snapping and interaction between the tethers exist in the three-body ring system, and its' configuration can not be maintained without control. Finally, a control strategy based on thrust compensation, namely thrust to simulate tether compression under LP initial equilibrium conditions is designed to solve the configuration maintaining control problem. Control effects are verified by numerical simulation compared with uncontrolled situation. Simulation results show that the configuration of the three-body ring tethered system could maintain under this active control strategy.

  2. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  3. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

  4. Selected tether applications in space: An analysis of five selected concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    Ground rules and assumptions; operations; orbit considerations/dynamics; tether system design and dynamics; functional requirements; hardware concepts; and safety factors are examined for five scenarios: tethered effected separation of an Earth bound shuttle from the space station; tether effected orbit boost of a spacecraft (AXAF) into its operational orbit from the shuttle; an operational science/technology platform tether deployed from space station; a tether mediated rendezvous involving an OMV tether deployed from space station to rendezvous with an aerobraked OTV returning to geosynchronous orbit from a payload delivery mission; and an electrodynamic tether used in a dual motor/generator mode to serve as the primary energy storage facility for space station.

  5. Selected tether applications in space: An analysis of five selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ground rules and assumptions; operations; orbit considerations/dynamics; tether system design and dynamics; functional requirements; hardware concepts; and safety factors are examined for five scenarios: tethered effected separation of an Earth bound shuttle from the space station; tether effected orbit boost of a spacecraft (AXAF) into its operational orbit from the shuttle; an operational science/technology platform tether deployed from space station; a tether mediated rendezvous involving an OMV tether deployed from space station to rendezvous with an aerobraked OTV returning to geosynchronous orbit from a payload delivery mission; and an electrodynamic tether used in a dual motor/generator mode to serve as the primary energy storage facility for space station.

  6. Applications of tethers for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, P.

    1986-01-01

    Ideas of deep space exploration are considered. The role of tethers in deep space is of most concern. A proposal of a tethered instrument package in orbit about the Moon is explored. The idea of a sling on the surface of the Moon which would take solar energy and build up momentum of the sling is studied. The NASA idea of a Mars Aeronomy Orbiter which would use a tether to enhance the planned Mars Orbiter is reviewed. It is also proposed that a tether can be attached to an asteroid during a spacecraft flyby. The possibility of using tethers to provide a transportation system for payloads which are coming to the surface from escape, and which are leaving Mars and escaping from Mars itself is also studied. A proposal from the Jet Propulsion Lab. on collecting comet or asteroid samples and returning them to Earth is reviewed. A tethered penetrator which could collect core samples is the proposed way. Also considered is the area of electrodynamic tethers at Jupiter.

  7. Dynamics of a Tether System Connected to an Irregularly Shaped Celestial Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali Mashayekhi, Mohammad; Misra, Arun K.; Keshmiri, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    The problem of pendular oscillations of a tether attached to an irregularly shaped celestial body is studied in this paper. The dynamic analysis of the system is performed by examining the phase plane trajectories. The effect of the tether length as well as the higher order terms in the gravitational potential of the celestial body on the tether dynamics is investigated. It is demonstrated that consideration of the finite size of the celestial body can have significant effects on the tether dynamics, while the effect of the asphericity of the celestial body on the tether dynamics is negligible. This study is of practical relevance for asteroid deflection using tethers, as well as for the development of space elevators on small planets/moons.

  8. Effects of damping on the control dynamics of the space shuttle based on tethered systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modi, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the effects of damping on the control dynamics of the space shuttle based on tethered systems suggest that a relatively simple point mass model can provide useful information concering librational dynamics during development and retrieval of the tethered satellites. The results show that a nonlinear tension control strategy in conjunction with a suitable choice of gains and realistic damping can lead to stable retrieval maneuver with amplitudes in pitch and roll limited to acceptable values. Longitudinal and lateral vibrations of the tether are strongly coupled and can lead to the slackening of the tether. Tether vibrations can be controlled quite effectively by speeding up the retrieval at smaller tether length and/or using thruster.

  9. Dynamics of a Tether System Connected to an Irregularly Shaped Celestial Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali Mashayekhi, Mohammad; K. Misra, Arun; Keshmiri, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    The problem of pendular oscillations of a tether attached to an irregularly shaped celestial body is studied in this paper. The dynamic analysis of the system is performed by examining the phase plane trajectories. The effect of the tether length as well as the higher order terms in the gravitational potential of the celestial body on the tether dynamics is investigated. It is demonstrated that consideration of the finite size of the celestial body can have significant effects on the tether dynamics, while the effect of the asphericity of the celestial body on the tether dynamics is negligible. This study is of practical relevance for asteroid deflection using tethers, as well as for the development of space elevators on small planets/moons.

  10. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  11. Out-of-plane librations of spinning tethered satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Joshua R.; Hall, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the out-of-plane librations of a tethered satellite system that is nominally rotating in the orbit plane. To isolate the librational dynamics, the system is modeled as two point masses connected by a rigid rod with the system mass center constrained to an unperturbed circular orbit. For small out-of-plane librations, the in-plane motion is unaffected by the out-of-plane librations and a solution for the in-plane motion is determined in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This solution is used in the linearized equation for the out-of-plane librations, resulting in a Hill's equation. Floquet theory is used to analyze the Hill's equation, and we show that the out-of-plane librations are unstable for certain ranges of in-plane spin rate. For relatively high in-plane spin rates, the out-of-plane librations are stable, and the Hill's equation can be approximated by a Mathieu's equation. Approximate solutions to the Mathieu's equation are determined, and we analyze the dominant characteristics of the out-of-plane librations for high in-plane spin rates. The results obtained from the analysis of the linearized equations of motion are compared to numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations of motion, as well as numerical simulations of a more realistic system model that accounts for tether flexibility. The instabilities discovered from the linear analysis are present in both the nonlinear system and the more realistic system model. The approximate solutions for the out-of-plane librations compare well to the nonlinear system for relatively high in-plane rotation rates, and also capture the significant qualitative behavior of the flexible system.

  12. On the dynamics and control of tethered satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modi, Vinod J.; Misra, Arun K.; Ng, Alfred C.; Lakshmanan, Prem K.

    1992-01-01

    The rigid body dynamics and control of the tether, subsatellite and space platform are analyzed, during deployment, stationkeeping and retrieval phases using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) approach, accounting for the mass of the tether as well as a three dimensional offset of its point of attachment. The strategies employ tension in the tether line, thrusters, motion of the offset of the tether attachment point or their hybrid combinations. An assessment of the relative merit suggests the thruster-offset hybrid controller to be the most effective in damping given disturbances.

  13. Evaluation of a six-DOF electrodynamic shaker system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Danny Lynn; Smallwood, David Ora

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes the preliminary evaluation of a 6 degree of freedom electrodynamic shaker system. The 8 by 8 inch (20.3 cm) table is driven by 12 electrodynamic shakers producing motion in all 6 rigid body modes. A small electrodynamic shaker system suitable for small component testing is described. The principal purpose of the system is to demonstrate the technology. The shaker is driven by 12 electrodynamic shakers each with a force capability of about 50 lbs (220 N). The system was developed through an informal cooperative agreement between Sandia National Laboratories, Team Corp. and Spectral Dynamics Corporation. Sandia provided the laboratory space and some development funds. Team provided the mechanical system, and Spectral Dynamics provided the control system. Spectral Dynamics was chosen to provide the control system partly because of their experience in MIMO control and partly because Sandia already had part of the system in house. The shaker system was conceived and manufactured by TEAM Corp. Figure 1 shows the overall system. The vibration table, electrodynamic shakers, hydraulic pumps, and amplifiers are all housed in a single cabinet. Figure 2 is a drawing showing how the electrodynamic shakers are coupled to the table. The shakers are coupled to the table through a hydraulic spherical pad bearing providing 5 degrees of freedom and one stiff degree of freedom. The pad bearing must be preloaded with a static force as they are unable to provide any tension forces. The horizontal bearings are preloaded with steel springs. The drawing shows a spring providing the vertical preload. This was changed in the final design. The vertical preload is provided by multiple strands of an O-ring material as shown in Figure 4. Four shakers provide excitation in each of the three orthogonal axes. The specifications of the shaker are outlined in Table 1. Four shakers provide inputs in each of the three orthogonal directions. By choosing the phase relationships

  14. Dynamic stability of electrodynamic maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Rote, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Because dynamic instabilities are not acceptable in any commercial maglev system, it is important to consider dynamic instability in the development of all maglev systems. This study considers the stability of maglev systems based on mathematical models and experimental data. Divergence and flutter are obtained for coupled vibration of a three-degree-of-freedom maglev vehicle on a guideway consisting of double L-shaped aluminum segments. The theory and analysis for motion-dependent magnetic-force-induced instability developed in this study provides basic stability characteristics and identifies future research needs for maglev systems.

