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Sample records for electromagnetic fluctuation induced

  1. Transition linewidth of cross correlations in random intensity fluctuations in electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Pengxiong; Zhang, Mengzhen; Wang, Tun; Xiao, Yanhong

    2014-01-01

    It is known that cross correlation between the random intensity fluctuations of two lasers forming electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) exhibits a transition from correlation to anticorrelation. We study the linewidth behavior of this transition and have found the linewidth is below the (effective) coherence lifetime limit and is limited only by competing noises. We established a numerical model which reveals the linewidth dependence on laser linewidth and laser power. Our experiments using lasers with different linewidth showed results in qualitative agreement with the model. This result is useful for quantum optics using EIT and may also have applications in spectroscopy and precision measurements.

  2. Experimental investigation of impulsive magnetic reconnection induced by large amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations in the presence of a guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yanai, Ryoma; Ono, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    Impulsive enhancement of magnetic reconnection is one of the potential candidates to invoke various explosive events observed in nature and laboratory plasmas. In TS-3 laboratory experiment with a guide field of Bguide /Brec = 1-2.5, impulsive growth of the reconnection electric field was observed just behind the onset of large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations (f = 1.5-2 fci and the amplitude was 0.1Brec). It was found that both the fluctuation amplitude and the enhanced reconnection electric field during the fluctuation period showed positive correlation with the guide field. The normalized reconnection rate of about 0.03 before the onset of fluctuations was reasonably comparable with the classical reconnection rate of Sweet-Parker model. However, the reconnection rate rose up to 0.11 after the fluctuations onset, suggesting that the transition from slow steady reconnection to fast impulsive reconnection took place. Since the fluctuation amplitude was so large that the nonlinear terms of the induced electric field was not negligible. The electric field enhancement due to the nonlinear contribution from the observed fluctuation was 650 V/m, which showed good agreement with the experimentally observed electric field increment of about 800 V/m.

  3. Coherent spin control by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jing; Liu Renbao; Zhu Bangfen; Sham, L. J.; Steel, D. G.

    2011-05-15

    In coherent control, electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations usually cause coherence loss through irreversible spontaneous emission. However, since the dissipation via emission is essentially due to correlation of the fluctuations, when emission ends in a superposition of multiple final states, correlation between different pathways may build up if the 'which way' information is not fully resolved (i.e., the emission spectrum is broader than the transition energy range). Such correlation can be exploited for spin-flip control in a {Lambda}-type three-level system, which manifests itself as an all-optical spin echo in nonlinear optics with two orders of optical fields saved as compared with stimulated Raman processes. This finding represents a class of optical nonlinearity induced by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations.

  4. Classical and fluctuation-induced electromagnetic interactions in micron-scale systems: designer bonding, antibonding, and Casimir forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Hui, Pui-Chuen; Woolf, David P.; Johnson, Steven G.; Lončar, Marko; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Whether intentionally introduced to exert control over particles and macroscopic objects, such as for trapping or cooling, or whether arising from the quantum and thermal fluctuations of charges in otherwise neutral bodies, leading to unwanted stiction between nearby mechanical parts, electromagnetic interactions play a fundamental role in many naturally occurring processes and technologies. In this review, we survey recent progress in the understanding and experimental observation of optomechanical and quantum-fluctuation forces. Although both of these effects arise from exchange of electromagnetic momentum, their dramatically different origins, involving either real or virtual photons, lead to different physical manifestations and design principles. Specifically, we describe recent predictions and measurements of attractive and repulsive optomechanical forces, based on the bonding and antibonding interactions of evanescent waves, as well as predictions of modified and even repulsive Casimir forces between nanostructured bodies. Finally, we discuss the potential impact and interplay of these forces in emerging experimental regimes of micromechanical devices.

  5. Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Roberto E. Muñoz, Víctor; Araneda, Jaime; Moya, Pablo S.; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.

  6. Boundary effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations on charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Wu, T.-H.; Leet, D.-S.

    2008-10-10

    The nature of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in the presence of the boundary is investigated from their effects on the dynamics of charged particles. These effects may be observable via the velocity fluctuations of the charge particles near the conducting plate, where the effects of vacuum fluctuations are found to be anisotrpoic. The corresponding stochastic equation of motion for the charged particle is also derived under the semiclassical approximation.

  7. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  8. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-08-01

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.

  9. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing. PMID:26314514

  10. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, [le][approximately][ovr J] [times] [approximately][ovr B][ge], has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  11. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, {le}{approximately}{ovr J} {times} {approximately}{ovr B}{ge}, has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  12. Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Thermal Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Pavan, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy is constrained in the temperature ratio vs. beta parameter space by the mirror/proton-cyclotron and parallel/oblique firehose instability threshold conditions (Hellinger et al., 2006). However, the actual solar wind is found in the parameter regime stable to these instabilities (Bale et al., 2009). Since no waves can be generated in the purely collisionless and stable plasma, the source of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations in the solar wind must be owing to spontaneous thermal effects. The problem of the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic waves from magnetized plasmas is generally poorly understood (Araneda et al., 2011). In the present paper, we formulate the theory of spontaneous thermal emission of electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of the low-frequency modes of Alfvén, ion-cyclotron, and whistler modes. We carry out a statistical analysis by varying the temperature anisotropy and parallel beta and compare the theoretical fluctuation intensity against the observation such as that reported by Bale et al. (2009). Hellinger et al., GRL, 33, L09101 (2006). Bale et al., PRL, 103, 211101 (2009). Araneda et al., Space Sci. Rev., DOI:10.1007/s11214-011-9773-0 (2011).

  13. Quasilinear theory of general electromagnetic fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu; Yoon, P. H. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu

    2014-09-15

    The general quasilinear Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for the plasma particle distribution functions in unmagnetized plasmas is derived, making no restrictions on the frequency of the electromagnetic fluctuations. The derived kinetic particle equation complements our earlier study of the general fluctuation's kinetic equation. For collective plasma eigenmodes and gyrotropic particle distribution functions, the two coupled kinetic equations describe the self-consistent dynamical evolution of the plasma. The limit of weakly damped collective modes correctly reproduces the well-known textbook kinetic particle equation with longitudinal Langmuir and ion-acoustic fluctuations, demonstrating, in particular, the resonant nature of parallel momentum diffusion of particles. In the limit of aperiodic modes, the Fokker-Planck equation contains the nonresonant diffusion of particles in momentum and the parallel and perpendicular momentum drag coefficients. As an application these drag and diffusion coefficients are calculated for extragalactic cosmic ray particles propagating in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium. Whereas for all cosmic rays, the perpendicular momentum diffusion in intergalactic aperiodic fluctuations is negligibly small; cosmic ray protons with energies below 10{sup 5 }GeV are affected by the plasma drag.

  14. Outward Poynting flux due to electromagnetic fluctuations in an RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuecks, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Stone, D. R.

    2013-10-01

    In a reversed-field pinch (RFP) driven by a toroidal electric field, tearing modes not only generate the net EMF that sustains the equilibrium profile but are also expected to produce an outward flow of electromagnetic energy, or Poynting flux, to be dissipated at the plasma edge. In MST experiments, insertable edge probes measure both electrostatic Ẽ and magnetic B~ fluctuations, which are used to reconstruct the flux-surface average Poynting flux < Ẽ × B~ > as it varies with minor radius, time, and equilibrium parameters. Our initial results indicate that this outward flux is a significant fraction of the total input power on time average and increases to large values during the brief periods surrounding discrete magnetic relaxation events, or sawtooth crashes. The flux decreases with radius outside of the reversal surface, suggesting that the electromagnetic energy is deposited there and dissipated into the plasma. These results are qualitatively similar to expectation from a simple model of an incompressible fluid plasma with a solid, resistive boundary. DOE and NSF support this work.

  15. Electron diffusion in tokamaks due to electromagnetic fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Choi, D.I.; Yushmanov, P.N.; Parail, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    Calculations for the stochastic diffusion of electrons in tokamaks due to a spectrum of electromagnetic drift fluctuations are presented. The parametric dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the amplitude and phase velocity of the spectrum, and the bounce frequency for the electrons is studied. The wavenumber spectrum is taken to be a low order (5 x 5) randomly-phased, isotropic, Monotonic spectrum extending from k /sub perpendicular min/ approx. = ..omega../sub ci//c/sub s/ to k/sub perpendicular max/ approx. = 3..omega../sub pe//c with different power laws of decrease phi k approx. = phi 1/k/sup m/, 1 less than or equal to m less than or equal to 3. A nonlinear Ohm's law is derived for the self-consistent relation between the electrostatic and parallel vector potentials. The parallel structure of the fluctuations is taken to be such that k parallel/sup nl/upsilon/sub e/ < w/sub k/ due to the nonlinear perpendicular motion of the electrons described in the nonlinear Ohm's law. The diffusion coefficient scales approximately as the neo-Alcator and Merezhkin-Mukhovatoc empirical formulas for plasma densities above a critical density.

  16. Mechanical temporal fluctuation induced distance and force systematic errors in Casimir force experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoreaux, Steve; Wong, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    The basic theory of temporal mechanical fluctuation induced systematic errors in Casimir force experiments is developed and applications of this theory to several experiments is reviewed. This class of systematic error enters in a manner similar to the usual surface roughness correction, but unlike the treatment of surface roughness for which an exact result requires an electromagnetic mode analysis, time dependent fluctuations can be treated exactly, assuming the fluctuation times are much longer than the zero point and thermal fluctuation correlation times of the electromagnetic field between the plates. An experimental method for measuring absolute distance with high bandwidth is also described and measurement data presented.

  17. Mechanical temporal fluctuation induced distance and force systematic errors in Casimir force experiments.

    PubMed

    Lamoreaux, Steve; Wong, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    The basic theory of temporal mechanical fluctuation induced systematic errors in Casimir force experiments is developed and applications of this theory to several experiments is reviewed. This class of systematic error enters in a manner similar to the usual surface roughness correction, but unlike the treatment of surface roughness for which an exact result requires an electromagnetic mode analysis, time dependent fluctuations can be treated exactly, assuming the fluctuation times are much longer than the zero point and thermal fluctuation correlation times of the electromagnetic field between the plates. An experimental method for measuring absolute distance with high bandwidth is also described and measurement data presented. PMID:25965319

  18. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm{sup 2}) in the ``core`` (r/a < 0.85) and small (< 10--30 kW/cm{sup 2}) in the edge.

  19. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.R. )

    1994-02-14

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range [ital r]/[ital a][gt]0.75).The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magentic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm[sup 2]) in the core'' ([ital r]/[ital a][lt]0.85) and small ([lt]10--30 kW/cm[sup 2]) in the edge.

  20. Constraints on Stable Equilibria with Fluctuation-Induced (Casimir) Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Kardar, Mehran; Emig, Thorsten

    2010-08-13

    We examine whether fluctuation-induced forces can lead to stable levitation. First, we analyze a collection of classical objects at finite temperature that contain fixed and mobile charges and show that any arrangement in space is unstable to small perturbations in position. This extends Earnshaw's theorem for electrostatics by including thermal fluctuations of internal charges. Quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are responsible for Casimir or van der Waals interactions. Neglecting permeabilities, we find that any equilibrium position of items subject to such forces is also unstable if the permittivities of all objects are higher or lower than that of the enveloping medium, the former being the generic case for ordinary materials in vacuum.

  1. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  2. Electromagnetically induced angular Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian

    2015-12-01

    The discrete angular spectrum (angular Talbot effect) of a periodic grating illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front has been observed recently (Azaña and Chatellus 2104 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 213902). In this paper we study the possibility of such a phenomenon being realized with a medium that has no macroperiodic structure itself. Tunable electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) could be such a kind of medium. We obtain an EIG based on the periodically modulated strong susceptibility due to the third-order nonlinear effect generated in a double Λ-type four-level atomic system, and show the angular Talbot effect of an amplitude EIG, as well as a hybrid EIG, as the condition of the discrete phase-modulation shift of the illumination light front is satisfied. EIG parameters are tunable and the EIG-based angular Talbot effect may have the same potential applications as its periodic grating counterpart has.

  3. On the fluctuation induced mass enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Tuan, Vu Ngoc; Van Xuan, Le; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-06-01

    The effective mass induced by the background fluctuation on particles is considered. The analytical results show that the effective mass depends only on the properties of fluctuation, and takes non-zero value when and only when fluctuation mean value is non-zero. The possible applications of the obtained results to complex systems such as biology and ecology where environmental factors lead to the changes of the information exchange ranges from long to short one are discussed, i.e. the possibility of using physical modeling techniques to investigate macroscopic behaviors of some complex systems under consideration.

  4. Spectral properties of fluctuating electromagnetic fields in a plane cavity: implication for nanoscale physics.

    PubMed

    Dorofeyev, I; Fuchs, H; Jersch, J

    2002-02-01

    Spectral power densities of fluctuating electromagnetic fields and their spatial derivatives of all orders in any point of a transparent plane gap between two media described by different complex permittivities and by different temperatures were derived on a basis of generalized Kirchhoff's law. Electromagnetic losses into the two absorbing media induced by a field of a point dipole or of point multipolelike origins situated in any place of interest at the transparent gap were determined. The corresponding electrodynamical regular Green problem for a point dipole and for point multipoles of any orders constituted by the point dipole was solved. We demonstrate ways to obtain different asymptotic cases following from our general solution including the problem for a half space, Planck's formula for black body radiation, the van der Waals forces for solids kept at different temperatures, and contributions from propagating and evanescent waves. Expressions for electromagnetic loss of a point multipole of any order in selected geometry of the problem were derived and, as an important limiting case related to problems of near field microscopy, when the multipole is situated over a half space. PMID:11863681

  5. Electromagnetic fluctuation spectra of collective oscillations in magnetized Maxwellian plasmas for parallel wave vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .

  6. Electromagnetically induced classical and quantum Lau effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian; Xiong, Jun; Xu, Deqin

    2016-07-01

    We present two schemes of Lau effect for an object, an electromagnetically induced grating generated based on the electromagnetically induced effect. The Lau interference pattern is detected either directly in the way of the traditional Lau effect measurement with a classical thermal light being the imaging light, or indirectly and nonlocally in the way of two-photon coincidence measurement with a pair of entangled photons being the imaging light.

  7. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (τ) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low τ and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  8. Poynting vector, energy densities, and pressure of collective transverse electromagnetic fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.

    2012-01-15

    A systematic calculation of the electromagnetic properties (Poynting vector, electromagnetic energy, and pressure) of the collective transverse fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas with velocity-anisotropic plasma particle distributions functions is presented. Time-averaged electromagnetic properties for monochromatic weakly damped wave-like fluctuations and space-averaged electromagnetic properties for monochromatic weakly propagating and aperiodic fluctuations are calculated. For aperiodic fluctuations, the Poynting vector as well as the sum of the space-averaged electric and magnetic field energy densities vanish. However, aperiodic fluctuations possess a positive pressure given by its magnetic energy density. This finite pressure density p{sub a} of aperiodic fluctuations has important consequences for the dynamics of cosmic unmagnetized plasmas such as the intergalactic medium after reionization. Adopting the standard cosmological evolution model, we show that this additional pressure changes the expansion law of the universe leading to further deceleration. Negative vacuum pressure counterbalances this deceleration to an accelerating universe provided that the negative vacuum pressure is greater than 1.5p{sub a}, which we estimate to be of the order 2.1 {center_dot} 10{sup -16} dyn cm{sup -2}.

  9. Numerical simulation on level fluctuation in bloom casting mold with electromagnetic stirring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Ni, H. W.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Z. F.

    2016-03-01

    Based on a 380mm × 280mm bloom caster mold, the level fluctuation of steel-slag interface in the mold was simulated by the VOF model of commercial software Fluent. The effects of current intensity and frequency of EMS (electromagnetic stirring) on the level fluctuation in the mold were studied. The results show that whether or not with EMS, the maximum level fluctuation site of the mold occurs in the vicinity of the submerged entry nozzle. Compared with casting without EMS, molten steel flows horizontally rotatably under the action of the electromagnetic force by electromagnetic stirring, so the impact depth of molten steel decreases, then the level fluctuation slightly reduces, and the maximum level fluctuation value in the wide direction and the narrow direction of the mold, reduce from 4.24mm and 4.14mm to 4.04mm and 3.73mm respectively. With increasing intensity and frequency of current, the mold level fluctuation rises and the distribution uniformity of the level fluctuating amplitude worsens. The maximum level fluctuation enlarges by 0.18mm with raising the current intensity from 450A to 550A, but it enlarges by 0.79mm with 600A current intensity. The maximum level fluctuation enlarges by 0.15mm with raising the current frequency from 1.5Hz to 2.0Hz, but it quickly enlarges by 0.78mm with 2.5Hz current frequency. When the current strength and frequency are not more than 550A and 2.0Hz, level fluctuations are 4.00mm or less, which can meet requirements for controlling the bloom surface quality.

  10. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-10-15

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  11. Electromagnetic fluctuations for anisotropic media and the generalized Kirchhoff's law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the polarimetric emission parameters for anisotropic media are derived using the generalized Kirchhoff's law for media with a uniform temperature and the fluctuation-dissipation theory for media with a temperature profile. Both finite-size objects and half-space media are considered. When the object has a uniform temperature across its body, the Kirchhoff's law, based on the condition of energy conservation in thermal equilibrium is generalized to obtain the emission parameters of an anisotropic medium, which can be interpreted as the absorptivity or the absorption cross section of the complementary object with a permittivity that is the transpose of the original object. When the medium has a nonuniform temperature distribution, the fluctuation-dissipation theory is applied for deriving the covariances between vector components of the thermal currents and, consequently, the covariances of the polarizations of electric fields radiated by the thermal currents. To verify the formulas derived from the fluctuation-dissipation theory, we let the temperature of the object be a constant and show that the results reduce to those obtained from the generalized Kirchhoff's law.

  12. Magnetic fluctuation induced transport in MST (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoneking, M.R.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Ji, H. )

    1995-01-01

    We made local measurements of the magnetic fluctuation induced transport of particles and energy in the outer region ([ital r]/[ital a][gt]0.75) of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. These measurements allow comparison with the Rochester--Rosenbluth stochastic diffusion coefficients. An electrostatic electron energy analyzer and fast pyrobolometer were employed in combination with magnetic pickup coils to directly measure the correlated products [l angle][ital [tilde J

  13. Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations of lower hybrid frequency range in MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    In MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), the detailed magnetic field structure and the plasma profiles of the neutral sheet have been measured and evidences for the physics beyond MHD have been obtained[1]. As the electron-ion collision frequency is reduced, the reconnection rate is observed to be significantly enhanced over the classical value. Both electrostatic and magnetic turbulence of lower hybrid frequency range has been observed in the low collisionality regime. The amplitude of magnetic fluctuation is the largest at the center of neutral sheet while the electropotential fluctuations peak at the edge of the sheath. To describe the physics of this region, much thought has been given to the `` generalized" Ohm's law where electrons and ions are separately treated to satisfy the equations of motion in the neutral sheet plasma. In this `` E-MHD" region electrons but not ions are considered to be magnetized and the lower hybrid drift wave can be connected continuously to an obliquely propagating Whistler wave[2]. In this paper we examine the entire spectrum of waves from the electron cyclotron frequency down to the ion cyclotron frequency. The electric potential fluctuations of lower hybrid frequency were measured [3] and identified as electrostatic lower hybrid drift waves [E-LHDW]. In the present study the properties of elecromagnetic waves are investigated theoretically and compared with the recent experimental data from the MRX neutral sheet plasmas[4]. Also we will discuss physical mechanisms of the enhanced resistivity induced by the electromagnetic waves including magnetic lower hybrid waves [M-LHDW] and Whistler waves. This work is supported by DoE, NASA and NSF. 1. M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol.7, 1781, (2000) 2. R.L. Stenzel and J.M. Urrutia, Phys. Plasmasv.7, 4450, (2000) 3. T. Carter et al., Phys. Rev. Letts. v88, 15001 (2002) 4. H. Ji et al., This meeting (2002)

  14. Fluctuating volume-current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations in inhomogeneous media: Incandescence and luminescence in arbitrary geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Reid, M. T. H.; Jin, Weiliang; Johnson, Steven G.; White, Jacob K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a fluctuating volume-current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that extends our recent work on heat exchange and Casimir interactions between arbitrarily shaped homogeneous bodies [A. W. Rodriguez, M. T. H. Reid, and S. G. Johnson, Phys. Rev. B 88, 054305 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.054305] to situations involving incandescence and luminescence problems, including thermal radiation, heat transfer, Casimir forces, spontaneous emission, fluorescence, and Raman scattering, in inhomogeneous media. Unlike previous scattering formulations based on field and/or surface unknowns, our work exploits powerful techniques from the volume-integral equation (VIE) method, in which electromagnetic scattering is described in terms of volumetric, current unknowns throughout the bodies. The resulting trace formulas (boxed equations) involve products of well-studied VIE matrices and describe power and momentum transfer between objects with spatially varying material properties and fluctuation characteristics. We demonstrate that thanks to the low-rank properties of the associated matrices, these formulas are susceptible to fast-trace computations based on iterative methods, making practical calculations tractable. We apply our techniques to study thermal radiation, heat transfer, and fluorescence in complicated geometries, checking our method against established techniques best suited for homogeneous bodies as well as applying it to obtain predictions of radiation from complex bodies with spatially varying permittivities and/or temperature profiles.

  15. Brownian motion in Robertson-Walker spacetimes from electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa, Carlos H. G.; Bezerra, V. B.; Ford, L. H.

    2009-06-15

    We consider the effects of the vacuum fluctuations of a quantized electromagnetic field on particles in an expanding universe. We find that these particles typically undergo Brownian motion and acquire a nonzero mean squared velocity that depends on the scale factor of the universe. This Brownian motion can be interpreted as due to noncancellation of anticorrelated vacuum fluctuations in the time-dependent background spacetime. Alternatively, one can interpret this effect as the particles acquiring energy from the background spacetime geometry, a phenomenon that cannot occur in a static spacetime. We treat several types of coupling between the electromagnetic field and the particles and several model universes. We also consider both free particles, which, on the average, move on geodesics, and particles in bound systems. There are significant differences between these two cases, which illustrates that nongeodesic motion alters the effects of the vacuum fluctuations. We discuss the possible applications of this Brownian motion effect to cosmological scenarios.

  16. Electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum associated with the drift Alfven-cyclotron instability

    SciTech Connect

    Rha, Kicheol; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Yoon, Peter H.

    2012-07-15

    The present paper investigates the electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum associated with the drift Alfven-cyclotron instability by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, which may be plausibly associated with a current disruption event. The current disruption event shows localized high-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations. In recent theories, these fluctuation characteristics are shown to correspond to the drift Alfven-cyclotron instability. A simulation is carried out to clarify this instability. The simulation shows that the drift Alfven-cyclotron instabilities are excited in two frequency regimes, a relatively low frequency mode propagating in a quasi-perpendicular direction while the second high-frequency branch propagating in a predominantly parallel propagation direction, consistent with observations as well as with a recent theory.

  17. Short distance expansion for fluctuation induced interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emig, Thorsten; Bimonte, Giuseppe

    Fluctuation induced interactions become most prominent in close to proximity to surfaces. Examples include van der Waals and Casimir forces, heat transfer, and spectral shifts for atoms and molecules. In many situations, the surfaces are curved or structured which makes the computation of the interaction in general complicated. Here we present a versatile and powerful approach to this problem which is based on a derivative expansion. It applies to distances much smaller than the radii of surface curvature. Explicit results include orientational effects for anisotropic particles, thermal effects, and spectral modifications.

  18. Electromagnetic fluctuations generated in the boundary layer of laboratory-created ionospheric depletions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Lei, Jiuhou; Cao, Jinxiang; Xu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric depletions, produced by release of attachment chemicals into the ionosphere, were widely investigated and taken as a potential technique for the artificial modification of space weather. In this work, we reported the experimental evidence of spontaneously generated electromagnetic fluctuations in the boundary layer of laboratory-created ionospheric depletions. These depletions were produced by releasing attachment chemicals into the ambient plasmas. Electron density gradients and sheared flows arose in the boundary layer between the ambient and the negative ions plasmas. These generated electromagnetic fluctuations with fundamental frequency f0 = 70 kHz lie in the lower hybrid frequency range, and the mode propagates with angles smaller than 90° (0.3π-0.4π) relative to the magnetic field. Our results revealed that these observed structures were most likely due to electromagnetic components of the electron-ion hybrid instability. This research demonstrates that electromagnetic fluctuations also can be excited during active release experiments, which should be considered as an essential ingredient in the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions.

  19. Electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetized plasmas. I. The rigorous relativistic kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu; Yoon, P. H. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu

    2015-07-15

    Using the system of the Klimontovich and Maxwell equations, the general linear fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is developed. General expressions for the electromagnetic fluctuation spectra (electric and magnetic fields) from uncorrelated plasma particles in plasmas with a uniform magnetic field are derived, which are covariantly correct within the theory of special relativity. The general fluctuation spectra hold for plasmas of arbitrary composition, arbitrary momentum dependences of the plasma particle distribution functions, and arbitrary orientations of the wave vector with respect to the uniform magnetic field. Moreover, no restrictions on the values of the real and the imaginary parts of the frequency are made. The derived fluctuation spectra apply to both non-collective fluctuations and collective plasma eigenmodes in magnetized plasmas. In the latter case, kinetic equations for the components of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in magnetized plasmas are derived that include the effect of spontaneous emission and absorption. In the limiting case of an unmagnetized plasmas, the general fluctuation spectra correctly reduce to the unmagnetized fluctuation spectra derived before.

  20. Effect of the electromagnetic environment on current fluctuations in driven tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann

    2016-07-01

    We examine current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a superposition of a constant and a sinusoidal voltage source. In standard setups, the external voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. The modes of this environment are excited by the time-dependent voltage and are the source of Johnson-Nyquist noise. We determine the autocorrelation function of the current flowing in the leads of the junction in the weak tunneling limit up to terms of second order in the tunneling Hamiltonian. The driven modes of the electromagnetic environment are treated exactly by means of a unitary transformation introduced recently. Particular emphasis is placed on the spectral function of the current fluctuations. The spectrum is found to comprise three contributions: a term arising from the Johnson-Nyquist noise of the environmental impedance, a part due to the shot noise of the tunneling element, and a third contribution which comes from the cross correlation between fluctuations caused by the electromagnetic environment and fluctuations of the tunneling current. All three parts of the spectral function occur already for devices under dc bias. The spectral function of ac driven tunneling elements can be determined from the result for a dc bias by means of a photoassisted tunneling relation of the Tien-Gordon type. Specific results are given for an Ohmic environment and for a junction driven through a resonator.

  1. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the color SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while in SU(3) color fields the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark production in inhomogeneous color fields is done. Motivated by gauge field configurations provided by the color glass condensate framework, we introduce an ensemble of randomly distributed color electric fluxtubes. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quarks by a classical process is shown.

  2. Whistler Cyclotron Electromagnetic Fluctuations in a Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinas, A. F.; Moya, P. S.; Navarro, R.; Araneda, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Observed electron velocity distributions in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind exhibit a variety of non-thermal features which deviate from thermal equilibrium, for example, in the form of temperature anisotropies, suprathermal tail extensions, and field aligned beams. The state close to thermal equilibrium and its departure from it provides a source for spontaneous emissions of electromagnetic fluctuations, such as the whistler. Here we present a comparative analysis of whistler-cyclotron fluctuations based upon anisotropic plasma modeled with Maxwellian and Tsallis kappa-like particle distributions, to explain the correspondence relationship of the magnetic fluctuations as a function of the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy in the solar wind and magnetosphere plasmas. The analysis presented here considers correlation theory of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the dispersion relation of transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature anisotropic thermal bi-Maxwellian and non-thermal Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Dispersion analysis and stability thresholds are derived for these thermal and non-thermal distributions using plasma and field parameters relevant to the solar wind and magnetosphere environments. Our results indicate that there is an enhancement of the fluctuations level in the case of non-thermal distributions due to the effective higher-temperature and the excess of suprathermal particles. These results suggest that a comparison of the electromagnetic fluctuations due to thermal and non-thermal distributions provides a diagnostic signature by which inferences about the nature of the particle velocity distribution function can be ascertained without in-situ particle measurements.

  3. Electromagnetic fluctuations due to current sheet instabilities in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg; Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    In collisionless magnetic reconnection, dissipation region, where frozen-in condition of magnetic field breaks down, develops two scale structure, viz., electron current sheets embedded inside ion current sheets. Instabilities of these current sheets lead to the development of electromagnetic turbulence which can cause anomalous dissipation enhancing the reconnection rate. Laboratory experiments, e.g., Magnetic Reconnection Experiment and VINETA-II have measured fluctuations in electron current sheets in the lower hybrid frequency range. We present simulations of the electromagnetic turbulence generated by current sheet instabilities. The characteristic features of the electromagnetic turbulence, which can be used to identify the unstable modes responsible for the turbulence, will be studied. The results will be compared with the laboratory experiments.

  4. Dephasing-Induced Control of Interference Nature in Three-Level Electromagnetically Induced Tansparency Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong; Yang, Yaping; Chen, Hong; Zhu, Shiyao

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the dephasing on interference is investigated theoretically and experimentally in three-level electromagnetically induced transparency systems. The nature of the interference, constructive, no interference or destructive, can be controlled by adjusting the dephasing rates. This new phenomenon is experimentally observed in meta-atoms. The physics behind the dephasing-induced control of interference nature is the competing between stimulated emission and spontaneous emission. The random phase fluctuation due to the dephasing will result in the correlation and anti-correlation between the two dressed states, which will enhance and reduce the stimulated emission, respectively. PMID:26567708

  5. Strong ion energization by electromagnetic fluctuations in plasmoid-like magnetic structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorenko, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies based on data from many magnetospheric missions reported the observations of energetic ions with energies of hundreds of keV in the Earth magnetotail. The acceleration of charged particles to energies exceeding the potential drop across the tail can be produced by strong inductive electric fields generated in the course of transient processes related to changes of the magnetic field topology: e.g., magnetic reconnection, dipolarization, magnetic turbulence, and so on. The observations of energetic ion flows by Cluster/RAPID instruments in the near-Earth tail show the increase of H+, He+, and O+ fluxes in the energy range ≥130 keV during the periods of the tailward flows. The hardening of ion spectra is observed inside the plasmoid-like magnetic structures propagating tailward through the Cluster spacecraft. Simultaneously, the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations were observed in such structures. The analysis of 37 events demonstrated that the following factors are favorable for the ion energization: (1) the spatial scale of a plasmoid should exceed the thermal gyroradius of a given ion component in the plasmoid neutral plane; (2) the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the magnetic fluctuations near the gyrofrequency of a particular ion component should exceed ~ 50.0 nT2/Hz for oxygen ions; while the energization of He+ and H+ takes place for much lower values of the PSD. The kinetic analysis of ion dynamics in the plasmoid-like magnetic configurations with the superimposed electromagnetic fluctuations similar to the observed ones confirms the importance of ion resonant interactions with the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations for ion energization inside plasmoids. The analysis also show that to be strongly accelerated ions do not need to pass a large distance in the duskward direction and the effective energization can be reached even at the localized source. Thus, ion acceleration by the electromagnetic fluctuations may smear the dawn

  6. Electromagnetically induced gain in molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced gain in a highly degenerate two-level rotational vibrational molecular system. Using two photon (Raman-type) interaction with right and left circularly polarized pump and probe waves, the Zeeman coherence is established within the manifold of degenerate sublevels belonging to a rotational vibrational eigenstate. We analytically and numerically calculate the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for a Doppler-broadened molecular transition for an arbitrary high rotational angular momentum (J≥20) . It is shown that for a Q -type open transition, a weak probe will experience an electromagnetically induced gain in presence of a strong copropagating pump wave. The inversionless gain originates due to cancellation of absorption from the interference of the coupled Λ - and V-type excitation channels in an N -type configuration. A detailed analysis of the optical susceptibility as a function of Doppler detuning explains how the gain bands are generated in a narrow transparency window from the overlapping contributions of different velocity groups. It is shown that the orientation dependent coherent interaction in presence of a strong pump induces narrow resonances for the probe susceptibility. The locations, intensity, and sign (positive or negative susceptibility) of these resonances are decided by the frequency detuning of the Doppler group and the strength of the coupling field. The availability of high power tunable quantum cascade lasers covering a spectral region from about 4 to 12μm opens up the possibility of investigating the molecular vibrational rotational transitions for a variety of coherent effects.

  7. Protecting quantum coherence of two-level atoms from vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaobao; Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the dynamics of a static polarizable two-level atom interacting with a bath of fluctuating vacuum electromagnetic field and explore under which conditions the coherence of the open quantum system is unaffected by the environment. For both a single-qubit and two-qubit systems, we find that the quantum coherence cannot be protected from noise when the atom interacts with a non-boundary electromagnetic field. However, with the presence of a boundary, the dynamical conditions for the insusceptible of quantum coherence are fulfilled only when the atom is close to the boundary and is transversely polarizable. Otherwise, the quantum coherence can only be protected in some degree in other polarizable direction.

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yanhong; Wang Tun; Baryakhtar, Maria; Jiang Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Van Camp, Mackenzie; Crescimanno, Michael; Hohensee, Michael; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Phillips, David F.; Yelin, Susanne F.

    2009-10-15

    We demonstrate and characterize two coherent phenomena that can mitigate the effects of laser phase noise for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT): a laser-power-broadening-resistant resonance in the transmitted intensity cross correlation between EIT optical fields, and a resonant suppression of the conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise when one-photon noise dominates over two-photon-detuning noise. Our experimental observations are in good agreement with both an intuitive physical picture and numerical calculations. The results have wide-ranging applications to spectroscopy, atomic clocks, and magnetometers.

  9. Electromagnetically induced grating with maximal atomic coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Silvania A.; Araujo, Luis E. E. de

    2011-10-15

    We describe theoretically an atomic diffraction grating that combines an electromagnetically induced grating with a coherence grating in a double-{Lambda} atomic system. With the atom in a condition of maximal coherence between its lower levels, the combined gratings simultaneously diffract both the incident probe beam as well as the signal beam generated through four-wave mixing. A special feature of the atomic grating is that it will diffract any beam resonantly tuned to any excited state of the atom accessible by a dipole transition from its ground state.

  10. Enhancement of residual stress by electromagnetic fluctuations: A quasi-linear study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaang, Helen H.; Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    A study is conducted on the impact of electromagnetic (EM) fluctuations on residual Reynolds stress in the context of the quasi-linear theory. We employ a fluid formulation describing EM ion temperature gradient turbulence. Analyses show that finite plasma β (=plasma thermal energy/magnetic energy) significantly increases the residual stress, potentially leading to the strong enhancement of flow generation in high β plasmas. We identify that this strong increase of residual stress originates from the reinforcement of radial ⟨ k ∥ ⟩ (=spectrally averaged parallel wavenumber) asymmetry due to the deformation of eigenfunctions near a rational surface.

