Science.gov

Sample records for electroluminescent devices based

  1. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  2. White Electroluminescent Lighting Device Based on a Single Quantum Dot Emitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jo, Dae-Yeon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Han, Chang-Yeol; Jo, Jung-Ho; Yang, Heesun

    2016-07-01

    Using a single emitter of Cu-Ga-S/ZnS quantum dots, all-solution-processed white electroluminescent lighting device that not only exhibits the record quantities of 1007 cd m(-2) in luminance and 1.9% in external quantum efficiency but also possesses satisfactorily high color rendering indices of 83-88 is demonstrated. PMID:27135303

  3. Polymer matrix electroluminescent materials and devices

    DOEpatents

    Marrocco, III, Matthew L.; Motamedi, Farshad J.; Abdelrazzaq, Feras Bashir; Abdelrazzaq, legal representative, Bashir Twfiq

    2012-06-26

    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent compositions are provided which comprise a matrix comprising aromatic repeat units covalently coordinated to a phosphorescent or luminescent metal ion or metal ion complexes. Methods for producing such compositions, and the electroluminescent devices formed therefrom, are also disclosed.

  4. Near-infrared electroluminescent devices based on colloidal HgTe quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, É.; O'Riordan, A.; Doyle, H.; Moynihan, S.; Cuddihy, A.; Redmond, G.

    2005-05-01

    Crystalline 4.6 nm HgTe quantum dots, stabilized by 1-thioglycerol ligands, were synthesized by wet chemical methods. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the dots, both in solution and as solid arrays, exhibited near-infrared emission. Light-emitting devices were fabricated by deposition of quantum dot layers onto glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/3,4-polyethylene-dioxythiophene-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT) substrates followed by top contacting with evaporated aluminum. Room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence from 1mm2 ITO/PEDOT/HgTe/Al devices, centered at ˜1600nm, with an external quantum efficiency of 0.02% and brightness of 150nW/mm2 at 50 mA and 2.5 V was achieved.

  5. Organic electroluminescence: materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Jan

    1996-04-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) inorganics is a phenomenon of both fundamental and practical interest. Defined as direct conversion of electricity into light incorporates many physical processes which are not yet fully understood. Considered originally as an organic analogue of the Destriau effect that is high-field or intrinsic EL found previously in inorganic phosphors, remains still obscure since narrow bands in organic solids rule out electron acceleration to energies allowing impact generation of electronic excited states. Therefore, the search for wide-band organic materials is a challenge to design and to fabricate organic intrinsic EL devices. The recombination radiation following the excess charge carrier injection into a luminescent material stands for injection EL. This type of EL is commonly accepted as a basis for the emission of light from organic materials sandwiched between metal electrodes. In this review, some consequences of the band width and energy level positions in low-molecular weight organic materials and polymers are discussed. Fundamental concepts are illustrated using the notions of recombination ((tau) rec) and transit ((tau) T) times of charge carriers. Injection-controlled ((tau) rec greater than (tau) T) and volume-controlled ((tau) rec less than (tau) T) injection EL modes are distinguished in organic light- emitting-diodes (LEDs). Two routes to fabricate spectrally tunable organic LEDs are discussed: (a) building multilayer devices with various materials as chromophores (emitters) and (b) employing single-layer conjugated polymer systems with different main-chain molecular structures and blending luminescent polymers into the host polymer matrix, or molecularly-doped non-conjugated polymers with appropriate selection of the optically active component. Charge carrier trapping and excitonic interactions are important factors affecting the recombination routes and production of emitting states as is demonstrated on EL from single organic

  6. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  7. Intrinsic Polarization and Tunable Color of Electroluminescence from Organic Single Crystal-based Light-Emitting Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ran; Feng, Jing; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Fang, Hong-Hua; Yang, Tong; Wang, Hai-Yu; Hotta, Shu; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A single crystal-based organic light-emitting device (OLED) with intrinsically polarized and color-tunable electroluminescence (EL) has been demonstrated without any subsequent treatment. The polarization ratio of 5:1 for the transversal-electric (TE) and transversal-magnetic (TM) polarization at the emission peak of 575 nm, and 4.7:1 for the TM to TE polarization at the emission peak of 635 nm, respectively, have been obtained. The emitting color is tunable between yellow, yellow-green and orange by changing the polarization angle. The polarized EL and the polarization-induced color tunability can be attributed to the anisotropic microcavity formed by the BP3T crystal with uniaxial alignment of the molecules. PMID:26207723

  8. Intrinsic Polarization and Tunable Color of Electroluminescence from Organic Single Crystal-based Light-Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ran; Feng, Jing; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Fang, Hong-Hua; Yang, Tong; Wang, Hai-Yu; Hotta, Shu; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A single crystal-based organic light-emitting device (OLED) with intrinsically polarized and color-tunable electroluminescence (EL) has been demonstrated without any subsequent treatment. The polarization ratio of 5:1 for the transversal-electric (TE) and transversal-magnetic (TM) polarization at the emission peak of 575 nm, and 4.7:1 for the TM to TE polarization at the emission peak of 635 nm, respectively, have been obtained. The emitting color is tunable between yellow, yellow-green and orange by changing the polarization angle. The polarized EL and the polarization-induced color tunability can be attributed to the anisotropic microcavity formed by the BP3T crystal with uniaxial alignment of the molecules. PMID:26207723

  9. Rare Earth Complex as Electron Trapper and Energy Transfer Ladder for Efficient Red Iridium Complex Based Electroluminescent Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Li, Leijiao; Jiang, Yunlong; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-07-29

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrated the new functions of trivalent rare earth complex in improving the electroluminescent (EL) performances of iridium complex by codoping trace Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) into a light-emitting layer based on PQ2Ir(dpm) (iridium(III)bis(2-phenylquinoly-N,C(2'))dipivaloylmethane). Compared with a reference device, the codoped devices displayed higher efficiencies, slower efficiency roll-off, higher brightness, and even better color purity. Experimental results demonstrated that Eu(TTA)3phen molecules function as electron trappers due to its low-lying energy levels, which are helpful in balancing holes and electrons and in broadening recombination zone. In addition, the matched triplet energy of Eu(TTA)3phen is instrumental in facilitating energy transfer from host to emitter. Finally, highly efficient red EL devices with the highest current efficiency, power efficiency and brightness up to 58.98 cd A(-1) (external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21%), 61.73 lm W(-1) and 100870 cd m(-2), respectively, were obtained by appropriately decreasing the doping concentration of iridium complex. At certain brightness of 1000 cd m(-2), EL current efficiency up to 51.94 cd A(-1) (EQE = 18.5%) was retained. Our investigation extends the application of rare earth complexes in EL devices and provides a chance to improve the device performances. PMID:26173649

  10. Electroluminescent Devices Using RE-Doped III-Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakahara, Akihiro

    The III-nitride semiconductors doped with RE atoms appear to be excellent materials for thin film optical device applications. The spectral coverage extends from UV to infrared and thus light-emitting devices suitable for full-color displays, solid-state lasers, and optical telecommunication fields are expected. This chapter reviews the current status of electrically pumped light-emitting devices based on RE-doped GaN, such as AC- and/or DC-biased electroluminescent (EL) devices and `p-n' junction based light-emitting diodes. The different excitation mechanisms are reviewed.

  11. Electroluminescent Devices Using RE-Doped III-Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakahara, Akihiro

    The III-nitride semiconductors doped with RE atoms appear to be excellent materials for thin film optical device applications. The spectral coverage extends from UV to infrared and thus light-emitting devices suitable for full-color displays, solid-state lasers, and optical telecommunication fields are expected. This chapter reviews the current status of electrically pumped light-emitting devices based on RE-doped GaN, such as AC- and/or DC-biased electroluminescent (EL) devices and 'p-n' junction based light-emitting diodes. The different excitation mechanisms are reviewed.

  12. Single-layer electroluminescent devices based on fluorene-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokladko-Kowar, Monika; Danel, Andrzej; Chacaga, Łukasz

    2013-11-01

    A fluorene based copolymer was synthesized for electroluminescent application. To the main chain of polymer the nitrogen heterocyclic, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline, unit was introduced. The incorporation of this derivative tuned the emission from the blue to yellow-green one. A simple, single layered device was fabricated with the configuration ITO/PEDOT/co-poly-FLU-PQX/Ca/Mg.

  13. High-efficiency red electroluminescent device based on multishelled InP quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2016-09-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly fluorescent red-emitting InP quantum dots (QDs) and their application to the fabrication of a high-efficiency QD-light-emitting diode (QLED). The core/shell heterostructure of the QDs is elaborately tailored toward a multishelled structure with a composition-gradient ZnSeS intermediate shell and an outer ZnS shell. Using the resulting InP/ZnSeS/ZnS QDs as an emitting layer, all-solution-processible red InP QLEDs are fabricated with a hybrid multilayered device structure having an organic hole transport layer (HTL) and an inorganic ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. Two HTLs of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) or poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl))diphenyl-amine), whose hole mobilities are different by at least three orders of magnitude, are individually applied for QLED fabrication and such HTL-dependent device performances are compared. Our best red device displays exceptional figures of merit such as a maximum luminance of 2849  cd/m2, a current efficiency of 4.2  cd/A, and an external quantum efficiency of 2.5%. PMID:27607953

  14. White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Parthasarathy, Gautam

    2006-06-20

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes, at least two organic electroluminescent ("EL") materials disposed between the electrodes, a charge blocking material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits electromagnetic ("EM") radiation having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The PL material absorbs a portion of the EM radiation emitted by the light-emitting member and emits EM radiation having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. Each of the organic EL materials emits EM radiation having a wavelength range selected from the group consisting of blue and red wavelength ranges.

  15. Modeling study of mesh conductors and their electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Li, Dapeng; Manandhar, Prakash; Fan, Qinguo; Kasilingam, Dayalan; Calvert, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Numerical models were established to correlate with the experimentally measured properties of mesh conductors previously developed through a combined process of dip coating carbon nanotubes and inkjet printing poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: poly styrene sulfonate. The electroluminescent (EL) devices assembled with such mesh conductors as front electrodes were modeled by commercially available finite element method software COMSOL Multiphysics. The modeling results are in agreement with those from the experiments and suggest that an optimized fiber arrangement is the key for further improving the performance of EL devices based on mesh conductors.

  16. Evaporated CaS thin films for AC electroluminescence devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Shanker, V.; Shiiki, M.; Deguchi, H.

    1985-08-01

    The growth behavior of evaporated CaS thin films has been investigated to achieve bright electroluminescence. The crystallinity of CaS films is improved with substrate temperature and for temperatures higher than 300°C, the films orient to the (200) plane. Sulfur coevaporation further helps to form a more perfect film even at lower temperatures. A CaS: Ce,Cl electroluminescent thin film device has been fabricated with a brightness of 650 cd/m 2.

  17. Near-infrared electroluminescence from light-emitting devices based on Nd-doped TiO2/p+-Si heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Li, Si; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2014-05-01

    We report on near-infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) from the light-emitting devices based on Nd-doped TiO2/p+-Si heterostructures. NIR emissions peaking at ˜910, 1090, and 1370 nm, originated from intra-4f transitions in Nd3+ ions, can be activated by a forward bias voltage as low as ˜5 V. Such NIR EL is triggered by the energy transferred from TiO2 host to Nd3+ ions. It is found that the coexistence of anatase and rutile phases in the TiO2 host enables the device to exhibit pronounced Nd-related EL without concurrent emission from the TiO2 host itself, quite other than the case of existing only anatase phase in TiO2 host. We tentatively suggest that the anatase/rutile interface states play important role in the energy transfer from TiO2 host to Nd3+ ions.

  18. Electroluminescent devices with function of electro-optic shutter.

    PubMed

    Song, Seongkyu; Jeong, Jaewook; Chung, Seok Hwan; Jeong, Soon Moon; Choi, Byeongdae

    2012-09-10

    The polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) was used as a dielectric layer of electroluminescent (EL) device to provide multi-function of electroluminescence and electro-optic shutter. A 50 μm-thick PDLC layer was formed between a transparent electrode and a ZnS:Cu phosphor layer. The electro-optic properties of the EL device were not distorted by the introduction of the PDLC layer. The extraction efficiency of luminescence was improved by more than 14% by PDLC layer. The transmittance of the PDLC was also founded not to be degraded significantly by excitation frequency. Therefore, the electroluminescence of the device was ignited by excitation frequency at a given voltage for full transparency of the PDLC. This device has great potential for applications in transparent displays with the function of a privacy window. PMID:23037230

  19. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Electroluminescent materials and device technology were assessed. The evaluation strongly suggests the need for a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of both materials and device structures, particularly in the following areas: carrier generation and multiplication; radiative and nonradiative processes of luminescent centers; device modeling; new device concepts; and single crystal materials growth and characterization. Modeling of transport properties of hot electrons in ZnSe and the generation of device concepts were initiated.

  20. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  1. Electroluminescent devices formed using semiconductor nanocrystals as an electron transport media and method of making such electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Colvin, Vickie

    1996-01-01

    An electroluminescent device is described, as well as a method of making same, wherein the device is characterized by a semiconductor nanocrystal electron transport layer capable of emitting visible light in response to a voltage applied to the device. The wavelength of the light emitted by the device may be changed by changing either the size or the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used in forming the electron transport layer. In a preferred embodiment the device is further characterized by the capability of emitting visible light of varying wavelengths in response to changes in the voltage applied to the device. The device comprises a hole processing structure capable of injecting and transporting holes, and usually comprising a hole injecting layer and a hole transporting layer; an electron transport layer in contact with the hole processing structure and comprising one or more layers of semiconductor nanocrystals; and an electron injecting layer in contact with the electron transport layer for injecting electrons into the electron transport layer. The capability of emitting visible light of various wavelengths is principally based on the variations in voltage applied thereto, but the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used and the size of the semiconductor nanocrystals in the layers of semiconductor nanometer crystals may also play a role in color change, in combination with the change in voltage.

  2. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields. PMID:26953676

  3. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A highly efficient DC electroluminescent display is presented. A variably spaced superlattice structure is used to produce high energy injection of electrons into a ZnSe:Mn active layer in which impact excitation of the Mn centers can occur. The device is predicted to operate at an applied external bias on order of magnitude less than the best DC electroluminescent device to date. The device is predicted to have comparable brightness, since it operates in the saturation regime. The improved efficiency stems from avoiding significant energy loss to phonons. The electrons sequentially tunnel through a multilayer ZnSe/CaSrF2 stack under bias and emerge into the active layer at an energy equal to the conduction band bending. The injection energy is chosen to coincide with the impact excitation energy of the Mn centers. Different device designs are presented and their performance is predicted.

  4. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  5. In-flight gas phase passivation of silicon nanocrystals for novel inorganic-silicon nanocrystal based electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptak, Richard William

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) have become a heavily researched material over the past several years. Researchers envision that this material can be used in many diverse applications such as electronic devices, non-toxic biological tags, optical devices such as LEDs, lasers or displays, thermoelectrics, and photovoltaic (PV) applications. For many of these proposed applications one needs to properly control the NC size and the surface chemistry via passivation. Current passivation techniques allow for the creation of highly efficient SiNC optical emitters, however the emission of these NCs are fixed in the red-NIR range. To resolve this issue several novel in-flight passivation techniques were investigated. A novel dual-plasma setup which allows for the in-flight passivation of SiNCs through a thermal or LPCVD based nitridation process was developed first. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the surface chemistry on of the nitride passivated NCs while TEM was used to investigate whether or not a "shell" was grown on the surface. PL measurements and thermal stability tests were performed on the nitride passivated NCs to gain a further understanding of the stability (in both air as well as other ambients) of the NCs and their surface chemistry. Tunable full color emission from SiNCs was developed for the dual-plasma reactor utilizing CF4 as both an etching and passivating source. F radicals generated in the etching plasma remove Si from the surface of the NC, while at the same time CF2 radicals lead to the formation of a fluorocarbon passivation layer on the NC surface. By controlling the parameters of the reactor (CF4 flow rate, power), the NC size and thus its color can be controlled. Red to green luminescence was observed from SiNCs and is believed to be due to the quantum confinement effect. The blue emission observed from the NCs is appears to be related to oxide related surface states. Despite the defects, high QY was observed from these CF4-etched NCs. The

  6. Carriers Confinement for Polymer Electroluminescent Devices with Multilayer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuguang; Tian, Wenjing; Xue, Shanhua; Huang, Jinsong; Liu, Shiyong; Shen, Jiacong

    1995-07-01

    The polymer electroluminescence (EL) device with PBD as carriers confinement layer yields bright blue emission having intensity of 300 cd/m2, in same case the device without PBD layer have luminance only 44 cd/m2. The effect of PBD layer on EL characteristic was studied. The results show that only in EL devices with PBD thickness over 30 nm, the holes are completely confined in emitting layer. The luminance over 2000 cd/m2 can be obtained by inserting an electron injecting layer between the negative electrode and PBD to increase the electron injection.

  7. Iridium(III) emitters based on 1,4-disubstituted-1H-1,2,3-triazoles as cyclometalating ligand: synthesis, characterization, and electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Jesús M; Beltrán, Juan I; Lemaur, Vincent; Gálvez-López, Maria-Dolores; Chien, Chen-Han; Polo, Federico; Orselli, Enrico; Fröhlich, Roland; Cornil, Jérôme; De Cola, Luisa

    2013-02-18

    A series of blue and blue-green emitters based on neutral bis- and tris-cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes with 1-benzyl-4-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (dfptrBn) as cyclometalating ligand is reported. The bis-cyclometalated complexes of the type [Ir(dfptrBn)(2)(L(^)X)] with different ancillary ligands, L(^)X = picolinate (pic) (2) or 2-(5-(perfluorophenyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine (pytrF(5)) (3), are described and their photophysical properties compared with the analogous complexes containing the archetypal 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridinato (dfppy) as cyclometaled ligand (C(^)N). Complex 2 exhibits a marked solvatochromic behavior, from 475 nm in toluene to 534 nm in formamide, due to the strong MLCT character of its emissive excited state. Complex 3 displays a true-blue emission, narrower in the visible part than FIrpic. In addition, the homoleptic complex [Ir(dfprBn)(3)] (4) and the heteroleptic compounds with mixed arylpyridine/aryltriazole ligands, [Ir(dfptrBn)(2)(C(^)N)] (C(^)N = 2-phenylpyridinato (ppy) (5) or dfppy (6)), have been synthesized and fully characterized. The facial (fac) complex fac-4 is emissive at 77 K showing a deep-blue emission, but it is not luminescent in solution at room temperature similarly to their phenylpyrazole counterparts. However, the fac isomers, fac-5 and fac-6, are highly emissive in solution and thin films, reaching emission quantum yields of 76%, with emission colors in the blue to blue-green region. The photophysical properties for all complexes have been rationalized by means of quantum-chemical calculations. In addition, we constructed electroluminescent devices, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by sublimation of fac-6, and by solution processed polymer-based devices (PLEDs) using complexes fac-5 or fac-6 as dopants. PMID:23383706

  8. Electroluminescent device having improved light output

    SciTech Connect

    Tyan; Yuan-Sheng; Preuss, Donald R.; Farruggia, Giuseppe; Kesel, Raymond A.; Cushman, Thomas R.

    2011-03-22

    An OLED device including a transparent substrate having a first surface and a second surface, a transparent electrode layer disposed over the first surface of the substrate, a short reduction layer disposed over the transparent electrode layer, an organic light-emitting element disposed over the short reduction layer and including at least one light-emitting layer and a charge injection layer disposed over the light emitting layer, a reflective electrode layer disposed over the charge injection layer and a light extraction enhancement structure disposed over the first or second surface of the substrate; wherein the short reduction layer is a transparent film having a through-thickness resistivity of 10.sup.-9 to 10.sup.2 ohm-cm.sup.2; wherein the reflective electrode layer includes Ag or Ag alloy containing more than 80% of Ag; and the total device size is larger than 10 times the substrate thickness.

  9. Conduction and trapping in electroluminescent polymer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Alasdair J.; Weaver, Michael S.; Lidzey, David G.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Werner, Ekkehard; Bruetting, Wolfgang; Schwoerer, Markus

    1998-12-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of ITO/polymer film/Al or Au devices of poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and a dialkoxy PPV copolymer can be fitted at high applied bias to a power law of the form J equals KVm where m increases with decreasing temperature, log(K) is proportional to m, and K is proportional to d-(alpha m) where d is the film thickness and (alpha) is a constant. (alpha) 2 and 1 for the Al and Au cathode devices respectively. Different single carrier space charge limited conduction (SCLC) theories, including either an exponential trap distribution or a hopping transport field and temperature dependent mobility, are used to try and explain this behavior. Both models are in good agreement with the general experimental results, but can also be criticized on a number of specific issues.Mixed SCLC models and the effect of dispersive transport are also explored. It is concluded that carrier mobility and trap measurements are required to distinguish between these models. To this end, initial trap measurements of ITO/PPV/Al devices using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) are reported. Very deep positive carrier transport with emptying times > 4 minutes have been detected. The non-exponential DLTS transients have been successfully modeled on an isoelectronic trap level emptying to a Gaussian distribution of transport states, with a trap depth and density of 0.8eV and 4 by 1016 cm-3 respectively.