  15. Gravito-electrodynamics and the structure of planetary ring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations of the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems have highlighted a plethora of interesting new phenomena associated with those regions containing fine (micron and sub-micron sized) dust. Recognizing that these dust grains, by virtue of being immersed within the planetary magnetospheres, are electrostatically charged to the point that they experience comparable gravitational and electric forces, a new 'gravito-electrodynamic' theory has been developed to describe their dynamics. This theory has been successful in explaining all these phenomena in a systematic way. In this review, the basic model and its range of validity are outlined, and its application to the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems are discussed.

  16. Gravito-electrodynamics and the structure of planetary ring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, D. A.

    1984-08-01

    Recent spacecraft observations of the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems have highlighted a plethora of interesting new phenomena associated with those regions containing fine (micron and sub-micron sized) dust. Recognizing that these dust grains, by virtue of being immersed within the planetary magnetospheres, are electrostatically charged to the point that they experience comparable gravitational and electric forces, a new 'gravito-electrodynamic' theory has been developed to describe their dynamics. This theory has been successful in explaining all these phenomena in a systematic way. In this review, the basic model and its range of validity are outlined, and its application to the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems are discussed.

  17. Tethers in space handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, T. G.; Baracat, W. A.; Butner, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    The handbook provides a list and description of ongoing tether programs. This includes the joint U.S.-Italy demonstration project, and individual U.S. and Italian studies and demonstration programs. An overview of the current activity level and areas of emphasis in this emerging field is provided. The fundamental physical principles behind the proposed tether applications are addressed. Four basic concepts of gravity gradient, rotation, momentum exchange, and electrodynamics are discussed. Information extracted from literature, which supplements and enhances the tether applications is also presented. A bibliography is appended.

  18. The development of optimal control laws for orbiting tethered platform systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model of the open and closed loop in orbit plane dynamics of a space platform-tethered-subsatellite system is developed. The system consists of a rigid platform from which an (assumed massless) tether is deploying (retrieving) a subsatellite from an attachment point which is, in general, offset from the platform's mass center. A Langrangian formulation yields equations describing platform pitch, subsatellite tetherline swing, and varying tether length motions. These equations are linearized about the nominal station keeping motion. Control can be provided by both modulation of the tether tension level and by a momentum type platform-mounted device; system controllability depends on the presence of both control inputs. Stability criteria are developed in terms of the control law gains, the platform inertia ratio, and tether offset parameter. Control law gains are obtained based on linear quadratic regulator techniques. Typical transient responses of both the state and required control effort are presented.

  19. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    DOEpatents

    He, Jianliang; Wang, Zian; Rote, Donald M.; Coffey, Howard T.; Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.; Cal, Yigang

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.

  20. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    DOEpatents

    He, J.L.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cal, Y.

    1996-12-24

    A propulsion and stabilization system is disclosed with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle. 6 figs.

  1. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cai, Y.

    1995-12-31

    A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.

  2. Electrodynamics of strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordevic, Sasa V.

    2002-09-01

    In this thesis we study a variety of condensed matter systems with strongly correlated electrons, i.e. systems in which the electron-electron interactions cannot be ignored like in conventional metals, (gold, aluminum, copper, etc.). Infrared spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for studying such systems. The latter experimental technique probes all excitations is solids that have a dipole moment associated with them, such as gap excitations, interband transitions, phonons, polarons, magnons etc. Strong electron correlations lead to a variety of interesting physical phenomena at low temperatures. In copper ox ides superconductivity sets in below an unprecedently high critical temperature, Tc. The mechanism of this unusual phenomenon is still unclear. In this thesis we discuss energy scales from which the superconducting condensate is collected and the response of cuprates to an external magnetic field applied parallel to the CuO2 planes. In so-called heavy fermion metals a coherent ground state develops at low temperatures where the electrons appear to have large effective mass, typically 50--1,000 free electron masses. We show that magnetic interactions play an important role for the mass renormalization in heavy fermion metals. In transition metal dichalcogenides reduced dimensionality of the electron gas leads to significant anisotropy of the electron-phonon interaction.

  3. Spin Pumping in Electrodynamically Coupled Magnon-Photon Systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, M; Chen, Y P; Fan, X; Xiao, J Q; Hu, C-M

    2015-06-01

    We use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling. PMID:26196640

  4. Electrodynamic processes in the ring system of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, D. A.; Hill, J. R.; Ip, W.-H.; Goertz, C. K.; Gruen, E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of recently observed Saturn ring phenomena are discussed in terms of their electrodynamic implications. Voyager 1 and 2 observations of the rotating near-radial spokes in the B Ring, waves and braids of the F Ring, and discrete episodic bursts of broadband radio emission, claimed by some to originate in a ring, are addressed. Several other phenomena are considered, including the origin and evolution of the diffuse E Ring and G Ring (which appear to be composed of fine dust), as well as the existence of a number of sharp discontinuities in the main ring system, within the context of gravitoelectrodynamics of charged dust in the magnetosphere.

  5. Study of Japanese electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. L.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the Japanese MLU magnetic levitation (maglev) system. The development of the MLU system is reviewed, and the dynamic circuit model then is introduced and applied to the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. Three different types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux suspension systems are discussed in detail: (1) the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system without cross-connection; (2) the combined suspension and guidance system; and (3) the combined propulsion, levitation, and guidance system. The electrodynamic suspension maglev systems developed in Japan seem to be very promising and could result in a commercial application in the near future.

  6. Study of Japanese electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the Japanese MLU magnetic-levitation (maglev) system. The development of the MLU system is reviewed, and the dynamic circuit model then is introduced and applied to the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. Three different types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux suspension systems are discussed in detail: (1) the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system without cross-connection; (2) the combined suspension and guidance system; and (3) the combined propulsion, levitation, and guidance system. The electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems developed in Japan seem to be very promising and could result in a commercial application in the near future.

  7. Spin pumping in electrodynamically coupled magnon-photon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lihui

    The electronics industry is quickly approaching the limitation of Moore's Law due to Joule heating in high density-integrated devices. To achieve new higher-speed devices and reduce energy consumption, researchers are turning to spintronics where the intrinsic spin, rather than the charge of electrons, is used to carry information in devices. Advances in spintronics have led to the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin transfer torque etc. Another subject, cavity electrodynamics, promises a completely new quantum algorithm by studying the properties of a single electron interacting with photons inside of a cavity. By merging both spintronics and cavity electrodynamics, a new cutting edge field called Cavity Spintronics is forming, which draws on the advantages of both subjects to develop new spintronics devices utilizing light-matter interaction. In this work, we use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling in a microwave cavity at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling. Co-authored with M. Harder, C.-M. Hu from University of Manitoba, Y. P. Chen, J. Q. Xiao from University of Delaware, and X. Fan from Univeristy of Denver.

  8. Tether System for Exchanging Payloads Between the International Space Station and the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    Systems composed of several rotating and/or hanging tethers may provide a means of exchanging supplies between low Earth orbit facilities and lunar bases without requiring the use of propellant. This work develops methods for designing a tether system capable of repeatedly exchanging payloads between a LEO facility such as the International Space Station or a Space Business Park and a base on the lunar surface. In this system, a hanging tether extended upwards from the LEO facility, places a payload into a slightly elliptical orbit, where it is caught by a rotating tether in a higher elliptical orbit. This rotating tether then tosses the payload to the moon. At the moon, a long rotating "Lunavator" tether catches the payload and deposits it on the surface of the moon. By transporting an equal mass of lunar materials such as oxygen back down to the LEO facility through the tether transport system, the momentum and energy of the system is conserved, allowing frequent traffic between LEO and the lunar surface with minimal propellant requirements.

  9. A three-mass tethered system for micro-g/variable-g applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a Space-Station attached tethered system for micro-g/variable-g applications. The system consists of three platforms: the Space Station, an end mass anchored at the end of a 10 km long kevlar tether and a micro-g/variable-g laboratory with the capability of crawling along the tether. Control strategies are devised for performing both the deployment and the station-keeping maneuvers of the system. Effective algorithms are identified for damping out the major vibrational modes.