  11. Magnetic pumping by magnetosonic waves in the presence of noncompressive electromagnetic fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the damping of magnetosonic waves via magnetic pumping in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuations that can pitch-angle scatter the plasma particles are presented. From the first simulation it is found that the magnetosonic-wave energy is transferred to high-energy particles. In the second type of simulation, magnetosonic waves produce a hot surface layer on the plasma that is ablated by the wave energy. Solution of a Fokker-Planck equation for the magnetic-pumping process is found to adequately represent magnetic pumping by small-amplitude magnetosonic waves.

  12. On the Transport and Radiative Properties of Plasmas with Small-Scale Electromagnetic Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett D.

    Plasmas with sub-Larmor-scale ("small-scale") electromagnetic fluctuations are a feature of a wide variety of high-energy-density environments, and are essential to the description of many astrophysical/laboratory plasma phenomena. Radiation from particles, whether they be relativistic or non-relativistic, moving through small-scale electromagnetic turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation. The radiation, carrying information on the statistical properties of the turbulence, is also intimately related to the particle diffusive transport. We investigate, both theoretically and numerically, the transport of non-relativistic and transrelativistic particles in plasmas with high-amplitude isotropic sub-Larmor-scale magnetic turbulence---both with and without a mean field component---and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. Furthermore, the transport of particles through small-scale electromagnetic turbulence---under certain conditions---resembles the random transport of particles---via Coulomb collisions---in collisional plasmas. The pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective "collision" frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma "quasi-collisionality", may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, novel, diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale electromagnetic turbulence. Lastly, we speculate upon the manner in which quasi-collisions may affect inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and other laser-plasma experiments. Finally, we show that mildly relativistic jitter radiation, from laser-produced plasmas, may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here we investigate the

  13. Spontaneous excitation of a circularly accelerated atom coupled to electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yao; Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-05-15

    We study, using the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji, the contributions of the vacuum fluctuation and radiation reaction to the rate of change of the mean atomic energy for a circularly accelerated multilevel atom coupled to vacuum electromagnetic fields in the ultrarelativistic limit. We find that the balance between vacuum fluctuation and radiation reaction is broken, which causes spontaneous excitations of accelerated ground state atoms in vacuum. Unlike for a circularly accelerated atom coupled to vacuum scalar fields, the contribution of radiation reaction is also affected by acceleration, and this term takes the same form as that of a linearly accelerated atom coupled to vacuum electromagnetic fields. For the contribution of vacuum fluctuations, we find that in contrast to the linear acceleration case, terms proportional to the Planckian factor are replaced by those proportional to a non-Planck exponential term, and this indicates that the radiation perceived by a circularly orbiting observer is no longer thermal as is in the linear acceleration case. However, for an ensemble of two-level atoms, an effective temperature can be defined in terms of the atomic transition rates, which is found to be dependent on the transition frequency of the atom. Specifically, we calculate the effective temperature as a function of the transition frequency and find that in contrast to the case of circularly accelerated atoms coupled to the scalar field, the effective temperature in the current case is always larger than the Unruh temperature. -- Highlights: •We study the spontaneous excitation of a circularly accelerated atom. •Contribution of radiation reaction to the excitation is affected by acceleration. •The radiation perceived by a circularly orbiting observer is no longer thermal. •An effective temperature can be defined in terms of atomic transition rates. •Effective temperature is larger than Unruh temperature and frequency-dependent.

  14. Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic and electrostatic fluctuations in magnetized plasmas: Quasi-parallel modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunjung; Yoon, Peter H.; Choe, G. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper is devoted to the theoretical and numerical analysis of the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations characterized by quasi-parallel wave vectors relative to the ambient magnetic field. The formulation is based upon the Klimontovich plasma kinetic theory. The comparative study is carried out between the spontaneously emitted field fluctuation spectrum constructed on the basis of a single Maxellian velocity distribution function (VDF) and the spectrum that arises from multi-component electron VDFs similar to those found in the solar wind. Typical solar wind electron VDF is composed of a Gaussian core and kappa distributions of halo and super-halo components. Of these, the halo and super-halo populations represent tenuous but energetic components. It is found that the energetic electrons make important contributions to the total emission spectrum. It is also found that the halo electrons are largely responsible for the emission spectrum in the whistler frequency range, whereas the more energetic super-halo electrons emit quasi-longitudinal fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range, thus validating the recent quasi-steady state model of the solar wind electrons put forth by the present authors [Kim et al., Astrophys. J. 806, 32 (2015); Yoon et al., Astrophys. J. 812, 169 (2015)].

  15. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch-near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  16. Classical analogs of double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-03-01

    Double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in a four-level atomic system with tripod-type energy-level configuration is modeled by using two classical systems. The first is a set of three coupled harmonic oscillators subject to frictional forces and external drives and the second is a set of three coupled RLC circuits with electric resistors and alternating voltage sources. It is shown that both of the two classical systems have absorption spectra of DEIT similar to that of the four-level tripod-type atomic system. These classical analogies provide simple and intuitive physical description of quantum interference processes and can be used to illustrate experimental observations of the DEIT in quantum systems.

  17. Structural fluctuation of proteins induced by thermodynamic perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Fumio; Akasaka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-28

    A theory to describe structural fluctuations of protein induced by thermodynamic perturbations, pressure, temperature, and denaturant, is proposed. The theory is formulated based on the three methods in the statistical mechanics: the generalized Langevin theory, the linear response theory, and the three dimensional interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. The theory clarifies how the change in thermodynamic conditions, or a macroscopic perturbation, induces the conformational fluctuation, which is a microscopic property. The theoretical results are applied, on the conceptual basis, to explain the experimental finding by Akasaka et al., concerning the NMR experiment which states that the conformational change induced by pressure corresponds to structural fluctuations occurring in the ambient condition. A method to evaluate the structural fluctuation induced by pressure is also suggested by means of the 3D-RISM and the site-site Kirkwood-Buff theories.

  18. Electromagnetic pulse-induced current measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Chen, Jin Y.

    1991-08-01

    To develop safety guidelines for exposure to high fields associated with an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), it is necessary to devise techniques that would measure the peak current induced in the human body. The main focus of this project was to design, fabricate, and test a portable, self-contained stand-on device that would measure and hold the peak current and the integrated change Q. The design specifications of the EMP-Induced Current Measurement Device are as follows: rise time of the current pulse, 5 ns; peak current, 20-600 A; charge Q, 0-20 microcoulombs. The device uses a stand-on parallel-plate bilayer sensor and fast high-frequency circuit that are well-shielded against spurious responses to high incident fields. Since the polarity of the incident peak electric field of the EMP may be either positive or negative, the induced peak current can also be positive or negative. Therefore, the device is designed to respond to either of these polarities and measure and hold both the peak current and the integrated charge which are simultaneously displayed on two separate 3-1/2 digit displays. The prototype device has been preliminarily tested with the EMP's generated at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (ALECS facility) at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.

  19. QED vacuum fluctuations and induced electric dipole moment of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, C. A.; Falomir, H.; Ipinza, M.; Loewe, M.; Kohler, S.; Rojas, J. C.

    2009-08-01

    Quantum fluctuations in the QED vacuum generate nonlinear effects, such as peculiar induced electromagnetic fields. In particular, we show here that an electrically neutral particle, possessing a magnetic dipole moment, develops an induced electric dipole-type moment with unusual angular dependence, when immersed in a quasistatic, constant external electric field. The calculation of this effect is done in the framework of the Euler-Heisenberg effective QED Lagrangian, corresponding to the weak field asymptotic expansion of the effective action to one-loop order. It is argued that the neutron might be a good candidate to probe this signal of nonlinearity in QED.

  20. Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation

    SciTech Connect

    T.S. Hahm; P.H. Diamond; E.-J. Kim

    2002-07-29

    We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation.

  1. Phase modulation induced by cooperative effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischhaker, Robert; Evers, Joerg; Dey, Tarak N.

    2010-07-15

    We analyze the influence of dipole-dipole interactions in an electromagnetically induced transparency set up for a density at the onset of cooperative effects. To this end, we include mean-field models for the influence of local-field corrections and radiation trapping into our calculation. We show both analytically and numerically that the polarization contribution to the local field strongly modulates the phase of a weak pulse. We give an intuitive explanation for this local-field-induced phase modulation and demonstrate that it distinctively differs from the nonlinear self-phase-modulation that a strong pulse experiences in a Kerr medium.

  2. The JASE project: study of electromagnetic fields fluctuation from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denies, Jonathan

    The Sun's energy has a beneficial interest for all but can be also destructive. On Earth under the protection of the magnetosphere, we can easily use this energy. Outside this protection, this situation is not the identical. Without this shield, astronauts are exposed to the radiations from Sun. Radiation is permanent. Sometimes, the Sun eject in his entourage more particles than usual increased to very high temperature. The most violent solar eruption can reach several million kilometres. During these solar eruptions, electric manifestation, named solar flares, escape from Sun. The JASE project (JUMP Astronaut Safety Experiment) consists into study electromagnetic fields fluctuation from the Sun during the JUMP Martian mission simulation in the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), a habitat installed by the Mars Society (MS) in the Utah desert. The aim of this study is to exploit the electromagnetic manifestation to develop a time model between the first observation of a solar flares and the mater ejection involved. This time model will give an approximation to the astronaut on the time remaining before the arrival of harmful particles. During this time, the astronaut must find a protected location (in the module life, in a cave etc.). To achieve this radio astronomy project, we need four main parts. The first one consists to design and assemble a small and portable radiotelescop developed to catch wave in a defined bandwidth. The frequency of interest is between 150 and 153Mhz. These frequencies correspond to an ejection of type II and III. The second one is to calibrate and test all device of this radiotelescop to take account of surrounding noise. These noises have several possible sources: the heat, local or global human activity, electronic, astronomical, etc. The next point consists to use this and detect all electromagnetic fluctuation. The last point consists to couple all sampling with data from a particle detector to develop the time model of the arrival

  3. Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Fluctuation in the Boundary Layer of Laboratory-Created Ionospheric Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Cao, J.; Xu, L.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric depletions have been frequently artificially-created in the past decades from releasing attachment chemicals[Mendillo and Forbes, 1978]. In the early phase of the ionospheric depletion, a boundary layer of width of electric scale length emerged and separated the ionosphere into two regions, the ambient plasmas and the negative ion plasmas. In the localized boundary layer, there exists sharp electron gradients and strong sheared flows, which have a pronounced effect on the nonlinear evolution of many plasma systems. Therefore, it reflects essential research significance to study the boundary layer processes in an ionospheric depletion. However, until now, few experiments have specially designed and conducted to characterize and study those boundary layer processes[ Liu et al., 2014]. In the work, We studied the evolution of boundary layer in laboratory-created ionospheric depletions. These experiments were performed in plasma conditions with key dimensionless parameters scaled to those of the ionosphere. These electrons depletions were produced by releasing attachment chemicals into pre-existing plasmas. These plasmas were separated into two regions by a boundary layer of width of electric scale length. In the modeling ionospheric hole, localized boundary layer, those fluctuations of the electron density , floating potential, and magnetic field were investigated varying with the plasma pressure and the partial pressure of released chemicals. These fluctuations were recorded by Langmuir probes and magnetic probes. We analyzed the fluctuation using digital spectral analysis techniques, and electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid range were observed. These modes may be electron-ion hybrid(EIH) and whistler mode, respectively. The possibility will be discussed in more detail during the presentation. Reference Liu, Y., J. Cao, L. Xu, X. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Du, and Z. Zheng (2014a), Coherent structure generated in the

  4. Observation of an electromagnetically induced grating in cold sodium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsunaga, Masaharu; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    1999-06-01

    We have observed diffraction signals by a grating originating from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a three-level Λ system of cold sodium atoms. Theoretical and experimental analyses of this phenomenon, called the electromagnetically induced grating (EIG), have revealed that EIG spectra exhibit background-free, Lorentzian signal profiles regardless of the pump frequencies, making a clear contrast to the case of ordinary EIT spectra.

  5. Laser frequency locking based on Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuechun, Jiao; Jingkui, Li; Limei, Wang; Hao, Zhang; Linjie, Zhang; Jianming, Zhao; Suotang, Jia

    2016-05-01

    We present a laser frequency locking to Rydberg transition with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra in a room-temperature cesium vapor cell. Cesium levels 6S1/2, 6P3/2, and the nD5/2 state, compose a cascade three-level system, where a coupling laser drives Rydberg transition, and probe laser detects the EIT signal. The error signal, obtained by demodulating the EIT signal, is used to lock the coupling laser frequency to Rydberg transition. The laser frequency fluctuation, ∼0.7 MHz, is obtained after locking on, with the minimum Allan variance to be 8.9 × 10‑11. This kind of locking method can be used to stabilize the laser frequency to the excited transition. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921603), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11274209, 61475090, 61378039, and 61378013), and the Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2014-009).

  6. Kinetic model of collective scattering off fast ion generated electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetized Vlasov plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkinen, J.A.; Dumbrajs, O.

    1996-02-01

    From the general three-wave coupling formalism in magnetized nonrelativistic Vlasov plasma, an expression is derived that gives the differential cross section for the scattering of incident radiation off of thermal fluctuations induced by ions in a hot magnetized plasma. The model is valid to any order in thermal parameters, and can thus generalize the previous theory models to regimes where either the electron Larmor radius or the electron cyclotron resonance are significant for the scattered wave. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Quasicollisional magneto-optic effects in collisionless plasmas with sub-Larmor-scale electromagnetic fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Brett D; Ford, Alexander L; Medvedev, Mikhail V

    2015-11-01

    High-amplitude, chaotic or turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in high-energy-density laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on "sub-Larmor scales"-scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective "collision" frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma "quasicollisionality," may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence, as well as affect inertial confinement fusion and other laser-plasma experiments. PMID:26651797

  8. Quasicollisional magneto-optic effects in collisionless plasmas with sub-Larmor-scale electromagnetic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Ford, Alexander L.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    High-amplitude, chaotic or turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in high-energy-density laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on "sub-Larmor scales"—scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective "collision" frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma "quasicollisionality," may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence, as well as affect inertial confinement fusion and other laser-plasma experiments.

  9. Fluctuation-induced in-plane magnetoconductivity in bilayered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ramallo, M.V.; Mosqueira, J.; Vidal, F.; Pomar, A.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper the authors summarize some of their theoretical results for the paraconductivity and for the fluctuation-induced in-plane magnetoconductivity in the weak magnetic field limit of layered superconductors with several interlayer separations. Also, they briefly discuss the existing experimental data obtained in untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} crystals.

  10. Differential interferometry for measurement of density fluctuations and fluctuation-induced transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Bergerson, W. F.; Yates, T. F.

    2010-10-15

    Differential interferometry employs two parallel laser beams with a small spatial offset (less than beam width) and frequency difference (1-2 MHz) using common optics and a single mixer for a heterodyne detection. The differential approach allows measurement of the electron density gradient, its fluctuations, as well as the equilibrium density distribution. This novel interferometry technique is immune to fringe skip errors and is particularly useful in harsh plasma environments. Accurate calibration of the beam spatial offset, accomplished by use of a rotating dielectric wedge, is required to enable broad application of this approach. Differential interferometry has been successfully used on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch plasma to directly measure fluctuation-induced transport along with equilibrium density profile evolution during pellet injection. In addition, by combining differential and conventional interferometry, both linear and nonlinear terms of the electron density fluctuation energy equation can be determined, thereby allowing quantitative investigation of the origin of the density fluctuations. The concept, calibration, and application of differential interferometry are presented.

  11. Fluctuation-Induced Interactions in external magnetic fields: Casimir force and Radiative Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul

    Thermally induced electromagnetic fields give rise to the Casimir force and the near field heat transfer between two bodies separated by a gap. These phenomena are described by Rytova's theory of fluctuating electromagnetic fields and both the Casimir force and the near field heat transfer depend on the local dielectric function of the bodies. In this work we present a theoretical calculation on the modulation of fluctuation-induced interactions in the presence of an external magnetic field. The system consists of two parallel plates separated by a gap d. Each plate is isotropic and has a local dielectric function. Applying an external magnetic field parallel to the plates, in the so called Voigt configuration, the plates become anisotropic. In particular, we consider plates of InSb. For the Casimir force the two plates are kept at the same temperature and the external field reduces the magnitude of the force. Similarly if the two plates are kept at different temperature the near field radiative heat transfer is modulated by the magnitude of the external magnetic field. The results are extended to semiconducting quantum wells. In both cases, the excitation of magnetoplasmons provides an explanation for the observed effect.

  12. Slipstream-induced pressure fluctuations on a wing panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunggren, Sten; Samuelsson, Ingemar; Widig, Kurt

    1989-10-01

    Propeller-induced pressure fluctuations have been measured on a wind-tunnel model. The results show that the main contribution on the wing panels can be attributed to the propeller tip vortex, which gives a pressure level at least 20 dB above the level from the inner parts of the propeller. The pressure fluctuations are predominantly periodic and the spectrum shows strong peaks at the blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The pressure level at the blade passage frequency is approximately the same on wing panel and fuselage, while the level of the higher harmonics is substantially higher on the wing panel than on the fuselage.

  13. Fluctuation-induced casimir forces in granular fluids.

    PubMed

    Cattuto, C; Brito, R; Marconi, U Marini Bettolo; Nori, F; Soto, R

    2006-05-01

    We numerically investigate the behavior of driven noncohesive granular media and find that two fixed large intruder particles, immersed in a sea of small particles, experience, in addition to a short-range depletion force, a long-range repulsive force. The observed long-range interaction is fluctuation-induced and we propose a mechanism similar to the Casimir effect that generates it: The hydrodynamic fluctuations are geometrically confined between the intruders, producing an unbalanced renormalized pressure. An estimation based on computing the possible Fourier modes explains the repulsive force and is in qualitative agreement with the simulations. PMID:16712336

  14. Hydrodynamic fluctuation-induced forces in confined fluids.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Christopher; Naji, Ali; Horgan, Ronald; Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2016-01-14

    We study thermal, fluctuation-induced hydrodynamic interaction forces in a classical, compressible, viscous fluid confined between two rigid, planar walls with no-slip boundary conditions. We calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations using the linearized, stochastic Navier-Stokes formalism of Landau and Lifshitz. The mean fluctuation-induced force acting on the fluid boundaries vanishes in this system, so we evaluate the two-point, time-dependent force correlations. The equal-time correlation function of the forces acting on a single wall gives the force variance, which we show to be finite and independent of the plate separation at large inter-plate distances. The equal-time, cross-plate force correlation, on the other hand, decays with the inverse inter-plate distance and is independent of the fluid viscosity at large distances; it turns out to be negative over the whole range of plate separations, indicating that the two bounding plates are subjected to counter-phase correlations. We show that the time-dependent force correlations exhibit damped temporal oscillations for small plate separations and a more irregular oscillatory behavior at large separations. The long-range hydrodynamic correlations reported here represent a "secondary Casimir effect", because the mean fluctuation-induced force, which represents the primary Casimir effect, is absent. PMID:26477742

  15. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwolińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  16. Electromagnetic fluctuations of the whistler-cyclotron and firehose instabilities in a Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto E.; Valdivia, J. Alejandro; Araneda, Jaime A.; Muñoz, Víctor

    2015-05-01

    Observed electron velocity distributions in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind exhibit a variety of nonthermal features which deviate from thermal equilibrium, for example, in the form of temperature anisotropies, suprathermal tail extensions, and field-aligned beams. The state close to thermal equilibrium and its departure from it provides a source for spontaneous emissions of electromagnetic fluctuations, such as the whistler. Here we present a comparative analysis of the electron whistler-cyclotron and firehose fluctuations based upon anisotropic plasma modeled with Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like particle distributions, to explain the correspondence relationship of the magnetic fluctuations as a function of the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy in the solar wind and magnetosphere plasmas. The analysis presented here considers correlation theory of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the dispersion relation of transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature anisotropic thermal bi-Maxwellian and nonthermal Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Dispersion analysis and stability thresholds are derived for these thermal and nonthermal distributions using plasma and field parameters relevant to the solar wind and magnetosphere environments. Our results indicate that there is an enhancement of the fluctuations level in the case of nonthermal distributions due to the effective higher temperature and the excess of suprathermal particles. These results suggest that a comparison of the electromagnetic fluctuations due to thermal and nonthermal distributions provides a diagnostic signature by which inferences about the nature of the particle velocity distribution function can be ascertained without in situ particle measurements.

  17. Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Shai; Shashar, Nadav

    2006-07-01

    The underwater light field is an ever-changing environment. Surface waves induce variability in the radiance and the light's polarization. We examined the dependence of the polarization fluctuations associated with diffuse light (not including contribution from direct skylight) on the viewing zenith angle (30 degrees, 70 degrees, and 90 degrees), solar zenith angle (23 degrees -72 degrees), depth of 0.5-3 m, and light wavelength (380-650 nm) while observing within the azimuthal plane in the wind-wave direction. Polarization and radiance fluctuated with time. Light variability (presented by the coefficient of variation calculated over a series of fluctuations in the radiance and percent polarization, and by the standard deviation calculated over a series of fluctuations in the e-vector orientation) was highest at a viewing zenith angle of 70 degrees , depended positively on the solar zenith angle, and decreased with depth at viewing zenith angles of 30 degrees and 70 degrees . Additionally, the variability of the percent polarization was significantly higher than that of the radiance. The temporal light fluctuations offer possibilities, such as enhancing the detection of transparent and reflecting objects; however, they set constraints on the optimal underwater polarization vision by both animals and by the use of instruments. PMID:16799688

  18. Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Density Relaxation in a Stochastic Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brower, David L.

    2009-11-01

    Particle transport and density relaxation associated with electromagnetic fluctuations is an unresolved problem of long standing in plasma physics and magnetic fusion research. In toroidal fusion plasmas, magnetic field fluctuations can arise spontaneously from global MHD instabilities, e.g., tearing fluctuations associated with sawtooth oscillations. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) have also been externally imposed to mitigate the effect of edge localized modes (ELMs) by locally enhancing edge transport in Tokamaks. Understanding stochastic-field-driven transport processes is thus not only of basic science interest but possibly critical to ELM control in ITER. We report on the first direct measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle transport in the core of a high-temperature plasma, the MST reversed field pinch. Measurements focus on the sawtooth crash, when the stochastic field resulting from tearing reconnection is strongest, and are accomplished using newly developed, laser-based, differential interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques. The measured electron particle flux, resulting from the correlated product of electron density (δn) and radial magnetic fluctuations (δbr), accounts for density profile relaxation during these magnetic reconnection events. Surprisingly, the electron diffusion is 30 times larger than estimates of ambipolarity-constrained transport in a stochastic magnetic field. A significant ion flux associated with parallel ion flow velocity fluctuations (δvi,//) correlated with δbr appears responsible for transport larger than predictions from the quasi-linear test particle model. These results indicate the need for improved understanding of particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. Work performed in collaboration with W.X. Ding, W.F. Bergerson, T.F. Yates, UCLA; D.J. Den Hartog, G. Fiksel, S.C. Prager, J.S. Sarff and the MST Group, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  19. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Yates, T. Y.

    2008-10-15

    Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial particle transport is achieved by combining various interferometry techniques, including Faraday rotation, conventional interferometry, and differential interferometry. It is observed that electron convective particle flux and its divergence exhibit a significant increase during a sawtooth crash. In this paper, we describe the basic techniques employed to determine the particle flux.

  20. Electromagnetically induced grating in a crystal of molecular magnets system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jibing; Liu, Na; Shan, Chuanjia; Liu, Tangkun; Li, Hong; Zheng, Anshou; Xie, Xiao-Tao

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the response of the molecular system to the magnetic field modulation. Molecular magnets are subjected to a strong standing ac magnetic field and a weak probe magnetic field. The transmission and absorption of the weak probe magnetic field can be changed due to quantum coherence and the spatially modulating of the standing field. And a electromagnetically induced grating is formed in the crystal of molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The diffraction efficiency of the grating can be adjusted efficiently by tuning the intensity of the standing wave field and the single photon detuning.

  1. Explosive spread F caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, C. P.; Freidberg, J. P.; Lee, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Lightning-produced electromagnetic effects may produce significant modifications in the ionospheric plasmas. An outstanding phenomenon investigated in this paper is the so-called explosive spread F, whose close link with lightning has been identified (Woodman and Kudeki, 1984). Parametric instability excited by the lightning-induced whistler waves is proposed as a potential source mechanism causing the explosive spread F.

  2. Geometry-induced fluctuations of olfactory searches in bounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan Duque; Gómez-Ullate, David; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    In olfactory search an immobile target emits chemical molecules at constant rate. The molecules are transported by the medium, which is assumed to be turbulent. Considering a searcher able to detect such chemical signals and whose motion follows the infotaxis strategy, we study the statistics of the first-passage time to the target when the searcher moves on a finite two-dimensional lattice of different geometries. Far from the target, where the concentration of chemicals is low, the direction of the searcher's first movement is determined by the geometry of the domain and the topology of the lattice, inducing strong fluctuations on the average search time with respect to the initial position of the searcher. The domain is partitioned in well-defined regions characterized by the direction of the first movement. If the search starts over the interface between two different regions, large fluctuations in the search time are observed.

  3. Thermoelectricity in polymer composites due to fluctuation-induced tunneling.

    PubMed

    Stedman, T; Wei, K; Nolas, G S; Woods, L M

    2015-11-01

    Transport in heavily-doped polymer composites, characterized by localized charge regions, is examined in light of the recent interest in polymers for thermoelectric applications. The developed fundamental transport theory describes carrier tunneling between charged localizations by taking into account thermally induced fluctuations of the applied potential. A range of characteristic behaviors corresponding to experimental data are described. Deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law are also identified. This novel theory enables the determination of factors dominating the transport in polymers and a comparison to tunneling without thermal fluctuations is also provided. The obtained asymptotic expressions for the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and carrier thermal conductivity are particularly useful for elucidating possible routes for thermoelectric transport control and optimization. PMID:26437575

  4. Eustatic sea level fluctuations induced by polar wander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabadini, Roberto; Doglioni, Carlo; Yuen, David A.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that polar wander of a viscoelastic, stratified earth can induce global sea level fluctuations comparable to the short-term component in eustatic sea-level curves. The sign of these fluctuations, which are very sensitive to the rheological stratification, depends on the geographical location of the observation point; rises and falls in sea level can thus be coeval in different parts of the world. This finding is a distinct contrast to the main assumption underlying the reconstruction of eustatic curves, namely that global sea-level events produce the same depositional sequence everywhere. It is proposed that polar wander should be added to the list of geophysical mechanisms that can control the third-order cycles in sea level.

  5. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S.; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely explored. Here we present the observation of the EIA analog due to constructive interference in a vertically coupled three-resonator metamaterial system that consists of two bright and one dark resonator. The absorption resonance is one of the collective modes of the tripartite unit cell. Theoretical analysis shows that the absorption arises from a magnetic resonance induced by the near-field coupling of the three resonators within the unit cell. A classical analog of EIA opens up opportunities for designing novel photonic devices for narrow-band filtering, absorptive switching, optical modulation, and absorber applications. PMID:26023061

  6. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely explored. Here we present the observation of the EIA analog due to constructive interference in a vertically coupled three-resonator metamaterial system that consists of two bright and one dark resonator. The absorption resonance is one of the collective modes of the tripartite unit cell. Theoretical analysis shows that the absorption arises from a magnetic resonance induced by the near-field coupling of the three resonators within the unit cell. A classical analog of EIA opens up opportunities for designing novel photonic devices for narrow-band filtering, absorptive switching, optical modulation, and absorber applications. PMID:26023061

  7. The role of higher-order modes on the electromagnetic whistler-cyclotron wave fluctuations of thermal and non-thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, District of Columbia 20064 ; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jaime A.

    2014-01-15

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the β{sub e} increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron–proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  8. The Role of Higher-Order Modes on the Electromagnetic Whistler-Cyclotron Wave Fluctuations of Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the beta(sub e) increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  9. Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors.

  10. Materials for damping the PTC-induced thermal fluctuations of the cold-head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarino, I.; Martins, D.; Sudiwala, R.

    2015-12-01

    The cold head on mechanical Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTCs) is subject to substantially less mechanical vibration and electromagnetic interference compared to that typically found in Gifford MacMahon coolers. However, thermal fluctuations at the PTC frequency are still present at the cold-head, typically at a level of 200 mK peak-to-peak at 1.4 Hz for a Cryomech Model PT405 cooler running at 4 K. It is highly desirable to damp out these fluctuations if PTCs are to be used successfully for running systems sensitive to such thermal fluctuations, for example, bolometeric detectors. We report here the characterization over the temperature range 2.5 K to 6 K of two materials, GOS (Gd2O2S) and GAP (GdAlO3), for use as low-pass thermal filters. These materials have antiferromagnetic transitions at around 4 K giving rise to an enhanced heat capacity and have a high thermal conductance. These are two highly desirable properties for thermal dampers in this application. Those materials were fired as ceramic discs to be tested as thermal dumpers. Thermal filter assemblies with discs of diameter 75 mm and thickness 2.5 mm and 1.6 mm (GOS and GAP, respectively) mounted in a PTC show thermal attenuation levels of x0.12 (GOS) and x0.11 (GAP) at 0.01Hz with a clean-side temperature of 4 K; the PTC induced fluctuations at 1.48 Hz are damped completely to within the noise limits (0.2 mK) of the thermometers. Experimentally determined thermal conductance and heat capacity data are reported. For this system, with a PTC cold-head (dirty-side) temperature of 3.3 K, a clean-side power dissipation of up to 30 mW is realized before its temperature rises above 4.2 K.

  11. Birefringence effects of short probe pulses of electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshkov, Oleg M.; Kochetkova, Anastasia E.; Budyak, Victoria V.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical simulation results of radiations evolution in the presence of electromagnetically induced transparency for J=0-->J=1-->J=2 scheme of degenerate quantum transitions are presented. The pulse regime of wave interaction with Doppler broadening spectral lines was investigated. It was indicated that when the control field is linear polarized, the input circular polarized probe pulse breaks up in the medium into pulses with mutually perpendicular linear polarizations. Polarization direction of one of these pulses coincides with the polarization direction of control fields. The distance, which probe pulse passes in the medium to its full separation, decreases, when input probe pulse duration or control field intensity decreases. The input probe pulse intensity variation almost does not influence separation distance and speed of the linear polarized probe pulses in the medium. The effects, described above, may be interpreted as the birefringence effects of electromagnetically induced transparency in the case of short probe pulse.

  12. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in a composite superconducting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Hong-rong; Chen, Dong-xu; Liu, Wen-xiao; Li, Fu-li

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically propose an efficient method to realize electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the microwave regime through a coupled system consisting of a flux qubit and a superconducting LC resonator. Driven by two appropriate microwave fields, the system will be trapped in the dark states. In our proposal, the control field of EIT is played by a second-order transfer rather than by a direct strong-pump field. In particular, we obtained conditions for electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in this composite system. Both theoretical and numerical results show that this EIT system benefits from the relatively long coherent time of the resonator. Since this whole system is artificial and tunable, our scheme may have potential applications in various domains.

  13. Electromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-propagating Lasers in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = G. Shvets; A. Pukhov

    1998-05-01

    The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma is considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can also be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. This phenomenon of electromagnetically induced guiding can be utilized in laser-driven plasma accelerators.

  14. Spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas. VI. Transverse, collective mode for arbitrary distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, T.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2013-10-15

    Using the general expressions for the magnetic fluctuation spectrum from uncorrelated plasma particles, it is shown that an isotropic, unmagnetized plasma with arbitrary momentum distribution function spontaneously emits an aperiodic, collective, transverse, damped mode. The collective mode with the dispersion relation γ(k) provides the strongest contribution to the magnetic field fluctuation spectrum. Its existence has been proven before for Maxwellian and Lorentzian plasma distribution functions. Here it is demonstrated that this collective aperiodic mode exists in any isotropic unmagnetized, irrespective of the explicit form of the momentum distribution of plasma particles.

  15. Ambipolar magnetic fluctuation-induced heat transport in toroidal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P.W.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Almagri, A.F.; Cekic, M.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Diamond, P.H.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Ware, A.S.

    1996-05-01

    The total magnetic fluctuation-induced electron thermal flux has been determined in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch [Fusion Technol. {bold 19}, 131 (1991)] from the measured correlation of the heat flux along perturbed fields with the radial component of the perturbed field. In the edge region the total flux is convective and intrinsically ambipolar constrained, as evidenced by the magnitude of the thermal diffusivity, which is well approximated by the product of ion thermal velocity and the magnetic diffusivity. A self-consistent theory is formulated and shown to reproduce the experimental results, provided nonlinear charge aggregation in streaming electrons is accounted for in the theory. For general toroidal configurations, it is shown that ambipolar constrained transport applies when remote magnetic fluctuations (i.e., global modes resonant at distant rational surfaces) dominate the flux. Near locations where the dominant modes are resonant, the transport is nonambipolar. This agrees with the radial variation of diffusivity in MST. Expectations for the tokamak are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Engineering biphoton wave packets with an electromagnetically induced grating

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Jianming; Xiao Min; Zhai Yanhua; Du Shengwang

    2010-10-15

    We propose to shape biphoton wave packets with an electromagnetically induced grating in a four-level double-{Lambda} cold atomic system. We show that the induced hybrid grating plays an essential role in directing the new fields into different angular positions, especially for the zeroth-order diffraction. A number of interesting features appears in the shaped two-photon wave forms. For example, broadening or narrowing the spectrum would be possible in the proposed scheme even without the use of a cavity.

  17. Velocity Measurement by Scattering from Index of Refraction Fluctuations Induced in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lading, Lars; Saffman, Mark; Edwards, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Induced phase screen scattering is defined as scatter light from a weak index of refraction fluctuations induced by turbulence. The basic assumptions and requirements for induced phase screen scattering, including scale requirements, are presented.

  18. Radiation-induced robust oscillation and non-Gaussian fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Shi-Wei; Geng, Yi-Zhao

    2011-12-01

    There have been many recent studies devoted to the consequences of stochasticity in protein circuitry. Stress conditions, including DNA damage, hypoxia, heat shock, nutrient deprivation, and oncogene activation, can result in the activation and accumulation of p53. Several experimental studies show that oscillations can be induced by DNA damage following nuclear irradiation. To explore the underlying dynamical features and the role of stochasticity, we discuss the oscillatory dynamics in the well-studied regulatory network motif. The fluctuations around the fixed point of a delayed system are Gaussian in the limit of sufficiently weak delayed feedback, and remain Gaussian along a limit cycle when viewed tangential to the trajectory. The experimental results are recapitulated in this study. We illustrate several features of the p53 activities, which are robust when the parameters change. Furthermore, the distribution in protein abundance can be characterized by its non-Gaussian nature.

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from random media with strong permittivity fluctuations. [with application to atmospheric turbulence effects on microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    By taking into account the singularity of the dyadic Green's function in the renormalization method, a theory is derived for vector electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium with large permittivity fluctuations and with anisotropic correlation function. The strong fluctuation theory is then applied to a discrete scatterer problem in which the permittivity can assume only two values. The results are found to be consistent with those derived from discrete scatterer theory for all values of dielectric constants of the scatterers.