  10. Bulk limited conduction in electroluminescent polymer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Weaver, M. S.; Lidzey, D. G.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    1998-12-01

    The current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of ITO/polymer film/Al or Au structures of poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and a dialkoxy PPV copolymer have been recorded for a range of different film thickness d and temperatures T. At high applied bias all the characteristics can be fitted over a given range to a power law J=KVm, where m increases with decreasing T, log(K) is proportional to m, and K is proportional to d-α m, where α˜2 (ITO/polymer film/Al devices) and ˜1 (ITO/polymer film/Au devices). Different single carrier space charge limited conduction theories have been used to try and explain this behavior. The analytical theory in which the carrier density is decreased by an exponential trap distribution lying below effectively isoelectronic transport states is in good agreement, but cannot explain the thickness dependence of the ITO/polymer film/Au devices and can be criticized as being physically unreasonable. A numerical analysis in which the mobility has the field and temperature dependence found for hopping transport in disordered systems is also in good agreement, but can only fit a small range of J and cannot explain the magnitude of K, the temperature dependence of m or the abrupt change in slope in the J-V characteristics with increasing bias. Mixed models are equally good but cannot explain the deviations from experiment. We consider that further experimental studies of carrier mobilities and the nature of the traps present in such materials is required to distinguish between these models and resolve the nature of bulk limited conduction in conjugated polymers.

  11. Optical properties of inorganic electroluminescent devices with nanostripe electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the luminescence (emission) characteristics of a laminated dispersion-type inorganic electroluminescent (EL) device with a nanostripe electrode made of thin Al film, instead of a conventional indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode, on the emission side of the device. The transmittance of the Al nanostripe electrode, with 60-nm line-and-space widths, was 45%. We compared an inorganic EL device positioned between two thin films of Al and the inorganic EL device with the Al nanostripe electrode using electric field simulations and actual experiments. We were able to apply the same electric field intensity to the phosphor layer in the conventional structure and to the new structure. Therefore, with an Al nanostripe electrode on one side of the EL device, it is possible to fabricate an ITO-free display.

  12. Individually addressable submicron scale light-emitting devices based on electroluminescence of solid Ru(bpy)3(ClO4)2 films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Yang; Bard, Allen J

    2002-04-24

    A submicron light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated from lithographically fabricated parallel indium-tin oxide (ITO) finger electrodes (0.9 mum wide) separated by a 1.1 mum gap. A single layer of an amorphous (a) Ru(bpy)3(ClO4)2 film ( approximately 100 nm thick) was spin-coated on the electrode array. Ga:In or carbon paste was employed as a liftable upper contact electrode. Films ( approximately 1.5 mum thick) of single-crystal Ru(bpy)3(ClO4)2 (xyl) between two ITO electrodes in a sandwich cell were also prepared and produce electroluminescence. As with larger cells of this type, the high-resolution electroluminescence produced showed a high external efficiency ( approximately 3.4%), a low turn-on voltage (2.3 V), and reasonable stability. The single-crystal cells also behaved as photovoltaic devices and a short-circuit photocurrent was observed when they were irradiated without a bias voltage. PMID:11960430

  13. White electroluminescence of n-ZnO:Al/p-diamond heterostructure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Can; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Li-Jun; Pan, Xiu-Fang; Li, Song-Kun; Jing, Long-Wei

    2013-08-01

    An n-ZnO:Al/p-boron-doped diamond heterostructure electroluminescent device is produced, and a rectifying behavior can be observed. The electroluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits two visible bands centred at 450 nm-485 nm (blue emission) and 570 nm-640 nm (yellow emission). Light emission with a luminance of 15 cd/m2 is observed from the electroluminescent device at a forward applied voltage of 85 V, which is distinguished from white light by the naked eye.

  14. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOEpatents

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  15. Theoretical and material studies of thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices are studied for a possible means of achieving a high resolution, light weight, compact video display panel for computer terminals or television screens. The performance of TFEL devices depends upon the probability of an electron impact exciting a luminescent center which in turn depends upon the density of centers present in the semiconductor layer, the possibility of an electron achieving the impact excitation threshold energy, and the collision cross section itself. Efficiency of such a device is presently very poor. It can best be improved by increasing the number of hot electrons capable of impact exciting a center. Hot electron distributions and a method for increasing the efficiency and brightness of TFEL devices (with the additional advantage of low voltage direct current operation) are investigated.

  16. Charge transfer through amino groups-small molecules interface improving the performance of electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havare, Ali Kemal; Can, Mustafa; Tozlu, Cem; Kus, Mahmut; Okur, Salih; Demic, Şerafettin; Demirak, Kadir; Kurt, Mustafa; Icli, Sıddık

    2016-05-01

    A carboxylic group functioned charge transporting was synthesized and self-assembled on an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. A typical electroluminescent device [modified ITO/TPD (50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (2 nm)/(120 nm)] was fabricated to investigate the effect of the amino groups-small molecules interface on the characteristics of the device. The increase in the surface work function of ITO is expected to facilitate the hole injection from the ITO anode to the Hole Transport Layer (HTL) in electroluminescence. The modified electroluminescent device could endure a higher current and showed a much higher luminance than the nonmodified one. For the produced electroluminescent devices, the I-V characteristics, optical characterization and quantum yields were performed. The external quantum efficiency of the modified electroluminescent device is improved as the result of the presence of the amino groups-small molecules interface.

  17. An organic electroluminescent device made from a gadolinium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.-Q.; Huang, C.-H.; Ibrahim, K.; Liu, F.-Q.

    2002-01-01

    A gadolinium ternary complex, tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone) (phenanthroline) gadolinium [Gd(PMIP) 3(Phen)] was synthesized and used as a light emitting material in the organic electroluminescent (EL) devices. The triple layer device with a structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/ N, N'-diphenyl- N, N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) (20 nm)/Gd(PMIP) 3(Phen) (80 nm)/2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine or BCP) (20 nm)/Mg: Ag(200 nm)/Ag(100 nm) exhibited green emission peaking at 535 nm. A maximum luminance of 230 cd/m 2 at 17 V and a peak power efficiency of 0.02 lm/w at 9 V were obtained.

  18. Applications of thin film trielectrode electroluminescent display devices for automotive vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Zbigniew W.

    1992-07-01

    Generally, dashboard information display devices can be divided into active and passive ones, i.e., emitting or modulating light. The thin film electroluminescent display devices belong to the former category. The new concept electroluminescent dashboard information display devices conceived by the author are presented in this paper. In this case, a DC and an AC power supply voltage are simultaneously applied. As a result, the DC voltage is essentially reduced to about 25 V DC. The electroluminescent information display device was prepared by vacuum methods on a glass substrate in the form of tri-electrode structure.

  19. Highly Efficient, Color-Reproducible Full-Color Electroluminescent Devices Based on Red/Green/Blue Quantum Dot-Mixed Multilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Don; Ko, Heejoo; Lee, Changho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Yang, Heesun

    2015-11-24

    Over the past few years the performance of colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diode (QLED) has been progressively improved. However, most of QLED work has been fulfilled in the form of monochromatic device, while full-color-enabling white QLED still remains nearly unexplored. Using red, green, and blue quantum dots (QDs), herein, we fabricate bichromatic and trichromatic QLEDs through sequential solution-processed deposition of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) (PVK) hole transport layer, two or three types of QDs-mixed multilayer, and ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. The relative electroluminescent (EL) spectral ratios of constituent QDs in the above multicolored devices are found to inevitably vary with applied bias, leading to the common observation of an increasing contribution of a higher-band gap QD EL over low-band gap one at a higher voltage. The white EL from a trichromatic device is resolved into its primary colors through combining with color filters, producing an exceptional color gamut of 126% relative to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) color space that a state-of-the-art full-color organic LED counterpart cannot attain. Our trichromatic white QLED also displays the record-high EL performance such as the peak values of 23,352 cd/m(2) in luminance, 21.8 cd/A in current efficiency, and 10.9% in external quantum efficiency. PMID:26435403

  20. Investigation of thioglycerol stabilized ZnS quantum dots in electroluminescent device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethiraj, Anita Sagadevan; Rhen, Dani; Lee, D. H.; Kang, Dae Joon; Kulkarni, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is focused on the investigation of thioglycerol (TG) stabilized Zinc Sulfide Quantum dots (ZnS QDs) in the hybrid electroluminescence (EL) device. Optical absorption spectroscopy clearly indicates the formation of narrow size distributed ZnS in the quantum confinement regime. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) data supports the same. The hybrid EL device with structure of ITO (indium tin oxide)//PEDOT:PSS ((poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate)//HTL (α NPD- N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1'-phenyl)-4,4'-diamine// PVK:ZnS QDs//ETL(PBD- 2-tert-butylphenyl- 5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole)//LiF:Al (Device 1) was fabricated. Reference device without the ZnS QDs were also prepared (Device 2). The results show that the ZnS QDs based device exhibited bright electroluminescence emission of 24 cd/m2 at a driving voltage of 16 Volts under the forward bias conditions as compared to the reference device without the ZnS QDs, which showed 6 cd/m2 at ˜22 Volts.

  1. About the electronic and photophysical properties of iridium(III)-pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline based complexes for use in electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Arriagada, Diego; Sanhueza, Luis; González, Iván; Dreyse, Paulina; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-01-14

    A family of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes was studied through quantum chemistry calculations to get insights into their applicability in light electrochemical cells (LECs). The complexes are described as [Ir(R-C^N)2(ppl)](+), where ppl is the pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline ancillary ligand. The modification of the HOMO energy in all the complexes was achieved by means of different R-C^N cyclometalating ligands, with R-ppy (phenylpyridine), R-pyz (1-phenylpyrazole) or R-pypy (2,3'-bipyridine); in addition, inductive effects were taken into account by substitution with the R groups (R = H, F or CF3). Then, compounds with HOMO-LUMO energy gaps from 2.76 to 3.54 eV were obtained, in addition to emission energies in the range of 438 to 597 nm. The emission deactivation pathways confirm the presence of metal-to-ligand transitions in all the complexes, which allow the strong spin-orbit coupling effects, and then improving the luminescence performance. However, the coupling with ligand and metal centered excited states was observed for the blue-shifted emitters, which could result in a decrease of the luminescence efficiencies. Furthermore, ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies (for holes and electrons) were obtained to account for the injection and transport properties of all the complexes in electroluminescent devices. PMID:26449274

  2. A novel electroluminescent PPV copolymer and silsesquioxane nanocomposite film for the preparation of efficient PLED devices.

    PubMed

    Venegoni, Ivan; Carniato, Fabio; Olivero, Francesco; Bisio, Chiara; Pira, Nello Li; Lambertini, Vito Guido; Marchese, Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have attracted growing interest in recent years for their potential use in displays and lighting fields. Nevertheless, PLED devices have some disadvantages in terms of low optoelectronic efficiency, high cost, short lifetimes and low thermal stability, which limit their final applications. Huge efforts have been made recently to improve the performances of these devices. The addition of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles to the light-emitting polymers, for example, allows their thermal stability and electroluminescent efficiency to be increased. Following this approach, novel PLED devices based on composite films of PPV-derivative copolymer (commercial name Super Yellow, SY) and octaisobutil POSS, were developed in this study. The device containing Super Yellow loaded with 1 wt% of POSS showed higher efficiency (ca. +30%) and improved lifetime in comparison to PLED prepared with the pure electroluminescent polymer. The PLED devices developed in this study are suitable candidates for automotive dashboards and, in general, for lighting applications. PMID:23059798

  3. A novel electroluminescent PPV copolymer and silsesquioxane nanocomposite film for the preparation of efficient PLED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venegoni, Ivan; Carniato, Fabio; Olivero, Francesco; Bisio, Chiara; Li Pira, Nello; Lambertini, Vito Guido; Marchese, Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have attracted growing interest in recent years for their potential use in displays and lighting fields. Nevertheless, PLED devices have some disadvantages in terms of low optoelectronic efficiency, high cost, short lifetimes and low thermal stability, which limit their final applications. Huge efforts have been made recently to improve the performances of these devices. The addition of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles to the light-emitting polymers, for example, allows their thermal stability and electroluminescent efficiency to be increased. Following this approach, novel PLED devices based on composite films of PPV-derivative copolymer (commercial name Super Yellow, SY) and octaisobutil POSS, were developed in this study. The device containing Super Yellow loaded with 1 wt% of POSS showed higher efficiency (ca. +30%) and improved lifetime in comparison to PLED prepared with the pure electroluminescent polymer. The PLED devices developed in this study are suitable candidates for automotive dashboards and, in general, for lighting applications.

  4. Nondoped-type red organic electroluminescent devices based on a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran ultrathin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenfa; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-03-01

    Nondoped-type red organic electroluminescent devices based on a 4-(dicyanomethylene) -2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) ultrathin layer have been fabricated. When the ultrathin DCJTB layer is inserted between N, N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biph-enyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) (type A device), the emission from Alq3 is mixed with the emission from DCJTB and the colour purity of the device becomes poor. When utilizing the Alq3 (5 nm)/TPBI (45 nm) (TPBI: 2,2',2''-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris (1-phenyl-1 H-benzimidazole)) bilayer as a hole/exciton blocking and electron transporting layer (type B device), the emission from Alq3 disappears. We attribute it to the excitons confinement effect by the Alq3 (5 nm)/TPBI (45 nm) bilayer. The type B device with 0.2 nm DCJTB has a maximum efficiency of 2.20 cd A-1 and a luminance of 280 cd m-2 is achieved at 20 mA cm-2 with an EL efficiency of 1.41 cd A-1, and the CIE coordinates are (0.628, 0.369).

  5. Electroluminescence of carbon ‘quantum' dots - From materials to devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veca, L. Monica; Diac, Andreea; Mihalache, Iuliana; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Pavelescu, Emil Mihai; Gavrila, Raluca; Vasile, Eugeniu; Terec, Anamaria; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Carbon ‘quantum' dots or carbon dots have emerged as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials. While photoluminescence properties of carbon dots had targeted optical imaging and related usage, their unique excited state redox processes responsible for the luminescence emissions may find potentially significant optoelectronic applications. In this regard, we investigated the electroluminescence properties of the carbon dots integrated into multilayer light emitting diode devices. The devices emitted white light with a slight blue color, visible to naked eyes, thus validating the expectation that carbon dots may potentially serve as a new platform for electroluminescent nanomaterials.

  6. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  7. Light amplification device using organic electroluminescent diode coupled with photoresponsive organic pigment film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsume, Tadashi; Hiramoto, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki

    1995-05-01

    An all-organic light amplification device was successfully constructed using the organic electroluminescent diode coupled with photoresponsive perylene pigment film. Light amplification gain, such as the quantum efficiency of photon conversion, reached as large as 25-folds. Optical switching behavior caused by the feedback of output light to the photoresponsive perylene layer was noted. Because the spatial pattern of light was verified to be conserved precisely, the current device had the potential to evolve into the light amplification device, optical switching device, and optical memory device for two-dimensional parallel image processing.

  8. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting applications. Here, we define the design rules for increasing the electroluminescence efficiency of blue-emitting organic molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence. We show that a large delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in these charge-transfer compounds enhances the rate of radiative decay considerably by inducing a large oscillator strength even when there is a small overlap between the two wavefunctions. A compound based on our design principles exhibited a high rate of fluorescence decay and efficient up-conversion of triplet excitons into singlet excited states, leading to both photoluminescence and internal electroluminescence quantum yields of nearly 100%. PMID:25485987

  9. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting applications. Here, we define the design rules for increasing the electroluminescence efficiency of blue-emitting organic molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence. We show that a large delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in these charge-transfer compounds enhances the rate of radiative decay considerably by inducing a large oscillator strength even when there is a small overlap between the two wavefunctions. A compound based on our design principles exhibited a high rate of fluorescence decay and efficient up-conversion of triplet excitons into singlet excited states, leading to both photoluminescence and internal electroluminescence quantum yields of nearly 100%.

  10. Tunable Magneto-conductance and Magneto-electroluminescence in Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Planar Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Rugang; Mayhew, Nicholas; Nguyen, Tho; Tho Nguyen Team

    2014-03-01

    We report first time studies of magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices using ``super-yellow'' poly-(phenylene vynilene), SY-PPV. We observed consistent negative MC while MEL changes sign to positive when electroluminescence quantum efficiency increases (ELQE). At optimal ELQE, the MC has a much narrower width than MEL indicating that MC and MEL do not share a common origin. However, MC reverses and has the same width as MEL when exposed to a threshold laser power depending on the applied voltage. In addition, MC reduces its magnitude when the device current increases at constant illumination power. We discuss the results in the context of the existing models. We show that the e-h pair model can explain the positive MEL and MC while the negative MC can be explained by the bipolaron model. This work was supported by the start-up funds at UGA.

  11. Organic electroluminescent devices and method for improving energy efficiency and optical stability thereof

    DOEpatents

    Heller, Christian Maria

    2004-04-27

    An organic electroluminescent device ("OELD") has a controllable brightness, an improved energy efficiency, and stable optical output at low brightness. The OELD is activated with a series of voltage pulses, each of which has a maximum voltage value that corresponds to the maximum power efficiency when the OELD is activated. The frequency of the pulses, or the duty cycle, or both are chosen to provide the desired average brightness.

  12. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of resonant tunneling in multilayered heterostructures is presented based on an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation under the application of a constant electric field. By use of the transfer matrix approach, the transmissivity of the structure is determined as a function of the incident electron energy. The approach presented is easily extended to many layer structures where it is more accurate than other existing transfer matrix or WKB models. The transmission resonances are compared to the bound state energies calculated for a finite square well under bias using either an asymmetric square well model or the exact solution of an infinite square well under the application of an electric field. The results show good agreement with other existing models as well as with the bound state energies. The calculations were then applied to a new superlattice structure, the variablly spaced superlattice energy filter, (VSSEP) which is designed such that under bias the spatial quantization levels fully align. Based on these calculations, a new class of resonant tunneling superlattice devices can be designed.

  13. Influence of bias voltage and temperature on charge transfer states in organic photovoltaic and electroluminescent integrated device

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jiang; Wang, Hanyu; Qi, Yige; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-05-19

    Based on the organic photovoltaic (PV) and electroluminescent (EL) integrated device with a structure of SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction, both PV and EL properties of charge transfer states (CTSs) were simultaneously investigated. By means of infrared and visible isolating method, the EL characteristics of CTSs and singlet-triplet excitons were separated, and their properties dependence on bias voltage and temperature was analyzed by introducing modified diode models. From the simulation on the emissive photons from CTSs, the temperature independent parameters of CTSs were extracted, which have close relationship with thermal activation energy and effective emissive state number of CTSs at the SubPc/C{sub 60} interface.

  14. Fluorene-fluorenone copolymer: Stable and efficient yellow-emitting material for electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panozzo, S.; Vial, J.-C.; Kervella, Y.; Stéphan, O.

    2002-10-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new fluorene copolymer exhibiting bright yellow luminescence. In order to ensure a complete π-stacking of the active layer, a 9-fluorenone monomeric unit (FOne) has been used as comonomer in conjunction with the more classical 9,9-di-n-nonylfluorene unit. As expected with fluorene-based materials, when excited at 370 nm, the corresponding dilute copolymer solution photoluminescence spectra exhibit a main peak centered at 450 nm in the blue part of the visible spectrum. However, in the solid state, immediate structural reorganization of the layer occurs, leading to a red-shifted emission (bright yellow emission) centered at 550 nm. The origin of the emitted light has been attributed to excimers and/or aggregates based on short FOne segments and involves mainly exciton transfer between nonaggregated fluorene segments and aggregated ones. It is noteworthy that organic light-emitting devices based on these new materials exhibit no spectral evolution upon device operation. However, although stacking leads generally to a detrimental quenching of the luminescence in the solid state, as for regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), the luminescence efficiency of the fluorene-fluorenone copolymer remains suitable for device preparation. High material stability is attributed to an efficient and fast structural reorganization of the active layer, triggered by the small proportion of fluorenone. High electroluminescence efficiency, when compared to aggregated regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), results from an improved electron injection, a better carrier transport, and the conjunction of an efficient energy transfer from fluorene segments to excimers and/or aggregates with the implication of spin triplet, which is often lacking when using regular semiconducting polymers.

  15. Tunable magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, R.; Mayhew, N. T.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2013-12-09

    We report studies of magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices using “super-yellow” poly-(phenylene vinylene). We observed consistent negative MC while MEL becomes positive when electroluminescence quantum efficiency (ELQE) increases. At an optimal ELQE, the MC has a much narrower width than the MEL, indicating that the MC and MEL do not share a common origin. However, MC reverses and has the same width as MEL when exposed to a threshold laser power. We show that the e-h pair model can explain the positive MEL and MC while the negative MC can be explained by the bipolaron model.

  16. Tunable magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, R.; Mayhew, N. T.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    We report studies of magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices using "super-yellow" poly-(phenylene vinylene). We observed consistent negative MC while MEL becomes positive when electroluminescence quantum efficiency (ELQE) increases. At an optimal ELQE, the MC has a much narrower width than the MEL, indicating that the MC and MEL do not share a common origin. However, MC reverses and has the same width as MEL when exposed to a threshold laser power. We show that the e-h pair model can explain the positive MEL and MC while the negative MC can be explained by the bipolaron model.

  17. The electro-optical behavior of SrS:Ce electroluminescent devices under photonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, J.; Barthou, C.; Benalloul, P.; Polamo, K.

    2000-01-01

    The electro-optical behavior of the SrS:Ce electroluminescent devices under pulsed photonic excitation in the lower energy absorption band of Ce3+ was analyzed below the electroluminescence threshold voltage for a rectangular electric pulse. The photoluminescence quenching due to the ionization of the Ce3+ ions under the electrical field increases with the applied voltage (40% at the threshold). Delocalization of involved electrons is responsible for emissions at the trailing edge of the electric pulse and for emissions during the following pulse. These emissions do not restore the level of the photoluminescence without applied voltage. These different emissions allow detailed study of energy trap levels for each insulator/SrS interface. An interpretation of the photoluminescence quenching is proposed

  18. Efficient red electroluminescence from devices having multilayers of a europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenping; Matsumura, Michio; Wang, Mingzhao; Jin, Linpei

    2000-12-01

    In order to get red electroluminescence from a europium (Eu) complex with high efficiency, a hole-injection layer was inserted between the Eu-complex layer and an indium-tin-oxide electrode, and a hole-blocking layer was inserted between the Eu-complex and electron-transporting layers. To further improve the efficiency, devices having multiple-stacked Eu-complex (2.5 nm)/hole blocking (2.5 nm) units were fabricated. By stacking six units, the maximal luminance and emission efficiency of the red emission were increased to more than twice that from a device with a single Eu-complex layer.