  10. A Magnetic Bumper-Tether System Using ZFC Y123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Obot, Victor; Liu, Jianxiong; Arndt, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the use of magnetic forces in a bumper system, to soften docking procedures. We investigate a system which exhibits no magnetic field except during the docking process, which, if desired, can automatically tether two craft together, and which provides lateral stability during docking. A system composed of zero field cooled Y(1.7)Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (Y123) tiles and electromagnets is proposed. The Y123 high temperature superconductor (HTS) is mounted on one craft, and the electromagnet on the other. Results of small prototype laboratory experiments are reported. The electromagnet has, for convenience, been replaced by a permanent SmCo ferromagnet in these measurements. When the two craft approach, a mirror image of the ferromagnet is induced in the Y123, and a repulsive bumper force, F(sub B), results. F(sub B) is velocity dependent, and increases with v. For presently available HTS materials, bumper pressure of approx. 3.7 N/cm(exp 2) is achieved using SmCo. This extrapolates to approx. 18 N/cm(exp 2) for an electromagnet, or a force of up to 20 tons for a 1 m(exp 2) system. After reaching a minimum distance of approach, the two colliding craft begin to separate. However, the consequent change of SmCo magnetic field at the Y123 results in a reversal of current in the Y123 so that the Y123 is attractive to the SmCo. The attractive (tether) force, F(sub T), is a function of R = B(sub Fe)/B(sub t, max), where B(sub Fe) is the field at the surface of the ferromagnet, and B(sub t, max) is the maximum trapped field of the Y123, i.e., the trapped field in the so-called critical state. For R greater than or equal to 2, F(sub T) saturates at a value comparable to F(sub B). For a range of initial approach velocities the two craft are tethered following the bumper sequence. Most of the kinetic energy of the collision is first converted to magnetic field energy in the Y123, and then into heat via the creep mechanism. About 15% of the work done against magnetic forces

  11. Electrodynamic Tether Operations and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report is organized by tasks from the statement of work (SOW). A brief statement of each task with its task description followed by a discussion of the work performed is presented. The period of performance for this contract phase was from July 21, 2000 to March 19, 2001.

  12. Tethers and debris mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heide, Erik Jan; Kruijff, Michiel

    2001-03-01

    In recent years, the use of tethers has been proposed for reduction of space debris either through momentum transfer or use of electrodynamic effects. Tethers have been shown to at least theoretically allow for quick, elegant and cost-effective deorbit of defunct satellites or spent stages. On the other hand, the large risk that tethers themselves may pose to other satellites in orbit has been recognized as well. The large collision area of tethers, combined with operational hazards and meteoroid risk may result in a large orbital exposure. For example, in 1997, the ESA/Dutch 35-km tether deployment of YES from TEAMSAT was inhibited after an analysis of the collision risk for the case the tether operation would fail. The question rises how these two points of view compare to eachother. This paper intends to highlight a representative selection of the proposed tether applications while taking into account the added risks caused by the tethers themselves. Typical applications from recent literature will be briefly described, such as an Ariane 502 spent stage re-entry from GTO and the concept of deboost of defunct satellites by interaction of a conductive tether with the Earth magnetic field. Mass savings of the tethered sytems versus conventional equivalents will be evaluated. Based on a crude risk analysis, involving elements such as mission complexity, dynamic stability, meteoroid risk and orbital life time, a general outline of limiting factors can be given for the various applications. Special attention is reserved for implementation of mechanisms that help reduce this tether risk, such as the DUtether (Tether Degradable by Ultraviolet), utilization of airdrag and solar pressure, the effect of residual current in bare tethers, tether retrieval etc. It is proposed how a net tether-induced mitigation can be compared to that of conventional alternatives, i.e. deboost by rocket engine or a completely passive approach. This comparison is put in the perspective of an

  13. Attitude dynamics of the Tether Elevator/Crawler System for micro-gravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Tether Elevator/Crawler System (TECS) consists of two end platforms tethered to opposite sides of the Space Station. A variable gravity laboratory is located on board an elevator which can crawl along the upper tether. This paper analyzes the elevator's attitude dynamics in order to evaluate its effect on microgravity applications. To this end, a simulation model is described and numerical results are given for a steady state case. It is shown that the elevator attitude dynamics, without attitude control, contributes additional spectral lines to the acceleration noise.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Capture Devices for Momentum Exchange with Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    One of the significant challenges in developing a momentum exchange / electrodynamic reboost tether system is in the analysis and design of the capture device and its effects on the overall dynamics of the system. The goal of this work is to develop appropriate tether momentum exchange models that can simulate and evaluate the requirements of such a system, and be used to create specifications on the design of a capture device. This report briefly describes dynamic model development, simulation of the momentum exchange process, evaluation of dynamic effects of errors in the momentum exchange process, and the development of guidelines in selecting dynamic properties in the design of a capture device.

  15. Anti-sway control of tethered satellite systems using attitude control of the main satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian, Peyman; Salarieh, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    In this study a new method is introduced to suppress libration of a tethered satellite system (TSS). It benefits from coupling between satellites and tether libration dynamics. The control concept uses the main satellite attitude maneuvers to suppress librational motion of the tether, and the main satellite's actuators for attitude control are used as the only actuation in the system. The study considers planar motion of a two body TSS system in a circular orbit and it is assumed that the tether's motion will not change it. Governing dynamic equations of motion are derived using the extended Lagrange method. Controllability of the system around the equilibrium state is studied and a linear LQG controller is designed to regulate libration of the system. Tether tension and satellite attitude are assumed as only measurable outputs of the system. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate states of the system to be used as feedback to the controller. The designed controller and observer are implemented to the nonlinear plant and simulations demonstrate that the controller lead to reduction of the tether libration propoerly. By the way, because the controller is linear, it is applicable only at low amplitudes in the vicinity of equilibrium point. To reach global stability, a nonlinear controller is demanded.

  16. The use of the Tethered Satellite System to perform low density aerothermodynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi; Siemers, Paul M.; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a cooperative space system development activity being carried out by USA and Italy. Within TSS, the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility (STARFAC) concept has the potential to provide access to vast portions of the upper atmosphere for the purpose of atmospheric and aerothermodynamic research. The implementation of this capability will push Tether System (TS) state of the art to its limits; the primary problems being tether/satellite drag, heating, tension control, deployment/retrieval control. In this paper parametric studies are accomplished to assess some of these problems and to delineate the tradeoffs available to missions design to meet the engineering constraints. The utilization of aerodynamic rather than spherical shapes - (TSS) - as well as elementary satellite thrusting and lift are included in the present study.

  17. The use of the tethered satellite system to perform low density aerothermodynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; Deluca, Luigi; Siemers, Paul M.; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a cooperative space system development activity of the U.S.A. and Italy. It is comprised of the Tether Satellite (TS) and the deployer. Within TSS, the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility (STARFAC) concept has the potential to provide access to vast portions of the upper atmosphere for atmospheric and aerothermodynamic research. The feasibility and capability of the TSS to operate as a continuous open wind tunnel and to perform low density aerothermodynamic studies are investigated. This is accomplished through a modified version of the TS simulation program (SKYHOOK). The results indicate that STARFAC concept is both feasible and practical. The TS can go below 100 km but, if thrust is used, large velocity variation (delta V) maneuvers and an attitude control are required; if a satellite lift is considered, large tether tension is produced and an attitude control is required.

  18. Ground-Based Experiment of Current Collection to Bare Tether in High-Speed and High-Density Plasma Generated by Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kohori, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Masaharu; Takagi, Hiroki; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-31

    Bare-tether systems are one of the greatest-efficiency electrodynamic tethered systems. The system with an uninsulated portion of the metallic tether itself to collect electrons from the space plasma is operated as a thruster or a power generator on a satellite. Ground-based experiments were carried out to understand phenomena of electron collection by a bare tether in space. Metallic tether samples were exposed to a simulating Low-Earth-Orbit plasma flow as varying tether sample diameter and length, and plasma velocity. A magnetic field was also applied. The normalized collection current increased with normalized tether sample potential. The tether sample diameter did not influence the normalized collection current characteristics although an increase in tether sample length decreased the normalized collection current in this experiment. The collection current characteristics were independent of plasma velocity under meso-thermal conditions. The existence of magnetic field raised the collection current because of the three-dimensional current collection effect at the edge of a tether sample under the magnetic field. Although the existence of magnetic field may raise the collection current, the effect will be small with a long tether. Accordingly, the dependence of tether diameter and length, plasma velocity and magnetic field on collection current characteristics of a bare tether in space might be small. The collection current may not exceed the OML current.