  20. The Formalism for Energy Changing Rate of an Accelerated Atom Coupled with Electromagnetic Vacuum Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anwei

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the rate of variation of the atomic energy for an arbitrary stationary motion of the atom in interaction with a quantum electromagnetic field is investigated. Our main purpose is to rewrite the formalism in Zhu et al. (Phys Rev D 73:107501, 2006) and to deduce the general expressions of the Einstein A coefficients of an atom on an arbitrary stationary trajectory. The total rate of change of the energy and Einstein coefficients of the atom near a plate with finite temperature or acceleration are also investigated.

  1. Pump/Probe Angular Dependence of Hanle Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Richard; Campbell, Kaleb; Crescimanno, Michael; Bali, Samir

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the dependence of Hanle Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) on angular separation between pump and probe field propagation directions in room-temperature Rb vapor. We observe the FWHM of the probe transmission spectrum and the amplitude of the EIT signal while varying the angular separation from 0 to 1 milliradian. Following the work of Ref., we examine potential applications in information storage and retrieval. We are grateful to Miami University for their generous financial support, and to the Miami University Instrumentation lab for their invaluable contributions.

  2. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: An electromagnetically induced grating by microwave modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhi-Hong; Shin, Sung Guk; Kim, Kisik

    2010-08-01

    We study the phenomenon of an electromagnetically induced phase grating in a double-dark state system of 87Rb atoms, the two closely placed lower fold levels of which are coupled by a weak microwave field. Owing to the existence of the weak microwave field, the efficiency of the phase grating is strikingly improved, and an efficiency of approximately 33% can be achieved. Under the action of the weak standing wave field, the high efficiency of the phase grating can be maintained by modulating the strength and detuning of the weak microwave field, increasing the strength of the standing wave field.

  3. Electromagnetically induced guiding of counterpropagating lasers in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, G.; Pukhov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of counterpropagating laser pulses in a plasma is considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order of the plasma period) laser pulse can also be nonlinearly focused by a long counterpropagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. This phenomenon of electromagnetically induced guiding can be utilized in laser-driven plasma accelerators. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Electromagnetically induced grating in asymmetric quantum wells via Fano interference.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengxue; Qi, Yihong; Sun, Hui; Chen, Dijun; Yang, Jie; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2013-05-20

    We propose a scheme for obtaining an electromagnetically induced grating in an asymmetric semiconductor quantum well (QW) structure via Fano interference. In our structure, owing to Fano interference, the diffraction intensity of the grating, especially the first-order diffraction, can be significantly enhanced. The diffraction efficiency of the grating can be controlled efficiently by tuning the control field intensity, the interaction length, the coupling strength of tunneling, etc. This investigation may be used to develop novel photonic devices in semiconductor QW systems. PMID:23736445

  5. Magnetically coupled electromagnetically induced transparency analogy of dielectric metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fuli He, Xuan; Zhao, Qian; Lan, Chuwen; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Weihong Qiu, Kepeng

    2014-03-31

    In this manuscript, we experimentally demonstrate magnetically coupled electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) analogy effect inside dielectric metamaterial. In contrast to previous studies employed different metallic topological microstructures to introduce dissipation loss change, barium strontium titanate, and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) are chosen as the bright and dark EIT resonators, respectively, due to their different intrinsic dielectric loss. Under incident magnetic field excitation, dielectric metamaterial exhibits an EIT-type transparency window around 8.9 GHz, which is accompanied by abrupt change of transmission phase. Numerical calculations show good agreement with experiment spectra and reveal remarkably increased group index, indicating potential application in slow light.

  6. Vector magnetometry based on electromagnetically induced transparency in linearly polarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Dudin, Y. O.; Velichansky, V. L.; Zibrov, A. S.; Zibrov, S. A.

    2010-09-15

    We develop a generalized principle of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) vector magnetometry based on high-contrast EIT resonances and the symmetry of atom-light interaction in the linearly polarized bichromatic fields. Operation of such vector magnetometer on the D{sub 1} line of {sup 87}Rb has been demonstrated. The proposed compass-magnetometer has an increased immunity to shifts produced by quadratic Zeeman and ac-Stark effects, as well as by atom-buffer gas and atom-atom collisions. In our proof-of-principle experiment the detected angular sensitivity to magnetic field orientation is 10{sup -3} deg/Hz{sup 1/2}, which is limited by laser intensity fluctuations, light polarization quality, and magnitude of the magnetic field.

  7. A fluctuation-induced plasma transport diagnostic based upon fast-Fourier transform spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, J. Y.; Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A diagnostic, based on fast Fourier-transform spectral analysis techniques, that provides experimental insight into the relationship between the experimentally observable spectral characteristics of the fluctuations and the fluctuation-induced plasma transport is described. The model upon which the diagnostic technique is based and its experimental implementation is discussed. Some characteristic results obtained during the course of an experimental study of fluctuation-induced transport in the electric field dominated NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma are presented.

  8. Electromagnetic interference-induced instability in CPP-GMR read heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A.; Mewes, T.; Mewes, C. K. A.; Kruesubthaworn, A.

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) has been a significant issue for the current perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) read heads because it can cause magnetic failure. Furthermore, the magnetic noise induced by the spin transfer torque (STT) effect has played an important role in the CPP read heads because it can affect the stability of the heads. Accordingly, this work proposed an investigation of the magnetic instabilities induced by EMI through the STT effect in a CPP-GMR read head via micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization fluctuation caused by EMI was examined, and then, magnetic noise was evaluated by using power spectral density analysis. It was found that the magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by EMI in close proximity to the head. The results also showed a multimode spectral density. The main contributions of the spectral density were found to originate at the edges of the stripe height sides due to the characteristics of the demagnetization field inside the free layer. Hence, the magnetic instabilities produced by EMI become a significant factor that essentially impacts the reliability of the CPP-GMR read heads.

  9. Spin jam induced by quantum fluctuations in a frustrated magnet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjie; Samarakoon, Anjana; Dissanayake, Sachith; Ueda, Hiroaki; Klich, Israel; Iida, Kazuki; Pajerowski, Daniel; Butch, Nicholas P; Huang, Q; Copley, John R D; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2015-09-15

    Since the discovery of spin glasses in dilute magnetic systems, their study has been largely focused on understanding randomness and defects as the driving mechanism. The same paradigm has also been applied to explain glassy states found in dense frustrated systems. Recently, however, it has been theoretically suggested that different mechanisms, such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, may induce glassy states in defect-free spin systems, far from the conventional dilute limit. Here we report experimental evidence for existence of a glassy state, which we call a spin jam, in the vicinity of the clean limit of a frustrated magnet, which is insensitive to a low concentration of defects. We have studied the effect of impurities on SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 [SCGO(p)], a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr(3+) (s = 3/2) ions form a quasi-2D triangular system of bipyramids. Our experimental data show that as the nonmagnetic Ga(3+) impurity concentration is changed, there are two distinct phases of glassiness: an exotic glassy state, which we call a spin jam, for the high magnetic concentration region (p > 0.8) and a cluster spin glass for lower magnetic concentration (p < 0.8). This observation indicates that a spin jam is a unique vantage point from which the class of glassy states of dense frustrated magnets can be understood. PMID:26324917

  10. Structural and Fluctuation Induced Excess Conductivity in R:1113 Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedky, A.; Youssif, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    We report here the fluctuation-induced excess conductivity in RBaSrCu3O7-δ (R = Y, Gd, Nd, and La) superconductor. It is found that Y and Gd samples are orthorhombic, while the Nd and La samples are quasi-tetragonal. The oxygen content is found to be close to 7 for all R:1113 samples. The logarithmic plots of ∆ σ and reduced temperature M#1028; reveal two different exponents corresponding to crossover temperature due to shifting the order parameter from (2D/1D) to (3D). The critical temperature, mean field temperature, crossover temperature, out of plane coherence length, and interlayer coupling are decreased as the ionic size increases. While the in plane and effective coherence lengths, and anisotropy are increased. We have also estimated several physical parameters such as upper critical magnetic fields in both a- b- and c-axis (Bab and BC), and critical current density J (0 K), and their values are found to be decrease as the ionic size increases. The results are discussed in terms of oxygen rearrangement, localization of carriers, coherence lengths, and anisotropy which are produced as the ionic size increases.

  11. Spin jam induced by quantum fluctuations in a frustrated magnet

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junjie; Samarakoon, Anjana; Dissanayake, Sachith; Ueda, Hiroaki; Klich, Israel; Iida, Kazuki; Pajerowski, Daniel; Butch, Nicholas P.; Huang, Q.; Copley, John R. D.; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of spin glasses in dilute magnetic systems, their study has been largely focused on understanding randomness and defects as the driving mechanism. The same paradigm has also been applied to explain glassy states found in dense frustrated systems. Recently, however, it has been theoretically suggested that different mechanisms, such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, may induce glassy states in defect-free spin systems, far from the conventional dilute limit. Here we report experimental evidence for existence of a glassy state, which we call a spin jam, in the vicinity of the clean limit of a frustrated magnet, which is insensitive to a low concentration of defects. We have studied the effect of impurities on SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 [SCGO(p)], a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr3+ (s = 3/2) ions form a quasi-2D triangular system of bipyramids. Our experimental data show that as the nonmagnetic Ga3+ impurity concentration is changed, there are two distinct phases of glassiness: an exotic glassy state, which we call a spin jam, for the high magnetic concentration region (p>0.8) and a cluster spin glass for lower magnetic concentration (p<0.8). This observation indicates that a spin jam is a unique vantage point from which the class of glassy states of dense frustrated magnets can be understood. PMID:26324917

  12. Space-time metrical fluctuations induced by cosmic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, G.

    1980-01-01

    For a stochastic stress-energy tensor associated with cosmic turbulence, it is observed that Einstein's equations imply fluctuations in the space-time metric tensor. Such metrical fluctuations are shown to engender modified values for the average effective proper density and total pressure and thus to alter the solutions to the Friedman equations.

  13. Scrape-off layer-induced beam density fluctuations and their effect on beam emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.

    2015-07-01

    A statistical model is presented to calculate the magnitude of beam density fluctuations generated by a turbulent scrape-off layer (SOL). It is shown that the SOL can induce neutral beam density fluctuations of a similar magnitude to the plasma density fluctuations in the core, potentially corrupting beam emission spectroscopy measurements. The degree of corruption is quantified by combining simulations of beam and plasma density fluctuations inside a simulated measurement window. A change in pitch angle from the separatrix to the measurement window is found to reduce the effect of beam fluctuations, whose largest effect is to significantly reduce the measured correlation time.

  14. Magnetic-Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Density Relaxation in a High-Temperature Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.

    2009-07-10

    The first direct measurement of magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle flux in the core of a high-temperature plasma is reported. Transport occurs due to magnetic field fluctuations associated with global tearing instabilities. The electron particle flux, resulting from the correlated product of electron density and radial magnetic fluctuations, accounts for density profile relaxation during a magnetic reconnection event. The measured particle transport is much larger than that expected for ambipolar particle diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field.

  15. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C C; Wright, E M; Moloney, J V

    2001-11-19

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse. PMID:11736337

  16. Manipulation of electromagnetically induced transparency by planar metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Helin; Hu, Sen; Liu, Dan; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Chen, Jiao

    2016-02-01

    The transmission characteristics of a planar metamaterial, composed of a metal ring and a regular trigonometry-star-rod (TSR), have been numerically and experimentally investigated in this paper. By rotating the TSR with different angles, this structure will appear to be symmetric or asymmetric toward the incident waves and then finely controls the coupling between the ring and the TSR. Thus, the transmission spectrum of our proposed structure can exhibit an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response in microwave region. Owing to the C3 rotational symmetry of the structure, an on-to-off active modulation of the EIT-like transparency window can be realized, and it may serve as the base for a microwave optical switching. Equivalent electric dipole moments couplings are employed to explain the transmission properties. In all, our work provides a way to obtain EIT-like effect, and it may achieve potential applications in filters, sensing and some other microwave devices.

  17. Tailoring electromagnetically induced transparency with different coupling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin; Wang, Shen-yun; Liu, Si-yuan; Hu, Yan; Li, Hai-bin

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring electromagnetically induced transparency with two different coupling mechanisms has been numerically demonstrated. The results show that EIT based on simultaneous electric resonance and magnetic resonance has relatively larger coupling distance compared with that based on electric resonance near field coupling to magnetic resonance. The relatively large coupling distance is due to the relatively small susceptibility change. For EIT based on simultaneous electric resonance and magnetic resonance, not only incident electric field but also the incident magnetic field pays a role on the susceptibility of system. The influence of the incident magnetic field leads to relatively smaller susceptibility change compared with that based on electric resonance near field coupling to magnetic resonance. PMID:26900016

  18. Multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, G.; Rentzsch, N.; Halfmann, T.

    2012-11-01

    We report on frequency- and angle-multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. Frequency multiplexing by EIT relies on simultaneous storage of light pulses in atomic coherences, driven in different frequency ensembles of the inhomogeneously broadened solid medium. Angular multiplexing by EIT relies on phase matching of the driving laser beams, which permits simultaneous storage of light pulses propagating under different angles into the crystal. We apply the multiplexing techniques to increase the storage capacity of the EIT-driven optical memory, in particular to implement multiplexed storage of larger two-dimensional amounts of data (images). We demonstrate selective storage and readout of images by frequency-multiplexed EIT and angular-multiplexed EIT, as well as the potential to combine both multiplexing approaches towards further enhanced storage capacities.

  19. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Potassium Vapors: Features and Restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Petrov, P. A.; Vartanyan, T. A.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2016-03-01

    Features of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in potassium vapors at the D1 line of the 39K isotope are studied. EIT resonances with a subnatural width of 3.5 MHz have been recorded upon excitation by two independent narrow-band diode lasers in a 1-cm-long cell filled with a natural mixture of potassium isotopes and buffer gas. The splitting of EIT resonances in potassium vapors in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields has been studied for the first time. The splitted components also have a subnatural width. The smallness of the coupling factor of the hyperfine structure in 39K atoms leads to a transition to the Paschen—Back regime at relatively weaker magnetic fields than in the case of Cs, Rb, and Na atoms. Practical applications of the phenomena under study are noted. The theoretical model well explains the experiment.

  20. Tailoring electromagnetically induced transparency with different coupling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin; Wang, Shen-yun; Liu, Si-yuan; Hu, Yan; Li, Hai-bin

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring electromagnetically induced transparency with two different coupling mechanisms has been numerically demonstrated. The results show that EIT based on simultaneous electric resonance and magnetic resonance has relatively larger coupling distance compared with that based on electric resonance near field coupling to magnetic resonance. The relatively large coupling distance is due to the relatively small susceptibility change. For EIT based on simultaneous electric resonance and magnetic resonance, not only incident electric field but also the incident magnetic field pays a role on the susceptibility of system. The influence of the incident magnetic field leads to relatively smaller susceptibility change compared with that based on electric resonance near field coupling to magnetic resonance. PMID:26900016

  1. Robust quantum gates via a photon triggering electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Li, C. Z.

    2011-10-15

    We propose a scheme to achieve a parallelized controlled-NOT (c-not) gate based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and cavity-assisted photon scattering. By using the flying photon as the control bit, we can implement a conditional transfer between two logical states of an atom trapped in the cavity with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. Thanks to the fact that the photon is well suited for scalable quantum computation, a quantum c-not gate between the single-photon pulses and the nonlocal gate on remote atoms are obtained by reflecting the photon pulse from an optical cavity with a single-trapped atom. Our protocol is robust for spontaneous emission and works quite well in the bad-cavity limit, which makes it more applicable in the laboratory with current experimental techniques.

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L.; Phillips, D. F.

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  3. Phase measurement of fast light pulse in electromagnetically induced absorption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Hee Jung; Moon, Han Seb

    2013-09-23

    We report the phase measurement of a fast light pulse in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) of the 5S₁/₂ (F = 2)-5P₃/₂ (F' = 3) transition of ⁸⁷Rb atoms. Using a beat-note interferometer method, a stable measurement without phase dithering of the phase of the probe pulse before and after it has passed through the EIA medium was achieved. Comparing the phases of the light pulse in air and that of the fast light pulse though the EIA medium, the phase of the fast light pulse at EIA resonance was not shifted and maintained to be the same as that of the free-space light pulse. The classical fidelity of the fast light pulse according to the advancement of the group velocity by adjusting the atomic density was estimated to be more than 97%. PMID:24104135

  4. Slow light with electromagnetically induced transparency in optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad Hatta, Agus; Kamli, Ali A.; Al-Hagan, Ola A.; Moiseev, Sergey A.

    2015-08-01

    Slow light with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the core of optical fibre containing three-level atoms is investigated. The guided modes are treated in the weakly guiding approximation which renders the analysis into a manageable form. The transparency window and permittivity profile of the core due to the strong pump field in the EIT scheme is calculated. For a specific permittivity profile of the core due to EIT, the propagation constant of the weak signal field and spatial shape of fundamental guided mode are calculated by solving the vector wave equation using the finite difference method. It is found that the transparency window and slow light field can be controlled via the optical fibre parameters. The reduced group velocity of slow light in this configuration is useful for many technological applications such as optical memories, effective control of single photon fields, optical buffers and delay lines.

  5. Light scattering under conditions of nonstationary electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, N V; Sokolov, I M

    2007-12-31

    The propagation of probe radiation pulses in ultracold atomic ensembles is studied theoretically under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The pulse 'stopping' process is considered which takes place upon nonadiabatic switching off and subsequent switching on the control field. We analysed the formation of an inverted recovered probe radiation pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the direction opposite to the propagation direction before the pulse stopping. Based on this analysis, a scheme is proposed for lidar probing atomic or molecular clouds in which the probe pulse penetrates into a cloud over the specified depth, while information on the cloud state is obtained from the parameters of the inverted pulse. Calculations are performed for an ensemble of {sup 87}Rb atoms. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  6. Lensing effect of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Manjappa, Manukumara; Guo, Ruixiang; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2015-12-01

    We study the lensing effect experienced by a weak probe field under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) involving a Rydberg state. A Gaussian coupling beam tightly focused on a laser-cooled atomic cloud produces an inhomogeneity in the coupling Rabi frequency along the transverse direction and makes the EIT area acting like a gradient-index medium. We image the probe beam at the position where it exits the atomic cloud and observe that a red-detuned probe light is strongly focused with a greatly enhanced intensity whereas a blue-detuned one is defocused with a reduced intensity. Our experimental results agree very well with the numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Naeini, A H; Mayer Alegre, T P; Chan, J; Eichenfield, M; Winger, M; Lin, Q; Hill, J T; Chang, D E; Painter, O

    2011-04-01

    Controlling the interaction between localized optical and mechanical excitations has recently become possible following advances in micro- and nanofabrication techniques. So far, most experimental studies of optomechanics have focused on measurement and control of the mechanical subsystem through its interaction with optics, and have led to the experimental demonstration of dynamical back-action cooling and optical rigidity of the mechanical system. Conversely, the optical response of these systems is also modified in the presence of mechanical interactions, leading to effects such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and parametric normal-mode splitting. In atomic systems, studies of slow and stopped light (applicable to modern optical networks and future quantum networks) have thrust EIT to the forefront of experimental study during the past two decades. Here we demonstrate EIT and tunable optical delays in a nanoscale optomechanical crystal, using the optomechanical nonlinearity to control the velocity of light by way of engineered photon-phonon interactions. Our device is fabricated by simply etching holes into a thin film of silicon. At low temperature (8.7 kelvin), we report an optically tunable delay of 50 nanoseconds with near-unity optical transparency, and superluminal light with a 1.4 microsecond signal advance. These results, while indicating significant progress towards an integrated quantum optomechanical memory, are also relevant to classical signal processing applications. Measurements at room temperature in the analogous regime of electromagnetically induced absorption show the utility of these chip-scale optomechanical systems for optical buffering, amplification, and filtering of microwave-over-optical signals. PMID:21412237

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a diamond spin ensemble enables all-optical electromagnetic field sensing.

    PubMed

    Acosta, V M; Jensen, K; Santori, C; Budker, D; Beausoleil, R G

    2013-05-24

    We use electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to probe the narrow electron-spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Working with a multipass diamond chip at temperatures 6-30 K, the zero-phonon absorption line (637 nm) exhibits an optical depth of 6 and inhomogeneous linewidth of ~30 GHz FWHM. Simultaneous optical excitation at two frequencies separated by the ground-state zero-field splitting (2.88 GHz) reveals EIT resonances with a contrast exceeding 6% and FWHM down to 0.4 MHz. The resonances provide an all-optical probe of external electric and magnetic fields with a projected photon-shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 0.2 V/cm/√[Hz] and 0.1 nT/√[Hz], respectively. Operation of a prototype diamond-EIT magnetometer measures a noise floor of ~/<1 nT/√[Hz] for frequencies above 10 Hz and Allan deviation of 1.3±1.1 nT for 100 s intervals. The results demonstrate the potential of diamond-EIT devices for applications ranging from quantum-optical memory to precision measurement and tests of fundamental physics. PMID:23745875

  9. Nucleation at the fluctuation induced first order phase transition to superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. E.; Radievsky, A. V.; Zeltser, A. S.

    1994-08-01

    The kinetics of fluctuations arising from vortex pairs in a superconductor at the phase transition from the paraphase to the ordered state is studied. It is shown by numerical simulations that these pairs are generated by typical configurations of the two-component order parameter due to its interaction with a (gauge) electromagnetic field. The role of these excitations in the first order phase transition is discussed.

  10. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cesare, Marco; Lizzi, Fedele; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-09-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency in hybrid plasmonic-dielectric system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Dai, Lei; Jiang, Chun

    2011-01-17

    We present theoretical and numerical analysis of a plasmonic-dielectric hybrid system for symmetric and asymmetric coupling between silver cut-wire pairs and silicon grating waveguide with periodic grooves. The results show that both couplings can induce electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) analogous to the quantum optical phenomenon. The transmission spectrum shows a single transparency window for the symmetric coupling. The strong normal phase dispersion in the vicinity of this transparent window results in the slow light effect. However, the transmission spectrum appears an additional transparency window for asymmetry coupling due to the double EIT effect, which stems from an asymmetrically coupled resonance (ACR) between the dark and bright modes. More importantly, the excitation of ACR is further associated with remarkable improvement of the group index from less than 40 to more than 2500 corresponding to a high transparent efficiency by comparing with the symmetry coupling. This scheme provides an alternative way to develop the building block of systems for plasmonic sensing, all optical switching and slow light applications. PMID:21263602

  12. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivić, Z.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980’s, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound ”quantum breather” that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  13. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ivić, Z.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980’s, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound ”quantum breather” that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing. PMID:27403780

  14. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2016-01-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing. PMID:27403780

  15. Limits on cloud-induced fluctuation in photovoltaic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.T. ); Unruh, T.D. )

    1990-03-01

    When cloud shadows move across a photovoltaic (PV) array, the array's power output is reduced. It resumes full production when the shadow moves away. The utility must follow these changes with other types of generations. Under certain cloud conditions, the changes can be large and fast. A methodology is presented to assess the cost of such fluctuations and their effect on a utility's ability to serve its load. A case study is also presented.

  16. Rotation shear induced fluctuation decorrelation in a toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    The enhanced decorrelation of fluctuations by the combined effects of the E {times} B flow (V{sub E}) shear, the parallel flow (V{sub {parallel}}) shear, and the magnetic shear is studied in toroidal geometry. A two-point nonlinear analysis previously utilized in a cylindrical model shows that the reduction of the radial correlation length below its ambient turbulence value ({Delta}r{sub 0}) is characterized by the ratio between the shearing rate {omega}{sub s} and the ambient turbulence scattering rate {Delta}{omega}{sub T}. The derived shearing rate is given by {omega}{sub s}{sup 2} = ({Delta}r{sub 0}){sup 2}[1/{Delta}{phi}{sup 2}{l_brace}{partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}r(qV{sub E}/r){r_brace}{sup 2} + 1/{Delta}{eta}{sup 2}{l_brace}{partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}r(V{parallel}/qR){r_brace}{sup 2}], where {Delta}{phi} and {Delta}{eta} are the correlation angles of the ambient turbulence along the toroidal and parallel directions. This result deviates significantly from the cylindrical result for high magnetic shear or for ballooning-like fluctuations. For suppression of flute-like fluctuations, only the radial shear of qV{sub E}/r contributes, and the radial shear of V{parallel}/qR is irrelevant regardless of the plasma rotation direction.

  17. Prediction of fluctuating pressure environments associated with plume-induced separated flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    The separated flow environment induced by underexpanded rocket plumes during boost phase of rocket vehicles has been investigated. A simple semi-empirical model for predicting the extent of separation was developed. This model offers considerable computational economy as compared to other schemes reported in the literature, and has been shown to be in good agreement with limited flight data. The unsteady pressure field in plume-induced separated regions was investigated. It was found that fluctuations differed from those for a rigid flare only at low frequencies. The major difference between plume-induced separation and flare-induced separation was shown to be an increase in shock oscillation distance for the plume case. The prediction schemes were applied to PRR shuttle launch configuration. It was found that fluctuating pressures from plume-induced separation are not as severe as for other fluctuating environments at the critical flight condition of maximum dynamic pressure.

  18. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, S T; Mathur, S P; Akyel, Y; Lee, J C

    The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect. PMID:10073476

  19. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, S T; Mathur, S P; Akyel, Y; Lee, J C

    1999-09-01

    The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect. PMID:10497968

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D. E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am; Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Auzinsh, M.

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  1. Handedness Dependent Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Hybrid Chiral Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lei; Hao Jiang, Zhi; Yue, Taiwei; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first experimental demonstration of the handedness dependent electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in chiral metamaterials during the interaction with circularly polarized waves. The observed chiral-sensitive EIT phenomena arise from the coherent excitation of a non-radiative mode in the component split ring resonators (SRRs) produced by the corresponding Born−Kuhn type (radiative) resonators that are responsible for the pronounced chirality. The coherent coupling, which is dominated by the bonding and antibonding resonances of the Born−Kuhn type resonators, leads to an extremely steep dispersion for a circularly polarized wave of predefined handedness. Accordingly, retrieved effective medium parameters from simulated results further reveal a difference of 80 in the group indices for left- and right-handed circularly polarized waves at frequencies within the EIT window, which can potentially result in handedness-sensitive pulse delays. These chiral metamaterials which enable a handedness dependent EIT effect may provide more degrees of freedom for designing circular polarization based communication devices. PMID:26183735

  2. Polariton states in circuit QED for electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiu; Huai, Sai-Nan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been extensively studied in various systems. However, it is not easy to observe in superconducting quantum circuits (SQCs) because the Rabi frequency of the strong-controlling field corresponding to EIT is limited by the decay rates of the SQCs. Here, we show that EIT can be achieved by engineering decay rates in a superconducting circuit QED system through a classical driving field on the qubit. Without such a driving field, the dressed states of the system, describing a superconducting qubit coupled to a cavity field, are approximately product states of the cavity and qubit states in the large-detuning regime. However, the driving field can strongly mix these dressed states. These doubly dressed states, here called polariton states, are formed by the driving field and dressed states, and are a mixture of light and matter. The weights of the qubit and cavity field in the polariton states can now be tuned by the driving field, and thus the decay rates of the polariton states can be changed. We choose the three lowest-energy polariton states with a Λ -type transition in such a driven circuit QED system, and demonstrate how EIT and Autler-Townes splitting can be realized in this compound system. We believe that this study will be helpful for EIT experiments using SQCs.

  3. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Metasurface analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been a focus of the nanophotonics field in recent years, due to their ability to produce high-quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. Such resonances are expected to be useful for applications such as low-loss slow-light devices and highly sensitive optical sensors. However, ohmic losses limit the achievable Q-factors in conventional plasmonic EIT metasurfaces to values <~10, significantly hampering device performance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a classical analogue of EIT using all-dielectric silicon-based metasurfaces. Due to extremely low absorption loss and coherent interaction of neighbouring meta-atoms, a Q-factor of 483 is observed, leading to a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit of 103. Furthermore, we show that the dielectric metasurfaces can be engineered to confine the optical field in either the silicon resonator or the environment, allowing one to tailor light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. PMID:25511508

  4. Optimizing Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Signals with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtfrerich, Matthew; Akin, Tom; Krzyzewski, Sean; Marino, Alberto; Abraham, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We have performed electromagnetically induced transparency in ultracold Rubidium atoms using a Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode as the control beam. Laguerre-Gaussian modes are characterized by a ring type transverse intensity profile and carry intrinsic orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum carried by the control beam can be utilized in optical computing applications which is unavailable to the more common Gaussian laser field. Specifically, we use a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam with a Gaussian probe to show that the linewidth of the transmission spectrum can be narrowed when compared to a Gaussian control beam that has the same peak intensity. We present data extending this work to compare control fields in both the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modes with constant total power. We have made efforts to find the optical overlap that best minimizes the transmission linewidth while also maintaining signal contrast. This was done by changing the waist size of the control beam with respect to the probe. The best results were obtained when the waist of a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam is equal to the waist of the Gaussian probe resulting in narrow linewidth features.

  5. Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tilchin, E.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Firstenberg, O.

    2011-05-15

    We describe the effect of thermal motion and buffer-gas collisions on a four-level closed N system interacting with strong pump(s) and a weak probe. This is the simplest system that experiences electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) due to transfer of coherence via spontaneous emission from the excited state to the ground state. We investigate the influence of Doppler broadening, velocity-changing collisions (VCC), and phase-changing collisions (PCC) with a buffer gas on the EIA spectrum of optically active atoms. In addition to exact expressions, we present an approximate solution for the probe absorption spectrum, which provides physical insight into the behavior of the EIA peak due to VCC, PCC, and the wave-vector difference between the pump and probe beams. VCC are shown to produce a wide pedestal at the base of the EIA peak, which is scarcely affected by the pump-probe angular deviation, whereas the sharp central EIA peak becomes weaker and broader due to the residual Doppler-Dicke effect. Using diffusionlike equations for the atomic coherences and populations, we construct a spatial-frequency filter for a spatially structured probe beam and show that Ramsey narrowing of the EIA peak is obtained for beams of finite width.

  6. Handedness Dependent Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Hybrid Chiral Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Hao Jiang, Zhi; Yue, Taiwei; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first experimental demonstration of the handedness dependent electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in chiral metamaterials during the interaction with circularly polarized waves. The observed chiral-sensitive EIT phenomena arise from the coherent excitation of a non-radiative mode in the component split ring resonators (SRRs) produced by the corresponding Born-Kuhn type (radiative) resonators that are responsible for the pronounced chirality. The coherent coupling, which is dominated by the bonding and antibonding resonances of the Born-Kuhn type resonators, leads to an extremely steep dispersion for a circularly polarized wave of predefined handedness. Accordingly, retrieved effective medium parameters from simulated results further reveal a difference of 80 in the group indices for left- and right-handed circularly polarized waves at frequencies within the EIT window, which can potentially result in handedness-sensitive pulse delays. These chiral metamaterials which enable a handedness dependent EIT effect may provide more degrees of freedom for designing circular polarization based communication devices. PMID:26183735

  7. Handedness Dependent Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Hybrid Chiral Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Lei; Hao Jiang, Zhi; Yue, Taiwei; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-07-01

    We provide the first experimental demonstration of the handedness dependent electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in chiral metamaterials during the interaction with circularly polarized waves. The observed chiral-sensitive EIT phenomena arise from the coherent excitation of a non-radiative mode in the component split ring resonators (SRRs) produced by the corresponding Born-Kuhn type (radiative) resonators that are responsible for the pronounced chirality. The coherent coupling, which is dominated by the bonding and antibonding resonances of the Born-Kuhn type resonators, leads to an extremely steep dispersion for a circularly polarized wave of predefined handedness. Accordingly, retrieved effective medium parameters from simulated results further reveal a difference of 80 in the group indices for left- and right-handed circularly polarized waves at frequencies within the EIT window, which can potentially result in handedness-sensitive pulse delays. These chiral metamaterials which enable a handedness dependent EIT effect may provide more degrees of freedom for designing circular polarization based communication devices.

  8. Fluorescence quenching induced by conformational fluctuations in unsolvated polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangguo; Duft, Denis; Parks, Joel H

    2008-10-01

    Time-resolved measurements were conducted to relate the fluorescence lifetimes of dye-derivatized polypeptides to local conformational dynamics in trapped, unsolvated peptide ions. This research was performed to better understand the intramolecular interactions leading to the observed increase of fluorescence quenching with temperature and, in particular, how this quenching is related to conformational fluctuations. Dye-derivatized polyproline ions, Dye-[Pro] n -Arg (+)-Trp, are formed by electrospray ionization and trapped in a variable-temperature quadrupole ion trap where they are exposed to a pulsed laser which excites fluorescence. Lifetime data exhibit fluorescence quenching as a result of an interaction between the dye and tryptophan (Trp) side chain. This result is consistent with solution measurements performed for comparison. The lifetime temperature dependence is closely fit over the range 150-463 K by an Arrhenius model of the ensemble averaged quenching rate, k q. Model fits of the measured lifetimes yield a frequency prefactor of approximately 10 (11) s (-1) for k q characteristic of collective motions of the side chains identified in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The data fits also yield activation barriers of approximately 0.3 eV, which are comparable to intramolecular electrostatic interactions calculated between the unshielded charge on the Arg residue and the dye. As a result, the quenching rate appears to be determined by the rate of conformational fluctuations and not by the rate of a specific quenching mechanism. The peptide sequence of Dye-Trp-[Pro] n -Arg (+) was also studied and identified a dependence of the quenching rate on the electrostatic field in the vicinity of the dye, Trp pair. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed over the range of experimental measurements to study trajectories relevant to the quenching interaction. The MD simulations indicate that as the temperature is increased, conformational fluctuations in

  9. Fluctuation-induced dissipation in non-equilibrium moving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad; Golestanian, Ramin; Jaffe, Robert; Kardar, Mehran

    2013-03-01

    Quantum fluctuations in moving systems lead to nontrivial effects such as dissipation and radiation. We consider moving bodies--a single rotating object or multiple objects in relative motion--and derive the frictional force by using techniques from non-equilibrium statistical physics as well as quantum optics. The radiation to the environment is obtained as a general expression in terms of the scattering matrix which is a powerful analytical tool. We apply our general formulas to several examples of systems out of equilibrium due to their motion.

  10. Measurements of ICRF wave-induced density fluctuations in LHD by a microwave reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujii, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H.; Kamio, S.; Seki, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, I.; Takase, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An O-mode microwave reflectometer has been developed to measure ICRF wave induced electron density fluctuations in LHD plasmas. The system has two probing frequencies (28.8 and 30.1 GHz) to measure two spatial points simultaneously. The rms density fluctuation levels are typically 0.01%. The linearity between the measured density fluctuation amplitude and the square root of the RF power is discussed. The decay length of the RF field was estimated to be 1 to 7 m under the operational condition investigated. A typical spatial distance between the two measurement points corresponding to the two probing frequencies is a few centimeters, and the fluctuation amplitudes at the two points are similar in amplitude. The phase difference between the two fluctuations show in-phase relationship on average. Out-of phase relationships, which implies a standing wave structure, are often observed when the wave absorption is expected to be poor.