  19. Determining the Origin of Half-bandgap-voltage Electroluminescence in Bifunctional Rubrene/C60 Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiusong; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, De; Zou, Yue; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-01-01

    Lowering the driving voltage of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is an important approach to reduce their energy consumption. We have fabricated a series of bifunctional devices (OLEDs and photovoltaics) using rubrene and fullerene (C60) as the active layer, in which the electroluminescence threshold voltage(~1.1 V) was half the value of the bandgap of rubrene. Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) response of planner heterojunction diodes exhibited a small increase in response to a low magnetic field strength (<20 mT); however, a very large decay was observed at a high magnetic field strength (>20 mT). When a hole-transport layer with a low mobility was included in these devices, the MEL response reversed in shape, and simultaneously, the EL threshold voltage became larger than the bandgap voltage. When bulk heterojunction device was examined, the amplitude of MEL curves presented an anomalous voltage-dependence. Following an analysis of the MEL responses of these devices, we proposed that the EL of half-bandgap-voltage device originated from bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in the rubrene film, rather than from singlet excitons that formed via an interface auger recombination. This work provides critical insight into the mechanisms of OLED emission and will help advance the applications of bifunctional devices. PMID:27142285

  20. Determining the Origin of Half-bandgap-voltage Electroluminescence in Bifunctional Rubrene/C60 Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiusong; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, De; Zou, Yue; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-05-01

    Lowering the driving voltage of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is an important approach to reduce their energy consumption. We have fabricated a series of bifunctional devices (OLEDs and photovoltaics) using rubrene and fullerene (C60) as the active layer, in which the electroluminescence threshold voltage(~1.1 V) was half the value of the bandgap of rubrene. Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) response of planner heterojunction diodes exhibited a small increase in response to a low magnetic field strength (<20 mT) however, a very large decay was observed at a high magnetic field strength (>20 mT). When a hole-transport layer with a low mobility was included in these devices, the MEL response reversed in shape, and simultaneously, the EL threshold voltage became larger than the bandgap voltage. When bulk heterojunction device was examined, the amplitude of MEL curves presented an anomalous voltage-dependence. Following an analysis of the MEL responses of these devices, we proposed that the EL of half-bandgap-voltage device originated from bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in the rubrene film, rather than from singlet excitons that formed via an interface auger recombination. This work provides critical insight into the mechanisms of OLED emission and will help advance the applications of bifunctional devices.

  1. Determining the Origin of Half-bandgap-voltage Electroluminescence in Bifunctional Rubrene/C60 Devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiusong; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, De; Zou, Yue; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-01-01

    Lowering the driving voltage of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is an important approach to reduce their energy consumption. We have fabricated a series of bifunctional devices (OLEDs and photovoltaics) using rubrene and fullerene (C60) as the active layer, in which the electroluminescence threshold voltage(~1.1 V) was half the value of the bandgap of rubrene. Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) response of planner heterojunction diodes exhibited a small increase in response to a low magnetic field strength (<20 mT); however, a very large decay was observed at a high magnetic field strength (>20 mT). When a hole-transport layer with a low mobility was included in these devices, the MEL response reversed in shape, and simultaneously, the EL threshold voltage became larger than the bandgap voltage. When bulk heterojunction device was examined, the amplitude of MEL curves presented an anomalous voltage-dependence. Following an analysis of the MEL responses of these devices, we proposed that the EL of half-bandgap-voltage device originated from bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in the rubrene film, rather than from singlet excitons that formed via an interface auger recombination. This work provides critical insight into the mechanisms of OLED emission and will help advance the applications of bifunctional devices. PMID:27142285

  2. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr; Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid; Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  3. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zysman-Colman, Eli; Ghosh, Sanjay S; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Chowdhury, Mithun; Sharma, Nidhi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-04-13

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λ(EL) = 698-709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  4. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λEL = 698–709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  5. Near-infrared electroluminescent devices using single-wall carbon nanotubes thin flms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaoui, S.; Minami, N.; Nalini, B.; Kim, Y.; Takada, N.; Hara, K.

    2005-11-01

    We have fabricated near-infrared electroluminescent (EL) devices utilizing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) finely dispersed in a polymer, such as poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy]-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEHPPV). Al/SWNT-MEHPPV/indium tin oxide thin-film devices exhibit a very promising EL response over a broad spectrum, including the range of 900-1600nm. From the analysis of the optical absorption, photoluminescence and EL spectra, as well as the current-voltage characteristics, we demonstrate that those devices exploit the intrinsic near-infrared light-emitting properties of semiconducting SWNTs and the electronic transport properties of SWNT-doped MEHPPV. Those achievements are essential for the future development of thin-film SWNT optoelectronic devices.

  6. Electroluminescence from multilayer conjugated polymer devices: Spatial control of exciton formation and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. R.; Greenham, N. C.; Burroughes, J. H.; Bradley, D. D. C.; Friend, R. H.; Burn, P. L.; Kraft, A.; Holmes, A. B.

    1992-11-01

    We have constructed electroluminescent diodes using several layers of conjugated polymers with differing band gaps; these provide a range of different colour light-emitting layers and can be used to control charge injection and transport. Poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene, PPV, and derivatives have been used, with indium/tin oxide as hole-injecting layer and calcium as electron-injecting contact layer. For this selection of materials, we show that the ordering of the polymer layers allows control of the colour of device emission. Emission can be produced in more than one layer.

  7. Development of electroluminescence based pressure-sensitive paint system.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Yoshimi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) measurement system based on an electroluminescence (EL) as a surface illumination. This consists of an inorganic EL as the illumination, a short-pass filter, and a platinum-porphyrin based PSP. The short-pass filter, which passes below 500 nm, was used to separate an overlay of the EL illumination and the PSP emission. The EL shows an opposite temperature dependency to that of the PSP. It gives a uniform illumination compared to that of a point illumination source such as a xenon lamp. Under atmospheric conditions, the resultant EL-PSP system reduces the temperature dependency by 54% compared to that of a conventional PSP system. An application of the EL-PSP system to a sonic jet impingement shows that the system demonstrated its reduction of the temperature dependency by 75% in a pressure measurement and reduces an image misalignment error. PMID:21280858

  8. Hole-transporting and emitting pendant polymers for organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Mutaguchi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Nagamatsu, Daisuke; Tanaka, Masatake; Okumoto, Kenji; Ohsedo, Yutaka; Shirota, Yasuhiko

    2006-08-01

    New hole-transporting pendant polymers with high glass-transition temperatures (Tgs) above 200 °C were designed and synthesized. Multilayer organic electroluminescent (EL) devices using the new polymers as the hole-transport layer and quinacridone-doped tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum as the emitting layer exhibited high performance. One of the hole-transporting polymers functioned well as a hole injection buffer layer in organic EL devices. New green- and orange-emitting pendant polymers with high Tgs and desired ambipolar character were also designed and synthesized. Organic EL devices using these emitting polymers also exhibited good performance. One of the hole-transporting polymer showed a high hole carrier mobility of over 10 -3 cm2V -1s -1 at an electric field of 1.0 × 10 5 Vcm -1, as determined by a time-of-flight method.

  9. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%. PMID:26610277

  10. Electroluminescence from multilayer conjugated polymer devices--spatial control of exciton formation and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenham, Neil C.; Brown, Adam R.; Burroughes, Jeremy H.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Friend, Richard H.; Burn, Paul L.; Kraft, Arno; Holmes, Andrew B.

    1993-08-01

    We have constructed electroluminescent diodes using several layers of conjugated polymers with differing energy gaps; these provide a range of different color light-emitting layers and can be used to control charge injection and transport. Poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene), PPV, and derivatives have been used, with indium tin oxide as hole-injecting electrode and calcium as electron-injecting electrode. For this selection of materials, we show that the sequence of the polymer layers allows control of the color of device emission. Emission from more than one layer can be produced simultaneously. The position and breadth of the light-emitting region of the device provides information about the mechanisms of charge transport and of exciton motion. Various models for multilayer emission are discussed in the paper.

  11. Light-emitting device with organic electroluminescent material and photoluminescent materials

    DOEpatents

    McNulty, Thomas Francis; Duggal, Anil Raj; Turner, Larry Gene; Shiang, Joseph John

    2005-06-07

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes and an organic electroluminescent material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one organic photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits light having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The organic PL material absorbs a portion of the light emitted by the light-emitting member and emits light having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. The light-emitting device can include an inorganic PL material that absorbs another portion of the light emitted from the light-emitting member and emits light having a third spectrum different than both the first and the second spectra.

  12. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanyu; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Xu; Lu, Zhiyun; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-08-01

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-{3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy}-2-(4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 1011 Jones at -3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm2, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m2. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  13. Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminaka, Ei-ichiro; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shogo

    1996-06-01

    Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions was studied in four types of organic electroluminescent (EL) devices: a single-layered (SL) device consisting only of an emissive layer (EML), two types of double-layered (DL-H and DL-E) devices in which a hole-transport layer (HTL) or an electron-transport layer (ETL) is attached to an EML, and a triple-layered (TL) device in which an EML is sandwiched between a HTL and an ETL. As EML, HTL and ETL material, 9, 10-bis[4-(diphenylamino)styryl]anthracene, 4,4'-bis[(3-methylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl and 1,3-bis[(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl]phenylene, respectively, were used. Within EML layers, a thin sensing layer doped with a squarilium dye, 2,4-bis[4-diethylamino)-2- hydroxyphenyl]cycrobutenediylium-1,3-dioxide was inserted. The change in emission intensity from the dopant, when the location of the sensing layer was systematically varied, gave information on emissive regions in each type of EL device. The emissive region in the SL device extended through the EML, and that in the DL-H device resided near the HTL/EML boundary. On the contrary, those in the DL-E and TL devices were located within a 10-nm-wide region adjacent to the EML/ETL boundary. Moreover, the emission efficiencies of the DL-E and TL devices were found to be higher than those of the SL and DL-H devices. It was experimentally demonstrated that the carrier recombination within the narrow region adjacent to the EML/carrier transport layer boundary gave high emission efficiency.

  14. Polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting devices using photon recycling.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoungchoo; Huh, Yoon Ho; Jeon, Hong Goo

    2010-09-13

    We present results that show highly polarized electroluminescence (EL) from an organic light-emitting device (OLED) by using a quarter-wave (λ/4) retardation plate (QWP) film and a giant birefringent optical (GBO) photonic reflective polarizer. Polarized EL light of 13,400 cd/m(2) with high peak efficiencies (greater than 10 cd/A and 3.5 lm/W) was obtained from an OLED in this way. These values are almost double those of a polarized OLED that only uses a polarizer. The direction of polarization of the emitted EL light from the polarized OLED corresponded to the passing axis of the GBO reflective polarizer. Furthermore, the degree of linear polarization obtained, i.e. the ratio between the brightness of two linearly polarized EL emissions parallel and perpendicular to the passing axis, is greater than 40 over the whole range of emitted luminance. PMID:20940874

  15. Optically pumped lasing and electroluminescence in ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, You-Liang; Wang, Peng; Chen, Kai; Zhao, Qing

    2015-11-01

    The preparation of a highly ordered ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array is introduced. Combining the merits of nanolaser and plasmonic Fabry-Perot nanolaser, we designed and fabricated an ultraviolet nanolaser with Ag-dielectric hybrid film-coated n-ZnO nanowires (NWs) array on p-GaN substrate. Ultraviolet random lasing behavior from the ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array has been demonstrated with both optical and electrical pumping, where the surface plasmon enhancement effect in the lasing process is discussed. The numerical simulation results show the surface plasmon at the Ag/SiO2/ZnO interface may be excited and strongly compress the wave-guided modes, which were found to optimize the lasing spectrum and increase the light intensity compared to the bare NWs array. With the electric pumping of the device, the electroluminescence parameters are characterized and the underlying mechanism is also discussed.

  16. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers And Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.; Ma, B.; Segalman, R.A.

    2009-05-26

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  17. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers and Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yuefei; Ma, Biwu; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2008-11-18

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  18. Colloidal electroluminescence: Novel routes to controlled emission of organic light emitting diode devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Christopher Fletcher

    In recent years the importance of the organic light emitting diode (OLED) has grown immensely, and the past two decades have seen ongoing and exhaustive research in organic routes to solid state lighting, wherein electricity is directly converted into emitted light through an excited state relaxation mechanism. The benefits of incorporating polymeric and small molecule materials into solid state lighting devices include high efficiences, low production costs, amenability to large-scale production and devices, reduced environmental impact and low energy consumption. Herein are presented novel routes to materials engineering and preparation, device fabrication and emission tailoring through the abilility to form a variety of polymeric and small molecule materials into aqueously dispersed semiconductive electroluminescent (EL) colloids. Compartmentalization of the emissive and semiconductive species into colloidal particles affords the ability to systematically control energy transfer processes that occur in light emitting devices. Energy transfer can occur through a Coulombic (Forster) or an electronic (Dexter) process, each needing several conditions to be met for the transfer to occur, however common to both are spectral and proximal characteristics. In this work, energy transfer will be simultaneously exploited and inhibited through the creation of EL colloidal particles which can be combined in a dispersion or thin layer in order to tailor the light emission for a variety of applications.

  19. Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO{sub 2} films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren

    2015-04-06

    We report on erbium (Er)-related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er-doped CeO{sub 2} (CeO{sub 2}:Er) films on silicon. The onset voltage of such EL under either forward or reverse bias is smaller than 10 V. Moreover, the EL quenching can be avoidable for the CeO{sub 2}:Er-based MOS devices. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the device indicates that the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under either forward or reverse bias is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Namely, electrons in n{sup +}-Si/ITO can tunnel into the conduction band of CeO{sub 2} host via defect states at sufficiently high forward/reverse bias voltages. Then, a fraction of such electrons are accelerated by electric field to become hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er{sup 3+} ions, thus leading to characteristic emissions. It is believed that this work has laid the foundation for developing viable silicon-based emitters using CeO{sub 2}:Er films.

  20. Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2015-04-01

    We report on erbium (Er)-related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er-doped CeO2 (CeO2:Er) films on silicon. The onset voltage of such EL under either forward or reverse bias is smaller than 10 V. Moreover, the EL quenching can be avoidable for the CeO2:Er-based MOS devices. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the device indicates that the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under either forward or reverse bias is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Namely, electrons in n+-Si/ITO can tunnel into the conduction band of CeO2 host via defect states at sufficiently high forward/reverse bias voltages. Then, a fraction of such electrons are accelerated by electric field to become hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er3+ ions, thus leading to characteristic emissions. It is believed that this work has laid the foundation for developing viable silicon-based emitters using CeO2:Er films.

  1. Electroluminescence of ZnO-based semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Novodvorskii, O A; Lotin, A A; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya; Parshina, L S; Khaidukov, E V; Zuev, D A; Khramova, O D

    2011-01-31

    Using pulsed laser deposition, we have grown n-ZnO/p-GaN, n-ZnO/i-ZnO/p-GaN and n-ZnO/n-Mg{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.8}O/i-Cd{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.8}O/p-GaN light-emitting diode (LED) heterostructures with peak emission wavelengths of 495, 382 and 465 nm and threshold current densities (used in electroluminescence measurements) of 1.35, 2, and 0.48 A cm{sup -2}, respectively. Because of the spatial carrier confinement, the n-ZnO/n-Mg{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.8}O/i-Cd{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.8}O/p-GaN double heterostructure LED offers a higher electroluminescence intensity and lower electroluminescence threshold in comparison with the n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-ZnO/i-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs. (lasers)

  2. Alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukol, Beau Alexander

    The goals of this thesis are to provide an improved understanding of luminescent materials, and to exploit their properties to achieve bright, efficient, and manufacturable red, green, and blue (RGB) phosphors for use in full-color flat-panel displays. A high-luminance, high-efficiency, full-color alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) phosphor system, capable of being processed at temperatures below the glass substrate melting temperature, has been developed through the use of source layer diffusion doping (SLDD) of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) deposited SrS thin-films. The development of ACTFEL phosphors has also been advanced through the exploration of alternate phosphor materials, such as SrxCa 1-xS:Eu,Cu and (Ba.Zn)S:Mn. This thesis offers new insight into the nature of ACTFEL device operation, especially SrS:Cu ACTFEL devices. A comparison of "EL" thermal quenching trends for evaporated ZnS:Mn, ALE ZnS:Mn, ALE SrS:Ce, sputtered SrS:Cu,Ag, and sputtered multi-layer SrS:Cu,Ag/SrS:Ce ACTFEL devices is presented. ZnS:Mn ACTFEL devices exhibit the least amount of EL thermal quenching, which is attributed to non-radiative recombination. SrS:Cu and SrS:Cu,Ag ACTFEL devices possess the greatest amount of thermal quenching, which is primarily EL thermal quenching. The extent of EL thermal quenching is significantly reduced in a multi-layer SrS:Cu,Ag/SrS:Ce ACTFEL device, compared to that of a single-layer SrS:Cu or SrS:Cu,Ag ACTFEL device. The operation of SrS:Cu is examined as a function of temperature; the space charge density is found to increase with temperature up to ˜250 K with an activation energy of 0.02 eV. The space charge density in SrS:Cu ACTFEL devices is estimated as ˜1.8 x 1016, which yields estimates of the cathode phosphor field and the interfacial trap depth of ˜1.3 MV/cm and ˜0.73 eV, respectively.

  3. Planar electroluminescent panel techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, C.; Kell, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations of planar electroluminescent multipurpose displays with latch-in memory are described. An 18 x 24 in. flat, thin address panel with elements spacing of 0.100 in. was constructed which demonstrated essentially uniform luminosity of 3-5 foot lamberts for each of its 43200 EL cells. A working model of a 4-bit EL-PC (electroluminescent photoconductive) electrooptical decoder was made which demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. A single-diagram electroluminescent display device with photoconductive-electroluminescent latch-in memory was constructed which demonstrated the conceptual soundness of this principle. Attempts to combine these principles in a single PEL multipurpose display with latch-in memory were unsuccessful and were judged to exceed the state-of-the-art for close-packed (0.10 in. centers) photoconductor-electroluminescent cell assembly.

  4. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Xu; Yu, Junsheng E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhiyun E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-(3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy)-2- (4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 10{sup 11} Jones at −3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm{sup 2}, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m{sup 2}. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  5. Electroluminescence of quantum-dash-based quantum cascade laser structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Bismuto, A.; Nevou, L.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2011-12-23

    We developed two mid-infrared quantum cascade structures based on InAs quantum dashes. The dashes were embedded either in AlInGaAs lattice-matched to InP or in tensile-strained AlInAs. The devices emit between 7 and 11 {mu}m and are a step forward in the development of quantum cascade lasers based on 3-D confined active regions.

  6. Thermo-optical properties of 1H[3,4-b] quinoline films used in electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Kępińska, Mirosława; Sanetra, Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Electroluminescence cells with H[3,4-b] quinoline layers are promising devices for a blue light emitting EL diode. This work measured the optical reflectance as a function of temperature in copolymers PAQ layers deposited on Si crystalline substrate. Using the extended Cauchy dispersion model of the film refractive index we determined the thermo-optical coefficients for quinoline layers in the temperature range of 76-333 K from combined ellipsometric and spectrofotometric studies. The obtained values of thermo-optical coefficients of thin PAQ film, were negative and ranged in 5-10 × 10-4 [1/K].

  7. Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jing; Okamoto, Takayuki; Kawata, Satoshi

    2005-12-01

    We report that highly directional electroluminescence from top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs) can be achieved by using a two-dimensionally periodically corrugated silver film as a cathode and an organic dye with a narrow bandwidth of emission spectrum as an emitting material. The resonant excitation of surface plasmons on the silver film interfaces contributes to the light transmission through the silver cathode and to the directional emission. The TEOLEDs with a europium complex as an emissive layer show beam divergence of less than 4° and the beam direction is controlled by periodicity of the corrugation.

  8. Electroluminescence cells based on the lamellar solid hydrogen uranyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, G.R.,; Ellis, A.B.; Hellstrom, E.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) cells have been constructed with the layered, ionically conducting solid, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, HUO{sub 2}PO{sub 4} {center dot} 4H{sub 2}O (HUP), as the emissive medium. With ac excitation, both uranyl emission and molecular nitrogen plasma emission are observed, with the latter appearing to excite the former; the uranyl EL spectrum matches the photoluminescence spectrum of the solid. Similar results were obtained with fully substituted sodium (NaUP), magnesium (Mg{sub 0.5}UP), and pyridinium (pyHUP) derivatives of HUP. For all of these solids, the dependence of the EL intensity on sample thickness, ac frequency, and applied voltage has been determined. Typical operating conditions are 1.5--3.0 kV at 0.2--4 kHz. Impedance measurements permitted acquisition of dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for these solids, both of which decrease in the order HUP {gt} NaUP {gt} Mg{sub 0.5}UP {gt} pyHUP. A model describing the dependence of EL intensity on cell parameters is presented.

  9. Electroluminescent ZnS:Mn films prepared by an MOCVD method based on dithiocarbamate precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, L. V.; Beletski, A. I.; Svechnikov, G. S.