  19. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

  20. Multiple wind turbine tethered airfoil wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L.I.

    1981-08-25

    A plurality of wind turbines are supported aloft on the same tethered airfoil which is provided with devices for orienting the wind turbines into the wind. Various ways and devices are described for converting the wind energy into electrical power and for connecting and providing the plural outputs to the same electrical power grid. The principles are applicable whether there are a small number of relatively large wind turbines, a large number of relatively small wind turbines or some of each.

  1. Advanced propulsion for LEO-Moon transport. 2: Tether configurations in the LEO-Moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Thompson, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    This brief work discusses a possible application of a tether as a dynamical element in a low Earth orbit (LEO)-Moon transport system, and is a part of the Cal Space study of that transport system. To be specific, that study concentrated on the downward transport of O2 from the Moon to LEO, where it is stored for use as a rocket propellant, thus reducing Earth liftoff mass requirements by a factor of about 8. Moreover, in order to display clearly the role of advanced technology, only one novel technology was introduced at a single node in the transport system, the rest being 'conventional' rocket transport. Tethers were found useful in several different roles: hanging from platforms in lunar orbits, as supports for elevators, spinning in LEO, or spinning in a tether transport orbit, an elliptical orbit with perigee at approximately 600 km. This last use is considered here. Presented are the usefulness of the tether, nature of the tether system, the apparatus needed to support, deploy, and control it, and a discussion of needed developments.

  2. Tether electrical characteristics design report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.H.

    1989-03-24

    The design of a tether system for use in electric and magnetic fields requires an analysis of the equivalent electrical circuit of the baboon and tether. The response of this equivalent circuit to an electric or magnetic field is dependent on the connection of the tether system to the baboon. The tether will be designed so that the currents induced in the tethered baboon are approximately the same as those induce in an untethered baboon. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Developing Capture Mechanisms and High-Fidelity Dynamic Models for the MXER Tether System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    A team consisting of collaborators from Tennessee Technological University (TTU), Marshall Space Flight Center, BD Systems, and the University of Delaware (herein called the TTU team) conducted specific research and development activities in MXER tether systems during the base period of May 15, 2004 through September 30, 2006 under contract number NNM04AB13C. The team addressed two primary topics related to the MXER tether system: 1) Development of validated high-fidelity dynamic models of an elastic rotating tether and 2) development of feasible mechanisms to enable reliable rendezvous and capture. This contractor report will describe in detail the activities that were performed during the base period of this cycle-2 MXER tether activity and will summarize the results of this funded activity. The primary deliverables of this project were the quad trap, a robust capture mechanism proposed, developed, tested, and demonstrated with a high degree of feasibility and the detailed development of a validated high-fidelity elastic tether dynamic model provided through multiple formulations.

  4. Dynamics Simulation Model for Space Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, E. M.; Pearson, J.; Oldson, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the development of an accurate model for the dynamics of the Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) system. The MXER is a rotating tether about 100-km long in elliptical Earth orbit designed to catch payloads in low Earth orbit and throw them to geosynchronous orbit or to Earth escape. To ensure successful rendezvous between the MXER tip catcher and a payload, a high-fidelity model of the system dynamics is required. The model developed here quantifies the major environmental perturbations, and can predict the MXER tip position to within meters over one orbit.

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of resonance energy transfer in nanowire systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Andrews, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Nonradiative resonance energy transfer (RET) provides the ability to transfer excitation energy between contiguous nanowires (NWs) with high efficiency under certain conditions. Nevertheless, the well-established Förster formalism commonly used to represent RET was developed for energy transfer primarily between molecular blocks (i.e., from one molecule, or part of a molecule, to another). Although deviations from Förster theory for functional blocks such as NWs have been studied previously, the role of the relative distance, the orientation of transition dipole moment pairs, and the passively interacting matter on electronic energy transfer are to a large extent unknown. Thus, a comprehensive theory that models RET in NWs is required. In this context, analytical insights to give a deeper and more intuitive understanding of the distance and orientation dependence of RET in NWs is presented within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Additionally, the influence of an included intermediary on the rate of excitation energy transfer is illustrated, embracing indirect energy transfer rate and quantum interference. The results deliver equations that afford new intuitions into the behavior of virtual photons. In particular, results indicate that RET efficiency in a NW system can be explicitly expedited or inhibited by a neighboring mediator, depending on the relative spacing and orientation of NWs.

  6. High fidelity microelectromechanical system electrodynamic micro-speaker characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtzer, E.; Shahosseini, I.; Pillonnet, G.; Lefeuvre, E.; Lemarquand, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the heterogeneous characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrodynamic micro-speaker. This MEMS micro-speaker consists of an optimized silicon structure based on a very light but very stiff membrane. The mobile part is suspended using soft suspension beams, also made of silicon, which enable large out-of-plane displacement. The electromagnetic motor is composed of a micro-assembly permanent ring magnet and of a deposit mobile planar coil fixed on the top of the silicon membrane. Previous publications have presented the MEMS as theoretically able to produce high fidelity and high efficiency over a wide bandwidth. The present study intends to validate the electrical, the mechanical, and the acoustic performance improvements. The characterization of the microfabricated micro-speaker showed that the electric impedance is flat over the entire audio bandwidth. Some results validates the performance improvements in terms of audio quality as compared to state of the art of the MEMS micro-speakers, such as the high out-of-plane membrane displacement over ±400 μm, the 80 dBSPL sound pressure level at 10 cm, the 2% maximal distortion level, and the useful bandwidth from 335 Hz to cutoff frequency.

  7. Getaway Tether Experiment (GATE): A free flying tether experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, M.

    1986-01-01

    Orbital reboost and power generation using electrodynamic tethers has been suggested as a means of increasing the operational flexibility and orbital lifetime of satellites. Excess energy generated by solar arrays can be stored as orbital energy and later extracted form the orbit during peak power demands. The Getaway Tether Experiment (GATE) will demonstrate this practical tether application and will measure the dynamic circuit impedance. The micrometeoroid hazard to tension members will be studied as will radio frequency propagation. The radar cross section of long wires will be calculated considering the effects of resistance.

  8. The optimal control for the tethered system formed by an asteroid and a solar sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtao; Wu, Jingyun

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on a method of changing the orbit of an asteroid by attaching a solar sail to the asteroid. First, the dynamic model of the tethered system is derived. Legendre pseudospectral method is then used to discretize the system, and the sequence of two quadratic programming is utilized to obtain the optimal control law. Simulation results show that the tethered solar sail can efficiently change the asteroid's orbit. Moreover, the problem of the tether twining around the asteroid caused by the relative orbit motion between the solar sail and the asteroid can be avoided. Finally, the effectiveness of altering an asteroid's orbit by different solar sails is analyzed. Simulation results show that when the area of the solar sail is 106 m2, the asteroid can be deflected at 1.227 × 108 m by the solar sail after about 20 years, which is better than the effect of a gravitational tractor.

  9. A ``Spring-mass'' model of tethered satellite systems: properties of planar periodic motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Vladislav V.; Celletti, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the dynamics in a central gravity field of two point masses connected by a massless tether (the so called “spring-mass” model of tethered satellite systems). Only the motions with straight strained tether are studied, while the case of “slack” tether is not considered. It is assumed that the distance between the point masses is substantially smaller than the distance between the system’s center of mass and the field center. This assumption allows us to treat the motion of the center of mass as an unperturbed Keplerian one, so to focus our study on attitude dynamics. A particular attention is given to the family of planar periodic motions in which the center of mass moves on an elliptic orbit, and the point masses never leave the orbital plane. If the eccentricity tends to zero, the corresponding family admits as a limit case the relative equilibrium in which the tether is elongated along the line joining the center of mass with the field center. We study the bifurcations and the stability of these planar periodic motions with respect to in-plane and out-of-plane perturbations. Our results show that the stable motions take place if the eccentricity of the orbit is sufficiently small.