  11. Fluctuation-induced traffic congestion in heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, A. S.; Yurkevich, I. V.; Constantinou, C. C.; Lerner, I. V.

    2012-11-01

    In studies of complex heterogeneous networks, particularly of the Internet, significant attention was paid to analyzing network failures caused by hardware faults or overload, where the network reaction was modeled as rerouting of traffic away from failed or congested elements. Here we model another type of the network reaction to congestion —a sharp reduction of the input traffic rate through congested routes which occurs on much shorter time scales. We consider the onset of congestion in the Internet where local mismatch between demand and capacity results in traffic losses and show that it can be described as a phase transition characterized by strong non-Gaussian loss fluctuations at a mesoscopic time scale. The fluctuations, caused by noise in input traffic, are exacerbated by the heterogeneous nature of the network manifested in a scale-free load distribution. They result in the network strongly overreacting to the first signs of congestion by significantly reducing input traffic along the communication paths where congestion is utterly negligible.

  12. Superstatistical view of stress-induced electric current fluctuations in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The concepts of non-extensive statistical physics, which have recently been applied in the study of complex systems, have been used here to analyse stress-induced electric current data in triaxially deformed Carrara marble samples. The fluctuations of electric current appear to follow a q-Gaussian distribution, with the PDF exhibiting ‘fat tails’. The application of super-statistical techniques to these electric current fluctuations shows to good approximation that they can be described by local Gaussian processes with fluctuating variance.

  13. Spectroscopic Observation of Fluctuation-Induced Dynamo in the Edge of the Reversed-Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, P. W.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Fiksel, G.; Prager, S. C.

    2000-07-17

    The fluctuation-induced dynamo has been investigated by direct measurement of v(tilde sign) and b(tilde sign) in the edge of a reversed-field pinch and is found to be significant in balancing Ohm's law. The velocity fluctuations producing the dynamo emf have poloidal mode number m=0 , consistent with MHD calculations and in contrast with the core m=1 dynamo. The velocity fluctuations exhibit the parity relative to their resonant surface predicted by linear MHD theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Vibration-induced field fluctuations in a superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, J. W.; Bohnet, J. G.; Sawyer, B. C.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.; Bollinger, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting magnets enable precise control of nuclear and electron spins, and are used in experiments that explore biological and condensed-matter systems, and fundamental atomic particles. In high-precision applications, a common view is that slow (<1 Hz ) drift of the homogeneous magnetic-field limits control and measurement precision. We report on previously undocumented higher-frequency field noise (10-200 Hz) that limits the coherence time of Be+9 electron-spin qubits in the 4.46 -T field of a superconducting magnet. We measure a spin-echo T2 coherence time of ˜6 ms for the Be+9 electron-spin resonance at 124 GHz , limited by part-per-billion fractional fluctuations in the magnet's homogeneous field. Vibration isolation of the magnet improved T2 to ˜50 ms.

  15. Emergent spin electromagnetism induced by magnetization textures in the presence of spin-orbit interaction (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Gen; Nakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2014-05-07

    Emergent electromagnetic field which couples to electron's spin in ferromagnetic metals is theoretically studied. Rashba spin-orbit interaction induces spin electromagnetic field which is in the linear order in gradient of magnetization texture. The Rashba-induced effective electric and magnetic fields satisfy in the absence of spin relaxation the Maxwell's equations as in the charge-based electromagnetism. When spin relaxation is taken into account besides spin dynamics, a monopole current emerges generating spin motive force via the Faraday's induction law. The monopole is expected to play an important role in spin-charge conversion and in the integration of spintronics into electronics.

  16. What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Özdemir, Sahin Kaya; Chen, Weijian; Nori, Franco; Yang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in all-optical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting. Despite the differences in their underlying physics, both electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting are quantified by a transparency window in the absorption or transmission spectrum, which often leads to a confusion about its origin. While the transparency window in electromagnetically induced transparency is a result of Fano interference among different transition pathways, in Autler-Townes splitting it is the result of strong field-driven interactions leading to the splitting of energy levels. Being able to tell objectively whether an observed transparency window is because of electromagnetically induced transparency or Autler-Townes splitting is crucial for applications and for clarifying the physics involved. Here we demonstrate the pathways leading to electromagnetically induced transparency, Fano resonances and Autler-Townes splitting in coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators. Moreover, we report the application of the Akaike Information Criterion discerning between all-optical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting and clarifying the transition between them. PMID:25342088

  17. Wall pressure fluctuations and flow-induced noise in a turbulent boundary layer over a bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joongnyon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2006-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations of a turbulent boundary layer over a bump were performed to examine the effects of surface longitudinal curvature on wall pressure fluctuations (p_{w}) and flow-induced noise. Turbulence statistics and frequency spectra were obtained to elucidate the response of wall pressure fluctuations to the longitudinal curvature and to the corresponding pressure gradient. Wall pressure fluctuations were significantly enhanced near the trailing edge of the bump, where the boundary layer was subjected to a strong adverse pressure gradient. Large-scale structures in the distribution of wall pressure fluctuations were observed to grow rapidly near the trailing edge of the bump and convect downstream. Acoustic sources of the Lighthill equations were investigated in detail at various longitudinal surface curvatures. The acoustic sources (S) were highest near the trailing edge of the bump, where the root mean square wall pressure fluctuations were greatest. The maximum correlation coefficient between p_{w} and S was located just above the location of maximum wall pressure fluctuations. Far-field acoustic density fluctuations were computed using the Lighthill acoustic analogy. We found that the surface dipole is dominant in the total acoustic field. The contribution of the volume quadrupoles to the total acoustic field gradually increases with increasing radius of the surface curvature (delta/ R).

  18. Fluctuation induced diamagnetism in the zero magnetic field limit in a low temperature superconducting alloy.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, J; Carballeira, C; Vidal, F

    2001-10-15

    By using a Pb-18 at. % In alloy, the fluctuation induced diamagnetism was measured in the zero magnetic field limit, never observed until now in a low-T(C) superconductor. This allows us to disentangle the dynamic and the nonlocal electrodynamic effects from the short-wavelength fluctuation effects. The latter may be explained on the grounds of the Gaussian-Ginzburg-Landau approach by introducing a total energy cutoff in the fluctuation spectrum, which strongly suggests the existence of a well-defined temperature in the normal state above which all fluctuating modes vanish. This conclusion may also have implications when describing the superconducting state formation of the high-T(C) cuprates. PMID:11690233

  19. Vibrational spectra from atomic fluctuations in dynamics simulations. II. Solvent-induced frequency fluctuations at femtosecond time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Tavan, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The midinfrared (MIR) spectra of molecules in polar solvents exhibit inhomogeneously broadened bands whose spectral positions are shifted as compared to the gas phase. The shifts are caused by interactions with structured solvation shells and the broadenings by fluctuations of these interactions. The MIR spectra can be calculated from hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which treat the solute molecule by density functional theory and the solvent by molecular mechanics by the so-called instantaneous normal mode analysis (INMA) or by Fourier transforming the time correlation function (FTTCF) of the molecular dipole moment. In Paper I of this work [M. Schmitz and P. Tavan, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 12233 (2004)] we explored an alternative method based on generalized virial (GV) frequencies noting, however, that GV systematically underestimates frequencies. As shown by us these artifacts are caused by solvent-induced fluctuations of the (i) equilibrium geometry, (ii) force constants, and (iii) normal mode directions as well as by (iv) diagonal and (v) off-diagonal anharmonicities. Here we now show, by analyzing the time scales of fluctuations and sample MD trajectories of formaldehyde in the gas phase and in water, that all these sources of computational artifacts can be made visible by a Fourier analysis of the normal coordinates. Correspondingly, the error sources (i) and (iii)-(v) can be removed by bandpass filtering, as long as the spectral signatures of the respective effects are well separated from the fundamental band. Furthermore, the artifacts arising from effect (ii) can be strongly diminished by a time-resolved version of the GV approach (TF-GV). The TF-GV method then yields for each mode j a trajectory of the vibrational frequency ωj(t|τ) at a time resolution τ>τj, which is only limited by the corresponding oscillation time τj=2π/ωj and, thus, is in the femtosecond range. A correlation analysis of these trajectories clearly separates the

  20. Drift- or fluctuation-induced ordering and self-organization in driven many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Platkowski, T.

    2002-10-01

    According to empirical observations, some pattern formation phenomena in driven many-particle systems are more pronounced in the presence of a certain noise level. We investigate this phenomenon of fluctuation-driven ordering with a cellular-automaton model of interactive motion in space and find an optimal noise strength, while order breaks down at high(er) fluctuation levels. Additionally, we discuss the phenomenon of noise- and drift-induced self-organization in systems that would show disorder in the absence of fluctuations. In the future, related studies may have applications to the control of many-particle systems such as the efficient separation of particles. The rather general formulation of our model in the spirit of game theory may allow to shed some light on several different kinds of noise-induced ordering phenomena observed in physical, chemical, biological, and socio-economic systems (e.g., attractive and repulsive agglomeration, or segregation).

  1. Fluctuating Pressure Environments and Hydrodynamic Radial Force Mitigation for a Two Blade Unshrouded Inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulder, Andrew; Skelley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure data from water flow testing of an unshrouded two blade inducer revealed a cavitation induced oscillation with the potential to induce a radial load on the turbopump shaft in addition to other more traditionally analyzed radial loads. Subsequent water flow testing of the inducer with a rotating force measurement system confirmed that the cavitation induced oscillation did impart a radial load to the inducer. After quantifying the load in a baseline configuration, two inducer shroud treatments were selected and tested to reduce the cavitation induced load. The first treatment was to increase the tip clearance, and the second was to introduce a circumferential groove near the inducer leading edge. Increasing the clearance resulted in a small decrease in radial load along with some steady performance degradation. The groove greatly reduced the hydrodynamic load with little to no steady performance loss. The groove did however generate some new, relatively high frequency, spatially complex oscillations to the flow environment.

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Wen, Kunhua; Guo, Zhen; Luo, Xiangang

    2012-10-22

    We investigate a plasmonic waveguide system based on side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), which exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission. LC resonance model is utilized to explain the electromagnetic responses of CSRR, which is verified by simulation results of finite difference time domain method. The electromagnetic responses of CSRR can be flexible handled by changing the asymmetry degree of the structure and the width of the metallic baffles. Cascaded CSRRs also have been studied to obtain EIT-like transmission at visible and near-infrared region, simultaneously. PMID:23187197

  3. Loud and Bright: Gravitational and possible electromagnetic signals induced by binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; Thompson, Chris; Liebling, Steve; Neilsen, Dave; Hirschmann, Eric; Anderson, Matt; Motl, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Our main goal is to investigate how the strongly gravitating and highly dynamical behavior of magnetized binary neutron stars can affect the plasma in the magnetosphere in such a way that powerful electromagnetic emissions can be induced, as well as stressing its connection with gravitational waves produced by the system. Such phenomena is a natural candidate for bright (EM) and loud (GW) emissions, as pulsars are strong electromagnetic emitters on one hand, and merging binary neutron stars are powerful sources of gravitational radiation.

  4. Energy dissipation rate of a sample-induced thermal fluctuating field in the tip of a probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeyev, I. A.

    1998-03-01

    Fluctuation electrodynamics was used as a basis to obtain an expression for the dissipation power of a thermal electromagnetic field of a heated plane sample in the tip of a probe microscope, as a function of the value of a gap between them. We have shown that the energy dissipation rate is inversely proportional to the tip-sample distance cubed.

  5. Birefringence and polarization rotator induced by electromagnetically induced transparency in rare earth ion-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhixiang; Liu, Jianji; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-05-01

    The birefringence induced by the electromagnetically induced transparency effect in a {Pr}^{3+}:{Y}_2 {SiO}_5 crystal was studied by using a balanced polarimeter technique. The results show that it is possible to control the polarization state of the output probe beam by adjusting the experimental conditions. Particularly, the coherently prepared {Pr}^{3+}:{Y}_2 {SiO}_5 crystal can serve as a polarization rotator for a linearly polarized input probe beam at the two-photon resonant condition. Such coherent control on the polarization of light should be useful for polarization-based classical and quantum information processing such as all-optical switching, polarization preserving light pulse memory and polarization qubits based on rare earth ion-doped solids.

  6. Parallel magnetic-field-induced conductance fluctuations in one- and two-subband ballistic quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustin, C.; Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Bayot, V.

    2003-12-01

    We report on conductance fluctuations of ballistic quantum dots in a strictly parallel magnetic field B. The quantum dots are patterned in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG’s), confined to 15- and 45-nm-thick GaAs quantum wells (QW) with one and two occupied subbands at B=0, respectively. For both dots we observe universal conductance fluctuations (UCF’s) and, in the case of the wide QW dot, a reduction in their amplitude at large B. Our data suggest that the finite thickness of the 2DEG and the orbital effect are responsible for the parallel B-induced UCF’s.

  7. Photo-induced conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic Ge/Si systems with quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.

    2014-08-20

    We study the evolution of electron transport in strongly localized mesoscopic system with quantum dots under small photon flux. Exploring devices with narrow transport channels lead to the observation of giant fluctuations of the photoconductance, which is attributed to the strong dependence of hopping current on the filling of dots by holes. In our experiments, single-photon mode operation is indicated by the linear dependence of the frequency of photo-induced fluctuations on the light intensity and the step-like response of conductance on the pulse excitation. The effect of the light wavelength, measurement temperature, size of the conductive channel on the device efficiency are considered.

  8. Nonlinear fluctuations-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkonen, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability of occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov’s ecological model and Lanchester’s model of modern warfare.

  9. Shock induced ignition and DDT in the presence of mechanically driven fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentian; McDonald, James G.; Radulescu, Matei I.

    2015-11-01

    The present study addresses the problem of shock induced ignition and transition to detonation in the presence of mechanical and thermal fluctuations. These departures from a homogeneous medium are of significant importance in practical situations, where such fluctuations may promote hot-spot ignition and favor the flame transition to detonation. The problem is studied in 1D, where a piston-induced shock ignites the gas. The fluctuations in the shock-compressed medium are controlled by allowing the piston's speed to oscillate around a mean, with controllable frequency and amplitude. A Lagrangian numerical formulation is used, which allows to treat exactly the transient boundary condition at the piston head. The hydrodynamic solver is coupled with the reactive dynamics of the gas using Cantera. The code was verified by comparison with steady state ZND solutions and previous shock induced ignition results in homogeneous media. Results obtained for different fuels illustrate the strong relation of the DDT amplification length to mechanical fluctuations in systems with a high effective activation energy and fast rate of energy deposition, consistent with experiments performed on fast flame acceleration in the presence of strong mechanical perturbations. Financial support from NSERC and Shell, with A. Pekalski and M. Levin as technical monitors, are greatly acknowledged.

  10. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties.

  11. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties. PMID:26857034

  12. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties. PMID:26857034

  13. Fluctuation Induced Structure in Chemical Reaction with Small Number of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    We investigate the behaviors of chemical reactions of the Lotka-Volterra model with small number of molecules; hence the occurrence of random fluctuations modifies the deterministic behavior and the law of mass action is replaced by a stochastic model. We model it by using Abstract Rewriting System on Multisets, ARMS; ARMS is a stochastic method of simulating chemical reactions and it is based on the reaction rate equation. We confirmed that the magnitude of fluctuations on periodicity of oscillations becomes large, as the number of involved molecules is getting smaller; and these fluctuations induce another structure, which have not observed in the reactions with large number of molecules. We show that the underling mechanism through investigating the coarse grained phase space of ARMS.

  14. Implementation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Metamaterial Controlled with Auxiliary Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2015-08-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We perform experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observe asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  15. Electromagnetically induced absorption via spontaneously generated coherence of a Λ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-pu; Gong, Shang-qing; Fan, Xi-jun; Xu, Zhi-zhan

    2004-02-01

    The effect of spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) on the pump-probe response of a nearly degenerate Λ system is investigated by taking into account the dephasing of the low-frequency coherence. It is found, in the case of small dephasing, that instead of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) at resonance, electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) can occur due to the effect of SGC. We also study the effect of relative phase between the two applied fields and find that EIA and EIT can transform mutually by adjusting the relative phase.

  16. Dimension-sensitive optical responses of electromagnetically induced transparency vapor in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Qishen; He Sailing

    2006-12-15

    A three-level EIT (electromagnetically induced transparency) vapor is used to manipulate the transparency and absorption properties of the probe light in a waveguide. The most remarkable feature of the present scheme is such that the optical responses resulting from both electromagnetically induced transparency and large spontaneous emission enhancement are very sensitive to the frequency detunings of the probe light as well as to the small changes of the waveguide dimension. The potential applications of the dimension- and dispersion-sensitive EIT responses are discussed, and the sensitivity limits of some waveguide-based sensors, including electric absorption modulator, optical switch, wavelength sensor, and sensitive magnetometer, are analyzed.

  17. Spontaneous Emission of a Two-Level Static Atom Coupling with Electromagnetic Vacuum Fluctuations Outside a High-Dimensional Einstein Gauss-Bonnet Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2014-10-01

    Using the generalized formalism of Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji we investigate the spontaneous excitation of a static atom interacting with electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations outside an Einstein Gauss-Bonnet black hole in d-dimensions. It shows that spontaneous excitation does not occur in a Boulware vacuum, while exists in an Unruh vacuum and Hartle-Hawking vacuum. As to the total rate of change of the atomic energy, it does not receive the contribution from the coupling constant of the Gauss-Bonnet term at spatial infinity only the dimensional parameter has the contribution to it. Near the event horizon, both the coupling constant and the dimension p contribute to the total rate of change of the atomic energy in all three kinds of vacuum. We discuss the contribution of the coupling constant and dimensional factor to the results in three different kinds of spacetime lastly.

  18. Measurements of temperature, density, pressure, and their fluctuations in supersonic turbulence using laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.; Logan, P.

    1987-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence method has been developed that provides simultaneous measurements of temperature, density, and their fluctuations owing to turbulence in unheated compressible flows. Pressure and its fluctuations are also deduced using the equation of state. Fluorescence is induced in nitric oxide that has been seeded into a nitrogen flow in concentrations of 100 ppm. Measurements are obtained from each laser pulse, with a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a temporal resolution of 125 ns. The method was applied to a supersonic, turbulent, boundary-layer flow with a free-stream Mach number of 2. For stream conditions in the range from 150-300 K and 0.3-1 atm, temperature is measured with an uncertainty of approximately 1 percent rms, while density and pressure uncertainties are approximately 2 percent rms.

  19. Fluctuation-induced noise in out-of-equilibrium disordered superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    Petković, Aleksandra; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2013-12-15

    We study out-of-equilibrium transport in disordered superconductors close to the superconducting transition. We consider a thin film connected by resistive tunnel interfaces to thermal reservoirs having different chemical potentials and temperatures. The nonequilibrium longitudinal current–current correlation function is calculated within the nonlinear sigma model description and nonlinear dependence on temperatures and chemical potentials is obtained. Different contributions are calculated, originating from the fluctuation-induced suppression of the quasiparticle density of states, Maki–Thompson and Aslamazov–Larkin processes. As a special case of our results, close-to-equilibrium we obtain the longitudinal ac conductivity using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. -- Highlights: •Contributions to the current noise induced by superconducting fluctuations are calculated. •Nonequilibrium physics is studied. •Nonlinear dependence of the noise on temperatures and chemical potentials of the reservoirs is found.

  20. Fluctuation-induced transport of two coupled particles: Effect of the interparticle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Rozenbaum, Viktor M.; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Trakhtenberg, Leonid I.; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2014-06-01

    We consider a system of two coupled particles fluctuating between two states, with different interparticle interaction potentials and particle friction coefficients. An external action drives the interstate transitions that induces reciprocating motion along the internal coordinate x (the interparticle distance). The system moves unidirectionally due to rectification of the internal motion by asymmetric friction fluctuations and thus operates as a dimeric motor that converts input energy into net movement. We focus on how the law of interaction between the particles affects the dimer transport and, in particular, the role of thermal noise in the motion inducing mechanism. It is argued that if the interaction potential behaves at large distances as xα, depending on the value of the exponent α, the thermal noise plays a constructive (α > 2), neutral (α = 2), or destructive (α < 2) role. In the case of α = 1, corresponding piecewise linear potential profiles, an exact solution is obtained and discussed in detail.

  1. Semiclassical gravitoelectromagnetic inflation in a Lorentz gauge: Seminal inflaton fluctuations and electromagnetic fields from a 5D vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    Using a semiclassical approach to Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GEMI), we study the origin and evolution of seminal inflaton and electromagnetic fields in the early inflationary universe from a 5D vacuum state. The difference with other previous works is that in this one we use a Lorentz gauge. Our formalism is naturally not conformal invariant on the effective 4D de Sitter metric, which make possible the super adiabatic amplification of magnetic field modes during the early inflationary epoch of the universe on cosmological scales.

  2. Experimental distinction of Autler-Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency using coupled mechanical oscillators system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingliang; Yang, Hujiang; Wang, Chuan; Xu, Kun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Here we experimentally demonstrated the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) effects in mechanical coupled pendulums. The analogue of EIT and ATS has been studied in mechanical systems and the intrinsic physics between these two phenomena are also been discussed. Exploiting the Akaike Information Criterion, we discern the ATS effect from EIT effect in our experimental results. PMID:26751738

  3. Experimental distinction of Autler-Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency using coupled mechanical oscillators system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingliang; Yang, Hujiang; Wang, Chuan; Xu, Kun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Here we experimentally demonstrated the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) effects in mechanical coupled pendulums. The analogue of EIT and ATS has been studied in mechanical systems and the intrinsic physics between these two phenomena are also been discussed. Exploiting the Akaike Information Criterion, we discern the ATS effect from EIT effect in our experimental results.

  4. Zeeman Electromagnetically Induced Transparency with crossed pump and probe beams: Small angle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kaleb; Madkhaly, Samaya; de Medeiros, Dillon; Bali, Samir; Macklin Quantum Information Sciences Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Progress toward undergraduate oriented experiments on image storage in room-temperature atomic vapor using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency is described. Using a scanning longitudinal magnetic field technique we diagnose and suppress stray magnetic fields and polarization impurity. We consider the pump-probe angular dependence of the EIT signal but at much smaller angles of less than a milliradian.

  5. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency intensity-correlation power broadening in a buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Aojie; Green, Alaina; Crescimanno, Michael; O'Leary, Shannon

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) noise correlation spectroscopy holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high-resolution spectroscopy used in optical magnetometry and clocks. Of relevance to these applications, we report on the role of buffer gas pressure and magnetic field gradients on power broadening of Zeeman-EIT noise correlation resonances.

  6. Analytical solution for subsurface gas flow to a well induced by surface pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Rossabi, Joseph; Falta, Ronald W

    2002-01-01

    A simple analytical model is presented for predicting subsurface gas flow to a vadose-zone well in response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The effective radial permeability (kr) in the vicinity of the well is determined during model calibration using less than two weeks worth of data. By combining the flow solution with a solution for the vertical gas pressure, only atmospheric pressure data are required to predict the induced flow through a well. The ability to quantitatively predict naturally induced flow in vadose-zone wells by simple and inexpensive measurements is invaluable for systems using barometric pumping for remediation. PMID:11798048

  7. Analytical Solution for Subsurface Gas Flow to a Well Induced by Surface Pressure Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    2001-06-20

    A simple analytical model is presented for predicting subsurface gas flow to a vadose zone well in response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The effective radial permeability (kr) in the vicinity of the well is determined during model calibration using less than two weeks of data. By combining the flow solution with a solution for the vertical gas pressure, only atmospheric pressure data are required to predict the induced flow through a well. The ability to quantitatively predict naturally induced flow in vadose zone wells by simple and inexpensive measurements is invaluable for systems using barometric pumping for remediation.

  8. Pressure induced by thermal fluctuation of an elastic filament confined within a narrow channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, L. B.

    2016-08-01

    Consider a flexible macro-molecule that is immersed in water at or above room temperature. As a result of thermal motion within the water, the filament is driven to undergo random fluctuations in shape. These fluctuations are a consequence of uncoordinated motion of water molecules. If the range of filament motion is restricted by nearby surfaces, the phenomenon becomes more complex. In this study, it is presumed that the filament is restricted to lie within a plane so that the motion is two dimensional. Furthermore, the range of the planar motion of the filament is confined to the region between inflexible straight boundaries lying in the plane of motion. A result of thermal fluctuation of the filament is that, when in close proximity to a boundary, a normal pressure is induced between the filament and that confining boundary. In the present development, frictional interaction of the filament with either confining boundary is presumed to be negligible. The goal is to determine the dependence of the induced pressure on the separation distance between the confining boundaries in terms of prevailing thermal conditions and physical characteristics of the system.

  9. Spin-electromagnetic hydrodynamics and magnetization induced by spin-magnetic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, T.

    2013-03-01

    The hydrodynamic model including the spin degree of freedom and the electromagnetic field is discussed. In this derivation, we apply electromagnetism for a macroscopic medium proposed by Minkowski. For the equation of motion of spin, we assume that the hydrodynamic representation of the Pauli equation is reproduced when the many-body effect is neglected. Then the spin-magnetic interaction in the Pauli equation is converted to a part of the magnetization. The fluid and spin stress tensors induced by the many-body effect are obtained by employing the algebraic positivity of the entropy production in the framework of the linear irreversible thermodynamics, including the mixing effect of the irreversible currents. We further construct the constitutive equation of the polarization and the magnetization. Our polarization equation is more reasonable compared to another result obtained using electromagnetism for a macroscopic medium proposed by de Groot-Mazur.

  10. Continuum resonance induced electromagnetic torque by a rotating plasma response to static resonant magnetic perturbation field

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yueqiang; Connor, J. W.; Cowley, S. C.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.; Hender, T. C.

    2012-10-15

    A numerical study is carried out, based on a simple toroidal tokamak equilibrium, to demonstrate the radial re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque density, as a result of a rotating resistive plasma (linear) response to a static resonant magnetic perturbation field. The computed electromagnetic torque peaks at several radial locations even in the presence of a single rational surface, due to resonances between the rotating response, in the plasma frame, and both Alfven and sound continuum waves. These peaks tend to merge together to form a rather global torque distribution, when the plasma resistivity is large. The continuum resonance induced net electromagnetic torque remains finite even in the limit of an ideal plasma.

  11. Changes in Relative Thylakoid Protein Abundance Induced by Fluctuating Light in the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Grouneva, Irina; Muth-Pawlak, Dorota; Battchikova, Natalia; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-05-01

    One of the hallmarks of marine diatom biology is their ability to cope with rapid changes in light availability due to mixing of the water column and the lens effect. We investigated how irradiance fluctuations influence the relative abundance of key photosynthetic proteins in the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana by means of mass-spectrometry-based approaches for relative protein quantitation. Most notably, fluctuating-light conditions lead to a substantial overall up-regulation of light-harvesting complex proteins as well as several subunits of photosystems II and I. Despite an initial delay in growth under FL, there were no indications of FL-induced photosynthesis limitation, in contrast to other photosynthetic organisms. Our findings further strengthen the notion that diatoms use a qualitatively different mechanism of photosynthetic regulation in which chloroplast-mitochondria interaction has overtaken crucial regulatory processes of photosynthetic light reactions that are typical for the survival of land plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. PMID:27025989

  12. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  13. Flow shear induced fluctuation suppression in finite aspect ratio shaped tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Burrell, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The suppression of turbulence by the E {times} B flow shear and parallel flow shear is studied in an arbitrary shape finite aspect ratio tokamak plasma using the two point nonlinear analysis previously utilized in a high aspect rat& tokamak plasma. The result shows that only the E {times} B flow shear is responsible for the suppression of flute-like fluctuations. This suppression occurs regardless of the plasma rotation direction and is therefore, relevant for the VH mode plasma core as well as for the H mode plasma edge. Experimentally observed in-out asymmetry of fluctuation reduction behavior can be addressed in the context of flux expansion and magnetic field pitch variation on a given flux surface. The adverse effect of neutral particles on confinement improvement is also discussed in the context of the charge exchange induced parallel momentum damping.

  14. Turbulence induced fluctuations in cloud saturation ratio: Doppler radar measurements and implications for drizzle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, R. L.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a statistical examination of in-cloud updraft and downdraft velocities using Doppler cloud radar and radiosonde measurements collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility. The measurements, including moments and other statistical properties derived from them are used in conjunction with adiabatic parcel and entrainment models to derive the properties of turbulence-induced fluctuations in saturation ratio and cloud droplet size. An especially important parameter for models of cloud droplet evolution and dispersion and also for predicting conditions at the drizzle threshold is the ratio of saturation ratio fluctuation variance to correlation time [McGraw and Liu, GRL, 33, L03802 (2006)]. The goal of the present analysis is to develop methods to estimate this key turbulence parameter needed in the kinetic potential theory of drizzle formation from remote sensing methods and in particular from the Doppler radar measurements.

  15. Blade Section Design of Marine Propellers with Minimum Cavitation Induced Pressure Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhibo; Kuiper, Gert

    2015-12-01

    To minimize cavitation induced pressure fluctuations by marine propellers with minimum efficiency loss, the paper presents a new design and optimization method using a blade section design method. The sheet cavity volume variation on a two-dimensional blade section in quasi-steady condition has been simplified to a relation with only a limited number of non-dimensional parameters. This results in a fast prediction method of the cavity volume of a blade section passing a wake peak, using a pre-calculated database. This makes optimization feasible. The optimization method was applied to the propeller of a container ship. Extensive tests in a towing tank and a cavitation channel validated the reduction of pressure fluctuations: 33% reduction in the first blade frequency amplitude and 18% reduction in the second blade frequency amplitude, with the same open water efficiency.

  16. Causal signal transmission by quantum fields. VI: The Lorentz condition and Maxwell’s equations for fluctuations of the electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Stenholm, S.

    2013-11-15

    The general structure of electromagnetic interactions in the so-called response representation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is analysed. A formal solution to the general quantum problem of the electromagnetic field interacting with matter is found. Independently, a formal solution to the corresponding problem in classical stochastic electrodynamics (CSED) is constructed. CSED and QED differ only in the replacement of stochastic averages of c-number fields and currents by time-normal averages of the corresponding Heisenberg operators. All relations of QED connecting quantum field to quantum current lack Planck’s constant, and thus coincide with their counterparts in CSED. In Feynman’s terms, one encounters complete disentanglement of the potential and current operators in response picture. Based on this parallelism between QED and CSED, it is natural to expect validity of the Lorentz condition and Maxwell’s equations for the time-normal averages of the potential and current. Things however turn out to be more complicated. Maxwell’s equations under the time-normal ordering can only be demonstrated subject to cancellation of the so-called Schwinger terms by gauge-invariant regularisations. We presume this pattern to be general, formulating this as “commutativity conjecture”. Consistency of the latter with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is discussed. -- Highlights: •The general structure of interaction in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is analysed. •A detailed parallelism between QED and classical stochastic electrodynamics is shown. •Validity of Maxwell’s equations for fluctuations of the field is discussed. •This validity turns out to be in essence a renormalisation postulate.

  17. Application of strong fluctuation random medium theory to scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of dielectric mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Newton, R. W.; Kong, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The strong fluctuation random medium theory is applied to calculate scattering from a half-space of dielectric mixture. The first and second moments of the fields are calculated, respectively, by using the bilocal and the distorted Born approximations, and the low frequency limit is taken. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account. Expressions for the effective permittivity for the full space case are derived. It is shown that the derived result of the effect permittivity is identical to that of the Polder and van Santern mixing formula. The correlation function of the random medium is obtained by using simple physical arguments and is expressed in terms of the fractional volumes and particle sizes of the constituents of the mixture. Backscattering coefficients of a half-space dielectric mixture are also calculated. Numerical results of the effective permittivity and backscattering coefficients are illustrated using typical parameters encountered in microwave remote sensing of dry and wet snow. It is also shown that experimental data can be matched with the theory by using physical parameters of the medium as obtained from ground truth measurements.

  18. Geometry-induced modification of fluctuation spectrum in quasi-two-dimensional condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arko; Angom, D.

    2016-08-01

    We report the structural transformation of the low-lying spectral modes, especially the Kohn mode, from radial to circular topology as harmonic confining potential is modified to a toroidal one, and this corresponds to a transition from simply to multiply connected geometry. For this we employ the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov theory to examine the evolution of low energy quasiparticles. We, then, use the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov theory with the Popov approximation to demonstrate the two striking features of quantum and thermal fluctuations. At T = 0, the non-condensate density due to interaction induced quantum fluctuations increases with the transformation from pancake to toroidal geometry. The other feature is, there is a marked change in the density profile of the non-condensate density at finite temperatures with the modification of trapping potential. In particular, the condensate and non-condensate density distributions have overlapping maxima in the toroidal condensate, which is in stark contrast to the case of pancake geometry. The genesis of this difference lies in the nature of the thermal fluctuations.

  19. The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.

  20. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Wang, Shen-yun

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  1. Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonances with a Laguerre Gaussian beam

    SciTech Connect

    Anupriya, J.; Ram, Nibedita; Pattabiraman, M.

    2010-04-15

    We describe a computational and experimental study on Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonance line shapes with a Laguerre Gaussian (LG) beam. It is seen that the LG beam profile brings about a significant narrowing in the line shape of the Hanle resonance and ground-state Zeeman coherence in comparison to a Gaussian beam. This narrowing is attributed to the azimuthal mode index of the LG field.

  2. Four-wave mixing in a three-level bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G. Q.; Xu, P.; Wang, J.; Zhan, M. S.; Zhu Yifu

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the four-wave mixing (FWM) phenomenon in a three-level bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency system. Theoretical results predict that the FWM will exhibit a multipeak structure under bichromatic coupling fields. The stronger the coupling fields are, the more FWM the peaks should exhibit. Results of an experiment carried out with cold {sup 87}Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap agree with the theoretical prediction.

  3. Controlling the spectrum of light pulses by dynamical electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Ignesti, Emilio; Sali, Emiliano; Tognetti, Marco V.; Buffa, Roberto; Fini, Lorenzo; Cavalieri, Stefano

    2011-05-15

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of spectral manipulation of weak probe-laser pulses in the presence of dynamical electromagnetically induced transparency. We predict a spectral enlargement or narrowing process depending on whether the probe-laser pulse is overlapped by the rising or the falling edge of the coupling pulse, respectively. The results of an experiment in sodium atomic vapors confirm the theoretical predictions.