    1999-05-01

    It is shown that electroluminescent ZnS:Mn films with luminance more than 0268-1242/14/5/013/img6 and luminous efficiency 0268-1242/14/5/013/img7 can be obtained by low-temperature deposition from Mn and Zn dithiocarbamates; subsequent thermal treatment of these films is not necessary. Starting materials were deposited on the substrate heated to a temperature of 220-0268-1242/14/5/013/img8C by spraying organic solution in air at atmospheric pressure. As a result homogeneous polycrystalline layers of ZnS:Mn with a growth rate of 60-0268-1242/14/5/013/img9 have been obtained. The electroluminescent characteristics of the thin films and structures based on various preparation and excitation conditions are presented. The possibility of application of these films as a planar light source is discussed.

  10. Ultraviolet-visible electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with CeO{sub 2} films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren

    2015-03-15

    We report on ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with the CeO{sub 2} films annealed at low temperatures. At the same injection current, the UV-Vis EL from the MOS device with the 550 °C-annealed CeO{sub 2} film is much stronger than that from the counterpart with the 450 °C-annealed CeO{sub 2} film. This is due to that the 550 °C-annealed CeO{sub 2} film contains more Ce{sup 3+} ions and oxygen vacancies. It is tentatively proposed that the recombination of the electrons in multiple oxygen-vacancy–related energy levels with the holes in Ce 4f{sup 1} energy band pertaining to Ce{sup 3+} ions leads to the UV-Vis EL.

  11. Hole-exciton interaction induced high field decay of magneto-electroluminescence in Alq3-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Holford, D. F.; Gu, Hang; Kreouzis, T.; Zhang, Sijie; Gillin, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyqinoline) (Alq3) based organic light emitting diodes have been investigated by varying the electron/hole ratio in the emissive layer. Experimental results reveal that a negative high field effect in the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) can be found in devices with very low triplet exciton concentration at room temperature. This suggests triplet-triplet annihilation cannot be used to explain the negative high field MEL in the Alq3 system. Our results suggest that hole-exciton interaction may be the origin of the negative high field MEL and also, in parallel with this interaction, there is also the more common positive high field process occurring which has been tentatively attributed to electron-exciton interactions. The competition between these different processes decides the final shape of the MEL at high fields.

  12. Preparation, characterization and electroluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronic device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2015-07-31

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were achieved by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) at room temperature. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have wurtzite hexagonal structure without any impurities. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods were (101). XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods having the crystallite size 49 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. The diameter of nanorods has been found that 1.52 µm to 1.61 µm and the length of about 4.89 µm. It has also been found that at room temperature Ultra Violet Visible (UV-VIS) absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to bulk). Electroluminescence (EL) studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  13. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A(-1) and 40.6 cd A(-1), respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A(-1) and 25.4 cd A(-1) for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays. PMID:27278527

  14. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A‑1 and 40.6 cd A‑1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A‑1 and 25.4 cd A‑1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays.

  15. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A−1 and 40.6 cd A−1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A−1 and 25.4 cd A−1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays. PMID:27278527

  16. Mixing of phosphorescent and exciplex emission in efficient organic electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Cherpak, Vladyslav; Stakhira, Pavlo; Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Stromylo, Evgeniy; Helzhynskyy, Igor; Chapran, Marian; Volyniuk, Dmytro; Hotra, Zenon; Dabuliene, Asta; Tomkeviciene, Ausra; Voznyak, Lesya; Grazulevicius, Juozas Vidas

    2015-01-21

    We fabricated a yellow organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on the star-shaped donor compound tri(9-hexylcarbazol-3-yl)amine, which provides formation of the interface exciplexes with the iridium(III) bis[4,6-difluorophenyl]-pyridinato-N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic). The exciplex emission is characterized by a broad band and provides a condition to realize the highly effective white OLED. It consists of a combination of the blue phosphorescent emission from the FIrpic complex and a broad efficient delayed fluorescence induced by thermal activation with additional direct phosphorescence from the triplet exciplex formed at the interface. The fabricated exciplex-type device exhibits a high brightness of 38 000 cd/m(2) and a high external quantum efficiency. PMID:25537396

  17. Improved efficiency for green and red emitting electroluminescent devices using the same cohost composed of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Li, Wenlian; Chu, Bei; Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Yiren; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Shuanghong

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient green and red fluorescence dyes-doped electroluminescent devices using cohost strategy. The cohost system is composed of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq) and 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). The maximum current efficiencies are increased by 54% and 104% for green and red devices by optimizing the ratio between ADN and Alq in the cohost compared to the conventional Alq single-host devices, respectively. We attribute the improvement of efficiencies to balanced hole and electron injection into the emitting layer, the enlarged width of recombination region and the multiple emission processes.

  18. Optimization of Metal Oxides Thickness and Related Organic Electroluminescent Device Performance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tien-Lung; Chuang, Ya-Ting

    2015-11-01

    In this study, three commercial transition metal oxides such as molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), tungsten trioxide (WO3), and vanadium pent-oxide (V2O5) were employed as hole-injection layer to improve the electrical and optical performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The layer thickness of MoO3, WO3 and V2O5 were respectively varied by 1, 2, 5 and 10 nm inside blue OLED to characterize their effects on device performance. The optimal OLED with a 5 nm MoO3 hole-injection layer performs an enhancement of 12.9% in current efficiency, 17.5% in power efficiency and 9.3% in maximum external quantum efficiency, comparing to that of reference device without hole-injection layer. PMID:26726669

  19. Polymer electroluminescent devices processed by inkjet printing: I. Polymer light-emitting logo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, Jayesh; Yang, Yang

    1998-05-01

    Inkjet printing (IJP) technology is a popular technology for desktop publishing. Since some of the conducting (or conjugated) polymers are solution processable, IJP technology becomes an ideal method for printing polymer light-emitting diodes with high resolution. Unfortunately, the polymer film printed from an inkjet printer usually consists of pin-holes, and this intrinsic character makes it unsuitable for fabricating high quality polymer electronic devices, particularly for devices in the sandwich structure. In this letter, we submit a hybrid structure, which consists of an inkjet printed layer in conjunction with another uniform spin coated polymer layer, as an alternative to the regular inkjet printed structure. The uniform layer serves as a buffer layer to seal the pin-holes and the IJP layer is the layer consisting of the desired pattern, for example the red-green-blue dots for a multicolor display. To demonstrate, we applied this hybrid technology to fabricate efficient and large area polymer light-emitting logos. The use of this concept represents a whole new technology of fabricating polymer electronic devices with lateral patterning capability.

  20. Effects of exciplex on the electroluminescent and photovoltaic properties of organic diodes based on terbium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Li, Tianle; Su, Wenming; Chu, Bei; Bi, Defeng; Han, Liangliang; Wang, Dan; Chen, Lili; Li, Bin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, ZhiZhi

    2008-01-01

    We fabricated two organic diodes, one of which consists of a double layer structure of TPD/Tb(ACA) 3phen and in the other one a mixture layer is inserted between the double layer, i.e., TPD/TPD:Tb(ACA) 3phen (1:1, 30 nm)/Tb(ACA) 3phen, here TPD and Tb(ACA) 3phen are ( N, N'-diphenyl- N, N'-bis(3-methyl-phenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine) and tris(acetylacetonato)-(mono-phenothroline) terbium, respectively. Both the devices show electroluminescence (EL) properties under forward bias and photovoltaic (PV) effects under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) light. For the device with a mixture layer, the EL performance and PV effects were both significantly improved. A maximum EL brightness of 150 cd/m 2 under bias of 17 V and a maximum efficiency of 1.1 cd/A at 7.5 V were obtained. Moreover, the diode shows a short-circuit current ( Isc) of 43 μA cm -2, an open-circuit voltage ( Voc) of 1.1 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.32, and an overall power conversion efficiency ( ηPV) of 1.0% under illumination of 365 nm UV light with 1.5 mW/cm 2. The improvements of PV- and EL-properties were presumably attributed to the increased intermolecular contacts in the mixture of TPD and Tb-complex. In addition, a shift of EL color from UV-blue to green-yellow was also observed when a mixture layer of TPD with Tb-complex was inserted. The operation mechanisms of the EL- and the PV-processes of the diodes with different structures were further discussed.

  1. [Effects of white organic light-emitting devices using color conversion films on electroluminescence spectra].

    PubMed

    Hou, Qing-Chuan; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Qi, Qing-Jin; Li, Lan; Yin, Shou-Gen

    2010-06-01

    The authors report a novel white organic light-emitting device (WOLED), which uses a strategy of exciting organic/ inorganic color conversion film with a blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The luminescent layer of the blue OLED was prepared by use of CBP host blended with a blue highly fluorescent dye N-BDAVBi. The organic/inorganic color conversion film was prepared by dispersing a mixture of red pigment VQ-D25 and YAG : Ce3+ phosphor in PMMA. The authors have achieved a novel WOLED with the high color stability by optimizing the thickness and fluorescent pigment concentration of the color conversion film. When the driving voltage varied between 6 and 14 V, the color coordinates (CIE) varied slightly from (0.354, 0.304) to (0.357, 0.312) and the maximum current efficiency is about 5.8 cd x A(-1) (4.35 mA x cm(-2)), the maximum brightness is 16 800 cd x m(-2) at the operating voltage of 14 V. PMID:20707129

  2. Large magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in exciplex-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yongzhou; Lei, Yanlian; Zhang, Qiaoming; Chen, Lixiang; Song, Qunliang; Xiong, Zuhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we report on large magneto-conductance (MC) over 60% and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) as high as 112% at room temperature in an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with efficient reverse intersystem crossing (ISC). The large MC and MEL are individually confirmed by the current density-voltage characteristics and the electroluminescence spectra under various magnetic fields. We proposed that this type of magnetic field effect (MFE) is governed by the field-modulated reverse ISC between the singlet and triplet exciplex. The temperature-dependent MFEs reveal that the small activation energy of reverse ISC accounts for the large MFEs in the present exciplex-based OLEDs.

  3. Electroluminescence of Halogen Complexes with Monovalent Copper: OLED Devices and DFT Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. R.; Minaev, B. F.; Gadirov, R. M.; Nikonova, E. N.; Solodova, T. A.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Bushuev, M. B.; Kopylova, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic characteristics of complexes of Cu[I] ion with halogens synthesized by the TDDFT/CAM-B3LYP method are studied. It is shown that S0 → S1 and S0 → T1 electronic transitions are excitations with charge transfer. In this case, the electronic transitions proceed from the HOMO, HOMO-1 and HOMO-2 localized on halogen atoms to the LUMO localized on a ligand. The matrix elements of spin-orbit interaction are calculated using the single-electron operator (HSO). Based on these compounds, the organic light emitting diodes have been created. Their current-voltage and current-brightness characteristics are investigated.

  4. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    SciTech Connect

    Calciati, Marco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni; Goano, Michele Bertazzi, Francesco; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin

    2014-06-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10{sup −30} cm{sup 6}/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary

  5. Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Era, M.; Morimoto, S.; Tsutsui, T.; Saito, S.

    1994-08-01

    Using the combination of a layered perovskite compound (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4 (PAPI), which forms a stable exciton with a large binding energy owing to its low-dimensional semiconductor nature and exhibits sharp and strong photoluminescence from the exciton band, and an electron-transporting oxadiazole derivative, we fabricated an organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent (EL) device. The EL spectrum of the device corresponded well to the photoluminescence spectrum of the PAPI film; the emission was peaking at 520 nm and half-width of the emission was about 10 nm at liquid-nitrogen temperature. Further, highly intense EL of more than 10 000 cd m-2 was performed at 2 A cm-2 at liquid-nitrogen temperature in the device.

  6. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third. PMID:23858874

  7. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au-ZnO nanowire Schottky type light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Dakuan; Wang, Jianyu; Sun, Huabin; Yin, Yao; Sheng, Yun; Yan, Shancheng; Yan, Bo; Sui, Chenghua; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi; Liu, Jianlin

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Schottky type LED device is demonstrated. The device prototype is based on Schottky junctions formed between Au and the top ends of ZnO nanowire arrays. Rectifying current-voltage characteristics are observed, and three different charge transport mechanisms are discussed in detail. Excitonic electroluminescence at around 380 nm is detected at high forward bias and the linear relationship between intensity and current suggests a LED device performance. The observation of LED signals from the simple Schottky structure provides a potential supplement to the category of ultraviolet LED devices.

  8. Photo- and electroluminescent properties of zinc(II) complexes with tetradentate Schiff bases, derivatives of salicylic aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenko, A. A.; Lepnev, L. S.; Vitukhnovskii, A. G.; Kotova, O. V.; Eliseeva, S. V.; Kuz'mina, N. P.

    2010-03-01

    It is studied how the introduction of various substituents into the composition of organic ligands affects the photoluminescence spectra of new zinc(II) complexes with tetradentate Schiff bases H2L (derivatives of salicylic aldehyde (H2SAL1, H2SAL2) and o-vanillin (H2MO1, H2MO2) with ethylenediamine and o-phenylenediamine) in the form of bulk solids and thin films. It is demonstrated that the emission spectra of bulk solid complexes without o-phenylenediamine bridges (ZnSAL1 and ZnMO1) contain additional long-wavelength bands compared to the spectra of corresponding thin films. In the case of films obtained from [ZnSAL1]2 dimer complexes, the long-wavelength band is dominant. At the same time, the photoluminescence spectra of ZnSAL2 and ZnMO2 complexes with o-phenylenediamine bridges are similar in the case of solid samples and thin films. The electroluminescent properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the ITO/α-NPD/ZnL/Ca:Al structure are studied. The bathochromic shift of the electroluminescence peaks of OLEDs with respect to the photoluminescence spectra of bulk solid samples and thin films is probably related to the formation of exciplexes at the α-NPD/ZnL interface. The electroluminescence spectra of OLEDs based on [ZnSAL1]2 show a hypsochromic shift of the emission maximum, which can be caused by a shift of the recombination region into the α-NPD layer.

  9. M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Koester, Robert; Hwang, Jun-Seok; Salomon, Damien; Chen, Xiaojun; Bougerol, Catherine; Barnes, Jean-Paul; Dang, Daniel Le Si; Rigutti, Lorenzo; de Luna Bugallo, Andres; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Tchernycheva, Maria; Durand, Christophe; Eymery, Joël

    2011-11-01

    Nonpolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on the {11-00} sidewalls of c-axis GaN wires have been grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates. The structural properties of single wires are studied in detail by scanning transmission electron microscopy and in a more original way by secondary ion mass spectroscopy to quantify defects, thickness (1-8 nm) and In-composition in the wells (∼16%). The core-shell MQW light emission characteristics (390-420 nm at 5 K) were investigated by cathodo- and photoluminescence demonstrating the absence of the quantum Stark effect as expected due to the nonpolar orientation. Finally, these radial nonpolar quantum wells were used in room-temperature single-wire electroluminescent devices emitting at 392 nm by exploiting sidewall emission. PMID:21967509

  10. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  11. Electroluminescent layers based on ZnS:Cu deposited into matrices of porous anodic Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, R. G.; Petukhov, D. I.; Chukavin, A. I.; Bel'tyukov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    It is suggested to use a new nanocomposite material—nanostructures of copper-doped zinc sulfide in a matrix of porous aluminum oxide—as a light-emitting layer of electroluminescent sources of light. The material was deposited by thermal evaporation in a vacuum. The microstructure of the layers, impurity distribution in the electroluminescent-phosphor layer, and electroluminescence spectra at various copper concentrations in ZnS:Cu were studied.

  12. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13 V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed. PMID:26564241

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Electroluminescence in organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Jan

    1999-12-01

    There is growing interest in organic electroluminescence (EL). A great deal of progress has been made recently in improving the performance of various classes of organic EL devices. Some of these are now adequate for many applications. However, specialists focusing on selected aspects of organic EL devices have often lost contact with the general subject of EL. Therefore, a review covering all aspects of EL mechanisms and their experimental manifestation seemed necessary. This article is concerned with the new EL device physics that can be realized using crystals, or films made of organic materials, as electrically and optically active components, in devices ranging from simple single-component light emitting diodes (LEDs), through double- and multi-layer LEDs to light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and organic LED-based light transducers. The investigation of the properties of these devices has provided in turn a very effective method for studying the basic EL phenomena in these materials. Since the subject of the present review has generated a huge amount of literature, and it is impossible to mention here all that has been done, we have attempted to provide an outline of the background of the field of organic EL, and discussed in some detail those aspects most relevant to the EL device physics. Because of the diversity of the types of material and EL structure, there is no single, simple description of EL in organics. Therefore, the initial sections of the article are devoted to a discussion of the types of EL and related phenomena, such as carrier injection and recombination or nature of emitting states. Then, the fundamentals of the fabrication of various types of EL devices are discussed along with the most representative examples. In general, the reader will find in the article a brief historical review of the subject as well as a description of the latest trends in organic EL research covering all the new concepts and most important data which have

  14. Electroluminescence spectra of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-n-heterostructures coated with phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'china, N. A.; Kogan, L. M.; Soshchin, N. P.; Shirokov, S. S.; Yunovich, A. E.

    2007-09-15

    The electroluminescence spectra of light-emitting diodes based on p-n heterostructures of the InGaN/AlGaN/GaN type are studied in the near-ultraviolet spectral region (360-405 nm). The spectra are peaked at the wavelengths 385 and 395 nm, and the intensity of emission falls exponentially with the photon energy in the shorter-wavelength and longer-wavelength regions. The emitters in the green and yellow spectral regions based on these light-emitting diodes coated with silicate phosphors are studied. The luminescence spectra of phosphors have the Gaussian shape and maximums in the range from 525 to 560 nm. The color characteristics of emitters depend on the ratios of intensities of the ultraviolet and yellow-green bands. The possibilities of fabrication of light-emitting diodes of visible luminescence based on ultraviolet light-emitting diodes that excite colored phosphors are discussed.

  15. ELECTROLUMINESCENT MATERIAL FOR FLAT PANEL DISPLAY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.B.

    2000-11-13

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop a new-generation electroluminescent (EL) material for flat panel displays and related applications by using unique and complementary research capabilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. The goal was to produce an EL material with a luminance 10 times greater than conventional EL phosphors. An EL material with this increased luminance would have immediate applications for flat panel display devices (e.g., backlighting for liquid-crystal diodes) and for EL lamp technology. OSRAM Sylvania proposed that increased EL phosphor luminance could be obtained by creating composite EL materials capable of alignment under an applied electric field and capable of concentrating the applied electric field. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used pulsed laser deposition as a method for making these composite EL materials. The materials were evaluated for electroluminescence at laboratory facilities at OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. Many composite structures were thus made and evaluated, and it was observed that a composite structure based on alternating layers of a ferroelectric and a phosphor yielded electroluminescence. An enabling step that was not initially proposed but was conceived during the cooperative effort was found to be crucial to the success of the composite structure. The CRADA period expired before we were able to make quantitative measurements of the luminance and efficiency of the composite EL material. Future cooperative work, outside the scope of the CRADA, will focus on making these measurements and will result in the production of a prototype composite EL device.

  16. Multicolor and near-infrared electroluminescence from the light-emitting devices with rare-earth doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chen; Gao, Zhifei; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren; Lv, Chunyan

    2015-09-28

    We report on multicolor and near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) from the devices using rare-earth doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}:RE) films as light-emitting layers, which are ascribed to the impact excitation of RE{sup 3+} ions, with the EL onset voltages below 10 V. The devices are in the structure of ITO/TiO{sub 2}:RE/SiO{sub 2}/Si, in which the SiO{sub 2} layer is ∼10 nm thick and RE includes Eu, Er, Tm, Nd, and so on. With sufficiently high positive voltage applied on the ITO electrode, the conduction electrons in Si can tunnel into the conduction band of SiO{sub 2} layer via the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism, gaining the potential energy ∼4 eV higher than the conduction band edge of TiO{sub 2}. Therefore, as the electrons in the SiO{sub 2} layer drift into the TiO{sub 2}:RE layer, they become hot electrons. Such hot electrons impact-excite the RE{sup 3+} ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} host, leading to the characteristic emissions.

  17. Quantum-confined Stark effect on photoluminescence and electroluminescence characteristics of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Hisashi; Sonoda, Junichi; Pfaff, Nathan; Koslow, Ingrid; Nakamura, Shuji; Den Baars, Steven P.

    2008-08-01

    The quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated as a part of the continuing study of exploring differences between photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) characteristics. The luminescence characteristics were related to electrical characteristics of green and amber LEDs by employing the electrical-bias-applied PL technique. By inspecting the band diagram, it has been found that the separation of quasi-Fermi levels, which strongly affects the QCSE, can be quantified and related to the luminescence. In order to compare PL and EL characteristics, attention was paid to the QCSE during the PL and EL measurements. Despite the control of the QCSE, differences were still confirmed between PL and EL characteristics, which have led us to the conclusion to that there are other unrevealed origins for the differences.

  18. Sharp green electroluminescence from 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y. T.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Danel, A.; Jarosz, B.; Tomasik, P.

    2000-09-01

    A multilayer organic light-emitting diode was fabricated using a fluorescent compound {6-N,N-diethylamino-1-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline} (PAQ-NEt2) doped into the hole-transporting layer of NPB {4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]-biphenyl}, with the TPBI {2,2',2″-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris[1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole]} as an electrontransporting material. At 16% PAQ-NEt2 doping concentration, the device gave a sharp, bright, and efficient green electroluminescence (EL) peaked at around 530 nm. The full width at half maximum of the EL is 60 nm, which is 60% of the green emission from typical NPB/AlQ [where AlQ=tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] device. For the same concentration, a maximum luminance of 37 000 cd/m2 was obtained at 10.0 V and the maximum power, luminescence, and external quantum efficiencies were obtained 4.2 lm/W, 6.0 cd/A, and 1.6%, respectively, at 5.0 V.