  10. Activation of Immobilized Lipase in Non-Aqueous Systems by Hydrophobic Poly-DL-Tryptophan Tethers

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Karl F.; Kelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many industrially important reactions use immobilized enzymes in non-aqueous, organic systems, particularly for the production of chiral compounds such as pharmaceutical precursors. The addition of a spacer molecule (“tether”) between a supporting surface and enzyme often substantially improves the activity and stability of enzymes in aqueous solution. Most “long” linkers (e.g. polyethylene oxide derivatives) are relatively hydrophilic, improving the solubility of the linker-enzyme conjugate in polar environments, but this provides little benefit in non-polar environments such as organic solvents. We present a novel method for the covalent immobilization of enzymes on solid surfaces using a long, hydrophobic polytryptophan tether. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was covalently immobilized on non-porous, functionalized 1-μm silica microspheres, with and without an intervening hydrophobic poly-DL-tryptophan tether (n ≈ 78). The polytryptophan-tethered enzyme exhibited 35 times greater esterification of n-propanol with lauric acid in the organic phase and five times the hydrolytic activity against pnitrophenol palmitate, compared to the activity of the same enzyme immobilized without tethers. In addition, the hydrophobic tethers caused the silica microspheres to disperse more readily in the organic phase, while the surface-immobilized control treatment was less lipophilic and quickly settled out of the organic phase when the suspensions were not vigorously mixed. PMID:18393315

  11. Hyperbolic Injection Issues for MXER Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost (MXER) tether technology is currently being pursued to dramatically lower the launch mass and cost of interplanetary scientific spacecraft. A spacecraft boosted from LEO to a high-energy orbit by a MXER tether has most of the orbital energy it needs to escape the Earth's gravity well. However, the final targeting of the spacecraft to its eventual trajectory, and some of the unique issues brought on by the tether boost, are the subjects of this paper.

  12. Posture evaluations of tethering and loose-housing systems in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jaejin; Kong, Yong-Ku; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most common simultaneous and individual segment postures in terms of body and finger posture classifications. Observations were made at three dairy farms. One employed a tethering system and the other two used loose-housing systems. The evaluations of the tethering system were performed through six processes that were subdivided into 11 operations, whereas only one process of 'milking' was investigated in loose-housing systems. Generally, farmers who worked in both systems bent and/or twisted their upper-body segments and continuously used a power grasp to wrap an object with all five fingers. Posture analyses of the tethering system revealed that 'moving corn' seemed less stressful, whereas 'cleaning udders,' 'attaching the machine,' 'washing the machine,' and 'sweeping the floor' were more stressful than other operations. Postural workloads on the trunk and head were greater in the tethering system than in the loose-housing systems due to differences in implements, the working height, and the working distance. PMID:20427034

  13. Low density aerothermodynamics studies performed by means of the tethered satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi; Siemers, Paul M.; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Low density gas flow modeling and current ground wind-tunnel technologies are not presently able to produce fully reliable data concerning low density flow regimes. In order to answer some of these issues, the Shuttle Continuous Open Wind Tunnel (SCOWT) program has been proposed, which makes use of the tethered satellite system (TSS). SCOWT's objective is to investigate the energy and momentum transfer between the tethered satellite and its environmental medium within the range of the thermofluid-dynamic conditions experienced by TSS during its atmospheric flights. The feasibility and capability of SCOWT to perform low density aerothermodynamics studies are investigated. Some of the results, obtained by means of a tether simulation program, and the instrumentation and TSS design main requirements to meet SCOWT objectives are described.

  14. Tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    For a range of tether lengths, end masses, and orbits, tether deployment concepts were defined and/or analyzed from the Orbiter for steady state/dynamic and up/down deployments and from circular/elliptical orbits. Orbits were defined and/or analyzed for end mass releasing concepts with steady state and dynamic releases taking into account tether and end mass motion before and after release. For a range of tether lengths, end masses, and orbits, tether retrieving or disposing concepts were defined and/or analyzed for both reusable and disposable tethers. Tether programs were installed or updated on the MSFC VAX 11/780 computer.

  15. In-Space Transportation with Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    1998-01-01

    The annual report covers the research conducted on the following topics related to the use of spaceborne tethers for in-space transportation: ProSEDS tether modeling (current collection analyses, influence of a varying tether temperature); proSEDS mission analysis and system dynamics (tether thermal model, thermo-electro-dynamics integrated simulations); proSEDS-tether development and testing (tether requirements, deployment test plan, tether properties testing, deployment tests); and tethers for reboosting the space-based laser (mission analysis, tether system preliminary design, evaluation of attitude constraints).

  16. Tethered satellite system dynamics and control review panel and related activities, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Two major tests of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) engineering and flight units were conducted to demonstrate the functionality of the hardware and software. Deficiencies in the hardware/software integration tests (HSIT) led to a recommendation for more testing to be performed. Selected problem areas of tether dynamics were analyzed, including verification of the severity of skip rope oscillations, verification or comparison runs to explore dynamic phenomena observed in other simulations, and data generation runs to explore the performance of the time domain and frequency domain skip rope observers.

  17. STS-46 Tethered Satellite System 1 (TSS-1) satellite deployment from OV-104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Tethered Satellite System 1 (TSS-1) satellite is reeled out via its thin Kevlar tether into the blackness of space during deployment operations from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. At the bottom of the frame is the satellite upper boom including (bottom to top) the 12-m deployment boom, tip can, the docking ring, and concentric ring damper. The Langmuir probe and the dipole-field antenna are stowed at either side of the TSS-1 satellite.

  18. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of nanoscale two-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabi, Bahman

    In this dissertation, I introduce a novel method for measuring individual nanoscale two-level systems (TLSs) in amorphous solids based on strong direct coupling between a TLS and a cavity. I describe power- and temperature-dependent analysis of individual TLSs using a theoretical model based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). This method allows for measuring individual TLSs in different insulators and over a wide range of film thicknesses. For a silicon nitride film at 25 mK and a lumped-element cavity resonance at 6.9 GHz, I find TLSs with coherence times on the order of microseconds which can potentially be used as coherent resources. Furthermore, I introduce a device which enables spectroscopy of TLSs in insulating films by DC-tuning the TLSs. I present measurement results on 60 TLSs accompanied by theoretical analysis and extraction of distribution statistics of the TLS parameters. I find evidence for at least two TLS dipole sizes. I also investigate the role of RF-induced DC bias voltage on the growth of titanium nitride films on silicon (100) substrates deposited by DC magnetron reactive sputtering. I present hybrid designs of TiN coplanar resonators which were fabricated with an aluminum transmission line to avoid impedance mismatches due to large kinetic inductance of TiN films. I observe remarkably large kinetic inductance at certain substrate DC bias voltages. Finally, I describe several trilayer resonators designed to measure TLS ensembles within atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown aluminum oxide. Each resonator is unique in trilayer capacitor perimeter and hence the alumina air-exposed cross section. I compare the measured loss tangents of the resonators and investigate the effect of the capacitor perimeter on TLS defect density at different temperatures.

  19. Orbital Winch for High-Strength, Space-Survivable Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert; Barnes, Ian; Slostad, Jeffrey; Frank, Scott

    2010-01-01

    An Orbital Winch mechanism enables high-load, multi-line tethers to be deployed and retracted without rotating the spool on which the tether is wound. To minimize damage to the tether and the wound package during retraction or deployment under load, it can incorporate a Tension Management Module that reduces the infeed tension by a factor of 15 through the use of a powered capstan with guide rollers. This design eliminates the need for rotating high-voltage electrical connections in tether systems that use propellantless electro-dynamic propulsion. It can also eliminate the need for rotating optical connections in applications where the tether contains optical fibers. This winch design was developed to deploy a 15-km-long, 15-kg high-strength Hoytether structure incorporating conductive wires as part of the MXER-1 demonstration mission concept. Two slewing rings that orbit around the tether spool, combined with translation of one of the slewing rings back and forth along the spool axis to traverse the wind point, enables the winch to wind the tether. Variations of the traverse motion of the slewing ring can accomplish level winds and conical pirn winds. By removing the non-traversing slewing ring, and adding an actuated guide arm, the winch can manage rapid, low-drag deployment of a tether off the end of a pirn-wound spool, followed by controlled retraction and rewinding, in a manner very similar to a spin-casting reel. The winch requires at least two motor driver controller units to coordinate the action of two stepper motors to accomplish tether deployment or retraction.