  4. Numerical simulation of adiabatons in electromagnetically induced transparency under quasi-resonance conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parshkov, O M; Govorenko, E R

    2014-02-28

    The evolution of adiabatons in electromagnetically induced transparency in the Λ scheme of degenerate quantum transitions J = 0 → J = 1 → J = 2 with Doppler broadening of spectral lines has been numerically simulated taking into account the effect of resonance detunings. It is shown that, in the case of linearly polarised fields, an increase in the probe-field resonance detuning (under exact-resonance conditions for the control radiation) leads to a transformation of electromagnetically induced transparency into electromagnetically induced absorption at certain stages. When the control-field resonance detuning is varied, the transparency of the medium for the probe (exactly resonant) radiation monotonically decreases with increasing detuning because of the rising role of single-photon absorption. In the case of circularly polarised control radiation and linearly polarised input probe field, a probe pulse propagating in the medium splits into two pulses with oppositely directed circular polarisations. An increase in the probe pulse resonance detuning (under exact-resonance conditions for the control radiation) leads primarily to an increase in the absorption by the medium of the probe pulse, the direction of circular polarisation for which coincides with the circular-polarisation direction for the control radiation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Nanometer-scale elongation rate fluctuations in the Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) stem were altered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    Senavirathna, Mudalige Don Hiranya Jayasanka; Asaeda, Takashi; Thilakarathne, Bodhipaksha Lalith Sanjaya; Kadono, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The emission of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) by various wireless communication base stations has increased in recent years. While there is wide concern about the effects of EMR on humans and animals, the influence of EMR on plants is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of EMR on the growth dynamics of Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) by measuring the nanometric elongation rate fluctuation (NERF) using a statistical interferometry technique. Plants were exposed to 2 GHz EMR at a maximum of 1.42 Wm−2 for 1 h. After continuous exposure to EMR, M. aquaticum plants exhibited a statistically significant 51 ± 16% reduction in NERF standard deviation. Temperature observations revealed that EMR exposure did not cause dielectric heating of the plants. Therefore, the reduced NERF was due to a non-thermal effect caused by EMR exposure. The alteration in NERF continued for at least 2.5 h after EMR exposure and no significant recovery was found in post-EMR NERF during the experimental period. PMID:24670369

  6. Recent topics on single-molecule fluctuation analysis using blinking in surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering: clarification by the electromagnetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tamitake; Yamamoto, Yuko S

    2016-08-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has become an ultrasensitive tool for clarifying molecular functions on plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs). SERS has been used for in situ probing of detailed behaviors of few or single molecules (SMs) at plasmonic NP junctions. SM SERS signals are commonly observed with temporal and spectral changes known as "blinking", which are related to various physical and chemical interactions between molecules and NP junctions. These temporal and spectral changes simultaneously take place, therefore resulting in serious complexities in interpretations of the SM SERS results. Dual contributions of Raman enhancement mechanisms in SERS (i.e., electromagnetic (EM) and chemical enhancements) also make interpretations more difficult. To resolve these issues and reduce the degree of complexities in SM SERS analyses, the present review is focused on the recent studies of probing SM behaviors using SERS exclusively within the framework of the EM mechanism. The EM mechanism is briefly introduced, and several recent topics on SM SERS blinking analysis are discussed in light of the EM mechanism. This review will provide a basis for clarification of complex SERS fluctuations of various molecules. PMID:27241875

  7. Event-by-event fluctuations in the medium-induced jet evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Miguel A.; Iancu, Edmond

    2016-05-01

    We develop the event-by-event picture of the gluon distribution produced via medium-induced gluon branching by an energetic jet which propagates through a dense QCD medium. A typical event is characterized by the production of a large number of soft gluons which propagate at large angles with respect to the jet axis and which collectively carry a substantial amount of energy. By explicitly computing 2-gluon correlations, we demonstrate the existence of large event-by-event fluctuations, which reflect the stochastic nature of the branching process. For the two quantities that we have investigated — the energy loss at large angles and the soft gluon multiplicity —, the dispersion is parametrically as large as the respective expectation value. We identify interesting scaling laws, which suggest that the multiplicity distribution should exhibit KNO (Koba-Nielsen-Olesen) scaling. A similar scaling is known to hold for a jet branching in the vacuum, but the medium-induced distribution is found to be considerably broader. We predict that event-by-event measurements of the di-jet asymmetry in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC should observe large fluctuations in the number of soft hadrons propagating at large angles and also in the total energy carried by these hadrons.

  8. Electromagnetic coupling in frequency domain induced polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Partha Sarathi

    2000-11-01

    Frequency domain induced polarization (IP) surveys are commonly carried out to provide information about the chargeability structure of the earth. The goals might be as diverse as trying to delineate a mineralized and/or alteration zone for mineral exploration, or to find a region of contaminants for an environmental problem. Unfortunately, the measured responses can have contributions from inductive and galvanic effects of the ground. The inductive components are called EM coupling effects. They are considered to be ``noise'' and much of this thesis is devoted towards either removing these effects, or reformulating the inverse problem so that inductive effects are part of the ``signal''. If the forward modeling is based on galvanic responses only, then the inductive responses must first be removed from the data. The motivation for attacking the problem in this manner is that it is easier to solve D.C. resistivity equation than the full Maxwell's equation. The separation of the inductive response from the total response is derived by expressing the total electric field as a product of an IP response function, and an electric field which depends on EM coupling response. This enables me to generate formulae to obtain IP amplitude (PFE) and phase response from the raw data. The data can then be inverted, using a galvanic forward modeling. I illustrate this with 1D and 3D synthetic examples. To handle field data sets, I have developed an approximate method for estimating the EM coupling effects based upon the assumption that the earth is locally 1D. The 1D conductivity is obtained from a 2D inversion of the low frequency DC resistivity data. Application of this method to a field data set has shown encouraging results. I also examine the EM coupling problem in terms of complex conductivity. I show that if the forward modeling is carried out with full Maxwell's equation, then there is no need to remove EM coupling. I illustrate this with 1D synthetic example. In summary

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Ye, C.Y.; Welch, George R.; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Scully, Marlan O.

    2005-06-15

    It was shown by Kocharovskaya and Khanin [Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 945 (1986)] that a comb of optical pulses can induce a ground-state atomic coherence and change the optical response of an atomic medium. In our experiment, we studied the propagation of a comb of optical pulses produced by a mode-locked diode laser in rubidium atomic vapor. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) was observed when the pulse repetition rate is a subharmonic of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state. The width of the EIT resonance is determined by the relaxation rate of the ground-state coherence. Possible applications to magnetometery, atomic clocks, and frequency chains are discussed.

  10. First observation for a cuprate superconductor of fluctuation-induced diamagnetism well inside the finite-magnetic-field regime

    PubMed

    Carballeira; Mosqueira; Revcolevschi; Vidal

    2000-04-01

    For the first time for a cuprate superconductor, measurements performed above T(c) in high quality grain aligned La1.9Sr0.1CuO4 samples have allowed the observation of the thermal fluctuation induced diamagnetism well inside the finite-magnetic-field fluctuation regime. These results may be explained in terms of the Gaussian Ginzburg-Landau approach for layered superconductors, but only if the finite field contributions are estimated by taking off the short-wavelength fluctuations. PMID:11019036

  11. Electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective plasmon driven surface catalysis in metal nanowire-film systems

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liang; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Yanna; Xiong, Wen; Chen, Guo; Su, Xun; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    For the novel interpretation of Raman spectrum from molecule at metal surface, the plasmon driven surface catalysis (PDSC) reactions have become an interesting topic in the research field of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, the selective PDSC reactions of p,p’-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) or 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) were demonstrated in the Ag nanowires dimer-Au film systems. The different SERS spectra collected at individual part and adjacent part of the same nanowire-film system pointed out the importance of the electromagnetic field redistribution induced by image charge on film in this selective surface catalysis, which was confirmed by the simulated electromagnetic simulated electro- magnetic field distributions. Our result indicated this electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective surface catalysis was largely affected by the polarization and wavelength of incident light but slightly by the difference in diameters between two nanowires. Our work provides a further understanding of PDSC reaction in metal nanostructure and could be a deep support for the researches on surface catalysis and surface analysis. PMID:26601698

  12. Electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective plasmon driven surface catalysis in metal nanowire-film systems.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Yanna; Xiong, Wen; Chen, Guo; Su, Xun; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    For the novel interpretation of Raman spectrum from molecule at metal surface, the plasmon driven surface catalysis (PDSC) reactions have become an interesting topic in the research field of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, the selective PDSC reactions of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) or 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) were demonstrated in the Ag nanowires dimer-Au film systems. The different SERS spectra collected at individual part and adjacent part of the same nanowire-film system pointed out the importance of the electromagnetic field redistribution induced by image charge on film in this selective surface catalysis, which was confirmed by the simulated electromagnetic simulated electro- magnetic field distributions. Our result indicated this electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective surface catalysis was largely affected by the polarization and wavelength of incident light but slightly by the difference in diameters between two nanowires. Our work provides a further understanding of PDSC reaction in metal nanostructure and could be a deep support for the researches on surface catalysis and surface analysis. PMID:26601698

  13. All-optical electromagnetically induced transparency using one-dimensional coupled microcavities.

    PubMed

    Naweed, Ahmer; Goldberg, David; Menon, Vinod M

    2014-07-28

    We report the first experimental realization of all-optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) via a pair of coherently interacting SiO2 microcavities in a one-dimensional SiO2/Si3N4 photonic crystal consisting of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The electromagnetic interactions between the coupled microcavities (CMCs), which possess distinct Q-factors, are controlled by varying the number of embedded SiO2/Si3N4 bilayers in the coupling DBR. In case of weak microcavity interactions, the reflectivity spectrum reveals an all-optical EIT resonance which splits into an Autler-Townes-like resonance under condition of strong microcavity coupling. Our results open up the way for implementing optical analogs of quantum coherence in much simpler one-dimensional structures. We also discuss potential applications of CMCs. PMID:25089499

  14. Fluctuations and the Rate-Limiting Step of Peptide-Induced Membrane Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuca, C.; Orioni, B.; Coletta, M.; Formaggio, F.; Toniolo, C.; Maulucci, G.; De Spirito, M.; Pispisa, B.; Venanzi, M.; Stella, L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptide-induced vesicle leakage is a common experimental test for the membrane-perturbing activity of antimicrobial peptides. The leakage kinetics is usually very slow, requiring minutes to hours for complete release of vesicle contents, and exhibits a biphasic behavior. We report here that, in the case of the peptaibol trichogin GA IV, all processes involved in peptide-membrane interaction, such as peptide-membrane association, peptide aggregation, and peptide translocation, take place on a timescale much shorter than the leakage kinetics. On the basis of these findings, we propose a stochastic model in which the leakage kinetics is determined by the discrete nature of a vesicle suspension: peptides are continuously exchanging among vesicles, producing significant fluctuations over time in the number of peptide molecules bound to each vesicle, and in the formation of pores. According to this model, the fast initial leakage is caused by vesicles that contain at least one pore after the peptides are randomly distributed among the liposomes, whereas the slower release is associated with the time needed to occasionally reach in an intact vesicle the critical number of bound peptides necessary for pore formation. Fluctuations due to peptide exchange among vesicles therefore represent the rate-limiting step of such a slow mechanism. PMID:20858423

  15. Investigation of the static and dynamic fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets induced by random surface fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L.; Bourasseau, E.; Filippini, G.

    2016-07-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the static and dynamic fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets of tin induced by random surface fluctuations. The static regime is analyzed by simulating sheets of different thicknesses, and the dynamic fragmentation is ensured by applying along the longitudinal direction of a sheet an instantaneous expansion velocity per initial unit length (expansion rate) with values ranging from 1 × 109 to 3 × 1010 s-1. The simulations show that the static/dynamic fragmentation becomes possible when the fluctuations of the upper and lower surfaces of the sheets can either overlap or make the local volume density of the system go down below a critical value. These two mechanisms cause locally in the sheet the random nucleation of pores of void, on a timescale that exponentially increases with the sheet thickness. Afterwards, the pores develop following distinct stages of growth, coalescence, and percolation, and later in time aggregates of liquid metal are formed. The simulations also show that the fragmentation of static sheets is characterized by relatively mono-dispersed surface and volume distributions of the pores and aggregates, respectively, whereas in extreme conditions of dynamic fragmentation (expansion rate typically in the range of 1 × 1010 s-1), the distributions are rather poly-dispersed and obey a power law decay with surface (volume). A model derived from the simulations suggests that both dynamic and static regimes of fragmentation are similar for expansion rates below typically 1 × 107 s-1.

  16. Glassiness and exotic entropy scaling induced by quantum fluctuations in a disorder-free frustrated magnet

    PubMed Central

    Klich, I.; Lee, S.-H.; Iida, K.

    2014-01-01

    When spins are arranged in a lattice of triangular motif, the phenomenon of frustration leads to numerous energetically equivalent ground states, and results in exotic states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Here we report an alternative situation: a system, classically a liquid, freezes in the clean limit into a glassy state induced by quantum fluctuations. We call such glassy state a spin jam. The case in point is a frustrated magnet, where spins are arranged in a triangular network of bipyramids. Quantum corrections break the classical degeneracy into a set of aperiodic spin configurations forming local minima in a rugged energy landscape. This is established by mapping the problem into tiling with hexagonal tiles. The number of tessellations scales with the boundary length rather than its volume, showing the absence of local zero-energy modes. Low-temperature thermodynamics is discussed to compare it with other glassy materials. PMID:24686398

  17. Observation of fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction in micrometer-sized tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yu-Ren; Yu, Kai-Fu; Lin, Yong-Han; Wu, Jong-Ching; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Micrometer-sized Al/AlOx/Y tunnel junctions were fabricated by the electron-beam lithography technique. The thin (≈ 1.5-2 nm thickness) insulating AlOx layer was grown on top of the Al base electrode by O2 glow discharge. The zero-bias conductances G(T) and the current-voltage characteristics of the junctions were measured in a wide temperature range 1.5-300 K. In addition to the direct tunneling conduction mechanism observed in low-G junctions, high-G junctions reveal a distinct charge transport process which manifests the thermally fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction (FITC) through short nanoconstrictions. We ascribe the experimental realization of the FITC mechanism to originating from the formations of "hot spots" (incomplete pinholes) in the AlOx layer owing to large junction-barrier interfacial roughness.

  18. Quantum Mechanical Enhancement of the Random Dopant Induced Threshold Voltage Fluctuations and Lowering in Sub 0.1 Micron MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Slavcheva, G.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, Subhash

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study of the influence of quantum effects in the inversion layer on the random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering in sub 0.1 micron MOSFETs has been performed. This has been achieved using a full 3D implementation of the density gradient (DG) formalism incorporated in our previously published 3D 'atomistic' simulation approach. This results in a consistent, fully 3D, quantum mechanical picture which implies not only the vertical inversion layer quantisation but also the lateral confinement effects manifested by current filamentation in the 'valleys' of the random potential fluctuations. We have shown that the net result of including quantum mechanical effects, while considering statistical fluctuations, is an increase in both threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering.

  19. Noise-induced organized slow fluctuations in networks of neural areas with interarea feed-forward excitation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongmyeong; Kim, Seunghwan; Ko, Tae-Wook

    2014-06-01

    Slow coherent spontaneous fluctuations (<0.1 Hz) in functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals have been observed for a resting state of the human brain. In this paper, considering feed-forward inhibition in addition to excitation between brain areas, which we assume to be in up (active) or down (quiescent) states, we propose a model for the generation and organization of the slow fluctuations. Connectivity with feed-forward excitation and inhibition between the areas makes the system have multiple stable states and organized slow fluctuations manifest as noise-induced slow transitions between the states. With various connectivities, we observe slow fluctuations and various organizations, including anticorrelated clusters, through numerical simulations. PMID:25019817

  20. Simulation of electromagnetically and magnetically induced transparency in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, M. S.; Wurtele, J. S.; Shvets, G.

    2003-07-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a phenomenon well known in atomic systems, has a natural analogy in a classical magnetized plasma. The magnetized plasma has a resonance for right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves at the electron cyclotron frequency Ω0, so that a probe wave with frequency ω1=Ω0 cannot propagate through the plasma. The plasma can be made transparent to such a probe by the presence of a pump wave. The pump may be an electromagnetic wave or magnetostatic wiggler. Simulations and theory show that the physical reason for the transparency is that the beating of the probe wave with the pump wave sets up a plasma oscillation, and the upper sideband of the pump wave cancels the resonant plasma current due to the probe. The theory of plasma EIT derived here extends that found in the earlier work to include the effects of the lower sideband of the pump and renormalization of the plasma frequency and an analysis of the transient response. A detailed comparison of theory to one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations is presented and estimates for the performance ion accelerator using the EIT interaction are given. The dispersion relation and estimates for the phase velocity and amplitude of the plasma wave are in good agreement with particle-in-cell simulations.

  1. Microwave tunneling in heterostructures with electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials based on solid state plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-kun; Li, Hai-ming; Bian, Bo-rui; Xue, Feng; Ding, Guo-wen; Yu, Shao-jie; Liu, Si-yuan

    2016-06-01

    Interference induced electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like effect has demonstrated the ability to realize narrow transmission resonances within the single-resonator stop band. Due to the limited plasma density in actual devices, only few reports discuss the plasma metamaterials and truncated photonic crystals which support electromagnetically induced transparency. However, solid state plasma realized by some semiconductors have the advantages of higher order plasma density and the characteristics of the reconfiguration and tunability. Here, we conduct a numerical study of the perfect microwave tunneling in heterostructures composed of solid state plasma metamaterials and truncated photonic crystal. There is particular emphasis on the tunability of tunneling frequency by changing plasma frequency in solid state plasma, as well as the electric energy density distributions in heterostructures. It was found that, compared to conventional metal photonic crystal, the reflectance of tunneling mode can be reduced from -25.8 dB to -41.7 dB with an optimized Q-factor. Further study on electric energy density distribution confirms that EM wave in-plane localization originated from the EIT-like solid state plasma, which gives rise to the three-dimensional enhancement of sub-wavelength EM wave localization, is stronger than EM wave confinement along the propagation direction. Owing to the tunability of plasma, the tunneling frequency channel can be adjusted or reconfigured in a certain range without adjusting the geometry of the heterostructure. It suggests the fabrication for highly sensitive dielectric sensing, optical switches, and so on.

  2. Birefringence lens effects of an atom ensemble enhanced by an electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. R.; Sun, C. P.; Zhou Lan

    2009-07-15

    We study the optical control for birefringence of a polarized light by an atomic ensemble with a tripod configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a spatially inhomogeneous laser. The atomic ensemble splits the linearly polarized light ray into two orthogonally polarized components, whose polarizations depend on quantum superposition of the initial states of the atomic ensemble. Accompanied with this splitting, the atomic ensemble behaves as a birefringent lens, which allows one polarized light ray passing through straightly while focuses the other light of vertical polarization with finite aberration of focus.

  3. Tailoring electromagnetically induced transparency for terahertz metamaterials: From diatomic to triatomic structural molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Feng, Tianhua; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Zixian; Hui, Alvin; Ho, Johnny C.; Li, Jensen

    2013-07-01

    The coupling effects in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for triatomic metamaterials are investigated at terahertz (THz) frequencies both experimentally and theoretically. We observed enhancement and cancellation of EIT with single transparency window, and also two additional ways to achieve double EIT transparency windows. One is from the hybridization between two dark atoms in a bright-dark-dark configuration. Another is from an averaged effect between absorption of the additional bright atom and the EIT from the original diatomic molecule in a bright-bright-dark configuration. It allows us to control EIT and the associated slow-light effect for THz metamaterials with high accuracy.

  4. Scalable network of quadrangle entanglements via multiple phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiangming; Sun Hong; Wang Fei

    2010-10-15

    One important class of multipartite continuous variable entanglement is described by a closed polygon, where every vertex represents one optical field and every side corresponds to the entanglement between the two connected vertices. Here we show that it is possible to obtain a scalable network of quadrangle entanglements by using multiple phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency. For 4,6,8,...,2n (n{>=}2) mode cases the network consists of 1,9,36,...,(1/4)n{sup 2} (n-1){sup 2} quadrangles, respectively. This suggests an efficient way of creating complex quantum networks and has great potentials for quantum information and computation.

  5. Atom-membrane cooling and entanglement using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Genes, Claudiu; Ritsch, Helmut; Drewsen, Michael; Dantan, Aurelien

    2011-11-15

    We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system composed of a micromechanical oscillator as a movable membrane and an atomic three-level ensemble within an optical cavity. We show that a suitably tailored cavity field response via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the atomic medium allows for strong coupling of the membrane's mechanical oscillations to the collective atomic ground-state spin. This facilitates ground-state cooling of the membrane motion, quantum state mapping, and robust atom-membrane entanglement even for cavity widths larger than the mechanical resonance frequency.

  6. Observation of Doppler-free electromagnetically induced transparency in atoms selected optically with specific velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hoon; Kim, Kwan Su; Kim, Jung Dong; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jung Bog

    2011-11-15

    We observed an electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level system with optically selected rubidium atoms at specific velocities in a room-temperature vaporized cell. Since the atoms behave like cold atoms in the selected atomic view, the observed signals coincide with a trapped atomic system. According to this result, we can observe Doppler-free signals, which correspond from 1.2 to 1.0 K in a Doppler-broadened medium. And the selected atoms have velocity components of {+-}(131 {+-} 3) MHz per wave number. Our experimental results can provide insight for research in cold media.

  7. Observation of quantum interference between dressed states in an electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Qing; Xiao, Min

    1995-06-01

    We report on an experimental observation of quantum interference between two dressed states created by a coherent pumping laser in an electromagnetically induced transparency. In a Λ-type three-level atomic system in rubidium vapor, we reduce the Rabi frequency of the pumping laser in one arm down below the spontaneous decay rate of the common excited state and still observe a narrow dip with subnatural linewidth in the absorption curve of a probe beam in another arm. This clearly demonstrates that the absorption reduction at the low pumping intensity is mainly due to the interference between the two dressed states, not due to the ac-Stark-shift effect.

  8. Theoretical study on electromagnetically induced transparency in molecular aggregate models using quantum Liouville equation method

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Takuya; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2015-01-22

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which is known as an efficient control method of optical absorption property, is investigated using the polarizability spectra and population dynamics obtained by solving the quantum Liouville equation. In order to clarify the intermolecular interaction effect on EIT, we examine several molecular aggregate models composed of three-state monomers with the dipole-dipole coupling. On the basis of the present results, we discuss the applicability of EIT in molecular aggregate systems to a new type of optical switch.

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a five-level cascade system under Doppler broadening: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa, Dinh Xuan; Van Trong, Pham; Van Doai, Le; Bang, Nguyen Huy

    2016-03-01

    We develop an analytical approach on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Doppler broadened medium consisting of five-level cascade systems excited by a strong coupling and weak probe laser fields. In a weak field limit of the probe light, EIT spectrum is interpreted as functions of controllable parameters of the coupling light and temperature of the medium. The theoretical interpretation of EIT spectrum is applied to the case of 85Rb atoms and compared with available experimental observation. Such an analytical interpretation provides quantitative parameters to control properties of the Doppler broadened EIT medium, and it is useful to find related applications.

  10. Fracture induced electromagnetic emissions: extending laboratory findings by observations at the geophysical scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Kopanas, John; Kalimeris, Anastasios; Antonopoulos, George; Peratzakis, Athanasios; Eftaxias, Konstantinos; Nomicos, Constantinos

    2014-05-01

    Under natural conditions, it is practically impossible to install an experimental network on the geophysical scale using the same instrumentations as in laboratory experiments for understanding, through the states of stress and strain and their time variation, the laws that govern the friction during the last stages of EQ generation, or to monitor (much less to control) the principal characteristics of a fracture process. Fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) in a wide range of frequency bands are sensitive to the micro-structural chances. Thus, their study constitutes a nondestructive method for the monitoring of the evolution of damage process at the laboratory scale. It has been suggested that fracture induced MHz-kHz electromagnetic (EM) emissions, which emerge from a few days up to a few hours before the main seismic shock occurrence permit a real time monitoring of the damage process during the last stages of earthquake preparation, as it happens at the laboratory scale. Since the EME are produced both in the case of the laboratory scale fracture and the EQ preparation process (geophysical scale fracture) they should present similar characteristics in these two scales. Therefore, both the laboratory experimenting scientists and the experimental scientists studying the pre-earthquake EME could benefit from each- other's results. Importantly, it is noted that when studying the fracture process by means of laboratory experiments, the fault growth process normally occurs violently in a fraction of a second. However, a major difference between the laboratory and natural processes is the order-of-magnitude differences in scale (in space and time), allowing the possibility of experimental observation at the geophysical scale for a range of physical processes which are not observable at the laboratory scale. Therefore, the study of fracture-induced EME is expected to reveal more information, especially for the last stages of the fracture process, when it

  11. Ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency using nanofiber-guided light in a warm atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. E.; Franson, J. D.; Pittman, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofiber suspended in a warm rubidium vapor. The signal and control fields are both guided along the nanofiber, which enables strong nonlinear interactions with the surrounding atoms at relatively low powers. Transit-time broadening is found to be a significant EIT decoherence mechanism in this tightly confined waveguiding geometry. Nonetheless, we observe significant EIT and controlled polarization rotation using control-field powers of only a few microwatts in this relatively robust warm-atom nanofiber system.

  12. Electromagnetic superconductivity of vacuum induced by strong magnetic field: Numerical evidence in lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.; Buividovich, P. V.; Chernodub, M. N.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    Using numerical simulations of quenched SU (2) gauge theory we demonstrate that an external magnetic field leads to spontaneous generation of quark condensates with quantum numbers of electrically charged ρ mesons if the strength of the magnetic field exceeds the critical value eBc = 0.927 (77) GeV2 or Bc = (1.56 ± 0.13) ṡ1016 Tesla. The condensation of the charged ρ mesons in strong magnetic field is a key feature of the magnetic-field-induced electromagnetic superconductivity of the vacuum.

  13. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Cs and Rb in the same vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Matt; Gordon, Joshua; Holloway, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) in both cesium and rubidium in the same vapor cell with coincident optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) field strengths through modification of the EIT signal. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF field strength simultaneously. This allows us to perform the same measurement in two effective ``laboratories,'' providing an immediate independent reference, which will lead to an SI-traceable RF E-field measurement. We examine the impact of coincident, simultaneous EIT on RF field metrology and the EIT signal.

  14. Amplified light storage with high fidelity based on electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Gang; Tang, Guoyu; Xue, Yan

    2016-06-01

    By using slow and stored light based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we theoretically realize the storage of optical pulses with enhanced efficiency and high fidelity in ensembles of warm atoms in 85Rb vapor cells. The enhancement of storage efficiency is achieved by introducing a pump field beyond three-level configuration to form a N-type scheme, which simultaneously inhibits the undesirable four-wave mixing effect while preserves its fidelity. It is shown that the typical storage efficiency can be improved from 29% to 53% with the application of pump field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this efficiency decreases with storage time and increases over unity with optical depth.

  15. Correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms: Light sideband resonances in electromagnetically-induced-transparency condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, H. M.; Kumar, A.; Theophilo, K.; Nussenzveig, P.; Martinelli, M.

    2016-07-01

    The correlation spectroscopy has been successfully employed in the measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in time and frequency domain. We study the role of the sidebands of the intense fields in the measured spectra, analyzing the information that can be recovered working with different analysis frequencies. In this case, the nonzero one-photon detuning appears as a necessary condition for spectrally resolving the sideband resonances in the correlation coefficient. Our experimental findings are supported by the perturbative model defined in the frequency domain.

  16. Discrimination of coherence effect in electromagnetically induced transparency in V-type systems of Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Jong; Yang, Seung Chul; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2016-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in V-type systems of Rb atoms is presented. The frequency of the probe beam is locked to one of the resonance lines in the D1 line, whereas that of the coupling beam is scanned around the D2 line. We study the dependence of polarizations of the coupling and probe beams by varying the laser intensities. The experimental results are compared with the results calculated from the accurate density matrix equations. We also discriminate the portion of coherence effect in the calculated EIT spectra.

  17. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-17

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Electromagnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario J.-E.

    Spontaneous electromagnetic fields can be important to the dynamic evolution of a plasma by directing heat flow as well as providing additional pressures on the conducting fluids through the Lorentz force. Electromagnetic fields are predicted to affect fluid behavior during the core-collapse of supernovae through generation of fields due to hydrodynamic instabilities. In the coronae of stars, self-generated magnetic fields lead to filamentary structure in the hot plasma. Recent experiments by Gregori et al. investigated sources of protogalactic magnetic fields generated by laser-produced shock waves. In inertial confinement fusion experiments, self-generated electromagnetic fields can also play a role and have recently become of great interest to the community. Present day laser facilities provide a unique opportunity to study spontaneous field-generation in these extreme environments under controlled conditions. Instability-induced electromagnetic fields were investigated using a novel monoenergetic-proton radiography system. Fusion protons generated by an 'exploding-pusher' implosion were used to probe laser-irradiated plastic foils with various preimposed surface perturbations. Imaging protons are sensitive to electromagnetic fields and density modulations in the plasma through the Lorentz force and Coulomb collisions, respectively. Corresponding x-ray radiographs of these targets provided mass density distributions and Coulomb effects on protons were assessed using a Monte Carlo code written using the Geant4 framework. Proton fluence distributions were recorded on CR-39 detectors and Fourier analyzed to infer path-integrated field strengths. Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth of preimposed surface perturbations generated magnetic fields by the RT-induced Biermann battery and were measured for the first time. Good data were obtained during linear growth and when compared to ideal calculations, demonstrated that field diffusion near the source played an important role

  19. Theory of spin-fluctuation induced superconductivity in iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation we focus on the investigation of the pairing mechanism in the recently discovered high-temperature superconductor, iron pnictides. Due to the proximity to magnetic instability of the system, we considered short-range spin fluctuations as the major mediating source to induce superconductivity. Our calculation supports the magnetic fluctuations as a strong candidate that drives Cooper-pair formation in this material. We find the corresponding order parameter to be of the so-called ss-wave type and show its evolution with temperature as well as the capability of supporting high transition temperature up to several tens of Kelvin. On the other hand, our itinerant model calculation shows pronounced spin correlation at the observed antiferromagnetic ordering wave vector, indicating the underlying electronic structure in favor of antiferromagnetic state. Therefore, the electronic degrees of freedom could participate both in the magnetic and in the superconducting properties. Our work shows that the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity plays an important role to the understanding of the rich physics in this material. The magnetic-excitation spectrum carries important information on the nature of magnetism and the characteristics of superconductivity. We analyze the spin excitation spectrum in the normal and superconducting states of iron pnictides in the magnetic scenario. As a consequence of the sign-reversed gap structure obtained in the above, a spin resonance mode appears below the superconducting transition temperature. The calculated resonance energy, scaled with the gap magnitude and the magnetic correlation length, agrees well with the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements. More interestingly, we find a common feature of those short-range spin fluctuations that are capable of inducing a fully gapped ss state is the momentum anisotropy with elongated span along the direction transverse to the antiferromagnetic momentum

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun; Wang, Shen-yun

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  1. Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p {number_sign}1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p {number_sign}1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells.

  2. Depletion-induced forces and crowding in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures: Role of polymer shape fluctuations and penetrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Depletion forces and macromolecular crowding govern the structure and function of biopolymers in biological cells and the properties of polymer nanocomposite materials. To isolate and analyze the influence of polymer shape fluctuations and penetrability on depletion-induced interactions and crowding by nanoparticles, we model polymers as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor of an ideal random walk. Within this model, we apply Monte Carlo simulation methods to compute the depletion-induced potential of mean force between hard nanospheres and crowding-induced shape distributions of polymers in the protein limit, in which polymer coils can be easily penetrated by smaller nanospheres. By comparing depletion potentials from simulations of ellipsoidal and spherical polymer models with predictions of polymer field theory and free-volume theory, we show that polymer depletion-induced interactions and crowding depend sensitively on polymer shapes and penetrability, with important implications for bulk thermodynamic phase behavior.

  3. Exposure to 50Hz-sinusoidal electromagnetic field induces DNA damage-independent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunyun; Xia, Ruohong; Jiang, Hengjun; Chen, Yanfeng; Hong, Ling; Yu, Yunxian; Xu, Zhengping; Zeng, Qunli

    2016-08-01

    As electromagnetic field (EMF) is commonly encountered within our daily lives, the biological effects of EMF are of great concern. Autophagy is a key process for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and it can also reveal cellular responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological effects of a 50Hz-sinusoidal electromagnetic field on autophagy and we identified its mechanism of action in Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cells. CHL cells were exposed to a 50Hz sinusoidal EMF at 0.4mT for 30min or 24h. In this study, we found that a 0.4mT EMF resulted in: (i) an increase in LC3-II expression and increased autophagosome formation; (ii) no significant difference in the incidence of γH2AX foci between the sham and exposure groups; (iii) reorganized actin filaments and increased pseudopodial extensions without promoting cell migration; and (iv) enhanced cell apoptosis when autophagy was blocked by Bafilomycin A1. These results implied that DNA damage was not directly involved in the autophagy induced by a 0.4mT 50Hz EMF. In addition, an EMF induced autophagy balanced the cellular homeostasis to protect the cells from severe adverse biological consequences. PMID:27177844

  4. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Wideband Wavelength Conversion in Silicon Nitride Microdisk Optomechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxiang; Davanço, Marcelo; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate optomechanically mediated electromagnetically induced transparency and wavelength conversion in silicon nitride (Si3N4) microdisk resonators. Fabricated devices support whispering gallery optical modes with a quality factor (Q) of 106, and radial breathing mechanical modes with a Q=104 and a resonance frequency of 625 MHz, so that the system is in the resolved sideband regime. Placing a strong optical control field on the red (blue) detuned sideband of the optical mode produces coherent interference with a resonant probe beam, inducing a transparency (absorption) window for the probe. This is observed for multiple optical modes of the device, all of which couple to the same mechanical mode, and which can be widely separated in wavelength due to the large band gap of Si3N4. These properties are exploited to demonstrate frequency up-conversion and down-conversion of optical signals between the 1300 and 980 nm bands with a frequency span of 69.4 THz.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a spherical quantum dot with hydrogenic impurity in the external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, Vladan; Stevanović, Ljiljana

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyzed the realization of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in the spherical quantum dot with on-center hydrogenic impurity under the influence of the external magnetic field. Three energy levels of hydrogen impurity 1s0, 2p-1, and 3d-2, together with the probe and control laser fields, which induce σ- transitions between the given states, form a ladder configuration. Optical Bloch equations for such a system are solved in a stationary regime. Dependence of the susceptibility for such a system on the Rabi frequency of the control field, intensity of the external magnetic field, detuning of the control field, and decay rates coefficients are then discussed in detail. Finally, the explanation in dressed state picture is given.

  6. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced heat transport in tokamaks and RFP

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Hartog, D.D.; Cekic, M.; Prager, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    It has long been recognized that fluctuations in the magnetic field are a potent mechanism for the anomalous transport of energy in confined plasmas. The energy transport process originates from particle motion along magnetic fields, which have a fluctuating component in the radial direction (perpendicular to the confining equilibrium magnetic surfaces). A key feature is that the transport can be large even if the fluctuation amplitude is small. If the fluctuations are resonant with the equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., the fluctuation amplitude is constant along an equilibrium field line) then a small fluctuation can introduce stochasticity to the field line trajectories. Particles following the chaotically wandering field lines can rapidly carry energy across the plasma.

  7. Derivation of Aero-Induced Fluctuating Pressure Environments for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Michael Y.; Wilby, John F.