  19. Circularly Polarized Phosphorescent Electroluminescence with a High Dissymmetry Factor from PHOLEDs Based on a Platinahelicene.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jochen R; Wang, Xuhua; Yang, Ying; Campbell, Alasdair J; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2016-08-10

    Circularly polarized (CP) light is of interest in areas such as quantum optical computing, optical spintronics, biomedicine, and high efficiency displays. Direct emission of CP light from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has been a focus of research as it has the immediate application of increasing efficiency and simplifying device architecture in OLED based displays. High dissymmetry (gEL) factor values have been reported for devices employing fluorescent polymers, but these CP-OLEDs are limited in their ultimate efficiencies by the type of emissive electronic transitions involved. In contrast, phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs) can emit light from triplet excited states and can therefore achieve very high efficiencies. However, CP-PHOLEDs are significantly understudied, and the two previous reports suffered from very low brightness or gEL values. Here, we use a platinahelicene complex to construct a CP-PHOLED that achieves both a display level brightness and a high gEL factor. The dissymmetry of CP emission reached with this proof-of-concept single-layer helicene-based device is sufficient to provide real-world benefits over nonpolarized emission and paves the way toward chiral metal complex-based CP-PHOLED displays. PMID:27434383

  20. Metal complex polymers for electroluminescent applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X.T.; Suzuki, H.; Zhang, Y.D.; Watanabe, T.; Miyata, S.; Wada, T.; Sasabe, H.

    1998-07-01

    The authors report the synthesis and characterization of a soluble metal complex polymer for electroluminescent (EL) applications. The polymer was prepared by the reaction of a zinc Schiff base with 4,4{prime}-diphenylmethane-diisocyanate. The polymer is amorphous and with glass transition temperature of 156 C and is soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP). The zinc Schiff base, and the polyurethane (PU) shows strong photoluminescence under a UV-lamp illumination. Single and double layer EL devices consisting ITO/hole transfer layer (HTL)/PU/AL have been fabricated and characterized. The results indicated that the complex polymer could act as both electron transport and emissive layers for EL devices.

  1. Synthesis of TPD-containing polymers for use as light-emitting materials in electroluminescent and laser devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerhold, Hans-Heinrich; Tillmann, Hartwig; Raabe, Dietrich; Helbig, Manfred; Elflein, Wilhelm; Braeuer, Andreas H.; Holzer, Wolfgang; Penzkofer, Alfons

    2001-02-01

    The synthesis of two families of electrically active and highly luminescent TPD-based copolymers is reported. (1) The Horner-olefination between TPD-dialdehydes and xylylene bisphosphonates has been used to prepare red and green emitting conjugated TPD-PPV copolymers 1 - 4. Here the TPD (triphenylamine dimer) moieties are brigded through alkoxy- substituted p-phenylene vinylene segments. (2) Blue emitting, nonconjugated TPD-xylylene copolymers (Poly-TPD- DPX 5, (6) have been synthesized by an electrophilic aralkylation using diphenylxylylene diol and TPD as the monomers. All these TPD-copolymers constitute amorphous electro-optical materials possessing remarkably high glass transition temperatures (Tg 110 - 240 degrees Celsius). Here we demonstrate strong lasing in the red, green and blue spectral region employing thin layers (approximately 100 nm) of these solution processable polymeric materials. In waveguiding neat films traveling-wave lasing (amplified spontaneous emission -- ASE) is achieved upon picosecond pulse excitation at 347 nm. Pump energy density thresholds as low as 3 (mu) J/cm2 and ASE-line halfwidths approximately 10 nm have been observed. Comparable to the typical redox behavior of free TPD molecule the novel TPD- based polymers exhibit fully reversible electron transfer at low potential (EOx approximately 0.65 V), which is favorable for hole injection and stable charge transport in the semiconducting organic materials. In addition, these high-Tg polymers can act as the electro-active materials in LEDs, photovoltaic cells and photorefractive devices. The waveguiding properties of Poly-TPD-DPX were determined in planar and strip waveguides to be 12 dB/cm at 640 nm, and 2 dB/cm at 1550 nm.

  2. Rectification and electroluminescence of nanostructured GaN/Si heterojunction based on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yong; Yan, Ling-Ling; Li, Xin-Jian

    2015-10-01

    A GaN/Si nanoheterojunction is prepared through growing GaN nanocrystallites (nc-GaN) on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique at a relatively low temperature. The average size of nc-GaN is determined to be ˜10 nm. The spectral measurements disclose that the photoluminescence (PL) from GaN/Si-NPA is composed of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a broad band spanned from UV to red region, with the feature that the latter band is similar to that of electroluminescence (EL). The electron transition from the energy levels of conduction band and, or, shallow donors to that of deep acceptors of GaN is indicated to be responsible for both the broad-band PL and the EL luminescence. A study of the I-V characteristic shows that at a low forward bias, the current across the heterojunction is contact-limited while at a high forward bias it is bulk-limited, which follows the thermionic emission model and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) model, respectively. The bandgap offset analysis indicates that the carrier transport is dominated by electron injection from n-GaN into the p-Si-NPA, and the EL starts to appear only when holes begin to be injected from Si-NPA into GaN with biases higher than a threshold voltage. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61176044).

  3. Electroluminescence from self-organized ``microdomes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthaus, Olaf; Adachi, Chihaya; Kurimura, Shigeya; Oyamada, Takahito

    2004-06-01

    The preparation of a self-organized, microstructured organic electroluminescent device is reported. A dewetting process is used to form (sub)micrometer-sized dewetted patches ("domes") of a hole transport material (tolyl-phenyl-diaminobiphenyl, TPD) on an indium-tin-oxide electrode. The domes are regular in size and spacing. Evaporation of an electron transport material (tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum, Alq3) and an Mg/Ag top electrode leads to a device with electroluminescing spots of micrometer dimensions and a spacing of a few micrometers.

  4. Influence of Dopant Concentration on Electroluminescent Performance of Organic White-Light-Emitting Device with Double-Emissive-Layered Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Yin, Shou-Gen; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Yu; Hou, Qing-Chuan; Zhang, Jun-Mei

    2008-01-01

    A novel phosphorescent organic white-light-emitting device (WOLED) with configuration of ITO/NPB/CBP:TBPe:rubrene/Zn(BTZ)2:Ir(piq)2(acac)/Zn(BTZ)2/Mg:Ag is fabricated successfully, where the phosphorescent dye bis (1-(phenyl)isoquinoline) iridium (III) acetylanetonate (Ir(piq)2(acac)) doped into bis-(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole)zinc (Zn(BTZ)2) (greenish-blue emitting material with electron transport character) as the red emitting layer, and fluorescent dye 2,5,8,11-tetra-tertbutylperylene (TBPe) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl-naphthacene (rubrene) together doped into 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) (ambipolar conductivity material) as the blue-orange emitting layer, respectively. The two emitting layers are sandwiched between the hole-transport layer N,N'-biphenyl-N, N'-bis (1-naphthyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and electron-transport layer (Zn(BTZ)2). The optimum device turns on at the driving voltage of 4.5 V. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.53% and brightness 15000 cd/m2 are presented. The best point of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates locates at (0.335, 0.338) at about 13 V. Moreover, we also discuss how to achieve the bright pure white light through optimizing the doping concentration of each dye from the viewpoint of energy transfer process.

  5. Magnetic field enhanced electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniya, Sangita; Basel, Tek; Sun, Dali; McLaughlin, Ryan; Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    2016-03-01

    A useful process for light harvesting from injected electron-hole pairs in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) is the transfer from triplet excitons (T) to singlet excitons (S) via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC). This process adds a delayed electro-luminescence (EL) emission component that is known as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). We have studied electron donor (D)/acceptor(A) blends that form an exciplex manifold in which the energy difference, ΔEST between the lowest singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) levels is relatively small (<100 meV), and thus allows RISC at ambient temperature. We found that the EL emission in OLED based on the exciplex blend is enhanced up to 40% by applying a relatively weak magnetic field of 50 mT at ambient. Moreover the MEL response is activated with activation energy similar that of the EL emission. This suggests that the large magneto-EL originates from an additional spin-mixing channel between singlet and triplet states of the generated exciplexes, which is due to TADF. We will report on the MEL dependencies on the temperature, bias voltage, and D-A materials for optimum OLED performance. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  6. Electroluminescent Displays Made With Alternative Dopants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Metals and metal fluorides deposited in ZnS to form color phosphors. Single-layer, thin-film electroluminescent display device contains ZnS host layer doped to form green, red, and blue phosphors. Luminescence in chosen colors at chosen intersections between rows and columns produced by application of voltages to appropriate row-and-column pairs of conductors.

  7. Novel optoelectronic devices based on single semiconductor nanowires (nanobelts)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) or nanobelts (NBs) have attracted more and more attention due to their potential application in novel optoelectronic devices. In this review, we present our recent work on novel NB photodetectors, where a three-terminal metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) device structure was exploited. In contrast to the common two-terminal NB (NW) photodetectors, the MESFET-based photodetector can make a balance among overall performance parameters, which is desired for practical device applications. We also present our recent work on graphene nanoribbon/semiconductor NW (SNW) heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, by taking advantage of both graphene and SNWs, we have fabricated, for the first time, the graphene-based nano-LEDs. This achievement opens a new avenue for developing graphene-based nano-electroluminescence devices. Moreover, the novel graphene/SNW hybrid devices can also find use in other applications, such as high-sensitivity sensor and transparent flexible devices in the future. PMID:22501032

  8. Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert J; Bourianoff, George I; Atwater, Harry A

    2005-02-01

    There is currently worldwide interest in developing silicon-based active optical components in order to leverage the infrastructure of silicon microelectronics technology for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Light emission in bulk silicon-based devices is constrained in wavelength to infrared emission, and in efficiency by the indirect bandgap of silicon. One promising strategy for overcoming these challenges is to make use of quantum-confined excitonic emission in silicon nanocrystals. A critical challenge for silicon nanocrystal devices based on nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide has been the development of a method for efficient electrical carrier injection. We report here a scheme for electrically pumping dense silicon nanocrystal arrays by a field-effect electroluminescence mechanism. In this excitation process, electrons and holes are both injected from the same semiconductor channel across a tunnelling barrier in a sequential programming process, in contrast to simultaneous carrier injection in conventional pn-junction light-emitting-diode structures. Light emission is strongly correlated with the injection of a second carrier into a nanocrystal that has been previously programmed with a charge of the opposite sign. PMID:15665836

  9. Electroluminescence enhancement in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on different hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fang-hui; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Mai-li; Ma, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the hole transport-type host material of 1,3-bis(carbazol-9-yl)benzene (MCP) combined with the electron transport-type host material of 1,3-bis (triphenylsilyl) benzene (UGH3) with the ratios of 1:0, 8:2 and 6:4, and doping with blue phosphorescent dopant of bis(4,6-difluorophenylpyridinato-N,C2)picolinatoiridium (FIrpic). The device with an optimum concentration proportion of MCP:UGH3 of 8:2 exhibits the maximum current efficiency of 19.18 cd/A at luminance of 35.71 cd/m2 with maintaining Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.1481, 0.2695), which is enhanced by 35.7% compared with that of 1:0 with (0.1498, 0.2738). The improvements are attributed to the effective carrier injection and transport in emitting layer (EML) because of mixed host materials. In addition, electron and exciton are confined in the EML, and 4,4',4″-Tris(carbazol-9-yl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) and Di-[4-(N,N-ditolyl-amino)-phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) have the high lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level and triplet exiton energy.

  10. ZnCdMgSe-Based Semiconductors for Intersubband Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tamargo, Maria C.

    2008-11-13

    This paper presents a review of recent results on the application of ZnCdMgSe-based wide bandgap II-VI compounds to intersubband devices such as quantum cascade lasers and quantum well infrared photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared region. The conduction band offset of ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum well structures was determined from contactless electroreflectance measurements to be as high as 1.12 eV. FT-IR was used to measure intersubband absorption in multi-quantum well structures in the mid-IR range. Electroluminescence at 4.8 {mu}m was observed from a quantum cascade emitter structure made from these materials. Preliminary results are also presented on self assembled quantum dots of CdSe on ZnCdMgSe, and novel quantum well structures with metastable binary MgSe barriers.

  11. Electroluminescence from silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, J.; Solanki, R.; Freeouf, J. L.; Carruthers, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Room temperature electroluminescence has been demonstrated from undoped silicon nanowires that were grown from disilane. Ensembles of nanowires were excited by capacitively coupling them to an ac electric field. The emission peak occurred at about 600 nm from wires of average diameter of about 4 nm. The emission appears to result from band-to-band electron-hole recombination.

  12. Sputtered Zn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices prepared using cadmium-assisted processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.; Kitai, A.H.

    2005-05-01

    Incorporating cadmium in the sputtering targets used to grow green-emitting zinc gallate doped with manganese is found to provide improvements in crystallinity, photoluminesience (PL), and electroluminescence (EL) performance, while reducing the annealing temperature requirements. It is shown that as-grown thin films do contain cadmium. The cadmium is then lost during thin-film annealing. The effect of cadmium is interpreted as an enhancement in vacancy concentration during the thin-film annealing process, which improves crystallinity, EL, and PL. X-ray diffraction and microscopy results are carefully studied and discussed.

  13. [Photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new rare earth terbium complex].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xi-qing; Lin, Peng; Xiong, De-pin; Huang, Shi-hua; Yu, Tian-zhi

    2004-06-01

    Pure green and narrowbandwidth emission from an organic electroluminescent device was presented by using arare earth terbium (III) complex as the emissive layer. The structure of the device was ITO/PVK/Tb/PBD/LiF/Al. It was proved that this new kind of rare earth complex has excellent photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties. The electroluminescent spectrum of the device was very similar to that of the terbium (III) complex film. The electroluminescent mechanism of the device was proposed by measuring and analyzing the spectra and electroluminescent property of the device. It is proposed that the excited carriers of PVK and PBD were captured by Tb3+ and light was emitted when the electrons and holes recombined at Tb3+. PMID:15766172

  14. Efficient blue electroluminescence from a fluorinated polyquinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, I. D.; Pei, Q.; Marrocco, M.

    1994-09-01

    High efficiency blue electroluminescence is demonstrated from a polyquinoline ether, a new class of soluble, electroluminescent, polyaromatic polymer. Multilayer devices (consisting of hole and electron transport layers in addition to the emissive polyquinoline layer) show an internal quantum efficiency in excess of 4% at 450 nm. Light emitted from these devices is easily visible in room light with luminence levels of 30 cd/m2 at 55 V with a current density of 9 mA/cm2. The transport layers are shown to serve a dual function—to modify the carrier injection properties and to block passage of carriers of the opposite polarity thereby trapping carriers in the emissive layer.

  15. Electroluminescence from colloidal semiconductor CdSe nanoplatelets in hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Lebedev, V. S.; Selyukov, A. S.; Vashchenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, R. B.; Sokolikova, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a hybrid light-emitting-diode based on colloidal semiconductor CdSe nanoplatelets as emitters and organic TAZ [3-(Biphenyl-4-yl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole] and TPD [N, N‧-bis (3-methylphenyl)-N, N‧-bis (phenyl)-benzidine] materials as the electron and hole transporting layers. Electroluminescent and current-voltage characteristics of the developed hybrid device with the turn-on voltage of 5.5 V and the radiation wavelength of 515 nm have been obtained. Semiconductor nanoplatelets like CdSe are attractive for the fabrication of hybrid LEDs with low operating voltages, spectrally pure color and short-wavelength electroluminescence, which is required for RGB devices.

  16. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  17. Characteristics of tunneling and impact ionization in ZnS:Mn-based thin-film electroluminescent structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gurin, N. T. Sabitov, O. Yu.; Afanas'ev, A. M.

    2007-10-15

    A method for measuring the characteristics of tunneling and impact ionization in thin-film electroluminescent emitters is suggested. This method makes it possible to find time dependences of the space-charge layer thickness near the anode and the length of the impact ionization region, to determine more exactly the time dependence of the field in the potential barrier at the cathode interface, the maximum depth of the surface states from which electron tunneling occurs, the minimum thickness of the barrier, and the electron tunneling probability, as well as the impact ionization rate for the deep centers related to structural defects of the phosphor layer.

  18. White-blue electroluminescence from a Si quantum dot hybrid light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Yunzi; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2015-05-18

    A silicon (Si) quantum dot (QD)-based hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated via solution processing. This device exhibited white-blue electroluminescence at a low applied voltage of 6 V, with 78% of the effective emission obtained from the Si QDs. This hybrid LED produced current and optical power densities 280 and 350 times greater than those previously reported for such device. The superior performance of this hybrid device was obtained by both the prepared Si QDs and the optimized layer structure and thereby improving carrier migration through the hybrid LED and carrier recombination in the homogeneous Si QD layer.

  19. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T.; Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P.; Cook, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  20. Relaxation of parameters of thin-film electroluminescent ZnS:Mn-based structures when turned off

    SciTech Connect

    Gurin, N. T. Sabitov, O. Yu.

    2008-06-15

    Results of experimental study of decay of the current flowing through a thin-film electroluminescent MISIM structure indicate a bimolecular process of electron capture by the surface states of the anode interface. A two-stage model of the process is suggested. At the first stage, the impact Auger capture of hot electrons takes place. At the second stage, upon varying the field direction, the holes of the valence band generated due to tunnel emission from deep centers drift to this interface, where they recombine with electrons of deepest occupied surface states. The electron lifetime and rate of the surface capture of electrons as well as their dependences on excitation parameters are determined. The behavior of the time dependence of the instant internal quantum yield at the decay portion is interpreted.

  1. Mid-infrared electro-luminescence and absorption from AlGaN/GaN-based multi-quantum well inter-subband structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Bour, David P.; Kirste, Lutz

    2014-06-16

    We present electro-modulated absorption and electro-luminescence measurements on chirped AlGaN/GaN-based multi-quantum well inter-subband structures grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The absorption signal is a TM-polarized, 70 meV wide feature centred at 230 meV. At medium injection current, a 58 meV wide luminescence peak corresponding to an inter-subband transition at 1450 cm{sup −1} (180 meV) is observed. Under high injection current, we measured a 4 meV wide structure peaking at 92.5 meV in the luminescence spectrum. The energy location of this peak is exactly at the longitudinal optical phonon of GaN.

  2. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  3. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole-based four-coordinate boron-containing materials with highly efficient deep-blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Houyu; Jiao, Chuanjun; Ye, Kaiqi; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jingying; Wang, Yue

    2015-03-16

    Two novel four-coordinate boron-containing emitters 1 and 2 with deep-blue emissions were synthesized by refluxing a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole ligand with triphenylborane or bromodibenzoborole. The boron chelation produced a new π-conjugated skeleton, which rendered the synthesized boron materials with intense fluorescence, good thermal stability, and high carrier mobility. Both compounds displayed deep-blue emissions in solutions with very high fluorescence quantum yields (over 0.70). More importantly, the samples showed identical fluorescence in the solution and solid states, and the efficiency was maintained at a high level (approximately 0.50) because of the bulky substituents between the boron atom and the benzimidazole unit, which can effectively separate the flat luminescent units. In addition, neat thin films composed of 1 or 2 exhibited high electron and hole mobility in the same order of magnitude 10(-4), as determined by time-of-flight. The fabricated electroluminescent devices that employed 1 or 2 as emitting materials showed high-performance deep-blue emissions with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (X = 0.15, Y = 0.09) and (X = 0.16, Y = 0.08), respectively. Thus, the synthesized boron-containing materials are ideal candidates for fabricating high-performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes. PMID:25714777

  4. Tunnel based spin injection devices for semiconductor spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin

    This dissertation summarizes the work on spin-dependent electron transport and spin injection in tunnel based spintronic devices. In particular, it focuses on a novel three terminal hot electron device combining ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors---the magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT). The MTT has extremely high magnetic field sensitivity and is a useful tool to explore spin-dependent electron transport in metals, semiconductors, and at their interfaces over a wide energy range. In Chap. 1, the basic concept and fabrication of the MTT are discussed. Two types of MTTs, with ferromagnetic single and spin-valve base layers, respectively, are introduced and compared. In the following chapters, the transport properties of the MTT are discussed in detail, including the spin-dependent hot electron attenuation lengths in CoFe and NiFe thin films on GaAs (Chap. 2), the bias voltage dependence of the magneto-current (Chap. 3), the giant magneto-current effect in MTTs with a spin-valve base (Chap. 4), and the influence of non-magnetic seed layers on magneto-electronic properties of MTTs with a Si collector (Chap. 5). Chap. 6 concentrates on electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons into semiconductors, which is an essential ingredient in semiconductor spintronics. Two types of spin injectors are discussed: an MTT injector and a CoFe/MgO tunnel injector. The spin polarization of the injected electron current is detected optically by measuring the circular polarization of electroluminescence from a quantum well light emitting diode. Using an MTT injector a spin polarization of ˜10% is found for injection electron energy of ˜2 eV at 1.4K. This moderate spin polarization is most likely limited by significant electron spin relaxation at high energy. Much higher spin injection efficiency is obtained by using a CoFe/MgO tunnel injector with spin polarization values of ˜50% at 100K. The temperature and bias dependence of the electroluminescence polarization provides

  5. Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence from metal–oxide–semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of [tantalum:(gadolinium/praseodymium)] and (praseodymium:cerium) organic compounds on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzone, Takashi; Matsuda, Toshihiro; Fukuoka, Ryouhei; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence (EL) from metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices with an indium tin oxide (ITO)/[Gd/(Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce)–Si–O] insulator layer/n+-Si substrate surface is reported. The insulator layers were fabricated from organic liquid sources of Gd or (Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce) mixtures, which were spin-coated on the n+-Si substrate and annealed at 950 °C for 30 min in air. The EL emission could be observed by the naked eye in the dark in the Fowler–Nordheim (FN) tunnel current regions. Peak wavelengths in the measured EL spectra were independent of the positive current. The EL intensity ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to the visible range varied with the composition ratio of the (Ta + Gd) liquids, and an optimum Ta to Gd ratio existed for the strongest blue emission, which could be attributed to the Ta-related oxide/silicate. The pink EL of the device fabricated with the (\\text{Ta}:\\text{Pr} = 6:4) mixture ratio can be explained by EL emission peaks related to the Pr3+ ions. The purple EL observed from the (\\text{Pr}:\\text{Ce} = 6:4) device corresponds to the strong and broad emission profile near the 357 nm peak, which cannot be assigned to Ce3+ ions. The results suggest that the EL can be attributed to the double-layer oxides with different compositions in the MOS devices. The upper layer consists of various Ta-, Gd-, Pr-, and Ce-related oxides and their silicates, while the lower SiO x -rich layer contributes to the FN current due to the high electric field, and thus the various EL colors.