  20. Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

  1. Tether de-orbiting of satellites at end of mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartin, Juan R.; Sánchez-Torres, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The accumulation of space debris around the Earth has become critical for Space security. The BETs project, financed by the European Commission through its FP7-Space program, is focusing on preventing generation of new debris by de-orbiting satellites at end of mission. The de-orbiting system considered, involving an electrodynamic bare tape-tether, uses no propellant and no power supply, while generating power for on-board use during de-orbiting. As an example, preliminary results are here presented on a specific orbit/satellite case: 1300 km altitude and 65 degrees inclination, and 500 kg mass. Design tether dimensions are 8 km length, 1.5 cm width, and 0.05 mm thickness; subsystem masses are limited to twice tether mass. Simple calculations, using orbit-averaging, solar mid-cycle phase, and ionospheric and geomagnetic field models, yield 2.6 months time for de-orbiting down to 200 km, with a probability of about 1 percent of debris cutting the tape. References: Sanmartin, J.R., Lorenzini, E.C., and Martinez-Sanchez, M., Electrodynamic Tether Applications and Constraints, J. Space. Rockets 47, 442-456, 2010. Sanmartin, J.R. et al., A universal system to de-orbit satellites at end of life, Journal of Space Technology and Science, to appear.

  2. Changes in Polymeric Tether Properties Due to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Watts, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current fiom the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, which is then attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. As the orbit of the Delta II second stage decas, the AO flux (atoms/sq cm sec) increases. A nominal AO fluence of 1 x l0(exp 21) atoms/sq cm was agreed upon by the investigators as an adequate level for evaluating the performance of the tether materials. A test series was performed to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on the mechanical integrity and possible strength loss of ProSEDS tether materials. The tether materials in this study were Dyneema, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene material used as the non-conducting portion of the ProSEDS tether, and the Kevlar core strength fiber used in the conductive tether. Samples of Dyneema and Kevlar were exposed to various levels of atomic oxygen up to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm in the Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF). Changes in mass were noted after AO exposure. The tethers were then tensile-tested until failure. AO affected both the Dyneema and Kevlar tether material strength. Dyneema exposed to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen failed due to normal handling when removed fiom the AOBF and was not tensile-tested. Another test series was performed to determine the effect of AO on the electrical properties of the ProSEDS conductive tether. The conductive tether consists of seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG 1350

  3. Technical and economical assessment on tethered wind-energy systems (TWES)

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, O.; Maekawa, S.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of the work reported was to establish the potential of tethered wind energy systems for energy conversion in the upper atmosphere. Of the concepts investigated, the Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) lift generation concept had the highest potential as compared to balloon, wind and hybrid concepts.

  4. Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS) on the flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Cheli, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), joined four other astronauts and an international payload specialists for 16 days of scientific research in Earth-orbit.

  5. Study of the triple-mass Tethered Satellite System under aerodynamic drag and J2 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Pourya; Assadian, Nima

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of multi-tethered satellite formations consisting of three masses are studied in this paper. The triple-mass triple-tethered satellite system is modeled under the low Earth orbit perturbations of drag and Earth's oblateness and its equilibrium conditions are derived. It is modeled as three equal end-masses connected by a uniform-mass straight tether. The lengths of tethers are supposed to be constant and in this manner the angles of the plane consisting the masses are taken as the state variables of the system. The governing equations of motion are derived using Lagrangian approach. The aerodynamic drag perturbation is expressed as an external non-conservative force and the Earth oblateness (J2 perturbation) is considered as a term of potential energy. The equilibrium conditions of this system are found and their stability is investigated through the linear stability theory. Then, the results are verified by using a nonlinear simulation for three types of equilibrium conditions.

  6. Evaluation of surgery for the tethered cord syndrome using a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Kirollos, R W; Van Hille, P T

    1996-06-01

    A new grading system is presented to assess the degree of untethering achieved at surgery for the 'tethered cord syndrome' based on intraoperative observation at the end of the procedure. Various pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the 'tethered cord syndrome', as well as possible factors causing retethering were considered in developing this grading system. In Grade I the cord is considered to be fully untethered and the factors potentially responsible for retethering are eliminated, in Grade II partial untethering is performed and in Grade III untethering is unsuccessful. This grading system was used to assess the results of 22 consecutive operations performed to release a tethered cord between June 1991 and February 1995. The tethering factors encountered at surgery were: spinal lipoma in 14, diastematomyelia in five, a tight filum terminale in 10 and intradural adhesions in three instances. The grade of untethering was correlated with the type of pathology encountered, postoperative results, and whether previous surgery was performed or not. Previous surgery was found not to affect the rate of subsequent successful untethering. PMID:8799535

  7. Study of Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) tether system for orbit reboost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A progress report is given on a system study by TRW begun in January 1987 of a 2 kW Plasma Motor Generator Tether to be used for orbit reboost. Following the completion of the initial phase in September 1987, additional tasks were agreed on and work on them begun in March 1988. These tasks fell into three categories: tests on the prototype tether fabricated during the first phase, simulations of the spacecraft and tether system after deployment using GTOSS, and a brief investigation of the impact and feasibility of increasing the system to 20 kW and hosting it on the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle. The subcontractor, Energy Sciences Laboratory, was assigned the responsibility of performing the simulations and some mechanical tests on the prototype tether to supplement those done at TRW. A summary of the significant findings and issues from each task follows. Recommendations for future work constitutes the third section. A copy of the final briefing is in Appendix A, plus additional reports for each task and additional analysis.

  8. Tethered subsatellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. P.; Dunkin, J. A.; Galaboff, Z. J.; Johnston, K. D.; Kissel, R. R.; Rheinfurth, M. H.; Siebel, M. P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of studies performed relating to the feasibility of deploying a subsatellite from the shuttle by means of a tether. The dynamics, the control laws, the aerodynamics, the heating, and some communication considerations of the tethered subsatellite system are considered. Nothing was found that prohibits the use of a subsatellite joined to the shuttle by a long (100 km) tether. More detailed studies directed at specific applications are recommended.

  9. Control systems for membrane fusion in the ancestral eukaryote; evolution of tethering complexes and SM proteins

    PubMed Central

    Koumandou, V Lila; Dacks, Joel B; Coulson, Richard MR; Field, Mark C

    2007-01-01

    Background In membrane trafficking, the mechanisms ensuring vesicle fusion specificity remain to be fully elucidated. Early models proposed that specificity was encoded entirely by SNARE proteins; more recent models include contributions from Rab proteins, Syntaxin-binding (SM) proteins and tethering factors. Most information on membrane trafficking derives from an evolutionarily narrow sampling of model organisms. However, considering factors from a wider diversity of eukaryotes can provide both functional information on core systems and insight into the evolutionary history of the trafficking machinery. For example, the major Qa/syntaxin SNARE families are present in most eukaryotic genomes and likely each evolved via gene duplication from a single ancestral syntaxin before the existing eukaryotic groups diversified. This pattern is also likely for Rabs and various other components of the membrane trafficking machinery. Results We performed comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, when relevant, on the SM proteins and components of the tethering complexes, both thought to contribute to vesicle fusion specificity. Despite evidence suggestive of secondary losses amongst many lineages, the tethering complexes are well represented across the eukaryotes, suggesting an origin predating the radiation of eukaryotic lineages. Further, whilst we detect distant sequence relations between GARP, COG, exocyst and DSL1 components, these similarities most likely reflect convergent evolution of similar secondary structural elements. No similarity is found between the TRAPP and HOPS complexes and the other tethering factors. Overall, our data favour independent origins for the various tethering complexes. The taxa examined possess at least one homologue of each of the four SM protein families; since the four monophyletic families each encompass a wide diversity of eukaryotes, the SM protein families very likely evolved before the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA

  10. Clustering of tethered satellite system simulation data by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Pemmaraju, Surya

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in neuro-fuzzy systems indicate that the concepts of adaptive pattern recognition, when used to identify appropriate control actions corresponding to clusters of patterns representing system states in dynamic nonlinear control systems, may result in innovative designs. A modular, unsupervised neural network architecture, in which fuzzy learning rules have been embedded is used for on-line identification of similar states. The architecture and control rules involved in Adaptive Fuzzy Leader Clustering (AFLC) allow this system to be incorporated in control systems for identification of system states corresponding to specific control actions. We have used this algorithm to cluster the simulation data of Tethered Satellite System (TSS) to estimate the range of delta voltages necessary to maintain the desired length rate of the tether. The AFLC algorithm is capable of on-line estimation of the appropriate control voltages from the corresponding length error and length rate error without a priori knowledge of their membership functions and familarity with the behavior of the Tethered Satellite System.

  11. Cluster filtering/control of bending/torsional vibrations of a tape tether using smart-film sensors/actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Kunugi, Kouta; Trivailo, Pavel M.