    2008-01-01

    A description is given of the external aero-inducted fluctuating pressure model which was fit and anchored to wind tunnel data from the past 40 years. This model is based upon the assumption that the flow around a vehicle can be divided into discrete flow zones with independent fluctuating pressure properties. The model is then used to derive fluctuating pressure environments during ascent for the Ares I-X test vehicle. A sensitivity study of the structural response to the spatial correlation of the fluctuating pressures is also performed.

  8. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekhovich, E. A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2015-02-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging.

  9. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain.

    PubMed

    Chekhovich, E A; Hopkinson, M; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  10. Fluctuations of visual awareness: Combining motion-induced blindness with binocular rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Katarzyna; Lages, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) and motion-induced blindness (MIB) are two phenomena of visual awareness where perception alternates between multiple states despite constant retinal input. Both phenomena have been extensively studied, but the underlying processing remains unclear. It has been suggested that BR and MIB involve the same neural mechanism, but how the two phenomena compete for visual awareness in the same stimulus has not been systematically investigated. Here we introduce BR in a dichoptic stimulus display that can also elicit MIB and examine fluctuations of visual awareness over the course of each trial. Exploiting this paradigm we manipulated stimulus characteristics that are known to influence MIB and BR. In two experiments we found that effects on multistable percepts were incompatible with the idea of a common oscillator. The results suggest instead that local and global stimulus attributes can affect the dynamics of each percept differently. We conclude that the two phenomena of visual awareness share basic temporal characteristics but are most likely influenced by processing at different stages within the visual system. PMID:25240063

  11. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    PubMed Central

    Chekhovich, E.A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M.S.; Tartakovskii, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear–nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2–4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of water table fluctuations and evapotranspiration induced by riparian vegetation in a semiarid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Weifeng; Wang, Tiejun; Franz, Trenton E.; Chen, Xunhong

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg) links various ecohydrological processes and is an important component in regional water budgets. In this study, an extensive monitoring network was established in a semiarid riparian area to investigate various controls on the spatiotemporal pattern of water table fluctuations (WTFs) and ETg induced by riparian vegetation. Along a vegetation gradient (˜1200 m), diurnal WTFs were observed during a growing season in areas covered by woody species (Populus sect. Aigeiros and Juniperus virginiana) and wet slough vegetation (Panicum virgatum and Bromus inermis) with deeper root systems; whereas, no diurnal WTFs were found in the middle section with shallower-rooted grasses (Poa pratensis and Carex sp.). The occurrence of diurnal WTFs was related to temperature-controlled plant phenology at seasonal scales and to radiation at subdaily scales. Daily ETg in the mid-growing season was calculated using the White method. The results revealed that depth to water table (DTWT) was the dominant control on ETg, followed by potential evapotranspiration (ETp). By combining the effects of DTWT and ETp, it was found that at shallower depths, ETg was more responsive to changes in ETp, due to the closer linkage of land surface processes with shallower groundwater. Finally, exponential relationships between ETg/ETp and DTWT were obtained at the study site, although those relationships varied considerably across the sites. This study demonstrates the complex interactions of WTFs and ETg with surrounding environmental variables and provides further insight into modeling ETg over different time scales and riparian vegetation.

  13. A field investigation of phreatophyte-induced fluctuations in the water table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; Kluitenberg, G.J.; Whittemore, D.O.; Loheide, S.P., II; Jin, W.; Billinger, M.A.; Zhan, X.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrographs from shallow wells in vegetated riparian zones frequently display a distinctive pattern of diurnal water table fluctuations produced by variations in plant water use. A multisite investigation assessed the major controls on these fluctuations and the ecohydrologic insights that can be gleaned from them. Spatial and temporal variations in the amplitude of the fluctuations are primarily a function of variations in (1) the meteorological drivers of plant water use, (2) vegetation density, type, and vitality, and (3) the specific yield of sediments in the vicinity of the water table. Past hydrologic conditions experienced by the riparian zone vegetation, either in previous years or earlier within the same growing season, are also an important control. Diurnal water table fluctuations can be considered a diagnostic indicator of groundwater consumption by phreatophytes at most sites, so the information embedded within these fluctuations should be more widely exploited in ecohydrologic studies. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. A mathematical model of extremely low frequency ocean induced electromagnetic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautta, Manik; Faruque, Rumana Binte; Islam, Rakibul

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system uses the principle that ferromagnetic objects disturb the magnetic lines of force of the earth. These lines of force are able to pass through both water and air in similar manners. A MAD system, usually mounted on an aerial vehicle, is thus often employed to confirm the detection and accomplish localization of large ferromagnetic objects submerged in a sea-water environment. However, the total magnetic signal encountered by a MAD system includes contributions from a myriad of low to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources. The goal of the MAD system is to detect small anomaly signals in the midst of these low-frequency interfering signals. Both the Range of Detection (Rd) and the Probability of Detection (Pd) are limited by the ratio of anomaly signal strength to the interfering magnetic noise. In this paper, we report a generic mathematical model to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio or SNR. Since time-variant electro-magnetic signals are affected by conduction losses due to sea-water conductivity and the presence of air-water interface, we employ the general formulation of dipole induced electromagnetic field propagation in stratified media [1]. As a first step we employ a volumetric distribution of isolated elementary magnetic dipoles, each having its own dipole strength and orientation, to estimate the magnetic noise observed by a MAD system. Numerical results are presented for a few realizations out of an ensemble of possible realizations of elementary dipole source distributions.

  15. Underground Measurements of Electromagnetic Radiation Related to Stress-induced Fractures in the Odenwald Mountains (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, Marco

    2006-08-01

    The regional stress field at Wald-Michelbach (Odenwald Mountains, Germany) induces a secondary stress field around the space of the local railway tunnel. Resulting maximum shear stresses produce microfractures, which emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). From EMR measured along the cross section and the long axis of the tunnel, the regional stress field is determined by a correlation of detected impulses per time with stresses calculated from the orientation of the tunnel, its diameter, and topographic load. The major horizontal principal stress has an azimuth of 103°. At times, strongly alternating EMR values are observed, which indicate electromagnetic disturbances of unknown origin. Such disturbances are identified by repeated measurements and are not evaluated. The repeated measurements, which are not disturbed, differ with median 112 impulses per 100 ms. This difference corresponds to 0.037 MPa and indicates a good reproducibility of the results. Regional stress magnitudes and the WNW-ESE orientation of the major horizontal principal stress indicate a minor N S directed tensional force at the western shoulder of the Upper Rhine Graben.

  16. Attosecond Electro-Magnetic Forces Acting on Metal Nanospheres Induced By Relativistic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M. J.; Batson, P. E.; Reyes-Coronado, A.; Echenique, P. M.; Aizpurua, J.

    2014-03-01

    Swift electron scattering near nanoscale materials provides information about light-matter behavior, including induced forces. We calculate time-dependent electromagnetic forces acting on 1-1.5 nm metal nanospheres induced by passing swift electrons, finding both impulse-like and oscillatory response forces. Initially, impulse-like forces are generated by a competition between attractive electric forces and repulsive magnetic forces, lasting a few attoseconds (5-10 as). Oscillatory, plasmonic response forces take place later in time, last a few femtoseconds (1- 5 fs), and apparently rely on photon emission by decay of the electron-induced surface plasmons. A comparison of the strength of these two forces suggests that the impulse-like behavior dominates the process, and can transfer significant linear momentum to the sphere. Our results advance understanding of the physics behind the observation of both attractive and repulsive behavior of gold nano-particles induced by electron beams in aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Work supported under DOE, Award # DE-SC0005132, Basque Gov. project ETORTEK inano, Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, No. FIS2010-19609-C02-01.

  17. Localization of atomic excitation beyond the diffraction limit using electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, J. A.; Das, Diptaranjan; Simmons, Z. J.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the localization of excitation between hyperfine ground states of 87Rb atoms to as small as λ /13 -wide spatial regions. We use ultracold atoms trapped in a dipole trap and utilize electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for the atomic excitation. The localization is achieved by combining a spatially varying coupling laser (standing wave) with the intensity dependence of EIT. The excitation is fast (150 ns laser pulses) and the dark-state fidelity can be made higher than 94% throughout the standing wave. Because the width of the localized regions is much smaller than the wavelength of the driving light, traditional optical imaging techniques cannot resolve the localized features. Therefore, to measure the excitation profile, we use an autocorrelation-like method where we perform two EIT sequences separated by a time delay, during which we move the standing wave.

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened {Lambda} transition with multiple excited levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mishina, O. S.; Scherman, M.; Lombardi, P.; Ortalo, J.; Bramati, A.; Laurat, J.; Giacobino, E.; Felinto, D.; Sheremet, A. S.; Kupriyanov, D. V.

    2011-05-15

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has mainly been modeled for three-level systems. In particular, considerable interest has been dedicated to the {Lambda} configuration, with two ground states and one excited state. However, in the alkali-metal atoms, which are commonly used, the hyperfine interaction in the excited state introduces several levels which simultaneously participate in the scattering process. When the Doppler broadening is comparable with the hyperfine splitting in the upper state, the three-level {Lambda} model does not reproduce the experimental results. Here we theoretically investigate the EIT in a hot vapor of alkali-metal atoms and demonstrate that it can be strongly reduced by the presence of multiple excited levels. Given this model, we also show that well-designed optical pumping enables us to significantly recover the transparency.

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial based on spoof localized surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhen; Liu, Shuo; Ma, Hui Feng; Li, Chun; Jin, Biaobing; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic metamaterial whose unit cell is composed of an ultrathin metallic disk and four ultrathin metallic spiral arms at terahertz frequencies, which supports both spoof electric and magnetic localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances. We show that the resonant wavelength is much larger than the size of the unit particle, and further find that the resonant wavelength is very sensitive to the particle’s geometrical dimensions and arrangements. It is clearly illustrated that the magnetic LSP resonance exhibits strong dependence to the incidence angle of terahertz wave, which enables the design of metamaterials to achieve an electromagnetically induced transparency effect in the terahertz frequencies. This work opens up the possibility to apply for the surface plasmons in functional devices in the terahertz band. PMID:27277417

  20. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency ground-state cooling of long ion strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Regina; Maier, Christine; Hempel, Cornelius; Jurcevic, Petar; Lanyon, Ben P.; Monz, Thomas; Brownnutt, Michael; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian F.

    2016-05-01

    Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) cooling is a ground-state cooling technique for trapped particles. EIT offers a broader cooling range in frequency space compared to more established methods. In this work, we experimentally investigate EIT cooling in strings of trapped atomic ions. In strings of up to 18 ions, we demonstrate simultaneous ground-state cooling of all radial modes in under 1 ms. This is a particularly important capability in view of emerging quantum simulation experiments with large numbers of trapped ions. Our analysis of the EIT cooling dynamics is based on a technique enabling single-shot measurements of phonon numbers, by rapid adiabatic passage on a vibrational sideband of a narrow transition.

  1. Temporal buildup of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonances in degenerate two-level transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, P.; Failache, H.; Lezama, A.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal evolution of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) coherence resonances in pump-probe spectroscopy of degenerate two-level atomic transition is studied for light intensities below saturation. Analytical expressions for the transient absorption spectra are given for simple model systems and a model for the calculation of the time-dependent response of realistic atomic transitions, where the Zeeman degeneracy is fully accounted for, is presented. EIT and EIA resonances have a similar (opposite sign) time-dependent line shape, however, the EIA evolution is slower and thus narrower lines are observed for long interaction time. Qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions is obtained for the transient probe absorption on the 85Rb D2 line in an atomic beam experiment.

  2. Tuning all-Optical Analog to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peng; Zhou, Guangya; deng, Jie; Tian, Feng; Chau, Fook Siong

    2015-01-01

    We report the observations of all-optical electromagnetically induced transparency in nanostructures using waveguide side-coupled with photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, which has measured linewidths much narrower than individual resonances. The quality factor of transparency resonance can be 30 times larger than those of measured individual resonances. When the gap between cavity and waveguide is reduced to 10 nm, the bandwidth of destructive interference region can reach 10 nm while the width of transparency resonance is 0.3 nm. Subsequently, a comb-drive actuator is introduced to tune the line shape of the transparency resonance. The width of the peak is reduced to 15 pm and the resulting quality factor exceeds 105. PMID:26415907

  3. Electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms inside a high-finesse optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jiteng; Kumar, Santosh; Sedlacek, Jonathon; Chao, Yuanxi; Fan, Haoquan; Shaffer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental work on the observation of Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) inside a high-finesse optical cavity. We show that a cold atomic cloud with controllable number of atoms can be transported into the cavity by using a focus-tunable lens. Rydberg atoms are excited via a two-photon transition in a ladder-type EIT configuration. A three-peak structure in the cavity transmission can be observed when Rydberg EIT atoms are generated inside the cavity. The two side peaks are caused by ``bright state polaritons'', while the central peak corresponds to a ``dark-state polariton'' The cavity Rydberg EIT system can be useful for single photon generation using the Rydberg blockade effect, studying many-body physics, and generating novel quantum states amongst many other applications. This work is supported by AFOSR.

  4. Electromagnetically induced transparency using a superconducting artificial atom with optimized level anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhu-Lei; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2016-04-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an artificial atom of superconducting circuit. Allowed by the selection rule, two kinds of interactions between the atom and driving fields can be obtained, in which we focus on the leakage effect. In terms of dark-state mechanism in generating EIT, the leakage could destroy the EIT considerably. By removing the leakage effect in an optimized three-level atom, we consider a realization of EIT through the technique of density matrix. Furthermore, another effective way to optimize the level anharmonicity is analyzed in a dressing-state method. The scheme could provide a promising approach for experimentally improving EIT with the artificial atoms.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial based on spoof localized surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhen; Liu, Shuo; Ma, Hui Feng; Li, Chun; Jin, Biaobing; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-06-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic metamaterial whose unit cell is composed of an ultrathin metallic disk and four ultrathin metallic spiral arms at terahertz frequencies, which supports both spoof electric and magnetic localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances. We show that the resonant wavelength is much larger than the size of the unit particle, and further find that the resonant wavelength is very sensitive to the particle’s geometrical dimensions and arrangements. It is clearly illustrated that the magnetic LSP resonance exhibits strong dependence to the incidence angle of terahertz wave, which enables the design of metamaterials to achieve an electromagnetically induced transparency effect in the terahertz frequencies. This work opens up the possibility to apply for the surface plasmons in functional devices in the terahertz band.

  6. Optically and thermally controlled terahertz metamaterial via transition between direct and indirect electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Jiawei Feng, Ls

    2014-12-15

    This passage presents a design of tunable terahertz metamaterials via transition between indirect and direct electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects by changing semiconductor InSb’s properties to terahertz wave under optical and thermal stimuli. Mechanical model and its electrical circuit model are utilized in analytically calculating maximum transmission of transparency window. Simulated results show consistency with the analytical expressions. The results show that the metamaterials hold 98.4% modulation depth at 189 GHz between 300 K, σ{sub InSb} =256000 S/m, and 80 K, σ{sub InSb} =0.0162 S/m conditions , 1360 ps recovery time of the excited electrons in InSb under optical stimulus at 300 K mainly considering the direct EIT effect, and minimum bandwidth 1 GHz.

  7. Laser frequency stabilization to excited state transitions using electromagnetically induced transparency in a cascade system

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, R. P.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Bason, M. G.; Pritchard, J. D.; Weatherill, K. J.; Raitzsch, U.; Adams, C. S.

    2009-02-16

    We demonstrate laser frequency stabilization to excited state transitions using cascade electromagnetically induced transparency. Using a room temperature Rb vapor cell as a reference, we stabilize a first diode laser to the D{sub 2} transition and a second laser to a transition from the intermediate 5P{sub 3/2} state to a highly excited state with principal quantum number n=19-70. A combined laser linewidth of 280{+-}50 kHz over a 100 {mu}s time period is achieved. This method may be applied generally to any cascade system and allows laser stabilization to an atomic reference in the absence of a direct absorption signal.

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial based on spoof localized surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhen; Liu, Shuo; Ma, Hui Feng; Li, Chun; Jin, Biaobing; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic metamaterial whose unit cell is composed of an ultrathin metallic disk and four ultrathin metallic spiral arms at terahertz frequencies, which supports both spoof electric and magnetic localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances. We show that the resonant wavelength is much larger than the size of the unit particle, and further find that the resonant wavelength is very sensitive to the particle's geometrical dimensions and arrangements. It is clearly illustrated that the magnetic LSP resonance exhibits strong dependence to the incidence angle of terahertz wave, which enables the design of metamaterials to achieve an electromagnetically induced transparency effect in the terahertz frequencies. This work opens up the possibility to apply for the surface plasmons in functional devices in the terahertz band. PMID:27277417

  9. Resolution of hyperfine transitions in metastable 83Kr using electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Y. B.; Mishra, S. R.; Tiwari, V. B.; Singh, S.; Rawat, H. S.

    2015-05-01

    Narrow linewidth signals of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the metastable 83Kr have been observed. Various hyperfine transitions in the 4 p55 s [3/2 ] 2 to 4 p55 p [5/2 ] 3 manifolds of 83Kr have been identified through the experimentally observed EIT signals. Some unresolved or poorly resolved hyperfine transitions in saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) are clearly resolved in the present work. Using the spectral separation of these EIT identified hyperfine transitions, the magnetic hyperfine constant (A ) and the electric quadrupole hyperfine constant (B ) are determined with improved accuracy for 4 p55 s [3/2 ] 2 and 4 p55 p [5/2 ] 3 manifolds.

  10. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Tejero, E M; Crabtree, C; Blackwell, D D; Amatucci, W E; Mithaiwala, M; Ganguli, G; Rudakov, L

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10(-6) times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth's plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  11. Blockaded six- and eight-wave mixing processes tailored by electromagnetically induced transparency scissors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. B.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Che, J. L.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Xiao, M.

    2014-04-01

    We report the first experimental observations of the blockaded six- and eight-wave mixing processes in a collective multi-level Rydberg atomic ensemble tailored by multi-channel scissors and created by three coexisting electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows. The interplay between the dressed-state effect and the Rydberg blockade caused by strong van der Waals interactions is investigated when several parameters in the excitation lasers are changed. Blockaded multi-wave mixing (MWM) signals are obtained when the coupling frequency detuning is changed, which is improved to give multiple channels when the probe detuning is scanned. Such MWM signals tailored by EIT scissors produce a much narrower linewidth and therefore are suitable for application in long-distance quantum communication. The advantages of having multi-channel blockaded MWM signals also makes potential applications in demonstrating multi-channel entanglement possible and improves the performance of quantum computation with Rydberg atoms.

  12. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10−6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  13. Resonant Rydberg Dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, C.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Pohl, T.

    2016-06-01

    We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay, and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms.

  14. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  15. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10-6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment.

  16. Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, H. M.; González, C.; Martinelli, M.

    2016-07-01

    Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in the time domain the steep dispersion in the EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a Λ transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first-order term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sideband resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.

  17. Resonant Rydberg Dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency.

    PubMed

    Gaul, C; DeSalvo, B J; Aman, J A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C; Pohl, T

    2016-06-17

    We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay, and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms. PMID:27367387

  18. Optical control of light propagation in photonic crystal based on electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Wang; Jin-Ze, Wu; Jun-Xiang, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A kind of photonic crystal structure with modulation of the refractive index is investigated both experimentally and theoretically for exploiting electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The combination of EIT with periodically modulated refractive index medium gives rise to high efficiency reflection as well as forbidden transmission in a three-level atomic system coupled by standing wave. We show an accurate theoretical simulation via transfer-matrix theory, automatically accounting for multilayer reflections, thus fully demonstrate the existence of photonic crystal structure in atomic vapor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574188) and the Project for Excellent Research Team of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61121064).

  19. Method for identifying electromagnetically induced transparency in a tunable circuit quantum electrodynamics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi-Chun; Li, Tie-Fu; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Hu; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Ying-Shan; Chen, Zhen; Liu, J. S.; Chen, Wei; Nori, Franco; Tsai, J. S.; You, J. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been realized in atomic systems, but fulfilling the EIT conditions for artificial atoms made from superconducting circuits is a more difficult task. Here we report an experimental observation of the EIT in a tunable three-dimensional transmon by probing the cavity transmission. To fulfill the EIT conditions, we tune the transmon to adjust its damping rates by utilizing the effect of the cavity on the transmon states. From the experimental observations, we clearly identify the EIT and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) regimes as well as the transition regime in between. Also, the experimental data demonstrate that the threshold ΩAIC determined by the Akaike information criterion can describe the EIT-ATS transition better than the threshold ΩEIT given by the EIT theory.

  20. Electromagnetically induced absorption in detuned stub waveguides: a simple analytical and experimental model.

    PubMed

    Mouadili, A; Boudouti, E H El; Soltani, A; Talbi, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Akjouj, A; Haddadi, K

    2014-12-17

    We give an analytical and experimental demonstration of a classical analogue of the electromagnetic induced absorption (EIA) in a simple photonic device consisting of two stubs of lengths d1 and d2 grafted at the same site along a waveguide. By detuning the lengths of the two stubs (i.e. δ = d(2) - d(1)) we show that: (i) the amplitudes of the electromagnetic waves in the two stubs can be written following the two resonators model where each stub plays the role of a radiative resonator with low Q factor. The destructive interference between the waves in the two stubs may give rise to a sharp resonance peak with high Q factor in the transmission as well as in the absorption. (ii) The transmission coefficient around the resonance induced by the stubs can be written following a Fano-like form. In particular, we give an explicit expression of the position, width and Fano parameter of the resonances as a function of δ. (iii) By taking into account the loss in the waveguides, we show that at the transmission resonance, the transmission (reflection) increases (decreases) as a function of δ. Whereas the absorption goes through a maximum around 0.5 for a threshold value δth which depends on the attenuation in the system and then falls to zero. (iv) We give a comparison between the phase of the determinant of the scattering matrix, the so-called Friedel phase and the phase of the transmission amplitude. (v) The effect of the boundary conditions at the end of the resonators on the EIA resonance is also discussed. The analytical results are obtained by means of the Green's function method, whereas the experiments are carried out using coaxial cables in the radio-frequency regime. These results should have important consequences for designing integrated devices such as narrow-frequency optical or microwave filters and high-speed switches. PMID:25406973

  1. Fluctuation-induced heat release from temperature-quenched nuclear spins near a quantum critical point.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Kaur, N; Atkins, B M; Dalal, N S; Takano, Y

    2009-12-11

    At a quantum critical point (QCP)--a zero-temperature singularity in which a line of continuous phase transition terminates--quantum fluctuations diverge in space and time, leading to exotic phenomena that can be observed at nonzero temperatures. Using a quantum antiferromagnet, we present calorimetric evidence that nuclear spins frozen in a high-temperature nonequilibrium state by temperature quenching are annealed by quantum fluctuations near the QCP. This phenomenon, with readily detectable heat release from the nuclear spins as they are annealed, serves as an excellent marker of a quantum critical region around the QCP and provides a probe of the dynamics of the divergent quantum fluctuations. PMID:20366226

  2. Heterogeneity in (2-butoxyethanol + water) mixtures: Hydrophobicity-induced aggregation or criticality-driven concentration fluctuations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indra, Sandipa; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-05-01

    Micro-heterogeneity in aqueous solutions of 2-butoxyethanol (BE), a system with closed loop miscibility gap, has been explored via absorption and time-resolved fluorescence measurements of a dissolved dipolar solute, coumarin 153 (C153), in the water-rich region at various BE mole fractions (0 ≤ XBE ≤ 0.25) in the temperature range, 278 ≤ T/K ≤ 320. Evidences for both alcohol-induced H-bond strengthening and subsequent structural transition of H-bond network have been observed. Analyses of steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic data for these aqueous mixtures and comparisons with the results for aqueous solutions of ethanol and tertiary butanol indicate that alcohol aggregation in BE/water mixtures is driven by hydrophobic interaction with no or insignificant role for criticality-driven concentration fluctuations preceding phase separation. Excitation energy dependence of fluorescence emission of C153 confirms formation of aggregated structures at very low BE mole fractions. No asymptotic critical power law dependence for relaxation rates of the type, k ∝ (|T - Tc|/Tc)γ, with γ denoting universal critical constant, has been observed for both solute's rotational relaxation and population relaxation rates in these mixtures upon either approaching to critical concentration or critical temperature. Estimated activation energies for rotational relaxation rate of C153 and solution viscosity have been found to follow each other with no abrupt changes in either of them at any mixture composition. In addition, measured C153 rotation times at various compositions and temperatures reflect near-hydrodynamic viscosity coupling through the dependence, <τr> ∝ (η/T)p, with p = 0.8-1.0, suggesting solute's orientational relaxation dynamics being, on an average, temporally homogeneous.

  3. Demonstration of Electrostatic to Electromagnetic Conversion through Induced Nonlinear Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear conversion of electrostatic (ES) to electromagnetic (EM) waves in the whistler branch through induced scattering by thermal electrons is an important contribution to the evolution of plasmas in weak turbulence when the wave amplitude is large enough for linear/quasi-linear approaches to break down. It has been theoretically shown that in isothermal low beta turbulent plasmas the rate of induced scattering by particles is much larger than three-wave coalescence and decay processes. It is particularly important to near-Earth space plasma evolution during disturbed times when wave amplitudes cross the threshold for nonlinear scattering. The change in k vector and group velocity of the waves resulting from the conversion from ES to EM enhances the efficiency of pitch-angle scattering, which plays a dramatic role in regulating the trapped energetic electron fluxes inthe Earth's radiation belts. This nonlinear process is being studied in the NRL Space Physics Simulation Chamber, demonstrating the induced nonlinear scattering of quasi-electrostatic pump waves by thermal electrons. The experimental results support theoretical predictions of the nonlinear interaction. Work supported by the Naval Reseach Laboratory Base Program.

  4. Optical measurements of fluctuating temperatures in a supersonic turbulent flow using one- and two-photon, laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique was developed that provides a practical means of nonintrusively measuring the instantaneous temperatures in low-temperature turbulent flows. The capabilities of the method are reviewed, and its application to a simple, two-dimensional, turbulent boundary-layer flow at Mach 2 is reported. Measurements of the average temperature distribution through the boundary layer and the magnitudes of temperature fluctuations about their average values are presented.

  5. Nonambipolar Magnetic-Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Plasma Flow in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Craig, D.; Deng, B. H.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Svidzinski, V.

    2007-08-03

    First direct measurements of nonambipolar magnetic fluctuation-induced charge transport in the interior of a high-temperature plasma are reported. Global resistive tearing modes drive the charge transport which is measured in the vicinity of the resonant surface for the dominant core resonant mode. Finite charge transport has two important consequences. First, it generates a potential well along with locally strong electric field and electric field shear at the resonant surface. Second, this electric field induces a spontaneous ExB driven zonal flow.

  6. Possible Ionospheric Electromagnetic Perturbations Induced by the Ms7.1 Yushu Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhima, Zeren; Xuhui, Shen; Xuemin, Zhang; Jinbin, Cao; Jianping, Huang; Xinyan, Ouyang; Jing, Liu; Lu, Bingqing

    2012-06-01

    The power spectrum density (PSD) of magnetic field in the ELF/VLF band recorded by the experiment IMSC onboard the DEMETER satellite were used to study the Ms7.1 Yushu earthquake taking place on April 13, 2010 in China. The results indicate that possible ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations occurring 4 days before the earthquake in the frequency range [370-897 Hz]. Along the orbit 30880_up, which passed over the epicenter area on 9 April, enhanced PSD value of magnetic field at 410 Hz was detected both over the epicentral area and its conjugate point in the southern hemisphere. While on revisited orbits during other days (before and after the earthquake) the magnetic field spectra remained at a relatively low level. In order to be sure that the electromagnetic disturbances were induced by this Yushu earthquake, relative variations of the magnetic field in the ELF/VLF range [370-897 Hz] were calculated and compared with the normal background during 3 years (2007, 2008 and 2009) in the time interval from Jan. 1st to Apr. 30 and in the area [23°N-43°N, 86°E-106°E]. The results show that the normal level of magnetic field in this area is relatively low (~10-7 nT2/Hz), but a large increase occurred from Apr. 1st to Apr. 14 which exceeds 5σb. After the earthquake, the magnetic field in the ELF/VLF range gradually decreased. In order to exclude the influence of geomagnetic field activity, we selected only the data recorded during magnetically quiet local night-times. In addition, artificial noises were also removed from the dataset used in the present paper. Therefore the observed perturbations were independent of geomagnetic field disturbances, and might be attributed to seismic activity.

  7. Research of fluid-induced pressure fluctuation due to impeller-volute interaction in a centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Z.; Yang, K.; Y Li, D.; Gong, R. Z.

    2013-12-01

    The fluid pressure fluctuation generated by unsteady flow is a very important factor to induce vibration of the centrifugal pump. The relative movement between impeller and volute generates an unsteady interaction which affects not only the overall pump performance, but is also responsible for pressure fluctuations. Pressure fluctuations interact with the volute casing or even with the circuit and give rise to dynamic effects over the mechanical parts, which are one of the most important sources of vibration and hydraulic noise. To investigate the flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump, the unsteady flow is simulated by CFD methods in this paper. Unsteady flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump is obtained considering the impeller-volute interaction in the whole flow field. Based on the unsteady flow simulation, amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pressure fluctuation in the centrifugal pump are obtained through setting up monitoring point at the impeller outlet. The research shows that the frequency component include the blade passing frequency as the main component, the multiplication of blade passing frequency, and the harmonic interference due to the unsteady flow.

  8. Decay of bound states in the continuum of Majorana fermions induced by vacuum fluctuations: Proposal of qubit technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, L. S.; Marques, Y.; Dessotti, F. A.; Machado, R. S.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a theoretical investigation of the interplay between vacuum fluctuations, Majorana quasiparticles (MQPs), and bound states in the continuum (BICs) by proposing a new venue for qubit storage. BICs emerge due to quantum interference processes as the Fano effect and, since such a mechanism is unbalanced, these states decay as regular into the continuum. Such fingerprints identify BICs in graphene as we have discussed in detail in Phys. Rev. B 92, 245107 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.245107 and Phys. Rev. B, 92, 045409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.045409. Here, by considering two semi-infinite Kitaev chains within the topological phase, coupled to a quantum dot (QD) hybridized with leads, we show the emergence of a novel type of BICs, in which MQPs are trapped. As the MQPs of these chains far apart build a delocalized fermion and qubit, we identify that the decay of these BICs is not connected to Fano and it occurs when finite fluctuations are observed in the vacuum composed by electron pairs for this qubit. From the experimental point of view, we also show that vacuum fluctuations can be induced just by changing the chain-dot couplings from symmetric to asymmetric. Hence, we show how to perform the qubit storage within two delocalized BICs of MQPs and to access it when the vacuum fluctuates by means of a complete controllable way in quantum transport experiments.

  9. Polysilicon Gate Enhancement of the Random Dopant Induced Threshold Voltage Fluctuations in Sub-100 nm MOSFET's with Ultrathin Gate Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Saini, Subhash

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate various aspects of the polysilicon gate influence on the random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations in sub-100 nm MOSFET's with ultrathin gate oxides. The study is done by using an efficient statistical three-dimensional (3-D) "atomistic" simulation technique described else-where. MOSFET's with uniform channel doping and with low doped epitaxial channels have been investigated. The simulations reveal that even in devices with a single crystal gate the gate depletion and the random dopants in it are responsible for a substantial fraction of the threshold voltage fluctuations when the gate oxide is scaled-in the range of 1-2 nm. Simulation experiments have been used in order to separate the enhancement in the threshold voltage fluctuations due to an effective increase in the oxide thickness associated with the gate depletion from the direct influence of the random dopants in the gate depletion layer. The results of the experiments show that the both factors contribute to the enhancement of the threshold voltage fluctuations, but the effective increase in the oxide-thickness has a dominant effect in the investigated range of devices. Simulations illustrating the effect or the polysilicon grain boundaries on the threshold voltage variation are also presented.

  10. Role of electromagnetically induced transparency in resonant four-wave-mixing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petch, J. C.; Keitel, C. H.; Knight, P. L.; Marangos, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of electromagnetically induced transparency in resonant four-wave-mixing schemes is investigated in an analysis that goes beyond perturbation theory in the coherent driving field. In addition we examine the case where the two-photon pump field is sufficiently strong to necessitate a nonperturbative treatment. This allows us to examine the cases where either one or both of the driving fields are strong. Phase matching is included in a plane-wave propagation treatment that matches the situation most likely to be encountered in actual experiments. The calculations are in part intended to model real experimental situations and thus incorporate driving and pump-field linewidths via the phase-diffusion model and Doppler broadening. With a strong pump-field laser, large enhancements in the efficiency of light generation occur at frequencies corresponding to the Autler-Townes satellites induced by the strong driving field. In this situation gain and high four-wave-mixing efficiency are simultaneously present, resulting in the production of a large intensity of coherent radiation.

  11. 18 GHz electromagnetic field induces permeability of Gram-positive cocci

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, The Hong Phong; Shamis, Yury; Croft, Rodney J.; Wood, Andrew; McIntosh, Robert L.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures at the microwave (MW) frequency of 18 GHz, on four cocci, Planococcus maritimus KMM 3738, Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8T, S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. epidermidis ATCC 14990T, was investigated. We demonstrate that exposing the bacteria to an EMF induced permeability in the bacterial membranes of all strains studied, as confirmed directly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and indirectly via the propidium iodide assay and the uptake of silica nanospheres. The cells remained permeable for at least nine minutes after EMF exposure. It was shown that all strains internalized 23.5 nm nanospheres, whereas the internalization of the 46.3 nm nanospheres differed amongst the bacterial strains (S. epidermidis ATCC 14990T~ 0%; Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8T S. aureus ATCC 25923, ~40%; Planococcus maritimus KMM 3738, ~80%). Cell viability experiments indicated that up to 84% of the cells exposed to the EMF remained viable. The morphology of the bacterial cells was not altered, as inferred from the scanning electron micrographs, however traces of leaked cytosolic fluids from the EMF exposed cells could be detected. EMF-induced permeabilization may represent an innovative, alternative cell permeability technique for applications in biomedical engineering, cell drug delivery and gene therapy. PMID:26077933

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an open V-type molecular system

    SciTech Connect

    Lazoudis, A.; Ahmed, E. H.; Qi, P.; Lyyra, A. M.; Kirova, T.; Huennekens, J.

    2011-06-15

    We report the experimental observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an inhomogeneously broadened V-type Na{sub 2} molecular system. The experiment is performed with both co- and counterpropagating arrangements for the propagation directions of the coupling and probe laser beams. In our theoretical model we employ the density matrix formalism, as well as perturbative methods for obtaining the probe field absorption profile for both open and closed systems. Simulations of the experimental data show excellent agreement with the predictions derived from the basic theory. Our fluorescent intensity measurements show that, in the copropagating configuration, the EIT plus saturation window depth is about 95%, while under similar conditions in the counterpropagating geometry we observed 40%-45% reduction in the fluorescence signal around the line center. To separate the two simultaneously occurring mechanisms in a V-type system (i.e., EIT and saturation) that are induced by the coupling field, we have carried out theoretical calculations which show that, in the copropagating case, a significant fraction of the depth of the dip is due to the coherent effect of EIT. When the coupling and probe beams are in the counterpropagating configuration, the dip is mostly due to saturation effects alone.