  6. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Emre O.; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics. PMID:25270391

  7. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Emre O.; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-10-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics.

  8. [Green electroluminescence generated from a new rare earth complex: Tb(asprin)3phen].

    PubMed

    Duan, N; Zhang, X; Gao, X; Liu, S; Xu, X; Tao, D; Xu, Y; Wu, J

    2001-06-01

    Pure Green and narrow bandwidth emission from organic electroluminescent device was presented by using a new rare earth complex Tb(asprin)3phen as emissive layer. The structure of the device was ITO/PVK:Tb(asprin)3phen/Al, where PVK was used to improve the film-forming ability and conductivity of Tb(asprin)3phen. The electroluminescent property of the device was studied. It proved that this new kind of rare earth complex has excellent optoluminescent and electroluminescent properties. The electroluminescent mechanism of the device was proposed by measuring and analyzing the emission and excitation spectra of the emissive layer. The excitation spectrum of Tb(asprin)3phen-dispersed PVK film was very similar to that of the PVK. We proposed that the excited carriers of PVK and Tb(asprin)3phen were captured by Tb3+ and light was emitted when the electrons and holes recombined at Tb3+. PMID:12947642

  9. Enhancing the electroluminescence efficiency of Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes through hydrogen ion beam treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chen, Shao-Ping; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-03-24

    This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of ten-period silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hydrogen ion beam (HIB) was used to irradiate each SRO layer of the superlattices to increase the interfacial roughness on the nanoscale and the density of the Si nanocrystals (Si NCs). Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling was the major mechanism for injecting the carriers into the Si NCs. The barrier height of the F-N tunneling was lowered by forming a nano-roughened interface and the nonradiative Pb centers were passivated through the HIB treatment. Additionally, the reflectance of the LEDs was lowered because of the nano-roughened interface. These factors considerably increased the slope efficiency of EL and the maximum output power of the LEDs. The lighting efficiency increased by an order of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage decreased considerably. This study established an efficient approach for obtaining bright Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based LEDs. PMID:26965185

  10. Enhancing the electroluminescence efficiency of Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes through hydrogen ion beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chen, Shao-Ping; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of ten-period silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hydrogen ion beam (HIB) was used to irradiate each SRO layer of the superlattices to increase the interfacial roughness on the nanoscale and the density of the Si nanocrystals (Si NCs). Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling was the major mechanism for injecting the carriers into the Si NCs. The barrier height of the F-N tunneling was lowered by forming a nano-roughened interface and the nonradiative Pb centers were passivated through the HIB treatment. Additionally, the reflectance of the LEDs was lowered because of the nano-roughened interface. These factors considerably increased the slope efficiency of EL and the maximum output power of the LEDs. The lighting efficiency increased by an order of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage decreased considerably. This study established an efficient approach for obtaining bright Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based LEDs.

  11. Carrier dynamics analysis for efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes with different defect densities using time-resolved electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yang-Seok; Na, Jong-Ho; Son, Sung Jin; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    We developed a direct experimental approach for investigating the correlation between efficiency droop and recombination rate variation under current injection conditions by using time-resolved electroluminescence (EL) technique. We applied this approach to understand the droop phenomenon of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on patterned sapphire substrates (LED-on-PAT) and planar sapphire substrates (LED-on-PLA). Because of lower dislocation density and current leakage in LED-on-PAT compared to LED-on-PLA, it was found that the effective carrier density injected into quantum wells (QWs) in LED-on-PAT was higher than that of the LED-on-PLA under the same current injection conditions, based on the analysis of spectral broadening of EL spectra with varying current injection and photoluminescence experiments under resonant and non-resonant excitation conditions. The efficiency droop in LED-on-PAT was found to be much more severe than that of LED-on-PLA, despite the higher overall quantum efficiency of LED-on-PAT. From the time-resolved EL analysis, we could separate radiative and non-radiative recombination contributions and directly observe (i) the decrease and saturation of radiative recombination time and (ii) the increase and following decrease in behavior of non-radiative recombination time with increasing current injection level, showing a strong correlation between efficiency droop and recombination rate variation.

  12. Cotton-based diagnostic devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  13. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

  14. Bolometric Device Based on Fluxoid Quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonetti, Joseph A.; Kenyon, Matthew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fluxoid quantization in a superconducting loop. The sensitivity of the device is expected to surpass that of other superconducting- based bolometric devices, such as superconducting transition-edge sensors and superconducting nanowire devices. Just as important, the proposed device has advantages in sample fabrication.

  15. Growth and characterization of silicon-based optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filios, Adam A.

    layers sandwiched between monolayers of oxygen. The key for its fabrication is that epitaxial growth of silicon may be continued beyond the interruption with exposure to oxygen. Prepared by an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV), Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) technique, the multilayer device is extremely stable and robust, and can be readily integrated with conventional silicon VLSI processing. In addition, it exhibits bright, room temperature, visible photoluminescent and electroluminescent emission, at least as strong as that of porous silicon. With its efficient light emission, robustness and stability, the c-Si/O superlattice may hold the promise of a truly integrated silicon-based optoelectronic device.

  16. Fast pulsed electroluminescence from polymer light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Sun, R. G.; Yu, G.; Heeger, A. J.

    2002-02-01

    Transient electroluminescence (EL) from polymer light emitting diodes is investigated by measurements of the response to short voltage pulses. The carrier mobility is derived from the delay time between the electrical pulse and the onset of EL, μ≈3×10-4 cm2/V s. Bilayer devices with a polyethylene-dioxythiophene (PEDOT), hole injection layer are also studied. The delay time between the electrical pulse and the onset of EL is independent of the thickness of the injection layer, implying that the conducting PEDOT functions as a part of the electrode. When a dc forward bias is applied to the device, the delay time decreases, probably as a result of the shift of the emission zone towards the anode. The EL turn-on depends on the amplitude of the voltage pulse. The data are modeled by an equivalent circuit with a fixed capacitance connected in parallel with a nonlinear resistance. The solution of the differential equation depends on the exact form of the device's I-V curve. Two analytical solutions are provided, and an analysis based on space-charge-limited current is presented. By applying a dc forward bias in advance to precharge the space-charge capacitance, the turn-on response time is reduced to 12 ns. The EL decay consists of two components with time constants of 15 ns and 1 μs. The decay does not depend on either the amplitude of the voltage pulse or the prebias.

  17. Photolithographically patternable electroluminescent liquid crystalline materials for full-colour organic light emitting displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashon, Andrew J.; Whitehead, Katherine S.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Zhang, Weimin; Campbell, Alasdair J.

    2006-02-01

    Displays based on polymer light emitting diodes are attractive due to their emissive nature, their wide viewing angles and the ability of electroluminescent conjugated polymers to be solution processable at room temperature and pressure. It is difficult, however, to deposit separate red, green and blue (RGB) pixels and to maximize performance by making the devices multi-layered. Here we present recent results on a semiconducting conjugated reactive-mesogen OLED material which is solution processable, can be potentially cured and patterned by photolithography and used in multi-layer devices. This material consists of a conjugated pentathiophene core with reactive endgroups. Spectroscopy, calorimetry and microscopy show that it forms crystalline, aggregate, liquid-crystalline and isotropic phases at a range of different temperatures. The material is deposited by spincoating from solution. Low density doping with a cationic photointiator and exposure to a specific UV wavelength to avoid damage to the conjugated core leads to cross-linking into an insoluble network. Current-voltage-luminousity and spectral measurements in standard OLED device structures show the effect of cross-linking on the transport and injection properties of the material. Quenching of fluorescence and electroluminescence is discussed. Insertion of lower-energy gap, fluorescent small molecules can potentially be used to tune the emission to any desired colour but material limitations to this technique due to dopant removal during the washing procedure were observed.

  18. Identifying the efficient inter-conversion between singlet and triplet charge-transfer states by magneto-electroluminescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Peng, Qiming; Yao, Liang; Gao, Na; Li, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Using the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) as a tool, we demonstrated the efficient inter-conversion between singlet and triplet charge-transfer (CT) states in exciplex-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Results show that the MEL of exciplex-based device is larger than that of exciton-based device by a factor of 3.2. The emission of exciplex-based devices comes from the direct intermolecular electron-hole pair recombination and their spin exchange energy is much smaller, which causes the efficient inter-conversion between singlet and triplet states. This argument was supported by the consistent evolutions of the MEL and EL spectra versus applied bias and donor concentrations. Finally, the bandgap effects on the MEL as well as the external quantum efficiency of exciplex-based devices were discussed. Our findings of MEL may offer a feasible way to unravel underlying mechanisms that limit the EL efficiency in the OLEDs.

  19. High performance organic ultraviolet photodetector with efficient electroluminescence realized by a thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Dianli; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-07-01

    A high performance organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector with efficient electroluminescence (EL) was obtained by using a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter of (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN). An exciton adjusting layer (EAL) was delicately designed to construct an energy-level-aligned heterojunction with 4CzIPN. As a result, the bi-functional device exhibited a high detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones under 350 nm UV light. Moreover, our device exhibited efficient EL emission utilizing the merit of reverse intersystem crossing process from triplet to singlet excitons of 4CzIPN, showing a maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency of 26370 cd/m2, 8.2 cd/A, and 4.9 lm/W, respectively. This work arouses widespread interest in constructing efficient bi-functional device based on TADF emitter and EAL structure.

  20. Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Meng, Fanben; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Liu, Yaqing; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Resistive switching memory constitutes a prospective candidate for next-generation data storage devices. Meanwhile, naturally occurring biomaterials are promising building blocks for a new generation of environmentally friendly, biocompatible, and biodegradable electronic devices. Recent progress in using proteins to construct resistive switching memory devices is highlighted. The protein materials selection, device engineering, and mechanism of such protein-based resistive switching memory are discussed in detail. Finally, the critical challenges associated with protein-based resistive switching memory devices are presented, as well as insights into the future development of resistive switching memory based on natural biomaterials. PMID:25753764

  1. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  2. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  3. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  4. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  5. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  6. Effect of dye concentrations in blended-layer white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, C.; Cadd, D. H.; Petty, M. C.; Hua, Y. L.

    2009-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic behavior of white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on blue (FIrpic) and red [Ir(piq)2(acac)] phosphorescent dyes doped into the same layer of a polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) host are reported. The conductivity of all the OLEDs studied appeared to be dominated by space-charge injection effects, exhibiting a current I versus voltage V dependence of the form I ∝Vn, with n ≈7 at applied voltages at which electroluminescence was observed. Systematic studies of the current versus voltage and light-emitting behavior of the OLEDs have identified different excitation processes for the two dyes. It is suggested that electroluminescence from the FIrpic molecules originates by direct transfer of the exciton energy from the PVK to the dye molecules, while the process of light emission from the Ir(piq)2(acac) molecules involves carrier trapping. The efficiency of the devices can be tuned, to some extent, by varying the thickness of the organic film. Luminous efficiencies and luminous power efficiencies of 8 cd A-1 and 3 lm W-1 were measured for these blended-layer OLEDs, with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.35, 0.35.

  7. Electroluminescence property of a novel dendritic polyfluorene derivative containing a triphenylamine group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fushan; Chen, Zhijian; Qu, Bo; Wei, Wei; Gong, Qihuang

    2005-03-01

    A novel dendritic polyfluorene derivative containing triphenylamine, poly((9,9-dibutyl-2,7-diiodo-9H-fluorene)trisphenylamine) (PDFA) was synthesized by the Ni(0)-catalysed reaction of 9,9-dibutyl-2,7-diiodo-9H-fluorene and tris-(4-iodo-phenyl)-amine. PDFA has many advantages compared with polyfluorene (PF). It enhances the hole-injecting and transporting capabilities and the dendritic structure significantly, reduces aggregation and enhances the thermal stability. Single- and double-layer LED devices using PDFA showed a maximum luminescence intensity and quantum efficiency that was almost twice that of the device based on PF (poly(9,9-dibutyl)fluorene) and the emission colour was closer to standard blue. The experimental results indicated that the incorporation of the hole-transporting triphenylamine group into PF may provide a means of improving the thermal and electroluminescence characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes.

  8. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  9. The potential dependence of porous silicon electroluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.J.; Peter, L.M.; Wielgosz, R.I.

    1996-10-01

    The observation of visible luminescence from porous silicon has resulted in strong interest in this material. It has been demonstrated that the electrochemical reduction of persulfate ions at a porous silicon electrode/electrolyte interface may lead to intense luminescence (electroluminescence). Further, it has been found that the intensity and wavelength of the electroluminescence is potential dependent, this phenomenon is termed {open_quotes}potential tuning{close_quotes}. This paper is concerned with the elucidation of the mechanism of electroluminescence potential tuning. It will be shown that the process is related to the particle size distribution and the dynamics of electron transfer between the bulk silicon substrate, the surface silicon nanocrystals and the electrolyte. Further, the results of combined in-situ FTIR and electroluminescence studies will be reported. The influence of surface chemistry on the electroluminescence will be discussed with reference to the proposed {open_quotes}tuning{close_quotes} mechanism.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Based Quantum Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the NASA cooperative agreement which studied the application of carbon nanotubes. The accomplishments are reviewed: (1) Wrote a review article on carbon nanotubes and its potentials for applications in nanoscale quantum devices. (2) Extensive studies on the effects of structure deformation on nanotube electronic structure and energy band gaps. (3) Calculated the vibrational spectrum of nanotube rope and the effect of pressure. and (4) Investigate the properties of Li intercalated nanotube ropes and explore their potential for energy storage materials and battery applications. These studies have lead to four publications and seven abstracts in international conferences.

  11. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  12. Quantitative analysis of electroluminescence images from polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeland, Marco; Rösch, Roland; Hoppe, Harald

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the micro-diode-model (MDM) based on a discrete network of interconnected diodes, which allows for quantitative description of lateral electroluminescence emission images obtained from organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Besides the distributed solar cell description, the equivalent circuit, respectively, network model considers interface and bulk resistances as well as the sheet resistance of the semitransparent electrode. The application of this model allows direct calculation of the lateral current and voltage distribution within the solar cell and thus accounts well for effects known as current crowding. In addition, network parameters such as internal resistances and the sheet-resistance of the higher resistive electrode can be determined. Furthermore, upon introduction of current sources the micro-diode-model also is able to describe and predict current-voltage characteristics for solar cell devices under illumination. The local nature of this description yields important conclusions concerning the geometry dependent performance and the validity of classical models and equivalent circuits describing thin film solar cells.

  13. Antimonide based devices for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, C.W.; Gutmann, R.J.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.B.; Charache, G.W.

    1998-12-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been fabricated using epitaxial ternary and quaternary layers grown on GaSb substrates. GaInSb ternary devices were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with buffer layers to accommodate the lattice mismatch, and GaInAsSb lattice-matched quaternaries were grown by MOVPE. Improved devices are obtained when optical absorption occurs in the p-layer due to the longer minority carrier diffusion length. Thick emitter p/n devices are limited by surface recombination, with highest quantum efficiency and lowest dark current being achieved with epitaxially grown surface passivation layers on lattice-matched MOVPE quaternaries. Thin emitter/thick base, n/p devices are very promising, but require improved shallow high-quality n-type ohmic contacts. Diffused junction devices using quasi-binary substrates offer the possibility of good performance and low manufacturing cost.

  14. Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

    2014-10-28

    Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

  15. Biomaterials-Based Organic Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    Organic electronic devices have demonstrated tremendous versatility in a wide range of applications including consumer electronics, photovoltaics, and biotechnology. The traditional interface of organic electronics with biology, biotechnology, and medicine occurs in the general field of sensing biological phenomena. For example, the fabrication of hybrid electronic structures using both organic semiconductors and bioactive molecules has led to enhancements in sensitivity and specificity within biosensing platforms, which in turn has a potentially wide range of clinical applications. However, the interface of biomolecules and organic semiconductors has also recently explored the potential use of natural and synthetic biomaterials as structural components of electronic devices. The fabrication of electronically active systems using biomaterials-based components has the potential to realize a large set of unique devices including environmentally biodegradable systems and bioresorbable temporary medical devices. This article reviews recent advances in the implementation of biomaterials as structural components in organic electronic devices with a focus on potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. PMID:20607127

  16. Nucleic acid based molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2011-03-28

    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. PMID:21432950

  17. Devices based on surface plasmon interference filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Devices based on surface plasmon filters having at least one metal-dielectric interface to support surface plasmon waves. A multi-layer-coupled surface plasmon notch filter is provided to have more than two symmetric metal-dielectric interfaces coupled with one another to produce a transmission spectral window with desired spectral profile and bandwidth. Such notch filters can form various color filtering devices for color flat panel displays.

  18. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaOx-p-GaN heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J L; Teo, K L; Zheng, K; Sun, X W

    2016-03-18

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaOx is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaOx-p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaOx layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction. PMID:26878415

  19. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. L.; Teo, K. L.; Zheng, K.; Sun, X. W.

    2016-03-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction.

  20. Efficient near-infrared organic light-emitting devices based on low-gap fluorescent oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yixing; Farley, Richard T.; Steckler, Timothy T.; Eom, Sang-Hyun; Reynolds, John R.; Schanze, Kirk S.; Xue, Jiangeng

    2009-08-01

    We report efficient near-infrared (NIR) organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on fluorescent donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers. The energies of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of these oligomers are controlled by the donor and acceptor components, respectively; hence the energy gap and therefore the emission wavelength can be tuned by changing the strengths of the donor and acceptor components. External quantum efficiencies (EQEs) up to 1.6% and power efficiencies up to 7.0 mW/W are achieved in NIR OLEDs based on 4,9-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-6,7-dimethyl-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]-quinoxaline (BEDOT-TQMe2), in which the electroluminescence peaks at a wavelength of 692 nm but extends to well above 800 nm. With a stronger acceptor in the oligomer, 4,8-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno-[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis [1,2,5]thiadiazole (BEDOT-BBT) based devices show longer wavelength emission peaked at 815 nm, although the maximum EQE is reduced to 0.51% due to the lower fluorescent quantum yield of the NIR emitter. The efficiencies of these NIR OLEDs are further increased by two to three times by using the sensitized fluorescent device structure, leading to a maximum EQE of 3.1% for BEDOT-TQMe2 and 1.6% for BEDOT-BBT based devices.

  1. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  2. Electroluminescence in thin-film CaS:Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Virendra; Tanaka, Shosaku; Shiiki, Masatoshi; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sasakura, Hiroshi

    1984-11-01

    We report a double insulated CaS:Ce thin-film electroluminescent (EL) device which emits a bright green EL due to Ce3+ luminescent centers, being characteristic of parity allowed 5d-4f transitions. A brightness level of 500 cd/m2 and emission efficiency of 0.11 lm/W have been obtained under 5-kHz sinusoidal voltage excitation. The CaS:Ce thin film has been fabricated by coevaporation of CaS and sulfur.

  3. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I-V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I-V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the "balance sheets" of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  4. Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Jay Prakash; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Adam, Thomas; Kolodzey, James

    2013-06-01

    Infrared electroluminescence was observed from GeSn/Ge p-n heterojunction diodes with 8% Sn, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The GeSn layers were boron doped, compressively strained, and pseudomorphic on Ge substrates. Spectral measurements indicated an emission peak at 0.57 eV, about 50 meV wide, increasing in intensity with applied pulsed current, and with reducing device temperatures. The total integrated emitted power from a single edge facet was 54 μW at an applied peak current of 100 mA at 100 K. These results suggest that GeSn-based materials maybe useful for practical light emitting diodes operating in the infrared wavelength range near 2 μm.

  5. Study of photoluminescence and electroluminescence mechanisms in quantum-confined InSb/InAs heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Terent'ev, Ya. V. Mukhin, M. S.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Semenov, A. N.; Meltser, B. Ya.; Usikova, A. A.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2010-08-15

    Photoluminescence and electroluminescence in InSb/InAs heterostructures with ultrathin InSb insertions grown by molecular-beam epitaxy have been systematically studied. Measurements were made in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K on a large set of samples of various designs, with both the InAs matrix and ultrathin InSb insertions grown by different methods. The primary goal of the study was to identify the main radiative recombination channels in these heterostructures. It is shown that optical transitions associated with acceptor impurity centers in the InAs matrix represent an important mechanism diminishing the efficiency of luminescence from InSb insertions at room temperature. The results obtained are important for development of optimal growth modes and design of the active region of light-emitting devices based on quantum-confined InSb/InAs structures emitting in the range 3-5 {mu}m.