    2016-06-01

    Tape tethers show great promise for application in space debris removal because they possess a large collecting area, which is crucial for the collection of electrons from a plasma environment in space. Tape tethers are therefore preferred over string tethers in electrodynamic tethered systems (EDTS), which operate based on the Lorentz force derived from the interaction between the electric current on the tether and the Earth's magnetic field. Vibrations of the tether may disturb the attitude of the mother satellite and the subsatellite, and are difficult to damp in space because the damping would be minimal owing to the almost zero drag force in space. Due to their relatively large width, tape tethers experience torsional deformation and therefore cannot be treated as a string tether. If torsional deformation of tape tethers is not avoided, the advantage of tape tethers as the materials for EDT systems will be deteriorated. Point-type sensors and actuators are usually used to sense and control vibrations. However, it is difficult to apply such sensors and actuators to tape tethers because of the substantial length of the tether as well as the need for a deployment mechanism, such as a reel. In order to overcome the difficulties related to vibrations, the use of smart-film sensors and actuators for sensing and controlling vibrations of tape tethers is considered in this study. In a previous study, we presented an application of smart film for sensing vibrations of tape tethers, but the actuation of tape tethers using smart-film actuators has not yet been reported. In the present paper, we mathematically derive suitable configurations of smart-film attachment to a tape tether for cluster filtering and actuation of bending and torsional vibrations of the tape tether, and carried out cluster actuation experiments. The experimental results reveal that the bending and torsional vibrations of a tape tether can be reduced by cluster actuation control based on direct

  12. A Model for Dynamic Simulation and Analysis of Tether Momentum Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen; Johnson, David; Sorensen, Kirk; Welzyn, Ken; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost (MXER) tether systems may enable high-energy missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by serving as an 'upper stage in space'. Existing rockets that use an MXER tether station could double their capability to launch communications satellites and help improve US competitiveness. A MXER tether station would boost spacecraft from low Earth orbit to a high-energy orbit quickly, like a high-thrust rocket. Then, using the same principles that make an electric motor work, it would slowly rebuild its orbital momentum by pushing against the Earth's magnetic field-without using any propellant. One of the significant challenges in developing a momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost tether systems is in the analysis and design of the capture mechanism and its effects on the overall dynamics of the system. This paper will present a model for a momentum-exchange tether system that can simulate and evaluate the performance and requirements of such a system.

  13. Theory and Modeling in Support of Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Bergeron, G.; Drobot, A. D.; Papadopoulos, K.; Riyopoulos, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.

    1999-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by SAIC's Applied Physics Operation on the modeling and support of Tethered Satellite System missions (TSS-1 and TSS-1R). The SAIC team, known to be Theory and Modeling in Support of Tether (TMST) investigation, was one of the original twelve teams selected in July, 1985 for the first TSS mission. The accomplishments described in this report cover the period December 19, 1985 to September 31, 1999 and are the result of a continuous effort aimed at supporting the TSS missions in the following major areas. During the contract period, the SAIC's TMST investigation acted to: Participate in the planning and the execution on both of the TSS missions; Provide scientific understanding on the issues involved in the electrodynamic tether system operation prior to the TSS missions; Predict ionospheric conditions encountered during the re-flight mission (TSS-lR) based on realtime global ionosounde data; Perform post mission analyses to enhance our understanding on the TSS results. Specifically, we have 1) constructed and improved current collection models and enhanced our understanding on the current-voltage data; 2) investigated the effects of neutral gas in the current collection processes; 3) conducted laboratory experiments to study the discharge phenomena during and after tether-break; and 4) perform numerical simulations to understand data collected by plasma instruments SPES onboard the TSS satellite; Design and produce multi-media CD that highlights TSS mission achievements and convey the knowledge of the tether technology to the general public. Along with discussions of this work, a list of publications and presentations derived from the TMST investigation spanning the reporting period is compiled.

  14. Decentralized adaptive sliding mode control for beam synchronization of tethered InSAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinxiu; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Baolin

    2016-10-01

    Beam synchronization problem of tethered interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is addressed in this paper. Two antennas of the system are carried by separate satellites connected through a tether to obtain a preferable baseline. A Total Zero Doppler Steering (TZDS) is implemented to mother-satellite to cancel the residual Doppler. Subsequently attitude reference trajectories for the two satellites are generated to achieve the beam synchronization and TZDS. Thereafter, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed to track these reference trajectories in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. Finally, the stability of closed-loop system is proved by the corollary of Barbalat's Lemma. Simulation results show the proposed control law is effective to achieve beam synchronization of the system.

  15. The motion of tethered tug-debris system with fuel residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanov, Vladimir S.; Yudintsev, Vadim V.

    2015-10-01

    Active debris removal using a space tug with a tether is one of the promising techniques to decrease the population of large non-functional satellites and orbital stages in near Earth orbits. Properties of debris should be taken into account in the development of the space tugs. In this paper we consider the motion of a debris objects with fuel residuals that can affect the safety of the debris transportation process. The equations of the attitude motion of the tug-debris system in a central gravitational field are derived. Stationary solutions of the equations are found. The system of linearized equations are introduced that can be used for short term analysis. The numerical simulation results are provided that show good accuracy of the linearized equations. Proposed equations can be used to analyze the attitude motion of the tug-debris system and to determine the conventional parameters for safe tethered transportation of space debris.

  16. Shuttle-tethered satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System has great prospects for extending orbital operations capability of the Space Transportation System to science, applications, and technology projects not otherwise attainable. The system will installed in the Shuttle Orbiter and will have the capability to deploy a captive satellite up to 100 km away from the Orbiter. Control and retrieval of the satellite are accomplished by means of a tether line connecting the satellite and the cargo bay mounted equipment in the Orbiter. At low satellite altitudes, the system will permit investigations of a duration that could not be pursued with sounding rockets of free-flying spacecraft. The propose of the Shuttle/Tethered Satellite System Definition Study was to produce the preliminary design, preliminary specifications, gross program plans, and program cost estimate for a 1982 operational verification flight. This was accomplished during a fifteen month effort under by the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The MSFC Phase 1 and related studies demonstrated the feasibility of the system and served as a starting point for the Phase 2 definition study.

  17. Multibody dynamics driving GNC and system design in tethered nets for active debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, Riccardo; Lavagna, Michèle; Salvi, Samuele

    2016-07-01

    Debris removal in Earth orbits is an urgent issue to be faced for space exploitation durability. Among different techniques, tethered-nets present appealing benefits and some open points to fix. Former and latter are discussed in the paper, supported by the exploitation of a multibody dynamics tool. With respect to other proposed capture mechanisms, tethered-net solutions are characterised by a safer capturing distance, a passive angular momentum damping effect and the highest flexibility to unknown shape, material and attitude of the target to interface with. They also allow not considering the centre of gravity alignment with thrust axis as a constraint, as it is for any rigid link solution. Furthermore, the introduction of a closing thread around the net perimeter ensures safer and more reliable grasping and holding. In the paper, a six degrees of freedom multibody dynamics simulator is presented: it was developed at Politecnico di Milano - Department of Aerospace Science and Technologies - and it is able to describe the orbital and attitude dynamics of tethered-nets systems and end-bodies during different phases, with great flexibility in dealing with different topologies and configurations. Critical phases as impact and wrapping are analysed by simulation to address the tethered-stack controllability. It is shown how the role of contact modelling is fundamental to describe the coupled dynamics: it is demonstrated, as a major novel contribution, how friction between the net and a tumbling target allows reducing its angular motion, stabilizing the system and allowing safer towing operations. Moreover, the so-called tethered space tug is analysed: after capture, the two objects, one passive and one active, are connected by the tethered-net flexible link, the motion of the system being excited by the active spacecraft thrusters. The critical modes prevention during this phase, by means of a closed-loop control synthesis is shown. Finally, the connection between

  18. Dynamics of a flexible tethered satellite system utilising various materials for coplanar and non-coplanar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Aaron Aw Teik; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system (TSS) in both planar and co-planar states. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers, each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre and serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. The three materials that are possible to be used for a space tether are tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond; it should be noted that the diamond used here is in a form of a nanotube thread. The tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorised option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), where the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A survival analysis was then performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamic performance envelope with respect to the tether's tension at different altitudes under the air-drag perturbation. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models were conducted and the difference in their performances was observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using tungsten shows a better dynamic performance than the other TSS options in a non-coplanar model.