  13. Femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis model.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Akira; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Saito, Masazumi; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Hayashi, Shigeki; Ishida, Masashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis rabbit model by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Steroid-induced osteonecrosis was produced by single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone in 15 rabbits. Eight rabbits underwent PEMF stimulation (PEMF group) and seven did not (control group). DCE-MRI was performed before PEMF stimulation, immediately before steroid administration, and 1, 5, 10, and 14 days after steroid administration. Regions of interest were set in the bilateral proximal femora. Enhancement ratio (ER), initial slope (IS), and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. ER, IS, and AUC in the control group significantly decreased after steroid administration compared with before administration (P<0.05). In PEMF group, IS significantly decreased; however, ER and AUC showed no significant differences after steroid administration compared with before. ER and IS in PEMF group were higher than in control group until 10th day, and AUC was higher until 5th day after steroid administration (P<0.05). PEMF stimulation restrains the decrease in blood flow after steroid administration. PMID:25808585

  14. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  15. Analysis of Numerical Simulation Database for Pressure Fluctuations Induced by High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer with nominal freestream Mach number of 6 and Reynolds number of Re(sub T) approximately 460 are conducted at two wall temperatures (Tw/Tr = 0.25, 0.76) to investigate the generated pressure fluctuations and their dependence on wall temperature. Simulations indicate that the influence of wall temperature on pressure fluctuations is largely limited to the near-wall region, with the characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations showing a strong temperature dependence. Wall temperature has little influence on the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal. The freestream radiation intensity compares well between wall-temperature cases when normalized by the local wall shear; the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal and the orientation of the radiation wave front show little dependence on the wall temperature.

  16. Three-dimensional simulation of the electromagnetic fields induced by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luolei; Utada, Hisashi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Baba, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takuto

    2014-01-01

    The motion of seawater induces electromotive force of significant intensity due to Faraday's law, and the resulting electromagnetic (EM) field can be recorded by instruments installed on land or on the ocean bottom. However, few studies have successfully made a quantitative interpretation to obtain geophysical information from observations of tsunami-induced EM signals by an exact and accurate application of Maxwell equations. We built a scheme for three-dimensional numerical simulation to calculate EM fields due to ocean tidal flow and tested the system's accuracy by using the source currents in the ocean as expected from a Tohoku tsunami simulation. Here we show examples of a comparison of data from one land observatory in the Tohoku district, one island observatory in the Izu-Bonin arc, and one seafloor station in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The water motion that generates source current in the sea consists of both the primary poloidal and toroidal magnetic modes. Our numerical simulation shows that the field of the primary toroidal magnetic mode can be effective for seafloor observations but only when the seafloor is highly conductive. We examined how the conductivity of the shallower part of the seabed, composed of sediments, can be constrained by the tsunami-induced EM field observations, which is difficult in case of using ordinary seafloor magnetotelluric signals. We also defined the motional impedance just as the case of ordinary magnetotellurics and showed that both modeled and observed impedances approximately indicate the phase velocity of the long wave as predicted by a simple theory.

  17. Respiratory-Induced Prostate Motion Using Wavelet Decomposition of the Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuting; Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuenan; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify the impact of respiratory-induced prostate motion. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction motion is observed with the Calypso 4-dimensional nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc. Seattle, Washington). We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. Wavelet transform was used to decompose the signal to extract and isolate the respiratory-induced prostate motion from the total prostate displacement. Results: Our results show that the average respiratory motion larger than 0.5 mm can be observed in 68% of the fractions. Fewer than 1% of the patients showed average respiratory motion of less than 0.2 mm, whereas 99% of the patients showed average respiratory-induced motion ranging between 0.2 and 2 mm. The maximum respiratory range of motion of 3 mm or greater was seen in only 25% of the fractions. In addition, about 2% patients showed anxiety, indicated by a breathing frequency above 24 times per minute. Conclusions: Prostate motion is influenced by respiration in most fractions. Real-time intrafraction data are sensitive enough to measure the impact of respiration by use of wavelet decomposition methods. Although the average respiratory amplitude observed in this study is small, this technique provides a tool that can be useful if one moves to smaller treatment margins (≤5 mm). This also opens ups the possibility of being able to develop patient specific margins, knowing that prostate motion is not unpredictable.

  18. Depletion-induced forces and crowding in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures: Role of polymer shape fluctuations and penetrability.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R

    2016-01-14

    Depletion forces and macromolecular crowding govern the structure and function of biopolymers in biological cells and the properties of polymer nanocomposite materials. To isolate and analyze the influence of polymer shape fluctuations and penetrability on depletion-induced interactions and crowding by nanoparticles, we model polymers as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor of an ideal random walk. Within this model, we apply Monte Carlo simulation methods to compute the depletion-induced potential of mean force between hard nanospheres and crowding-induced shape distributions of polymers in the protein limit, in which polymer coils can be easily penetrated by smaller nanospheres. By comparing depletion potentials from simulations of ellipsoidal and spherical polymer models with predictions of polymer field theory and free-volume theory, we show that polymer depletion-induced interactions and crowding depend sensitively on polymer shapes and penetrability, with important implications for bulk thermodynamic phase behavior. PMID:26772587

  19. Charge mobility induced by Brownian fluctuations in π-conjugated polymers in solution.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jessica Ellen; Damry, Djamshid Ahmud; Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William

    2016-01-28

    We study the motion of a doped charge in a π-conjugated polymer chain in solution subject to Brownian fluctuations. Specifically, we take poly(para-phenylene) to be our model system where the Brownian fluctuations cause rotational motion of the phenylene rings. The instantaneous torsional fluctuations cause Anderson localization of the charge wavefunction, with the lower-energy spectrum being composed of local ground states and the higher-energy spectrum being composed of quasi-extended states. At low temperatures, additional charge localization occurs via torsional relaxation. The dynamical torsional fluctuations lead to two distinct modes of motion of the charge: adiabatic and non-adiabatic. Adiabatic motion is a 'crawling' motion of the charge along the polymer chain while the charge remains in its local ground state. Non-adiabatic motion is a rapid 'hopping' motion as the charge is excited into higher energy quasi-extended states and travels ballistically along the chain before relaxing into a local ground state. The adiabatic motion dominates at low temperatures, and exhibits a linear temperature dependence and thus a constant zero-field charge mobility. Non-adiabatic motion begins to dominate as the temperature is increased, as the charge is thermally excited into higher energy states. At high temperatures the diffusion constant becomes almost temperature independent, indicating a decrease in the charge mobility with increasing temperature, which we attribute to the charge localization length being a decreasing function of temperature at high temperatures. PMID:26699806

  20. Fluctuation-induced dielectric permittivity in the isotropic phase of cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prabir K.; Das, Asok K.

    2016-03-01

    The temperature and pressure dependence of the static dielectric permittivity in the isotropic phase of the isotropic to cholesteric phase transition is calculated using Landau-de Gennes’s fluctuation theory, allowing spatial variation of the orientational order parameter. A comparison is made with experimental data available in the isotropic phase of the isotropic to cholesteric phase transition.

  1. Laser-based measurements of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle transport and nonlinear mode interactions in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Travis Fred

    Magnetic fluctuation-induced particle transport and density fluctuations have been investigated in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-filed pinch using a far infrared (FIR) laser based interferometer-polarimetry system. An extensive study focuses on the particle transport and density fluctuations during the sawtooth crash where the stochastic magnetic field is largest. Particle flux arising from the inieraction between density fluctuations and magnetic fluctuations has been measured to be significant at the reversal surface where modes with poloidal mode number m = 0 are resonant. The particle flux is comparable to that measured in the core where m = 1 modes dominate. The origin of density fluctuations has been studied experimentally. It is found that density fluctuations not only result from linear advection but also non-linear three-wave interactions. This is different from the previously reported results that indicated that the edge density fluctuations originate from linear advection. The results reported here reveal that m = 0 modes play an important role in density fluctuations and particle flux. An experiment where m = 0 modes are greatly reduced, by removing the reversal surface from the plasma, indicates that particle flux and density fluctuations are reduced significantly, which further confirms the importance of edge resonant modes in particle transport.

  2. Ultra-narrow band perfect absorbers based on plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced absorption.

    PubMed

    He, Jinna; Ding, Pei; Wang, Junqiao; Fan, Chunzhen; Liang, Erjun

    2015-03-01

    A novel plasmonic metamaterial consisting of the solid (bar) and the inverse (slot) compound metallic nanostructure for electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) is proposed in this paper, which is demonstrated to achieve an ultra-narrow absorption peak with the linewidth less than 8 nm and the absorptivity exceeding 97% at optical frequencies. This is attributed to the plasmonic EIA resonance arising from the efficient coupling between the magnetic response of the slot (dark mode) and the electric resonance of the bar (bright mode). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the plasmonic EIA is used to realize the narrow-band perfect absorbers. The underlying physics are revealed by applying the two-coupled-oscillator model. The near-perfect-absorption resonance also causes an enhancement of about 50 times in H-field and about 130 times in E-field within the slots. Such absorber possesses potential for applications in filter, thermal emitter, surface enhanced Raman scattering, sensing and nonlinear optics. PMID:25836832

  3. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing. PMID:26349444

  4. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency at terahertz frequencies in coupled graphene metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Wen; Liu, Shao-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Kong, Xiang-Kun; Li, Hai-Ming; Li, Bing-Xiang; Liu, Si-Yuan; Li, Hai

    2015-11-01

    A graphene-based metamaterial with tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission is numerically studied in this paper. The proposed structure consists of a graphene layer composed of coupled cut-wire pairs printed on a substrate. The simulation confirms that an EIT-like transparency window can be observed due to indirect coupling in a terahertz frequency range. More importantly, the peak frequency of the transmission window can be dynamically controlled over a broad frequency range by varying the Fermi energy levels of the graphene layer through controlling the electrostatic gating. The proposed metamaterial structure offers an additional opportunity to design novel applications such as switches or modulators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61307052), the Youth Funding for Science & Technology Innovation in Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China (Grant No. NS2014039), the Chinese Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (Grant No. 20123218110017), the Innovation Program for Graduate Education of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. KYLX_0272, CXZZ13_0166, and CXLX13_155), the Open Research Program in National State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of China (Grant No. K201609), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. kfjj20150407).

  5. Velocity-selective electromagnetically-induced-transparency measurements of potassium Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenchao; DeMarco, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a velocity selection scheme that mitigates suppression of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by Doppler shifts for coupling wavelengths larger than the probe wavelength. An optical pumping beam counterpropagating with the EIT probe beam transfers atoms between hyperfine states in a velocity-selective fashion. Measurement of the transmitted probe beam synchronous with chopping of the optical pumping beam enables a Doppler-free EIT signal to be detected. Transition frequencies between 5 P1 /2 and n S1 /2 states for n =26 , 27, and 28 in 39K are obtained via EIT spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell with a probe beam stabilized to the 4 S1 /2→5 P1 /2 transition. Using previous high-resolution measurements of the 4 S1 /2→n S1 /2 transitions, we make a determination of the absolute frequency of the 4 S1 /2→5 P1 /2 transition. Our measurement is shifted by 560 MHz from the currently accepted value with a twofold improvement in uncertainty. These measurements will enable novel experiments with Rydberg-dressed ultracold Fermi gases composed of 40K atoms.

  6. Light storage based on four-wave mixing and electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinghui; Liu, Yang; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    We performed an experiment to observe the storage of an input probe field and an idler field generated through an off-axis four-wave mixing (FWM) process via a double-Λ configuration in a cold atomic ensemble. We analyzed the underlying physics in detail and found that the retrieved idler field came from two parts if there was no single-photon detuning for the pump pulse: Part 1 was from the collective atomic spin (the input probe field, the coupling field, and the pump field combined to generate the idler field through FWM; then the idler was stored through electromagnetically induced transparency). Part 2 was from the generated new FWM process during the retrieval process (the retrieved probe field, the coupling field, and the pump field combined to generate a new FWM signal). If there was single-photon detuning for the pump pulse, then the retrieved idler was mainly from part 2. The retrieved two fields exhibited damped oscillations with the same oscillatory period when a homogeneous external magnetic field was applied, which was caused by the Larmor spin precession. We also experimentally realized the storage and retrieval of an image of light using FWM, in which an image was added into the input signal. After the storage, the retrieved idler beams and input signal carried the same image. This image storage technique holds promise for applications in image processing, remote sensing, and quantum communication.

  7. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-14

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  8. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a tool to manipulate mechanical effects of light to couple optical field with other physical objects, is the subject of increasing investigations, especially with regards to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT, a result of Fano interference among different atomic transition levels, has acquired a significant importance in many areas of physics, such as atomic physics and quantum optics. However, controllability of such multi-dimensional systems has remained a crucial issue. In this report, we investigate the controllability of EIT and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity with one vibrational mirror, driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse pump field. The transverse field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT. It is detected that the strength of transverse field is not only efficiently amplifying or attenuating out-going optical mode but also providing an opportunity to enhance the strength of Fano-interactions which leads to the amplification of EIT-window. To observe these phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters. The results provide a route for tunable manipulation of optical phenomena, like EIT, which could be a significant step in quantum engineering.

  9. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a tool to manipulate mechanical effects of light to couple optical field with other physical objects, is the subject of increasing investigations, especially with regards to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT, a result of Fano interference among different atomic transition levels, has acquired a significant importance in many areas of physics, such as atomic physics and quantum optics. However, controllability of such multi-dimensional systems has remained a crucial issue. In this report, we investigate the controllability of EIT and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity with one vibrational mirror, driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse pump field. The transverse field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT. It is detected that the strength of transverse field is not only efficiently amplifying or attenuating out-going optical mode but also providing an opportunity to enhance the strength of Fano-interactions which leads to the amplification of EIT-window. To observe these phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters. The results provide a route for tunable manipulation of optical phenomena, like EIT, which could be a significant step in quantum engineering. PMID:26955789

  10. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a tool to manipulate mechanical effects of light to couple optical field with other physical objects, is the subject of increasing investigations, especially with regards to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT, a result of Fano interference among different atomic transition levels, has acquired a significant importance in many areas of physics, such as atomic physics and quantum optics. However, controllability of such multi-dimensional systems has remained a crucial issue. In this report, we investigate the controllability of EIT and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity with one vibrational mirror, driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse pump field. The transverse field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT. It is detected that the strength of transverse field is not only efficiently amplifying or attenuating out-going optical mode but also providing an opportunity to enhance the strength of Fano-interactions which leads to the amplification of EIT-window. To observe these phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters. The results provide a route for tunable manipulation of optical phenomena, like EIT, which could be a significant step in quantum engineering. PMID:26955789

  11. Linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened medium via electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Li Liang; Huang Guoxiang

    2010-08-15

    We present a systematic theoretical study to deal with linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened three-level {Lambda} system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with incoherent population exchange between two lower energy levels taken into account. Through a careful analysis of base state and linear excitation, we show that the EIT condition of the system is given by |{Omega}{sub c}|{sup 2{gamma}}{sub 31}>>2{gamma}{sub 21{Delta}{omega}D}{sup 2}, where {Omega}{sub c} is half the Rabi frequency of the control field, {Delta}{omega}{sub D} is the Doppler width, and {gamma}{sub jl} is the decay rate of the coherence between states |j> and |l>. Under this condition, the effect of incoherent population exchange is insignificant, while dephasing dominates the decoherence of the system. This condition also ensures the validity of the weak nonlinear perturbation theory used in this work for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations with inhomogeneous broadening. We then investigate the nonlinear propagation of the probe field and show that it is possible to form temporal optical solitons in the Doppler-broadened medium. Such solitons have ultraslow propagating velocity and can be generated in very low light power. The possibility of realizing (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial optical solitons in the adiabatic regime of the system is also discussed.

  12. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-09-01

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing.

  13. Density matrix reconstruction of three-level atoms via Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavryusev, V.; Signoles, A.; Ferreira-Cao, M.; Zürn, G.; Hofmann, C. S.; Günter, G.; Schempp, H.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present combined measurements of the spatially resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, while the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and light degrees of freedom and will facilitate new studies of many-body effects in optically driven Rydberg gases.

  14. Characterization of decoherence in electromagnetically induced transparency for applications in storage of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Eden; Appel, Juergen; Vewinger, Frank; Lvovsky, Alexander

    2007-06-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) has many applications in quantum information, particularly in quantum memory for light [1]. These applications require understanding of the phenomena responsible for decoherence in such processes. Insight into this question can be gained by measuring the width of the EIT resonance as a function of the pump field intensity. We report characterization of EIT resonances in the D1 line of Rb 87 under various experimental conditions. The dependence of the EIT linewidth on the power of the control field was investigated, at various temperatures, for lambda level configurations associated with different hyperfine levels of the atomic ground state as well as magnetic sublevels of the same hyperfine level. Strictly linear behavior was observed in all cases. Our results were inconsistent with a widely accepted theory where population exchange between the ground levels is assumed to be the main decoherence mechanism [2]. We therefore formulated a new theory assuming pure dephasing (decay of off-diagonal matrix elements) as the new mechanism. Our data shows this theory to be in good agreement with our experiments. 1. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001). 2. H. Lee, Y. Rostovtsev, C. J. Bednar, and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. B 76, 33 (2003).

  15. Polarized linewidth-controllable double-trapping electromagnetically induced transparency spectra in a resonant plasmon nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luojia; Gu, Ying; Chen, Hongyi; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Yiping; Gerardot, Brian D.; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmons with ultrasmall optical mode volume and strong near field enhancement can be used to realize nanoscale light-matter interaction. Combining surface plasmons with the quantum system provides the possibility of nanoscale realization of important quantum optical phenomena, including the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which has many applications in nonlinear quantum optics and quantum information processing. Here, using a custom-designed resonant plasmon nanocavity, we demonstrate polarized position-dependent linewidth-controllable EIT spectra at the nanoscale. We analytically obtain the double coherent population trapping conditions in a double-Λ quantum system with crossing damping, which give two transparent points in the EIT spectra. The linewidths of the three peaks are extremely sensitive to the level spacing of the excited states, the Rabi frequencies and detunings of pump fields, and the Purcell factors. In particular the linewidth of the central peak is exceptionally narrow. The hybrid system may have potential applications in ultra-compact plasmon-quantum devices. PMID:24096943

  16. Homotopy Perturbation Method-Based Analytical Solution for Tide-Induced Groundwater Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Munusamy, Selva Balaji; Dhar, Anirban

    2016-05-01

    The groundwater variations in unconfined aquifers are governed by the nonlinear Boussinesq's equation. Analytical solution for groundwater fluctuations in coastal aquifers under tidal forcing can be solved using perturbation methods. However, the perturbation parameters should be properly selected and predefined for traditional perturbation methods. In this study, a new dimensional, higher-order analytical solution for groundwater fluctuations is proposed by using the homotopy perturbation method with a virtual perturbation parameter. Parameter-expansion method is used to remove the secular terms generated during the solution process. The solution does not require any predefined perturbation parameter and valid for higher values of amplitude parameter A/D, where A is the amplitude of the tide and D is the aquifer thickness. PMID:26340338

  17. Deformation-induced spatiotemporal fluctuation, evolution and localization of strain fields in a bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan; Bei, Hongbin; Wang, Yanli; Lu, Zhaoping; George, Easo P.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-05-16

    Deformation behavior and local strain evolutions upon loading and unloading of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) were systematically investigated by in situ digital image correlation (DIC). Distinct fluctuations and irreversible local strains were observed before the onset of macroscopic yielding. Statistical analysis shows that these fluctuations might be related to intrinsic structural heterogeneities, and that the evolution history and characteristics of local strain fields play an important role in the subsequent initiation of shear bands. Effects of sample size, pre-strain, and loading conditions were systematically analyzed in terms of the probability distributions of the resulting local strain fields. It is found that a higher degree of local shear strain heterogeneity corresponds to a more ductile stressestrain curve. Implications of these findings are discussed for the design of new materials.

  18. Deformation-induced spatiotemporal fluctuation, evolution and localization of strain fields in a bulk metallic glass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Yuan; Bei, Hongbin; Wang, Yanli; Lu, Zhaoping; George, Easo P.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-05-16

    Deformation behavior and local strain evolutions upon loading and unloading of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) were systematically investigated by in situ digital image correlation (DIC). Distinct fluctuations and irreversible local strains were observed before the onset of macroscopic yielding. Statistical analysis shows that these fluctuations might be related to intrinsic structural heterogeneities, and that the evolution history and characteristics of local strain fields play an important role in the subsequent initiation of shear bands. Effects of sample size, pre-strain, and loading conditions were systematically analyzed in terms of the probability distributions of the resulting local strain fields. It ismore » found that a higher degree of local shear strain heterogeneity corresponds to a more ductile stressestrain curve. Implications of these findings are discussed for the design of new materials.« less

  19. Computational Investigation of Block Copolymer Surfactants for Stabilizing Fluctuation-Induced Polymeric Microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Kris; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    High molecular weight diblock copolymers introduced into a blend of immiscible homopolymers can act as a surfactant to suppress macroscopic two-fluid phase separation. With variation of block copolymer composition, the crossover between low-temperature ordering into microphase or macrophase separated states is marked by a mean-field isotropic Lifshitz multi-critical point. Strong fluctuations close to the Lifshitz point are observed to suppress the low-temperature ordering; a microemulsion state emerges, with large, co-continuous domains of segregated fluid lacking any long-range order. We study this phenomenon with fully fluctuating field-theoretic simulations based on complex Langevin sampling, and we attempt to design new block polymer surfactants that can produce the microemulsion state with a wider composition tolerance.

  20. Precipitation-Induced Voltage-Dependent Ion Current Fluctuations in Conical Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V

    2010-01-01

    Single conically shaped nanopores produce stable ion current fluctuations when in contact with weakly soluble salts, such as calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO{sub 4}) and cobalt hydrogen phosphate (CoHPO{sub 4}). The pore spontaneously switches between high and low conductance states, called open and closed states, respectively. Pore opening and closing are linked to the dynamic formation of the calcium and cobalt precipitates at the small opening of the pore. The probabilities of pore opening and closing are voltage-dependent, and this characteristic of ion current signal is known for biological voltage-gated channels. We show that new types of ion current fluctuations are obtained in conditions at which precipitates of CaHPO{sub 4} and CoHPO{sub 4} can form in the pore at the same time.

  1. Piston slap induced pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kazuhide; Wang, Xiaoyu; Saeki, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Liner cavitation is caused by water pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage (WCP). When the negative pressure falls below the saturated vapor pressure, the impulsive pressure following the implosion of cavitation bubbles causes cavitation erosion of the wet cylinder liner surface. The present work establishes a numerical model for structural-acoustic coupling between the crankcase and the acoustic field in the WCP considering their dynamic characteristics. The coupling effect is evaluated through mutual interaction terms that are calculated from the mode shapes of the acoustic field and of the crankcase vibration on the boundary. Water pressure fluctuations in the WCP under the action of piston slap forces are predicted and the contributions of the uncoupled mode shapes of the crankcase and the acoustic field to the pressure waveform are analyzed. The influence of sound speed variations on the water pressure response is discussed, as well as the pressure on the thrust sides of the four cylinders.

  2. Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huili; Shi, Xun; Kirkham, Melanie J; Wang, Hsin; Li, Qiang; Uher, Ctirad; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

  3. Model for fluctuating inflaton coupling: sneutrino induced adiabatic perturbations and nonthermal leptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2004-06-18

    We discuss a unique possibility of generating adiabatic density perturbations and leptogenesis from the spatial fluctuations of the inflaton decay rate. The key assumption is that the initial isocurvature perturbations are created in the right-handed sneutrino sector during inflation which is then converted into adiabatic perturbations when the inflaton decays. We discuss distinct imprints on the cosmic microwave background radiation, which can distinguish nonthermal versus thermal leptogenesis. PMID:15245073

  4. Time-dependent phase shift of a retrieved pulse in off-resonant electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based light storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, M.-A.; Bouchez, R.; Lugani, J.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.; Brion, E.

    2015-11-01

    We report measurements of the time-dependent phases of the leak and retrieved pulses obtained in electromagnetically-induced-transparency storage experiments with metastable helium vapor at room temperature. In particular, we investigate the influence of the optical detuning at two-photon resonance and provide numerical simulations of the full dynamical Maxwell-Bloch equations, which allow us to account for the experimental results.

  5. An experimental study of microstructure-induced ultrasonic signal fluctuations in jet-engine titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Wasan, Harpreet; Thompson, R. Bruce

    2000-05-01

    Ultrasonic echoes from identical defects in a metal component will vary due to the influence of the local microstructure in which each defect is embedded. Two effects are responsible: (1) the scattering of sound at nearby crystallite boundaries results in "grain noise" which is superimposed on the defect echo; and (2) the intervening microstructure modulates or distorts the sonic field that is incident on the defect, thus modifying its echo. Both effects can be significant in engine titanium alloys, and both influence inspection reliability. In this work, a series of experiments is performed to investigate signal fluctuations primarily arising from the second effect. Arrays of nominally identical #1 flat-bottomed holes (FBHs) in Ti-17 and Ti 6-4 specimens are scanned using a 10-MHz, broadband, focused transducer. The peak echo amplitude of each FBH in the array is measured, and the ratio of the standard deviation of the peak amplitudes to their mean serves as a dimensionless measure of the fluctuation level. Similar measurements are performed on a fine-grained nickel specimen that serves as a reference. The fluctuation level and the apparent average ultrasonic attenuation are measured as functions of alloy, propagation direction, frequency, and inspection water path (i.e., degree of beam focusing). In addition, beam distortions are studied by analyzing the sizes and shapes of the C-scan images of the FBHs.—Specimens used in this work were supplied by the Engine Titanium Consortium under the Federal Aviation Administration Grant No. 94-G-048.

  6. Double transmission peaks electromagnetically induced transparency induced by simultaneously exciting the electric and magnetic resonance in one unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zheng, Bu-Sheng; Li, Hai-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate a metamaterial formed by a planar array of a metallic L-shaped structure and a cut wire (CW), which behaves as an analogue of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The double transmission peaks are formed by the destructive interference of two bright-modes and a quasi-dark mode. The two bright-modes are respectively excited by the L-shaped structure and CW. The unit structure itself performs a quasi-dark mode. The group refractive indexes are over 20 in the first transmission peak, and 117 in the second transmission peak, thus offering potential applications in slow light devices. Finally, all the above characteristics are achieved in just one simple unit cell. Project supported by the Chinese Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20123218110017), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61307052 and 61471368), the Foundation of Aeronautical Science, China (Grant No. 20121852030), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. kfjj20150407).

  7. Suppression of Random Dopant-Induced Threshold Voltage Fluctuations in Sub-0.1-(micron)meter MOSFET's with Epitaxial and (delta)-Doped Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Saini, Subhash

    1999-01-01

    A detailed three-dimensional (3-D) statistical 'atomistic' simulation study of fluctuation-resistant sub-0.1-(micron)meter MOSFET architectures with epitaxial channels and delta doping is presented. The need for enhancing the fluctuation resistance of the sub-0.1-(micron)meter generation transistors is highlighted by presenting summarized results from atomistic simulations of a wide range of conventional devices with uniformly doped channel. According to our atomistic results, the doping concentration dependence of the random dopant-induced threshold voltage fluctuations in conventional devices is stronger than the analytically predicted fourth-root dependence. As a result of this, the scaling of such devices will be restricted by the "intrinsic" random dopant-induced fluctuations earlier than anticipated. Our atomistic simulations confirm that the introduction of a thin epitaxial layer in the MOSFET's channel can efficiently suppress the random dopant-induced threshold voltage fluctuations in sub-0.1-(micron)meter devices. For the first time, we observe an "anomalous" reduction in the threshold voltage fluctuations with an increase in the doping concentration behind the epitaxial channel, which we attribute to screening effects. Also, for the first time we study the effect of a delta-doping, positioned behind the epitaxial layer, on the intrinsic threshold voltage fluctuations. Above a certain thickness of epitaxial layer, we observe a pronounced anomalous decrease in the threshold voltage fluctuation with the increase of the delta doping. This phenomenon, which is also associated with screening, enhances the importance of the delta doping in the design of properly scaled fluctuation-resistant sub-0.1-(micron)meter MOSFET's. Index Terms-Doping, fluctuations, MOSFET, semiconductor device simulation, silicon devices, threshold.

  8. Linear and nonlinear coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic fluctuations with one dimensional trapping of electrons using product bi (r,q) distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Tahir; Masood, W.; Qureshi, M. N. S.; Shah, H. A.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the ramifications of adiabatic trapping of electrons using a bi product ( r , q ) distribution function on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low β plasma. In this regard, we have analyzed the linear and nonlinear dispersion characteristics of finite amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves using the two-potential theory and employing Sagdeev potential approach. We have deliberated upon the results of the present inquest and highlighted its importance by citing works that have reported the simultaneous presence of electromagnetic pulses and flat-topped distribution of electrons.

  9. Field models and numerical dosimetry inside an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor: the theoretical link between the electromagnetically induced mechanical forces and the biological mechanisms of the cell tensegrity.

    PubMed

    Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Barba, Paolo; Magenes, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Fassina, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We have implemented field models and performed a detailed numerical dosimetry inside our extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor which has been successfully used in in vitro Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering researches. The numerical dosimetry permitted to map the magnetic induction field (maximum module equal to about 3.3 mT) and to discuss its biological effects in terms of induced electric currents and induced mechanical forces (compression and traction). So, in the frame of the tensegrity-mechanotransduction theory of Ingber, the study of these electromagnetically induced mechanical forces could be, in our opinion, a powerful tool to understand some effects of the electromagnetic stimulation whose mechanisms remain still elusive. PMID:25202652

  10. Exercise-induced metabolic fluctuations influence AMPK, p38-MAPK and CaMKII phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Combes, Adrien; Dekerle, Jeanne; Webborn, Nick; Watt, Peter; Bougault, Valérie; Daussin, Frédéric N

    2015-09-01

    During transition from rest to exercise, metabolic reaction rates increase substantially to sustain intracellular ATP use. These metabolic demands activate several kinases that initiate signal transduction pathways which modulate transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic fluctuations per se affect the signaling cascades known to regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). On two separate occasions, nine men performed a continuous (30-min) and an intermittent exercise (30 × 1-min intervals separated by 1-min of recovery) at 70% of V˙O2peak. Skeletal muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest and at +0 h and +3 h after each exercise. Metabolic fluctuations that correspond to exercise-induced variation in metabolic rates were determined by analysis of VO2 responses. During intermittent exercise metabolic fluctuations were 2.8-fold higher despite identical total work done to continuous exercise (317 ± 41 vs. 312 ± 56 kJ after intermittent and continuous exercise, respectively). Increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (~2.9-fold, P < 0.01), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (~2.7-fold, P < 0.01) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (~4.2-fold, P < 0.01) occurred immediately in both exercises and to a greater extent after the intermittent exercise (condition x time interaction, P < 0.05). A single bout of intermittent exercise induces a greater activation of these signaling pathways regulating PGC-1α when compared to a single bout of continuous exercise of matched work and intensity. Chronic adaptations to exercise on mitochondria biogenesis are yet to be investigated. PMID:26359238

  11. Spatial mobility fluctuation induced giant linear magnetoresistance in multilayered graphene foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; He, Xin; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Xi-xiang

    2016-07-01

    Giant, positive, and near-temperature-independent linear magnetoresistance (LMR), as large as 340%, was observed in graphene foam with a three-dimensional flexible network. Careful analysis of the magnetoresistance revealed that Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations occurred at low temperatures and decayed with increasing temperature. The average classical mobility ranged from 300 (2 K) to 150 (300 K) c m2V-1s-1 , which is much smaller than that required by the observed SdH oscillations. To understand the mechanism behind the observation, we performed the same measurements on the microsized graphene sheets that constitute the graphene foam. Much more pronounced SdH oscillations superimposed on the LMR background were observed in these microscaled samples, which correspond to a quantum mobility as high as 26 ,500 c m2V-1s-1 . Moreover, the spatial mobility fluctuated significantly from 64 ,200 c m2V-1s-1 to 1370 c m2V-1s-1 , accompanied by a variation of magnetoresistance from near 20,000% to less than 20%. The presence of SdH oscillations actually excludes the possibility that the observed LMR originated from the extreme quantum limit, because this would demand all electrons to be in the first Landau level. Instead, we ascribe the large LMR to the second case of the classical Parish and Littlewood model, in which spatial mobility fluctuation dominates electrical transport. This is an experimental confirmation of the Parish and Littlewood model by measuring the local mobility randomly (by measuring the microsized graphene sheets) and finding the spatial mobility fluctuation.

  12. Phase noise induced due to amplitude fluctuations in dynamic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, S.; Gysin, U.; Meyer, E.

    2009-02-01

    In dynamic force microscopy, the force sensor is driven on its resonance frequency and the amplitude of the cantilever is sustained at a constant value. The amplitude typically ranges between 0.1 and 30 nm. If a large amplitude is set, the cantilever tip senses both long-range and short-range interaction forces provided that the tip is close to the sample surface. The short-range interactions are decisive for the atomic contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. They can be separated from the long-range interactions by setting an amplitude which encompasses the typical range of the interaction force, i.e., the subangstrom regime for van der Waals contribution. It is distinctive for cantilevers operated at small driving amplitudes that the cantilever deflection can be considered as a sinusoidal signal superimposed with a quasimonochromatic random signal originating from fluctuations. If one measures experimentally the standard deviation of the phase σφ of the signal with respect to a monochromatic reference signal, a universal relationship between the standard deviation of the phase σφ and the cantilever amplitude x0 is found. The smaller the ratio of rms amplitude of the sinusoidal signal and the rms value of random signal is, the larger the phase fluctuations are. Phase fluctuations are of importance for measurements at small amplitudes, since they determine the limit of phase-sensitive measurements or the lateral imaging resolution in the so-called pendulum mode of AFM operation. In this paper we develop a heuristic model, which provides an analytical formula for the probability density of phase noise of a sinusoidal signal superimposed by a quasimonochromatic one with respect to a reference oscillator. The variance of the phase noise can be deduced from the distribution functions. The suggested model is verified experimentally and is compared with theoretical predictions. The amplitude-dependent phase fluctuations are a powerful tool to determine the

  13. Feasibility of measuring temperature and density fluctuations in air using laser-induced O2 fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, G. A.; Lemon, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    A tunable line-narrowed ArF laser can selectively excite several rotation al lines of the Schumann-Runge band system of O2 in air. The resulting ultraviolet fluorescence can be monitored at 90 deg to the laser beam axis, permitting space and time resolved observation of density and temperature fluctuations in turbulence. Experiments and calculations show that + or - 1 K, + or - 1 percent density, 1 cu mm spatial, and 1 microsecond temporal resolution can be achieved simultaneously under some conditions.