  6. Device-based Therapy for Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ng, Fu L; Saxena, Manish; Mahfoud, Felix; Pathak, Atul; Lobo, Melvin D

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension continues to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, fuelled by an abundance of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure despite the multitude of pharmacological options available. This may occur as a consequence of true resistant hypertension, through an inability to tolerate current pharmacological therapies, or non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion of device-based therapies proposed as novel non-pharmacological approaches to treating resistant hypertension. In this review, we discuss seven novel devices-renal nerve denervation, baroreflex activation therapy, carotid body ablation, central iliac arteriovenous anastomosis, deep brain stimulation, median nerve stimulation, and vagal nerve stimulation. We highlight how the devices differ, the varying degrees of evidence available to date and upcoming trials. This review also considers the possible factors that may enable appropriate device selection for different hypertension phenotypes. PMID:27370788

  7. Photocurrent measurements of pentacene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masurkar, Amrita; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-09-01

    Photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS) and photocurrent microscopy (PCM) are powerful tools that can probe the underlying mechanisms of charge generation and transport in organic semiconductor devices. There has been significant progress in the use of these techniques, which has yielded a number of insights into the underlying materials and operation of the devices. Despite the potential for PCS and PCM to become standard tools, however, a consensus has not been reached on (1) its uses and (2) the underlying mechanisms which produce the photoresponse. This is particularly true for measurements of pentacene devices, as the energy dynamics of pentacene are complex. Accordingly, here we report the current body of PCS and PCM of pentacene devices, offer interpretations of the data, and discuss which questions remain unanswered. We have divided the reviewed work into four categories based on the goals of the study and the technique used: photocurrent spectroscopy, scanning photocurrent microscopy, mobility, and trap density-of-states.

  8. Green-Yellow Electroluminescence from a host-dopant blended system as the active layer in a bilayer polymer light emitting diode: Poly(n-vinyl carbazole) as the host and a new soluble thiophene based copolymer [poly(2,2‧-BT)-co-(3-DDT)] as the dopant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahalizad, Afshin; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Movla, Hossein; Omidi, Hafez; Massoumi, Bakhshali; Zakerhamidi, Mohammad Sadegh; Entezami, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    A new type of bilayer Polymer Light Emitting Diode (PLED) which emits green-yellow light is reported. In this PLED, a novel thiophene-based copolymer [poly(2,2‧-BT)-co-(3-DDT)] with an excellent electron transporting property has been doped in hole transporting and electron blocking poly(n-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). Formation of type-II heterojunctions among nm-size features in PVK:poly(2,2‧-BT)-co-(3-DDT) blended system makes exciplex and electroplex emissions would be dominant in the Electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the device. These cross recombinations between electrons in the LUMO of poly(2,2‧-BT)-co-(3-DDT) and holes in the HOMO of PVK is a reason for the low driving voltage of the PLED because there is no need for the charge carriers to hop or tunnel to the adjacent polymer. Morphological investigations demonstrate that the mixing degree between the components is high, favoring formation of exciplexes and electroplexes at the interface of the components.

  9. Neuroelectronic device based on nanocoax arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Lundberg, Jaclyn N.; Varela, Juan A.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Christianson, John P.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on development of a nanocoax-based neuroelectronic array. The device has been used in real time to noninvasively couple to a ganglion sac located along the main nerve cord of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. This allowed for extracellular recording of synaptic activity in the form of spontaneous synapse firing in pre- and post-synaptic somata, with the next target being recording of local field potentials from rat hippocampal cells. We also discuss an alteration of the architecture to facilitate optical integration of the nanoarray, toward utilizing the so-modified device to elicit / inhibit action potentials in optogenetically-modified cells.

  10. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  11. Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Mudanyali, Onur; Schneider, E Marion; Zengerle, Roland; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This report aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities. PMID:24287630

  12. Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Mudanyali, Onur; Schneider, E.Marion; Zengerle, Roland; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This manuscript aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities. PMID:24287630

  13. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  14. Quasi-Fermi level splitting evaluation based on electroluminescence analysis in multiple quantum-well solar cells for investigating cell performance under concentrated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tomoyuki; Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Delamarre, Amaury; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Insertion of InGaAs/GaAsP strain-balanced multiple quantum wells (MQWs) into i-regions of GaAs p-i-n solar cells show several advantages against GaAs bulk p-i-n solar cells. Particularly under high-concentration sunlight condition, enhancement of the open-circuit voltage with increasing concentration ratio in thin-barrier MQW cells has been reported to be more apparent than that in GaAs bulk cells. However, investigation of the MQW cell mechanisms in terms of I-V characteristics under high-concentration sunlight suffers from the increase in cell temperature and series resistance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the steep enhancement of open-circuit voltage in MQW cells under high-concentration sunlight without affected by temperature, the quasi-Fermi level splitting was evaluated by analyzing electroluminescence (EL) from a cell. Since a cell under current injection with a density Jinjhas similar excess carrier density to a cell under concentrated sunlight with an equivalent short-circuit current Jsc = Jinj, EL measurement with varied Jinj can approximately evaluate a cell performance under a variety of concentration ratio. In addition to the evaluation of quasi-Fermi level splitting, the external luminescence efficiency was also investigated with the EL measurement. The MQW cells showed higher external luminescence efficiency than the GaAs reference cells especially under high-concentration condition. The results suggest that since the MQW region can trap and confine carriers, the localized excess carriers inside the cells make radiative recombination more dominant.

  15. Carbon Based Transistors and Nanoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Nima

    Carbon based materials (carbon nanotube and graphene) has been extensively researched during the past decade as one of the promising materials to be used in high performance device technology. In long term it is thought that they may replace digital and/or analog electronic devices, due to their size, near-ballistic transport, and high stability. However, a more realistic point of insertion into market may be the printed nanoelectronic circuits and sensors. These applications include printed circuits for flexible electronics and displays, large-scale bendable electrical contacts, bio-membranes and bio sensors, RFID tags, etc. In order to obtain high performance thin film transistors (as the basic building block of electronic circuits) one should be able to manufacture dense arrays of all semiconducting nanotubes. Besides, graphene synthesize and transfer technology is in its infancy and there is plenty of room to improve the current techniques. To realize the performance of nanotube and graphene films in such systems, we need to economically fabricate large-scale devices based on these materials. Following that the performance control over such devices should also be considered for future design variations for broad range of applications. Here we have first investigated carbon nanotube ink as the base material for our devices. The primary ink used consisted of both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes which resulted in networks suitable for moderate-resistivity electrical connections (such as interconnects) and rfmatching circuits. Next, purified all-semiconducting nanotube ink was used to fabricate waferscale, high performance (high mobility, and high on/off ratio) thin film transistors for printed electronic applications. The parameters affecting device performance were studied in detail to establish a roadmap for the future of purified nanotube ink printed thin film transistors. The trade of between mobility and on/off ratio of such devices was studied and the

  16. Carbon-nanotube-based photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2007-11-01

    We recently proposed and demonstrated a saturable absorber (SA) incorporating carbon nanotube (CNT). CNT-based SA offers several key advantages such as: ultra-fast recovery time, polarization insensitivity, high optical damage threshold, mechanical and environmental robustness, chemical stability, and the ability to operate at wide range of wavelength bands. Using the CNT-based SA, we have realized femtosecond fiber pulsed lasers at various wavelengths, as well as the very short-cavity fiber laser having high repetition rate. Besides the saturable absorption, CNT has been shown to have high third-order nonlinearity, which is also attractive for realization of compact and integrated functional photonic devices, such as all-optical switches and wavelength converters. In this paper, we first present photonic properties of CNTs, and review our studies on CNT-based mode-locked fiber lasers. We also refer to fabrication methods of CNT-based photonic devices. We show our recent research progresses on novel photonic devices using evanescent coupling between optical field and CNT.

  17. Nonvolatile memory devices based on self-assembled nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices are one of the most important components in modern electronic devices. Many efforts have been made to fabricate high-density, low-cost, nonvolatile solid-state memory devices for use in portable/mobile electronic devices such as laptop computers, tablet devices, smart phones, etc. Among the many available nonvolatile memory devices, flash memory devices are of great interest to the electronics industry owing to their simple device structure, enabling high-density memory applications. Flash memory devices in which nanoparticles or nanocrystals are used as the charge-trapping elements have advantages over conventional flash memory devices because the charge-trapping layer and memory performance of the former can be readily optimized. Active research has recently been conducted to fabricate and characterize self-assembled-nanocrystal-based nonvolatile memory devices. We reviewed various strategies for fabricating nanocrystal-based nonvolatile memory devices and discussed the programmable memory properties and the device reliability characteristics of nanocrystal-based memory devices to possibly apply nanocrystal-based memory devices to those used in portable/mobile electronic devices. Finally, novel device applications such as printed/flexible/transparent electronic devices were explored based on nanocrystal-based memory devices.

  18. Phonon-assisted transient electroluminescence in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tzu-Huan; Chu-Su, Yu; Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-06-30

    The phonon-replica infrared emission is observed at room temperature from indirect band gap Si light-emitting diode under forward bias. With increasing injection current density, the broadened electroluminescence spectrum and band gap reduction are observed due to joule heating. The spectral-resolved temporal response of electroluminescence reveals the competitiveness between single (TO) and dual (TO + TA) phonon-assisted indirect band gap transitions. As compared to infrared emission with TO phonon-replica, the retarder of radiative recombination at long wavelength region (∼1.2 μm) indicates lower transition probability of dual phonon-replica before thermal equivalent.

  19. Organic white-light-emitting devices based on a multimode resonant microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; You, Han; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jiawei; Guo, Shuxu; Liu, Mingda; Ma, Dongge

    2006-08-01

    Organic white-light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on a multimode resonant microcavity defined by a pair of dielectric mirrors and metal mirrors were presented. By selective effects of the quarter-wave dielectric stack mirror on mode, white light emission containing three individual narrow peaks of red, green and blue was achieved, and showed weak dependence on the viewing angle. The Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates changed from (0.29, 0.37) at 0° to (0.31, 0.33) at 40°. Furthermore, the brightness and electroluminescence efficiency of the microcavity OLEDs were enhanced compared with noncavity OLEDs. The maximum brightness reached 1940 cd m-2 at a current density of 200 mA cm-2, and the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are 1.6 cd A-1 at a current density of 12 mA cm-2 and 0.41 lm W-1 at a current density of 1.6 mA cm-2, which are over 1.6 times higher than that of a noncavity OLED.

  20. Electrorheological Fluid Based Force Feedback Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeiffer, Charles; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Dolgin, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Parallel to the efforts to develop fully autonomous robots, it is increasingly being realized that there are applications where it is essential to have a fully controlled robot and "feel" its operating conditions, i.e. telepresence. This trend is a result of the increasing efforts to address tasks where humans can perform significantly better but, due to associated hazards, distance, physical limitations and other causes, only robots can be employed to perform these tasks. Such robots need to be assisted by a human that remotely controls the operation. To address the goal of operating robots as human surrogates, the authors launched a study of mechanisms that provide mechanical feedback. For this purpose, electrorheological fluids (ERF) are being investigated for the potential application as miniature haptic devices. This family of electroactive fluids has the property of changing the viscosity during electrical stimulation. Consequently, ERF can be used to produce force feedback haptic devices for tele-operated control of medical and space robotic systems. Forces applied at the robot end-effector due to a compliant environment are reflected to the user using an ERF device where a change in the system viscosity will occur proportionally to the transmitted force. Analytical model and control algorithms are being developed taking into account the non-linearities of these type of devices. This paper will describe the concept and the developed mechanism of ERF based force feedback. The test process and the physical properties of this device will be described and the results of preliminary tests will be presented.

  1. Far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell under forward DC bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenbo, Xiao; Xingdao, He; Yiqing, Gao; Zhimin, Zhang; Jiangtao, Liu

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell are investigated under forward DC bias at room temperature in dark conditions. An electroluminescence viewgraph shows the clear device structures, and the electroluminescence intensity is shown to increases exponentially with bias voltage and linearly with bias current. The results can be interpreted using an equivalent circuit of a single ideal diode model for triple-junction solar cells. The good fit between the measured and calculated data proves the above conclusions. This work is of guiding significance for current solar cell testing and research.

  2. Flagellar motor based micro hybrid devices.

    PubMed

    Tung, S; Kim, J-W

    2004-01-01

    We are in the process of developing a series of micro hybrid devices based on tethered flagellar motors. Examples of the devices include a microfluidic pump and a micro AC dynamo. The microfluidic pump is realized through the tethering of a harmless strain of Escherichia coli cells to a MEMS based micro channel. Each E. coli cell is about 3 mum long and 1 mum in diameter, with several flagella that are driven at the base by molecular rotary motors. The operational principle of the micro pump is based on the viscous pumping effect where continuous rotation of the tethered cells forms a fluidic conveyor belt that 'drags' fluid from one end of the channel to the other. We used hydrodynamic loading to synchronize cell rotation in order to maximize the fluid pumping capability. The micro dynamo is realized through the integration of tethered flagellar motors with micro ferromagnetic beads and micro copper coils. The micro dynamo generates AC power by using the tethered cells to create a rotating magnetic field around the copper coils. Preliminary result indicates a high power density when compared to other biologically based micro power generators. PMID:17270806

  3. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Benett, William J.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2008-02-26

    A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to produce a circuit or electronic device containing a stretchable conducting circuit. The stretchable electronic apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body. The circuit line extends in the longitudinal direction and has a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and has an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal component and the offset component allow the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the circuit line.

  4. Gated Ion Channel-Based Biosensor Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Separovic, Frances; Cornell, Bruce A.

    A biosensor device based on the ion channel gramicidin A (gA) incorporated into a bilayer membrane is described. This generic immunosensing device utilizes gA coupled to an antibody and assembled in a lipid membrane. The membrane is chemically tethered to a gold electrode, which reports on changes in the ionic conduction of the lipid bilayer. Binding of a target molecule in the bathing solution to the antibody causes the gramicidin channels to switch from predominantly conducting dimers to predominantly nonconducting monomers. Conventional a.c. impedance spectroscopy between the gold and a counter electrode in the bathing solution is used to measure changes in the ionic conductivity of the membrane. This approach permits the quantitative detection of a range of target species, including bacteria, proteins, toxins, DNA sequences, and drug molecules.

  5. Delayed fluorescence in a solution-processable pure red molecular organic emitter based on dithienylbenzothiadiazole: a joint optical, electroluminescence, and magnetoelectroluminescence study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wang, Li-Ping; Tan, Wan-Yi; Peng, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Tong; Zhu, Xu-Hui; Li, Feng

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of triplet excitons participating in the photoluminescent processes in a growing number of pure organic emitters represents an exciting impetus for a diversity of promising opto, bio, and optoelectronic applications. In this contribution, we have studied a small-molecule dithienylbenzothiadiazole-based red-emitting dye red-1b, which shows clearly delayed fluorescence under optical and electrical excitation. The OLED device that contained red-1b as a nondoped solution-processable emitter exhibited a moderately high utilization of exciton amounting to ≈31% and slow efficiency roll-off. Magnetoelectroluminescence measurements revealed the coexistence of reverse intersystem crossing from the lowest triplet state to singlet state (RISC, E-type triplet to singlet up-conversion) and triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA, P-type triplet to singlet up-conversion). Specifically, in low current-density regime, the moderately high exciton utilization is attributed to RISC (i.e., thermally activated delayed fluorescence, TADF), whereas in high current-density regime, TTA may contribute to suppressing efficiency roll-off. Furthermore, the results showed that red-1b may represent a new kind of organic red emitters that display delayed fluorescence in a way differing from the few red emitters investigated so far. PMID:25585040

  6. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D.; Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A.

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  7. Policy-Based Device and Mobility Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Pierre; Lamparter, Bernd; Liebsch, Marco

    Each new generation of mobile terminals offers more and better functionality, e.g. terminal mobility, multi-homing or inter-device session mobility. Furthermore, the interaction with consumer devices, e.g. DLNA TV or stereo sets, is becoming more common. Every new feature, however, is likely to result in increased complexity for the end user: Most people do not know how to utilize all features of their mobile terminals, hence devices that offer only a reduced feature set are becoming more popular. Additionally, while the end user expects to be in control, the network operator might want to exert some influence over which features are available or trigger actions, e.g. handovers, based on contract, location, etc. The aim of our research is to offer high flexibility and functionality combined with ease of use. We designed a policy management framework for the mentioned session mobility functions which supports the user in the configuration of the functions and automates commonly performed actions.

  8. Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. D.; Senaratne, C. L.; Sims, P.; Aoki, T.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2015-03-01

    The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400-600 nm) Ge1-ySny i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration yc where the Ge1-ySny alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

  9. Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Senaratne, C. L.; Sims, P.; Kouvetakis, J.; Aoki, T.

    2015-03-02

    The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration y{sub c} where the Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

  10. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  11. EDITORIAL: Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Phillips, Jamie; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Ma, Jack; Sabarinanthan, Jayshri; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-12-01

    This special cluster of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics reports proceedings from the Frontiers in Semiconductor-Based Devices Symposium, held in honor of the 60th birthday of Professor Pallab Bhattacharya by his former doctoral students. The symposium took place at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor on 6-7 December 2009. Pallab Bhattacharya has served on the faculty of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor for 25 years. During this time, he has made pioneering contributions to semiconductor epitaxy, characterization of strained heterostructures, self-organized quantum dots, quantum-dot optoelectronic devices, and integrated optoelectronics. Professor Bhattacharya has been recognized for his accomplishments by membership of the National Academy of Engineering, by chaired professorships (Charles M Vest Distinguished University Professor and James R Mellor Professor of Engineering), and by selection as a Fellow of the IEEE, among numerous other honors and awards. Professor Bhattacharya has also made remarkable contributions in education, including authorship of the textbook Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Prentice Hall, 2nd edition) and the production of 60 PhD students (and counting). In fact, this development of critical human resources is one of the biggest impacts of Professor Bhattacharya's career. His guidance and dedication have shaped the varied professional paths of his students, many of whom currently enjoy successful careers in academia, industry, and government around the world. This special cluster acknowledges the importance of Professor Bhattacharya's influence as all of the contributions are from his former doctoral students. The symposium reflects the significant impact of Professor Bhattacharya's research in that the topics span diverse, critical research areas, including: semiconductor lasers and modulators, nanoscale quantum structure-based devices, flexible CMOS-based

  12. Azobenzene compound-based photomechanical actuator devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xianjun; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2012-10-01

    It has been shown that the chromophore disperse red 1 azobenzene (DR1) when doped into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fiber can be used to make an optical cantilever in which an asymmetrically propagating beam at 633nm causes the fiber to bend. The fast response process is purported to be due to elongation of the material as molecules change between cis and trans isomers. In our work, UV light of 350nm will be used to investigate trans to cis somerization, which should induce contraction. Short fiber segments in a three-contactpoint geometry will be used to control the position and tilt of silver- or aluminum-coated coverslips that together with microscope glass slides as the substrate make optically-actuated beam-controlling mounts and Fabry-Perot interferometers. A Michelson interferometer is used to measure the length change of the fiber actuator. Azodye doped liquid crystal (LC) elastomers have been demonstrated to have a photomechanical effect that is at least ten times bigger than thermoplastic-based polymer fiber. However, the optical quality of thermoplastics are much better, enabling the cascading of devices in series. We will report on visible and UV laser-actuation of LC elastomer and polymer device structures using a quadrant photodetector to record the beam deflection caused by the shape change of the material, which will allow for dynamical measurements of the mechanisms. All measurements will be calibrated against a piezoelectric crystal actuator. Photomechanical devices provide an inexpensive but versatile, small-form factor, vibration free and high precision solution to optomechanics, sensing, positioning and other space applications.

  13. Growth and characterization of nonpolar and semipolar group-III nitrides-based heterostructures and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arpan

    Conventional state-of-the-art wurtzite nitrides based light-emitters, grown along the polar c-direction, are characterized by the presence of polarization-induced electrostatic fields in the quantum wells. These built-in fields are detrimental to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Growth of light-emitters along nonpolar and semipolar directions is an effective means to circumvent the adverse effects of polarization. This dissertation focuses on the growth and characterization of nonpolar and semipolar (Al, Ga, In)N based heterostructures and devices. Two nonpolar planes, a- and m-, and two semipolar planes, (10 11) and (1013), have been investigated in this thesis. Initially, the growth of n-type and p-type nonpolar a-plane GaN was optimized to yield cladding layers of the highest possible conductivity in the devices. Various interesting observations, e.g. low acceptor activation energy, anisotropic conductivity, etc, were made during the course of this study. In order to achieve defect reduction in planar a-plane GaN films, in-situ SiNx interlayers were used as nano-mask. The effect of SiNx interlayer on the structural and optical properties of the overgrown GaN layer was investigated. Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells (MQWs) along nonpolar and semipolar planes was investigated and their structural and optical properties were studied. The effect of defects on the emission properties of the MQWs has been addressed. Optical measurements revealed the absence of polarization in the MQWs. Based on the MQW optimization, light-emitting diodes were grown on nonpolar and semipolar templates and their electrical and optical properties were studied. Electroluminescence measurement confirmed the absence of built-in electric fields in the quantum well. We demonstrated the first nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting diodes with milliwatt-range output power. DC output power as high as 0.6 mW at 20 mA and pulsed output power as high as 23.5 mW at 1 A were

  14. Nitride-based runaway effect devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komirenko, Sergiy M.; Kim, Ki Wook; Kochelap, Viacheslav A.; Dutta, Mitra; Stroscio, Michael A.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated development of runaway effect (RAE) in polar semiconductors for the case when energy of LO phonon exceeds the lattice temperature. RAE manifest itself above some threshold electric field when the electrons gain energy from the field faster than they can dissipate it emmiting optical phonons. For superthreshold fields in bulk samples, the steady state occurs when electrons reach upper valleys so that observed velocities represent the velocities averaged over all populated valleys. We proposed and analyzed short nitride-based vertical heterostructures where electron transport can reach RAE-regime. For nitrides of Ga and Al, we found the RAE-threshold fields to be 142 kV/cm and 465 kV/cm, respectively. Our estimations reveal that in such RAE-devices the electrons can reach velocities appreciably higher than in bulk-like materials and their distribution over the energy demonstrates the population inversion. We discuss high-speed and high-power applications of RAE-devices.