  19. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats

  20. Constrained tension control of a tethered space-tug system with only length measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hao; Zhu, Zheng H.; Jin, Dongping; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a tension control law to stabilize the motions of a Tethered Space-Tug system during its deorbiting process by regulating the tension in the tether. The tension control law is designed on a basis of two straightforward ideas, i.e., the potential energy shaping and the damping injection. The law is expressed in an analytical feedback form in terms of only the tether length without the need of the feedback of full state information. Meanwhile, the requirements of measuring velocities are removed with the aid of a dynamic extension technique based on the feedback interconnection of Euler-Lagrange systems. The positive and bounded tension constraint is taken into consideration explicitly by including a pair of special saturation terms in the feedback control law. The relative motions of the space-tug and the debris are described with respect to a local non-inertial orbital frame of reference, whereas the orbital motion equations of the system are formulated in terms of the modified equinoctial elements of the orbit. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated via numerical case studies.

  1. Tethered Satellites as an Enabling Platform for Operational Space Weather Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Krause, Linda Habash; Gallagher, Dennis Lee; Bilen, Sven Gunnar; Fuhrhop, Keith; Hoegy, Walt R.; Inderesan, Rohini; Johnson, Charles; Owens, Jerry Keith; Powers, Joseph; Voronka, Nestor; Williams, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Tethered satellites offer the potential to be an important enabling technology to support operational space weather monitoring systems. Space weather "nowcasting" and forecasting models rely on assimilation of near-real-time (NRT) space environment data to provide warnings for storm events and deleterious effects on the global societal infrastructure. Typically, these models are initialized by a climatological model to provide "most probable distributions" of environmental parameters as a function of time and space. The process of NRT data assimilation gently pulls the climate model closer toward the observed state (e.g., via Kalman smoothing) for nowcasting, and forecasting is achieved through a set of iterative semi-empirical physics-based forward-prediction calculations. Many challenges are associated with the development of an operational system, from the top-level architecture (e.g., the required space weather observatories to meet the spatial and temporal requirements of these models) down to the individual instruments capable of making the NRT measurements. This study focuses on the latter challenge: we present some examples of how tethered satellites (from 100s of m to 20 km) are uniquely suited to address certain shortfalls in our ability to measure critical environmental parameters necessary to drive these space weather models. Examples include long baseline electric field measurements, magnetized ionospheric conductivity measurements, and the ability to separate temporal from spatial irregularities in environmental parameters. Tethered satellite functional requirements are presented for two examples of space environment observables.

  2. A tethering system for direct measurement of cardiovascular function in the caged baboon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    A device suitable for the continuous measurement of physiological activity in large, conscious monkeys has permitted the direct recording of systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate in caged baboons. The device comprises a lightweight fiberglass backpack, retained in place on the baboon by a thoracic elastic band and shoulder straps, and a flexible stainless steel tether connecting the pack to an electrocannular slip-ring in the top center of the baboon's cage. A chronically indwelling arterial catheter inserted retrograde into the abdominal aorta via the internal iliac artery and connected to a small pressure transducer on the pack provides direct measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Body fluids can be sampled or drugs administered via an indwelling catheter in the inferior vena cava. Electrical and fluid connections between the fiberglass pack and recording and infusion equipment located outside the cage pass through the flexible tether and remain protected from the subject. The reliability of the tethering system has been demonstrated in physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral experiments with baboons.

  3. Space Environmental Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for AO exposure in MSFC s Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center s Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for (AO) exposure in MSFC's Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as Photosil or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center's Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  5. Establishing a Dynamics Performance Envelope of a Flexible Tethered Satellite System for Planar and Non-Coplanar Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teik Hong, Aaron Aw; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    A Tethered Satellite System (TSS) can be considered as a flexible in-orbit system. However, TSS is typically modelled as a rigid tethered system due to the complexity of its mathematical treatments. In this paper, mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system in both planar and co-planar states are developed. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. Three materials (e.g., tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond) that are commonly used for the tether are proposed as the reference materials; and it should be noted that the tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorized option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around Low Earth Orbit (LEO), whereby the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A comprehensive analysis was performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamics performance envelope with respect to the tether’s tension at different altitudes and air-drag. Bubnov-Galerkin method was employed in order to linearize the non-linear governing equations of elastic vibrations; and once the modal coordinates were obtained, they were substituted according to the equations corresponding to the energy conservation principle. Further, Lagrangian dynamics was utilized to establish the equations of motion of the entire TSS based on the chosen generalized coordinates. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then, a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models was done and the differences in their performances were observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using Diamond shows a better dynamics performance than the other TSS

  6. First evaluation of the main parameters in the dynamics of the Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) for a tethered satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, Luigi

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of the motion of the Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is studied by using a simplified model in which no external forces (except the gravity gradient field) are applied on the tethered body and the tether is assumed massless. The dynamics of SEDS operation is modeled as a sequence of two phases: the deployment phase and the swing phase. For the first one the velocity dependent forces are found to force the tether forward from the local vertical. When the deployment ends, Coriolis effects vanish and the swing phase begins, which is characterized by a wide free libration. The time duration as well as velocity, acceleration and tension of the tethered body are estimated for both deployment and swing phases.

  7. An Automated System for Measuring Microphysical and Radiative Cloud Characteristics from a Tethered Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul Lawson

    2004-03-15

    OAK-B135 The rate of climate change in polar regions is now felt to be a harbinger of possible global warming. Long-lived, relatively thin stratus clouds play a predominant role in transmitting solar radiation and trapping long wave radiation emitted from open water and melt ponds. In situ measurements of microphysical and radiative properties of Arctic and Antarctic stratus clouds are needed to validate retrievals from remote measurements and simulations using numerical models. While research aircraft can collect comprehensive microphysical and radiative data in clouds, the duration of these aircraft is relatively short (up to about 12 hours). During the course of the Phase II research, a tethered balloon system was developed that supports miniaturized meteorological, microphysical and radiation sensors that can collect data in stratus clouds for days at a time. The tethered balloon system uses a 43 cubic meter balloon to loft a 17 kg sensor package to altitudes u p to 2 km. Power is supplied to the instrument package via two copper conductors in the custom tether. Meteorological, microphysical and radiation data are recorded by the sensor package. Meteorological measurements include pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Radiation measurements are made using a 4-pi radiometer that measures actinic flux at 500 and 800 nm. Position is recorded using a GPS receiver. Microphysical data are obtained using a miniaturized version of an airborne cloud particle imager (CPI). The miniaturized CPI measures the size distribution of water drops and ice crystals from 9 microns to 1.4 mm. Data are recorded onboard the sensor package and also telemetered via a 802.11b wireless communications link. Command signals can also be sent to the computer in the sensor package via the wireless link. In the event of a broken tether, a GMRS radio link to the balloon package is used to heat a wire that burns 15 cm opening in the top of the balloon. The balloon and

  8. Vehicle tethered aerostat optoelectronic monitoring platform system for Shanghai World EXPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Yawei; Han, Xiaoquan; Yuan, Jiang

    2010-08-01

    To monitor the whole Shanghai Expo Park, a vehicle tethered aerostat optoelectronic monitoring platform with the characteristic of time-sensitive and all-weather monitoring is described in detail in this paper, which is hung beneath the tethered balloon and equipped with a variety of payloads, including visible light monitoring system, infrared monitoring system, hyperspectral monitoring system, GPS/INS system, monitoring and control system and so on. These equipments can be used for real-time monitoring, environmental monitoring, and ground target location of Shanghai Expo Park. The output High Definition (HD) image of Shanghai Expo Park from visible light monitoring system is clear and stable, and the stabilization accuracy of visual axis is 0.07°(3δ). The optoelectronic monitoring platform system uses the target location technology based on Global Position System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) system to output real-time location data compatible with Geographic Information System (GIS). Test results show that the maximum errors between the location results (latitude and longitude) solved by the target location program and the reference target are 0.2 0/00(latitude) and 2 0/00(longitude). Now the whole system has been used for surveillance the Shanghai Expo Park since April 2010.

  9. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  10. The stabilization interval system of a tethered descent underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayvoronskiy, S. A.; Ezangina, T.; Khozhaev, I.; Efimov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    To damp the vertical oscillations of a descent submersible caused by dusting the control system utilizing a shock-absorbing hoist located on the submersible was developed. A robust proportional-plus-integral action controller was included in the control loop to ensure acceptable dynamic properties of the system by interval variations of the module mass, the rope length, the equivalent value of stiffness of a spring linkage and the equivalent value of damping factor of the spring linkage. A parametric synthesis of the controller was carried out on the basis of the robust expansion of the coefficient method of the quality rating estimation. The system operability was confirmed by the results of the digital simulation parameters