  15. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on chalcogenide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Jilian N.; Alves, João. Paulo C.; Korala, Lasantha; Brock, Stephanie L.; Nogueira, Ana F.

    2012-09-01

    Solar cells based on the combination of conjugated polymers and fullerenes are among the most promising devices for low-cost solar energy conversion. Significant improvements in the efficiency have been accomplished, but some bottlenecks still persist. The substitution of fullerenes by inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, especially CdSe and CdS, has been investigated as a promising alternative. In this work, we highlight two aspects to be considered in the pursuit of more efficient devices. By comparing different polymer/CdSe systems, we show how the polymer structure can be used to tune the charge transfer from the polymer to CdSe. Even if this process is efficient, the charges will be trapped in the inorganic phase if the charge carrier transport of the nanoparticles is poor. An elegant way to improve the electron hopping is to form an electrically integrated network of nanoparticles. The use of chalcogenide aerogels is a new alternative which may be interesting for applications requiring maximal transport of charge and is also discussed here.

  16. Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatthaar, Markus; Giesecke, Johannes; Kasemann, Martin; Haunschild, Jonas; The, Manuel; Warta, Wilhem; Rein, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    We present a novel method to determine spatially resolved the dark saturation current of standard silicon solar cells. For this two electroluminescence images are taken at two different voltages. From these two images, first the spatial voltage distribution can be calculated. Second by applying the Laplacian to the voltage image from Ohm's law and the continuity equation, the current through the device at a certain position can be determined. Knowing the local current through the device, the local voltage, and the emitter sheet resistance allows to determine the local dark saturation current. The clue of this method is to cope with the noise by using an appropriate noise reduction algorithm. By simulating electroluminescence images with realistic noise and known dark saturation current we demonstrate the applicability of the method with our noise reduction algorithm. Experimentally we compare our method with spectral response light beam induced current on multicrystalline solar cell.

  17. Improving the diversity of manufacturing electroluminescent flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.S.; Samuels, J.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Crystalline calcium thiogallate with a cerium dopant has been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures below 600{degrees}C on a low cost glass substrate. An EL luminance of 1.05 fL was observed 40 volts above threshold at 60 Hz. This is more than an order of magnitude improvement over earlier crystalline-as-deposited thiogallate materials. These results pave the way for the use of MOCVD as a potential method for processing full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. The formation of the CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce phosphor requires precise control over a number of deposition parameters including flow rates, substrate temperature, and reactor pressure. The influence of these parameters will be discussed in terms of structure, uniformity, and TFEL device performance.

  18. Polymer-based red, green, and blue emitting devices fabricated by reductive photopatterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trattnig, Gernot; Pogantsch, Alexander; Langer, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang; Zojer, Egbert

    2002-11-01

    Using a color tuning approach reliant on reductive photopatterning, we present red-green-blue electroluminescence from a single layer polymer light-emitting device. To be able to cover the full color range, we employ a single emissive layer consisting of a blue emitter (the host polymer), as well as green and red emitting guest polymers. The energy transfer between the host and the various guest compounds is tuned via a reductive photoinitiated process in the presence of gaseous hydrazine. This process is compatible with regular film casting techniques such as spin coating, and therefore can be regarded as a promising alternative to the more complex, traditional patterning approaches.

  19. Si based GeSn light emitter: mid-infrared devices in Si photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S. Q.; Ghetmiri, S. A.; Du, W.; Margetis, J.; Zhou, Y.; Mosleh, A.; Al-Kabi, S.; Nazzal, A.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.; Tolle, J.; Li, B.; Naseem, H. A.

    2015-02-01

    Ge1-xSnx/Ge thin films and Ge/Ge1-xSnx/Ge n-i-p double heterostructure (DHS) have been grown using commercially available reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) reactor. The Sn compositional material and optical characteristics have been investigated. A direct bandgap GeSn material has been identified with Sn composition of 10%. The GeSn DHS samples were fabricated into LED devices. Room temperature electroluminescence spectra were studied. A maximum emission power of 28mW was obtained with 10% Sn LED under the injection current density of 800 A/cm2.

  20. Heterostructure Electroluminescent Diodes Prepared from Self-Assembled Multilayers of Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and Sulfonated Polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1995-02-01

    Multilayer heterostructure thin films of electroactive polymers such as poly( p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV), -precursor and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAn), have been successfully fabricated by a process based on the spontaneous self-assembly of conjugated polyion on a substrate. We have prepared SPAn/PPV multilayer-heterostructure light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using this electrostatic self-assembly technique and discussed the electroluminescence (EL) properties. The thickness of each bilayer is about 20 Å. The LED device composed of 10 bilayers has a turn-on voltage of about 1.4 V and greenish-yellow light was clearly observed under normal room illumination even at low driving voltage. These results are discussed in terms of radiative recombination of the singlet polaron-excitons formed by injection of electrons and holes and the formation of polaron-excitons in PPV layers of SPAn/PPV heterostructures.

  1. Synthesis, Crystal Analyses, Physical Properties, and Electroluminescent Behavior of Unsymmetrical Heterotwistacenes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bo; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Xi; Duan, Jingdan; Su, Wenming; Zhao, Jianwen

    2016-07-27

    Four novel unsymmetrical heteroacenes containing five-membered heterocycles (OPyN, TPyN, TPyC, TPyO) have been synthesized and characterized. The formed molecules exhibited twisted structures, determined by crystal analysis and showed blue/green fluorescence in dichloromethane and in thin film. Compounds OPyN and TPyN were selectively used as active ingredients, and the fabricated devices displayed promising electroluminescent performance. PMID:27383556

  2. An observation of direct-gap electroluminescence in GaAs structures with Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dikareva, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Nekorkin, S. M.

    2015-02-15

    A light-emitting diode structure based on GaAs with eight narrow Ge quantum wells is grown by laser sputtering. An electroluminescence line polarized predominately in the plane parallel to the constituent layers of the structure is revealed. The line corresponds to the direct optical transitions in momentum space in the Ge quantum wells.

  3. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Andrew Paul

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of

  4. Visible electroluminescence from a ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Baratto, C; Kumar, R; Comini, E; Faglia, G; Sberveglieri, G

    2015-07-27

    In the current paper we apply catalyst assisted vapour phase growth technique to grow ZnO nanowires (ZnO nws) on p-GaN thin film obtaining EL emission in reverse bias regime. ZnO based LED represents a promising alternative to III-nitride LEDs, as in free devices: the potential is in near-UV emission and visible emission. For ZnO, the use of nanowires ensures good crystallinity of the ZnO, and improved light extraction from the interface when the nanowires are vertically aligned. We prepared ZnO nanowires in a tubular furnace on GaN templates and characterized the p-n ZnO nws/GaN heterojunction for LED applications. SEM microscopy was used to study the growth of nanowires and device preparation. Photoluminescence (PL) and Electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopies were used to characterize the heterojunction, showing that good quality of PL emission is observed from nanowires and visible emission from the junction can be obtained from the region near ZnO contact, starting from onset bias of 6V. PMID:26367556

  5. Development of superconducting interference device based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumura, K.; Ohsugi, M.; Hayashi, T.; Watanabe, E.; Tsuya, D.; Nomura, S.; Takayanagi, H.

    2012-12-01

    We fabricated and examined the operation of graphene-based superconducting interference device (SQUID) consisting of two superconductor-single layer graphene-superconductor junctions connected in parallel on a superconducting loop made of aluminum. Current-voltage characteristic of the device exhibits supercurrent flowing through SGS junctions. Mean switching current can be modulated with the applied magnetic field periodically. Deduced oscillation period coincides well with that estimated from the device geometry, suggesting that our device works as a graphene-based SQUID.

  6. Diode-laser-based therapy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Mircea V.; Nica, Adriana S.; Florian, Mariana; Poenaru, Daniela; Udrea, Gabriela; Lungeanu, Mihaela; Sporea, Dan G.; Vasiliu, Virgil V.; Vieru, Roxana

    2004-10-01

    A new therapy laser device is presented. The device consists of a central unit and different types of laser probes. The laser probe model SL7-650 delivers seven red (650 nm), 5 mW diode lasers convergent beams. The beams converge at about 30 cm in front of the laser probe and the irradiated area might be varied by simple displacement of the laser probe with respect to the target. The laser probe SL1-808 emits single infrared laser beam up to 500 mW. The efficiency of the use of this device in physiotherapy, and rheumatology, has been put into evidence after years of testing. Dermatology and microsurgery are users of infrared powerful laser probes. The device has successfully passed technical and clinical tests in order to be certified. The laser device design and some medical results are given.

  7. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  8. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  9. Development of aluminum gallium nitride based optoelectronic devices operating in deep UV and terahertz spectrum ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei

    In this research project I have investigated AlGaN alloys and their quantum structures for applications in deep UV and terahertz optoelectronic devices. For the deep UV emitter applications the materials and devices were grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and c-plane sapphire substrates. In the growth of AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells on SiC substrates, the AlGaN wells were grown under excess Ga, far beyond than what is required for the growth of stoichiometric AlGaN films, which resulted in liquid phase epitaxy growth mode. Due to the statistical variations of the excess Ga on the growth front we found that this growth mode leads to films with lateral variations in the composition and thus, band structure potential fluctuations. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the wells in such structures are not homogeneous but have the appearance of quantum dots. We find by temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements that the multiple quantum wells with band structure potential fluctuations emit at 240 nm and have room temperature internal quantum efficiency as high as 68%. Furthermore, they were found to have a maximum net modal optical gain of 118 cm-1 at a transparency threshold corresponding to 1.4 x 1017 cm-3 excited carriers. We attribute this low transparency threshold to population inversion of only the regions of the potential fluctuations rather than of the entire matrix. Some prototype deep UV emitting LED structures were also grown by the same method on sapphire substrates. Optoelectronic devices for terahertz light emission and detection, based on intersubband transitions in III-nitride semiconductor quantum wells, were grown on single crystal c-plane GaN substrates. Growth conditions such the ratio of group III to active nitrogen fluxes, which determines the appropriate Ga-coverage for atomically smooth growth without requiring growth interruptions were employed. Emitters designed in the quantum cascade

  10. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang

    2004-06-09

    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  11. Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, A.; Uemura, T.; Zettsu, N.; Akai-Kasaya, M.; Saito, A.; Kuwahara, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A significant increase in electroluminescence was achieved through coupling with localized surface plasmons in a single layer of Au nanoparticles. We fabricated a thin-film organic electroluminescence diode, which consists of an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode, a Au nanoparticle array, a Cu phthalocyanine hole transport layer, a tris(8-hydroxylquinolianato) aluminum (III) electron transport layer, a LiF electron injection layer, and an Al cathode. The device structure, with size-controlled Au particles embedded on ITO, can be used to realize the optimum distance for exciton-plasmon interactions by simply adjusting the thickness of the hole transport layer. We observed a 20-fold increase in the molecular fluorescence compared with that of a conventional diode structure.

  12. Low-voltage polariton electroluminescence from an ultrastrongly coupled organic light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbin, Christopher R.; Maier, Stefan A.; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane

    2014-06-09

    We demonstrate electroluminescence from Frenkel molecular excitons ultrastrongly coupled to photons of a metal-clad microcavity containing a 2,7-bis[9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-fluoren-2-yl]-9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)fluorene emissive layer. Thin layers of molybdenum oxide and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline are used as hole and electron injection layers, respectively. The fabricated devices exhibit an electroluminescence threshold of 3.1 V, a value that is below the bare exciton energy. This result is found to be independent of detuning and consistent with a two-step process for polariton formation. Moreover, we investigate the quantum efficiency of carrier to polariton to photon conversion and obtain an external quantum efficiency of 0.1% for the fabricated structures, an improvement of 5 orders of magnitude over previous reports.

  13. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruobing; Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  14. Two-Layer, Full-Color Electroluminescent Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Full-color, matrix-addressed electroluminescent display uses three different color phosphors located in two separate, superimposed layers to provide higher brightness, better contrast ratio, and higher resolution. Design used for such transparent, flat-panel display media as thin-film electroluminescent phosphors, liquid crystals, or light-emitting diodes.

  15. The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohle, L.; Berencén, Y.; Wutzler, R.; Braun, M.; Hiller, D.; Ramírez, J. M.; Garrido, B.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-09-01

    Rare earth doped metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures are of great interest for Si-based light emission. However, several physical limitations make it difficult to achieve the performance of light emitters based on compound semiconductors. To address this point, in this work the electroluminescence (EL) excitation and quenching mechanism of Er-implanted MOS structures with different designs of the dielectric stack are investigated. The devices usually consist of an injection layer made of SiO2 and an Er-implanted layer made of SiO2, Si-rich SiO2, silicon nitride, or Si-rich silicon nitride. All structures implanted with Er show intense EL around 1540 nm with EL power efficiencies in the order of 2 × 10-3 (for SiO2:Er) or 2 × 10-4 (all other matrices) for lower current densities. The EL is excited by the impact of hot electrons with an excitation cross section in the range of 0.5-1.5 × 10-15 cm-2. Whereas the fraction of potentially excitable Er ions in SiO2 can reach values up to 50%, five times lower values were observed for other matrices. The decrease of the EL decay time for devices with Si-rich SiO2 or Si nitride compared to SiO2 as host matrix implies an increase of the number of defects adding additional non-radiative de-excitation paths for Er3+. For all investigated devices, EL quenching cross sections in the 10-20 cm2 range and charge-to-breakdown values in the range of 1-10 C cm-2 were measured. For the present design with a SiO2 acceleration layer, thickness reduction and the use of different host matrices did not improve the EL power efficiency or the operation lifetime, but strongly lowered the operation voltage needed to achieve intense EL.

  16. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-09-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices. PMID:26389853

  17. A Laboratory-Based Course in Display Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarik, J.; Akinwande, A. I.; Kymissis, I.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-based class in flat-panel display technology is presented. The course introduces fundamental concepts of display systems and reinforces these concepts through the fabrication of three display devices--an inorganic electroluminescent seven-segment display, a dot-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display, and a dot-matrix…

  18. Performance evaluation of cellular phone network based portable ECG device.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cellular phone network based portable ECG device was developed and three experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device. First, ECG signals were measured using the developed device and Biopac device (reference device) during sitting and marking time and compared to verify the accuracy of R-R intervals. Second, the reliable data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of simulated emergency event using patient simulator. Third, during daily life with five types of motion, accuracy of data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of event occurring. By acquiring and comparing subject's biomedical signal and motion signal, the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device were verified. Therefore, cellular phone network based portable ECG device can monitor patient with inobtrusive manner. PMID:19162767

  19. Elements and devices based on magnetorheological effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kordonskii, V.I. )

    1993-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions can serve as the basis of transducers controlling hydraulic resistance; the mathematical model for such a transducer can be derived via quasi-stationary approximation, taking into account the transient processes in the magnetic field inductor. Accounts are presently given of damping and antishock devices employing the MR element. Such devices' characterizations are obtained by supplementing the system of equations describing MR transducer dynamics with relations encompassing hydromechanical processes in a hydraulic cylinder. MR transducers can be used to form flexible bridgelike distributors controlling hydraulic actuators. 3 refs.

  20. Model-based engineering for medical-device software.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arnab; Jetley, Raoul; Jones, Paul L; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits of adopting model-based design techniques for engineering medical device software. By using a patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion pump as a candidate medical device, the authors show how using models to capture design information allows for i) fast and efficient construction of executable device prototypes ii) creation of a standard, reusable baseline software architecture for a particular device family, iii) formal verification of the design against safety requirements, and iv) creation of a safety framework that reduces verification costs for future versions of the device software. 1. PMID:21142522

  1. Electrochromic devices based on lithium insertion

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2006-05-09

    Electrochromic devices having as an active electrode materials comprising Sb, Bi, Si, Ge, Sn, Te, N, P, As, Ga, In, Al, C, Pb, I and chalcogenides are disclosed. The addition of other metals, i.e. Ag and Cu to the active electrode further enhances performance.

  2. Animation Based Learning of Electronic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gero, Aharon; Zoabi, Wishah; Sabag, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Two-year college teachers face great difficulty when they teach the principle of operation of the bipolar junction transistor--a subject which forms the basis for electronics studies. The difficulty arises from both the complexity of the device and by the lack of adequate scientific background among the students. We, therefore, developed a unique…

  3. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  4. Recoverable electroluminescence from a contaminated organic/organic interface in an organic light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L. S.; Klubek, K. P.; Madathil, J. K.; Tang, C. W.; Giesen, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    An organic/organic interface, like an electrode/organic interface in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), can be severely affected by ambient contamination. However, we surprisingly found that the contaminated surface or interface can be "cured" by depositing a thin interfacial layer containing a strong reducing agent onto the contaminated surface before finishing the fabrication of the device. For example, in comparison with a regular OLED, an OLED having a 5-min ambient exposure to the light-emitting layer/electron-transporting layer interface drops its initial electroluminescence (EL) intensity by 50%. The decreased EL intensity due to the 5-min ambient exposure can be fully recovered and the improved operational stability can be realized after curing the contaminated interface using a thin Li interfacial layer. The experimental results provide a useful method to cope with the interfacial contamination in OLEDs during a manufacturing process. In addition, our results support the failure mechanism of an Alq-based OLED suggested by [Papadimitrakopoulos et al., Chem. Mater. 8, 1363 (1996)].

  5. High-resolution electroluminescent imaging of pressure distribution using a piezoelectric nanowire LED array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Caofeng; Dong, Lin; Zhu, Guang; Niu, Simiao; Yu, Ruomeng; Yang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-09-01

    Emulation of the sensation of touch through high-resolution electronic means could become important in future generations of robotics and human-machine interfaces. Here, we demonstrate that a nanowire light-emitting diode-based pressure sensor array can map two-dimensional distributions of strain with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 2.7 µm, corresponding to a pixel density of 6,350 dpi. Each pixel is composed of a single n-ZnO nanowire/p-GaN light-emitting diode, the emission intensity of which depends on the local strain owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. A pressure map can be created by reading out, in parallel, the electroluminescent signal from all of the pixels with a time resolution of 90 ms. The device may represent a major step towards the digital imaging of mechanical signals by optical means, with potential applications in artificial skin, touchpad technology, personalized signatures, bio-imaging and optical microelectromechanical systems.

  6. Device considerations for development of conductance-based biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Scott, Adina; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Design and fabrication of electronic biosensors based on field-effect-transistor (FET) devices require understanding of interactions between semiconductor surfaces and organic biomolecules. From this perspective, we review practical considerations for electronic biosensors with emphasis on molecular passivation effects on FET device characteristics upon immobilization of organic molecules and an electrostatic model for FET-based biosensors. PMID:24753627

  7. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic and memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaofeng

    2011-12-01

    The development of semiconductor devices is limited by the high power consumption and further physical dimension reduction. Spintronic devices, especially the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based devices, have advantages of non-volatility, reconfigurable capability, fast-switching speed, small-dimension, and compatibility to semiconductor devices, which is a promising candidate for future logic and memory devices. However, the previously proposed MTJ logic devices have been operated independently and therefore are limited to only basic logic operations. Consequently, the MTJ device has only been used as ancillary device in the circuit, rather than the main computation component. In this thesis, study has been done on both spintronic logic and memory devices. In the first part, systematic study has been performed on MTJ based logic devices in order to expand the functionalities and properties of MTJ devices. Basic logic cell with three-input has been designed and simulated. Nano-magnetic-channel has been proposed, which is the first design to realize the communication between the MTJ logic cells. With basic logic unit as a building block, a spintronic logic circuit has been designed with MTJ as the dominant component. HSPICE simulation has been done for this spintronic logic circuit, which acts as an Arithmetic Logic Unit. In the spintronic memory device part, study has been focused on the fundamental study on the current induced switching in MTJ devices with hybrid free layer. With hybrid free layer, magnetic non-uniformity is introduced along the current direction, which induces extra spin torque component. Unique current-induced switching has been observed and studied in the hybrid free layer MTJ. Adiabatic spin torque, which is introduced by spatial non-uniform magnetization in the hybrid free layer, plays an important role for the unique switching. By tuning the bias field, single-polar current switching was achieved in this hybrid MTJ device, which gives the

  8. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active Λ and ∆ isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of Λ/Δ isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the Λ/Δ iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the Λ/Δ isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes. PMID:26446521

  9. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  10. Enhancement of electroluminescence from embedded Si quantum dots/SiO2multilayers film by localized-surface-plasmon and surface roughening

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Shaolei; Hu, Mingyue; He, Sufeng; Ge, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Guo, Yan Yan; Zhaowei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prepared a novel structure to enhance the electroluminescence intensity from Si quantum dots/SiO2multilayers. An amorphous Si/SiO2 multilayer film was fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on a Pt nanoparticle (NP)-coated Si nanopillar array substrate. By thermal annealing, an embedded Si quantum dot (QDs)/SiO2 multilayer film was obtained. The result shows that electroluminescence intensity was significantly enhanced. And, the turn-on voltage of the luminescent device was reduced to 3 V. The enhancement of the light emission is due to the resonance coupling between the localized-surface-plasmon (LSP) of Pt NPs and the band-gap emission of Si QDs/SiO2 multilayers. The other factors were the improved absorption of excitation light and the increase of light extraction ratio by surface roughening structures. These excellent characteristics are promising for silicon-based light-emitting applications. PMID:26138830