  14. Recent fracture induced electromagnetic field measurements revealing an Earth system in second order phase transition before the occurrence of significant earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George; Nomicos, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    A crucial feature observed in the study of fracture induced electromagnetic emissions (EMEs) is the asynchronous appearance of MHz and kHz AE-EM precursors: the MHz EMEs precede the kHz ones: the strong avalanche-like kHz emissions are launched in the tail of pre-fracture emissions. Herein, we focus on the systematically observed precursory MHz EME. We show that both, the MHz EMEs recorded prior to recent significant earthquakes that occurred in Greece and the associated seismic activities came to critical condition a few days before the main shock occurrence. The analyses were performed my means of two independent statistical method, namely, the method of critical fluctuation and the natural time method, both revealing critical features. This results indicates the existence of a strong connection of the MHz EME with the corresponding earthquake preparation process. Accumulated laboratory, theoretical and numerical evidence supports the hypothesis that the MHz EME is emitted during the fracture of process of heterogeneous medium surrounding the family of strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault sustaining the system. The kHz EME is attributed to the family of asperities themselves.

  15. Numerical Study on the Partitioning of the Molecular Polarizability into Fluctuating Charge and Induced Atomic Dipole Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Ye; Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; DiStasio, Robert A.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Shao, Yihan

    2015-01-01

    In order to carry out a detailed analysis of the molecular static polarizability, which is the response of the molecule to a uniform external electric field, the molecular polarizability was computed using the finite-difference method for 21 small molecules, using density functional theory. Within nine charge population schemes (Löwdin, Mulliken, Becke, Hirshfeld, CM5, Hirshfeld-I, NPA, CHELPG, MK-ESP) in common use, the charge fluctuation contribution is found to dominate the molecular polarizability, with its ratio ranging from 59.9% with the Hirshfeld or CM5 scheme to 96.2% with the Mulliken scheme. The Hirshfeld-I scheme is also used to compute the other contribution to the molecular polarizability coming from the induced atomic dipoles, and the atomic polarizabilities in 8 small molecules and water pentamer are found to be highly anisotropic for most atoms. Overall, the results suggest that (a) more emphasis probably should be placed on the charge fluctuation terms in future polarizable force field development; (b) an anisotropic polarizability might be more suitable than an isotropic one in polarizable force fields based entirely or partially on the induced atomic dipoles. PMID:25945749

  16. Directivity of a Sparse Array in the Presence of Atmospheric-Induced Phase Fluctuations for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Widely distributed (sparse) ground-based arrays have been utilized for decades in the radio science community for imaging celestial objects, but have only recently become an option for deep space communications applications with the advent of the proposed Next Generation Deep Space Network (DSN) array. But whereas in astronomical imaging, observations (receive-mode only) are made on the order of minutes to hours and atmospheric-induced aberrations can be mostly corrected for in post-processing, communications applications require transmit capabilities and real-time corrections over time scales as short as fractions of a second. This presents an unavoidable problem with the use of sparse arrays for deep space communications at Ka-band which has yet to be successfully resolved, particularly for uplink arraying. In this paper, an analysis of the performance of a sparse antenna array, in terms of its directivity, is performed to derive a closed form solution to the expected array loss in the presence of atmospheric-induced phase fluctuations. The theoretical derivation for array directivity degradation is validated with interferometric measurements for a two-element array taken at Goldstone, California. With the validity of the model established, an arbitrary 27-element array geometry is defined at Goldstone, California, to ascertain its performance in the presence of phase fluctuations. It is concluded that a combination of compact array geometry and atmospheric compensation is necessary to ensure high levels of availability.

  17. Energetic-particle-induced electromagnetic geodesic acoustic mode in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingfeng He, Zhixiong; He, Hongda; Shen, Y.; Dong, J. Q.

    2014-07-15

    Energetic-particle-induced kinetic electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (EKEGAMs) are numerically studied in low β (=plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) tokamak plasmas. The parallel component of the perturbed vector potential is considered along with the electrostatic potential perturbation. The effects of finite Larmor radius and finite orbit width of the bulk and energetic ions as well as electron parallel dynamics are all taken into account in the dispersion relation. Systematic harmonic and ordering analysis are performed for frequency and growth rate spectra of the EKEGAMs, assuming (kρ{sub i})∼q{sup −3}∼β≪1, where q, k, and ρ{sub i} are the safety factor, radial component of the EKEGAMs wave vector, and the Larmor radius of the ions, respectively. It is found that there exist critical β{sub h}/β{sub i} values, which depend, in particular, on pitch angle of energetic ions and safety factor, for the mode to be driven unstable. The EKEGAMs may also be unstable for pitch angle λ{sub 0}B<0.4 in certain parameter regions. Finite β effect of the bulk ions is shown to have damping effect on the EKEGAMs. Modes with higher radial wave vectors have higher growth rates. The damping from electron dynamics is found decreasing with decrease of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i}. The modes are easily to be driven unstable in low safety factor q region and high temperature ratio T{sub h}/T{sub i} region. The harmonic features of the EKEGAMs are discussed as well.

  18. Short-pulse cross-phase modulation in an electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizpour, Amir; Dmochowski, Greg; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been proposed as a way to greatly enhance cross-phase modulation, with the possibility of leading to few-photon-level optical nonlinearities [Schmidt and Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996), 10.1364/OL.21.001936]. This enhancement grows as the transparency window width, ΔEIT, is narrowed. Decreasing ΔEIT, however, has been shown to increase the response time of the nonlinear medium. This suggests that, for a given pulse duration, the nonlinearity would diminish once the window width became narrower than this pulse bandwidth. We show that this is not the case: the peak phase shift saturates but does not decrease. We show that in the regimes of most practical interest—narrow EIT windows perturbed by short signal pulses—the enhancement offered by EIT is not only in the magnitude of the nonlinear phase shift but also in its increased duration. That is, for the case of signal pulses much shorter (temporally) than the inverse EIT bandwidth, the narrow window serves to prolong the effect of the passing signal pulse, leading to an integrated phase shift that grows linearly with 1 /ΔEIT ; this continued growth of the integrated phase shift improves the detectability of the phase shift, in principle, without bound. For many purposes, it is this detectability which is of more interest than the absolute magnitude of the peak phase shift. We present analytical expressions based on a linear time-invariant model that accounts for the temporal behavior of the cross-phase modulation for several parameter ranges of interest. We conclude that in order to optimize the detectability of the EIT-based cross-phase shift, one should use the narrowest possible EIT window and a signal pulse that is as broadband as the excited-state linewidth and detuned by half a linewidth.

  19. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    PubMed

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  20. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  1. Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Wang, KaiJun; Ni, Shuang; Ye, PanPan; Yu, YiBo; Ye, Juan; Sun, LiXia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate whether superposing of electromagnetic noise could block or attenuate DNA damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase of cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) induced by acute exposure to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field (RF) of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Methods An sXc-1800 RF exposure system was used to produce a GSM signal at 1.8 GHz (217 Hz amplitude-modulated) with the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 W/kg. After 2 h of intermittent exposure, the ROS level was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DNA damage to HLECs was examined by alkaline comet assay and the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation assay. Results After exposure to 1.8 GHz RF for 2 h, HLECs exhibited significant intracellular ROS increase in the 2, 3, and 4 W/kg groups. RF radiation at the SAR of 3 W/kg and 4 W/kg could induce significant DNA damage, examined by alkaline comet assay, which was used to detect mainly single strand breaks (SSBs), while no statistical difference in double strand breaks (DSBs), evaluated by γH2AX foci, was found between RF exposure (SAR: 3 and 4 W/kg) and sham exposure groups. When RF was superposed with 2 μT electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS increase and DNA damage. Conclusions DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:18509546

  2. Barometric and tidal-induced aquifer water level fluctuation near the Ariake Sea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linyao; Shimada, Jun; Kagabu, Makoto; Yang, Heejun

    2015-01-01

    Observations of water levels in coastal aquifers and corresponding tides coupled with meteorological variances near the Ariake Sea show that groundwater in this area mainly fluctuates with atmospheric and tidal variations. Tidal effects occur with semi-monthly, diurnal, or semi-diurnal periodicity, whereas the barometric influences commonly act in the low-frequency domain. Tidal and barometric effects in water levels are separable using wavelet techniques and can be evaluated statistically. Results show the following. (1) The tidal coefficients are 0.002-0.154, attenuating roughly exponentially from the seashore. The time lags in water levels increase linearly approximately with increasing inshore distance. Relations between tidal coefficients and time lags and the inshore distance indicate higher hydraulic diffusivity in the south aquifer, which was confirmed by the hydraulic property calibrations in analytical simulations. (2) Water levels related to meteorological phenomena fluctuate inversely according to barometric loading variation with time lags of 2-3 h. The effective barometric efficiencies are 0.022-0.12. Lower barometric influences were found in the south aquifer. PMID:25467417

  3. Increase in the Random Dopant Induced Threshold Fluctuations and Lowering in Sub 100 nm MOSFETs Due to Quantum Effects: A 3-D Density-Gradient Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Slavcheva, G.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed simulation study of the influence of quantum mechanical effects in the inversion layer on random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering in sub 100 nm MOSFETs. The simulations have been performed using a 3-D implementation of the density gradient (DG) formalism incorporated in our established 3-D atomistic simulation approach. This results in a self-consistent 3-D quantum mechanical picture, which implies not only the vertical inversion layer quantisation but also the lateral confinement effects related to current filamentation in the 'valleys' of the random potential fluctuations. We have shown that the net result of including quantum mechanical effects, while considering statistical dopant fluctuations, is an increase in both threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering. At the same time, the random dopant induced threshold voltage lowering partially compensates for the quantum mechanical threshold voltage shift in aggressively scaled MOSFETs with ultrathin gate oxides.

  4. Analysis of the damage threshold of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiao-Wen; Chai, Chang-Chun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yin-Tang; Fan, Qing-Yang; Shi, Chun-Lei

    2016-08-01

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced damage model based on the internal damage mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is established in this paper. With this model, the relationships among the damage power, damage energy, pulse width and signal amplitude are investigated. Simulation results show that the pulse width index from the damage power formula obtained here is higher than that from the empirical formula due to the hotspot transferring in the damage process of the device. It is observed that the damage energy is not a constant, which decreases with the signal amplitude increasing, and then changes little when the signal amplitude reaches up to a certain level. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900) and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  5. Random Dopant Induced Threshold Voltage Lowering and Fluctuations in Sub-0.1 (micron)meter MOSFET's: A 3-D 'Atomistic' Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) "atomistic" simulation study of random dopant induced threshold voltage lowering and fluctuations in sub-0.1 microns MOSFET's is presented. For the first time a systematic analysis of random dopant effects down to an individual dopant level was carried out in 3-D on a scale sufficient to provide quantitative statistical predictions. Efficient algorithms based on a single multigrid solution of the Poisson equation followed by the solution of a simplified current continuity equation are used in the simulations. The effects of various MOSFET design parameters, including the channel length and width, oxide thickness and channel doping, on the threshold voltage lowering and fluctuations are studied using typical samples of 200 atomistically different MOSFET's. The atomistic results for the threshold voltage fluctuations were compared with two analytical models based on dopant number fluctuations. Although the analytical models predict the general trends in the threshold voltage fluctuations, they fail to describe quantitatively the magnitude of the fluctuations. The distribution of the atomistically calculated threshold voltage and its correlation with the number of dopants in the channel of the MOSFET's was analyzed based on a sample of 2500 microscopically different devices. The detailed analysis shows that the threshold voltage fluctuations are determined not only by the fluctuation in the dopant number, but also in the dopant position.

  6. Plasma Density and Electro-Magnetic Field Perturbations Hf-Induced in the Outer Ionosphere: Review of Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Rauch, Jean-Louis; Parrot, Michel; Rapoport, Victor; Shorokhova, Elena

    In the report we consider features of plasma density and electro-magnetic field perturbations induced in the Earth’s outer ionosphere by modification of F _{2} region by O-mode powerful HF radio waves radiated by the SURA heating facility. Experiments presented were carried out in 2005 - 2010. Plasma density perturbations were detected at altitudes of about of 700 km by instruments onboard the French DEMETER satellite when it intersected the disturbed magnetic flux tube. The formation of artificial HF-induced plasma density ducts in the outer ionosphere is a central discovery, which was made during the SURA-DEMETER experiments [1,2]. Analysis of experimental data available makes it possible to formulate ducts features and point out the conditions under which the formation of such ducts takes place. 1. Under night conditions ducts are characterized by the increased plasma density in the range from 20% to 80% relatively to its background value. As this takes place, the excess in the plasma ion component is due to O (+) ions dominating at altitudes of about 700 km, whereas the densities of lower mass H (+) and He ({+) } ions typically decrease by a percentage amount that is much more the relative increase in the density of O (+) ions. The duct formation was never observed under daytime conditions. According to [3] the HF-induced ducts were observed by ionosphere pumping in morning and evening hours but in these cases their intensity was no more than a few percentages. 2. The size of the ducts along the satellite orbits is of about 80 - 100 km. It is a reason why such ducts can be observed only if the minimal distance between the satellite and the center of the heated flux tube is less than 50 km. 3. The formation of ducts is observed only if the effective radiated power is more than 40 MW. For the SURA facility, to heat the ionosphere at higher efficiency due to the “magnetic-zenith effect”, the HF beam is often inclined by 12 - 16(°) southward. 4. The pump

  7. Suppression of insolation heating induced by electromagnetic scatteringdue to fine spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, J.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Manaka, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, i.e., the greatest earthquake in the Japanese history, and the successive disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have caused a fatal electric power shortage problem in summer in 2011. It is of key importance to reduce electricity demand and to save the energy. About one third of the total electricity demand at the peak consumption in summer is for the air-conditioning in the household and office sectors in Japan. It is, therefore, necessary to think deliberately of the reduction of electric power demand for air-conditioning. In fact, the temperature of materials rises when they are exposed to the sunlight (insolation heating) in particular in summer and the air-conditioning would become necessary for restoring the comfort in insolated housings. The energy for the air-conditioning is spent to pump out the heat changed in the materials of the insolated housings and would be proportional to the temperature to lower down. It is, therefore, clear that the reduction of the energy for the air-conditioning would strongly depend on relaxation of temperature rise or the insulation of insolated materials. Insolation heating could be suppressed when the materials are coated with paint admixed with fine silica spheres (insulating paint). By coating buildings' walls and roofs with such paint, the temperature of interior rooms could be kept lower without air-conditioning. These insulation effects are well known and have been utilized in the past, but have hardly been analyzed theoretically yet. Theoretical analysis would greatly enhance the effects of the suppression of insolation heating. In preceding studies, Ohkawa et al.(2009; 2011) and Mikada et al.(2011) focused on the electromagnetic wave scattering induced by fine spheres and developed the analytical method using superposition of scattered waves from each sphere (the first Born approximation), and indicated that the size of the spheres is one of the

  8. Doping-Induced Universal Conductance Fluctuations in GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Elm, Matthias T; Uredat, Patrick; Binder, Jan; Ostheim, Lars; Schäfer, Markus; Hille, Pascal; Müßener, Jan; Schörmann, Jörg; Eickhoff, Martin; Klar, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    The transport properties of Ge-doped single GaN nanowires are investigated, which exhibit a weak localization effect as well as universal conductance fluctuations at low temperatures. By analyzing these quantum interference effects, the electron phase coherence length was determined. Its temperature dependence indicates that in the case of highly doped nanowires electron-electron scattering is the dominant dephasing mechanism, while for the slightly doped nanowires dephasing originates from Nyquist-scattering. The change of the dominant scattering mechanism is attributed to a modification of the carrier confinement caused by the Ge-doping. The results demonstrate that the phase coherence length can be tuned by the donor concentration making Ge-doped GaN nanowires an ideal model system for studying the influence of impurities on quantum-interference effects in mesoscopic and nanoscale systems. PMID:26544014

  9. Anomalous ion heating from ambipolar-constrained magnetic fluctuation-induced transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gatto, R.; Terry, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    A kinetic theory for the anomalous heating of ions from energy stored in magnetic turbulence is presented. Imposing self consistency through the constitutive relations between particle distributions and fields, a turbulent Kirchhoff's law is derived that expresses a direct connection between rates of ion heating and electron thermal transport. This connection arises from the kinematics of electron motion along turbulent fields, which results in granular structures in the electron distribution. The drag exerted on these structures through emission into collective modes mediates ambipolar-constrained transport. Resonant damping of the collective modes by ions produces the heating. In collisionless plasmas the rate of ion damping controls the rate of emission, and hence the ambipolar-constrained electron heat flux. The heating rate is calculated for both a resonant and non-resonant magnetic fluctuation spectrum and compared with observations. The theoretical heating rate is sufficient to account for the observed two-fold rise in ion temperature during sawtooth events in experimental discharges.

  10. Structure of the wall pressure fluctuations in a shock-induced separated turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muck, K. C.; Bogdonoff, S. M.; Dussauge, J.-P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the unsteady nature of a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. The interaction was generated using an unswept compression ramp. The incoming freestream Mach number was 2.9 and the flow was separated at the corner. An array of flush mounted miniature high frequency pressure transducers was used to make multi-channel measurements of the fluctuating wall pressure within the interaction. From the present results, an overall picture of the instantaneous structure of the unsteady shock system (as inferred from the wall pressure signals) can be constructed. The flow ahead of the corner can be considered as composed of two regions, namely the 'intermittent' region where there is essentially a single leading shock which exhibits significant streamwise 'flapping' and spanwise 'rippling', and the separated region where the flow experiences continuous compression.

  11. Cholesterol-induced suppression of membrane elastic fluctuations at the atomistic level.

    PubMed

    Molugu, Trivikram R; Brown, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of (13)C-(1)H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy. The distributions of RQC or RDC values give nearly complete profiles of the order parameters as a function of acyl segment position. Measured equilibrium properties of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids including their binary and tertiary mixtures with cholesterol show unequal mixing associated with liquid-ordered domains. The entropic loss upon addition of cholesterol to sphingolipids is less than for glycerophospholipids and may drive the formation of lipid rafts. In addition relaxation time measurements enable one to study the molecular dynamics over a wide time-scale range. For (2)H NMR the experimental spin-lattice (R1Z) relaxation rates follow a theoretical square-law dependence on segmental order parameters (SCD) due to collective slow dynamics over mesoscopic length scales. The functional dependence for the liquid-crystalline lipid membranes is indicative of viscoelastic properties as they emerge from atomistic-level interactions. A striking decrease in square-law slope upon addition of cholesterol denotes stiffening relative to the pure lipid bilayers that is diminished in the case of lanosterol. Measured equilibrium properties and relaxation rates infer opposite influences of cholesterol and detergents on collective dynamics and elasticity at an atomistic scale that potentially affects lipid raft formation in cellular membranes. PMID:27154600

  12. Terahertz Electromagnetic Fields (0.106 THz) Do Not Induce Manifest Genomic Damage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Kärst, Uwe; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic fields are non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 THz. Potential applications of these electromagnetic fields include the whole body scanners, which currently apply millimeter waves just below the terahertz range, but future scanners will use higher frequencies in the terahertz range. These and other applications will bring along human exposure to these fields. Up to now, only a limited number of investigations on biological effects of terahertz electromagnetic fields have been performed. Therefore, research is strongly needed to enable reliable risk assessment. Cells were exposed for 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h with different power intensities ranging from 0.04 mW/cm2 to 2 mW/cm2, representing levels below, at, and above current safety limits. Genomic damage on the chromosomal level was measured as micronucleus formation. DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were quantified with the comet assay. No DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites were observed as a consequence of exposure to terahertz electromagnetic fields in the comet assay. The fields did not cause chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleus induction. PMID:23029508

  13. Characteristic and mechanism of pressure fluctuation caused by self-induced oscillation of supersonic impinging jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunobu, Tsuyoshi; Otobe, Yumiko; Kashimura, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    When the underexpanded supersonic jet impinges on the obstacle, it is well known that the self-induced flow oscillation occurs. This oscillation depends on the pressure ratio in the flowfield, the position of an obstacle and is related with the noise problems of aeronautical and other industrial engineering. The characteristic and the mechanism of self-induced flow oscillation, have to be clarified to control various noise problems. But, it seems that the characteristics of the oscillated flowfield and the mechanism of an oscillation have to be more cleared to control the oscillation. This paper aims to clarify the effect of the pressure ratio and the obstacle position and the mechanism of self-induced flow oscillation by numerical analysis and experiment, when the underexpanded supersonic jet impinges on the cylindrical body. From the result of this study, it is clear that occurrence of the self-induced flow oscillation depends on the pressure balance in the flowfield.

  14. Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in rocks with strong permeability fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Germán Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Müller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data. PMID:25669286

  15. Calculation of electromagnetic fields induced on a geostationary satellite by an electrostatic discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froger, E.; Marque, J. P.

    The electromagnetic response of an orbiting satellite to an electrostatic discharge is compared to that of the same object subjected (in a susceptibility test) to an injection current. In the absence of actual data, the comparison was performed on the basis of two numerical simulations: one using the GEODE particle code for the orbiting case, and the other using the ALICE code for a representative injection configuration. It is found that the evolution of the electromagnetic fields is controlled in particular by the particle emission rhythm, giving rise to an ejection flux 'slit' whose rise time is about several tens of nanoseconds.

  16. Shear small-angle light scattering studies of shear-induced concentration fluctuations and steady state viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Maya K; Takenaka, Mikihito; Inoue, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Takeji

    2008-04-28

    We aimed at elucidating the influence of shear-induced structures (shear-enhanced concentration fluctuations and/or shear-induced phase separation), as observed by rheo-optical methods with small-angle light scattering under shear flow (shear-SALS) and shear-microscopy, on viscoelastic properties in semidilute polystyrene (PS) solutions of 6.0 wt % concentration using dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a Theta solvent and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as a good solvent. In order to quantify the effects of the shear-induced structures, we conducted a numerical analysis of rheological properties in a homogeneous solution based on the constitutive equation developed by Kaye-Bernstein, Kearsley, and Zapas (K-BKZ). In the low-to-intermediate shear rate gamma region between tau(w) (-1) and tau(e) (-1), where tau(w) and tau(e) are, respectively, terminal relaxation time and the relaxation time for chain stretching, the steady state rheological properties, such as shear stress sigma and the first normal stress difference N(1), for the PS/DOP and PS/TCP solutions are found to be almost same and also well predicted by the K-BKZ equation, in spite of the fact that there is a significant difference in the shear-induced structures as observed by shear-SALS and shear-microscopy. This implies that the contribution of the concentration fluctuations built up by shear flow to the rheological properties seems very small in this gamma region. On the other hand, once gamma exceeds tau(e) (-1), sigma and N(1) for both PS/DOP and PS/TCP start to deviate from the predicted values. Moreover, when gamma further increases and becomes higher than gamma(a,DOP) (sufficiently higher than tau(e) (-1)), above which rheological and scattering anomalies are observed for PS/DOP, sigma and N(1) for PS/DOP and PS/TCP are significantly larger than those predicted by K-BKZ. Particularly, a steep increase of sigma and N(1) for PS/DOP above gamma(a,DOP) is attributed to an excess free energy stored in the system via

  17. Socially induced serotonergic fluctuations in the male auditory midbrain correlate with female behavior during courtship.

    PubMed

    Keesom, Sarah M; Hurley, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    Cues from social partners trigger the activation of socially responsive neuromodulatory systems, priming brain regions including sensory systems to process these cues appropriately. The fidelity with which neuromodulators reflect the qualities of ongoing social interactions in sensory regions is unclear. We addressed this issue by using voltammetry to monitor serotonergic fluctuations in an auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), of male mice (Mus musculus) paired with females, and by concurrently measuring behaviors of both social partners. Serotonergic activity strongly increased in male mice as they courted females, relative to serotonergic activity in the same males during trials with no social partners. Across individual males, average changes in serotonergic activity were negatively correlated with behaviors exhibited by female partners, including broadband squeaks, which relate to rejection of males. In contrast, serotonergic activity did not correlate with male behaviors, including ultrasonic vocalizations. These findings suggest that during courtship, the level of serotonergic activity in the IC of males reflects the valence of the social interaction from the perspective of the male (i.e., whether the female rejects the male or not). As a result, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neuromodulatory effects on neural responses in the IC may reflect the reception, rather than the production, of vocal signals. PMID:26792882

  18. Cholesterol-induced variations in the volume and enthalpy fluctuations of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Halstenberg, S; Heimburg, T; Hianik, T; Kaatze, U; Krivanek, R

    1998-07-01

    The sound velocity and density of suspensions of large unilamellar liposomes from dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine with admixed cholesterol have been measured as a function of temperature around the chain melting temperature of the phospholipid. The cholesterol-to-phospholipid molar ratio xc has been varied over a wide range (0 fluctuations within the samples. A theoretical relation between the compressibility and the excess heat capacity of the bilayer system has been derived. Comparison of the compressibilities (and sound velocity numbers) with heat capacity traces display the close correlation between these quantities for bilayer systems. This correlation appears to be very useful as it allows some of the mechanical properties of membrane systems to be calculated from the specific heat capacity data and vice versa. PMID:9649386

  19. The structure of electromagnetic wave-induced 557.7-nm emission associated with a sporadic- E event over arecibo

    PubMed

    Kagan; Kelley; Garcia; Bernhardt; Djuth; Sulzer; Tepley

    2000-07-01

    We report observations of electromagnetic wave-induced 557.7-nm emission in correspondence with a sporadic low-altitude plasma layer (the sporadic- E layer, E(s)). We show that the structure of 557. 7-nm emission seen for some events results from a transformation of transmitted energy by ionization clouds, compiling the patchy type E(s), and presents a projection of the sporadic- E layer structure on the emission altitude. This allows us to propose the first method for visualizing a horizontal structure of sporadic- E layers. PMID:10991198

  20. Field induced fluctuations in percolation in granular-heterogeneous La-Ag-Mn-O/ MnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    2005-03-01

    Several materials in the granular form, such as transition metals and manganese perovskites, show a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) that is attributed to field induced percolation effects [1]. We discuss here the observation of GMR in the solid solution La1-xAgxMnO3 (x = 0.05 - 0.50), possibly due to magnetic field induced fluctuation in percolation (MFP). Samples with x in steps of 0.05 were fabricated by the sol-gel method. We found Ag disassociation and run-off when the sample sintering temperature exceeded 800^o, resulting in a composite of La-Ag-Mn-O and manganese oxide. Analysis of x=0.35, for example, revealed a composite composition of (La0.926Ag0.074MnO3)0.698(MnO2)0..302. Studies on such samples showed GMR that could be attributed to field-induced enhancement in percolation [1]. [1] Ning Zhang, Weiping Ding, and Wei Zhong et al., Phys Rev B 56, 8139 (1997). -Work supported by the National Science Foundation (DMR-0302254)

  1. DNA methylation fluctuation induced by virus infection differs between MD-resistant and -susceptible chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease induced by Marek’s disease virus (MDV). To augment vaccination, the host genetic resistance is of importance in MD control. While researchers have been largely focused on exploring the genetic differences between resistant and susceptible chicken...

  2. Chemotherapy Drug Induced Discoordination of Mitochondrial Life Cycle Detected by Cardiolipin Fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu-Jen; Chan, Jui-Fen; Hsu, Yuan-Hao Howard

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs have been prescribed for the systemic treatment of cancer. We selected three chemotherapy drugs, including methotrexate, mitomycine C and vincristine to inhibit the proliferation of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle respectively. These chemotherapy drugs showed significant toxicity and growth inhibition to the cancer cells measured by MTT assay. After treated with a 50% inhibitory dosage for 48 hours, these cancer cells showed significant accumulation of cardiolipin (CL), which was a reverse trend of the nutritional deficiency induced arrest at G1 phase. The quantity of each CL species was further semi-quantitated by HPLC-ion trap mass spectrometer. Methotraxate treatment caused unique increases of acyl chain length on CL, which were the opposite of the serum starvation, mitomycine C and vincristine treatments. Although mitomycine C and vincristine have different mechanisms to induce cell cycle arrest, these two drugs displayed similar effects on decreasing chain length of CL. Continuation of CL synthesis during cell cycle arrest indicated the chemotherapy drugs resulting in the discoordination of the mitochondrial life cycle from the cell cycle and thus caused the accumulation of CL. These finding reveals that the pre-remodeling nascent CL accumulates during the methotraxate induced arrest; however, the post-remodeling mature CL accumulates during the mitomycine C and vincristine induced arrest after the synthesis phase. PMID:27627658

  3. Ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic anomalies associated with large earthquakes in Java Island, Indonesia by using wavelet transform and detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriani, F.; Han, P.; Yoshino, C.; Hattori, K.; Nurdiyanto, B.; Effendi, N.; Maulana, I.; Gaffar, E.

    2014-04-01

    Indonesia is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and mitigation of seismic hazard is important. It is reported that Ultra low frequency (ULF) geomagnetic anomalies are one of the most convincing phenomena preceding large earthquakes (EQs). In this paper we have analyzed geomagnetic data at Pelabuhan Ratu (PLR) (7.01° S, 106.56° E), Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia, from 1 September 2008 to 31 October 2010. There are twelve moderate-large EQs (M ≥ 5) within 160 km from the station during the analyzed period. The largest one is the M =7.5 EQ (depth = 57 km, epicentral distance = 135 km, 2 September 2009) based on EQ catalog of Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG). To investigate the ULF geomagnetic anomalous variations preceding all the EQs, spectral density ratio at the frequency range of 0.01 ± 0.003 Hz based on wavelet transform (WT) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) have been carried out. The spectral density ratio results show the enhancements a few weeks before the largest EQ. The enhancement persists about one week and reaches a maximum on 16 August 2009. At the same time, the result of the DFA presents the decrease of α value. For other EQs, there are no clear increases of the spectral density ratio with simultaneous decrease of α value. When these phenomena occur, the value of Dst index shows that there are no peculiar global geomagnetic activities at the low latitude region. The above results are suggestive of the relation between the detected anomalies and the largest EQ.

  4. Fluctuations in Brain Temperature Induced by Lypopolysaccharides: Central and Peripheral Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jeremy S.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined changes in central (anterior-preoptic hypothalamus) and peripheral (temporal muscle and facial skin) temperatures in freely moving rats following intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at low doses (1 and 10 μg/kg) at thermoneutral conditions (28°C). Recordings were made with high temporal resolution (5-s bin) and the effects of LPS were compared with those induced by a tail-pinch, a standard arousing somato-sensory stimulus. At each dose, LPS moderately elevated brain, muscle and skin temperatures. In contrast to rapid, monophasic and relatively short hyperthermic responses induced by a tail-pinch, LPS-induced increases in brain and muscle temperatures occurred with ~40 min onset latencies, showed three not clearly defined phases, were slightly larger with the 10 μm/kg dose and maintained for the entire 4-hour post-injection recording duration. Based on dynamics of brain-muscle and skin-muscle temperature differentials, it appears that the hyperthermic response induced by LPS at the lowest dose originates from enhanced peripheral heat production, with no evidence of brain metabolic activation and skin vasoconstriction. While peripheral heat production also appears to determine the first phase of brain and body temperature elevation with LPS at 10 μg/kg, a further prolonged increase in brain-muscle differentials (onset at ~100 min) suggests metabolic brain activation as a factor contributing to brain and body hyperthermia. At this dose, skin temperature increase was weaker than in temporal muscle, suggesting vasoconstriction as another contributor to brain/ body hyperthermia. Therefore, although both LPS at low doses and salient sensory stimuli moderately increase brain and body temperatures, these hyperthermic responses have important qualitative differences, reflecting unique underlying mechanisms. PMID:21150339

  5. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s–1). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731–6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing.

  6. Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Bao, Weimin; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Donglin; Zhou, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB340205) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61301173)

  7. Evolution of laser induced electromagnetic postsolitons in multi-species plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yue Gu, Yanjun; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg; Klimo, Ondřej; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Bulanov, Sergei V.

    2015-11-15

    The evolution of an s-polarized relativistic electromagnetic soliton created in multi-species plasma by an intense short laser pulse is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The multi-component plasma consists of electrons and high-Z ions with a small addition of protons. By comparison, the evolution of postsoliton is very different from that in hydrogen plasma. A halo-like structure is found in spatial patterns of both electromagnetic fields and electron densities. The process of energy depletion is much slower due to the smaller charge-to-mass ratio of ions, which implies a better way of detecting postsolitons in simulations and experiments. In addition, it is found that the Coulomb explosion of high-Z ions in the postsoliton stage facilitates low-Z ion acceleration, and the maximum energy of low-Z ions increases with the component ratio of high-Z to low-Z ions.

  8. Stimulated electromagnetic terahertz emissions (SEE) from laser-induced plasma filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isham, Brett; Kunhardt, Erich

    2016-07-01

    Advances in terawatt laser technology have made it possible to ionize the troposphere in long (centimeters to kilometers), narrow (less than 1 mm), wire-like plasma filaments. These filaments emit high-power stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) at terahertz (submillimeter) frequencies, a frontier in the electromagnetic spectrum lying between the microwave and far infrared bands. Using an accepted model for the plasma oscillations in the filament and a thin-wire approximation, we have calculated the current density and the resulting pattern of terahertz radiation emitted by the filament. The conical shape and opening angle of the calculated radiation pattern match those of recent measurements. Future work could include measurements of both the radiation pattern and of the frequency spectrum, for comparison with detailed calculations of filament plasma processes. Potential applications include high-resolution imaging and remote spectroscopic identification of chemical substances.

  9. Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating via gain and phase modulation in a two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guang-Ling; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2016-04-01

    A scheme for two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetically induced grating via spatial gain and phase modulation is presented in a two-level atomic system. Based on the interactions of two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atom could diffract the weak probe beam into high-order directions and a 2D diffraction grating is generated. It is shown that the diffraction efficiency of the grating can be efficiently manipulated by controlling the Rabi frequencies of control fields, the detunings of the control and probe fields, and interaction length. Different from 2D cross-grating via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level atomic system, the present scheme results from the spatial modulation of gain and phase in a simple two-level system, which could lead to 2D gain-phase grating with larger diffraction intensities in the diffraction directions. The studies we present may have potential applications in developing photon devices for optical-switching, optical imaging and quantum information processing.

  10. Magnetic field induced enlargement of the regime of critical fluctuations in the classical superconductor V3Si from high-resolution specific heat experiments.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Liu, Y; Toyota, N; Lortz, R

    2015-02-25

    We present high-resolution specific heat data from a high-purity single crystal of the classical superconductor V(3)Si, which reveal tiny lambda-shape anomalies at the superconducting transition superimposed onto the BCS specific heat jump in magnetic fields of 2 T and higher. The appearance of these anomalies is accompanied by a magnetic-field-induced broadening of the superconducting transition. We demonstrate, using scaling relations predicted by the fluctuation models of the 3d-XY and the 3d-lowest-Landau-level (3d-LLL) universality class that the effect of critical fluctuations becomes experimentally observable due to of a magnetic field-induced enlargement of the regime of critical fluctuations. The scaling indicates that a reduction of the effective dimensionality due to the confinement of quasiparticles into low Landau levels is responsible for this effect. PMID:25640214

  11. Fluctuating pulse propagation in resonant nonlinear media: self-induced transparency random phase soliton formation.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarpour, Laleh; Ponomarenko, Sergey A

    2015-11-16

    We numerically investigate partially coherent short pulse propagation in nonlinear media near optical resonance. We examine how the pulse state of coherence at the source affects the evolution of the ensemble averaged intensity, mutual coherence function, and temporal degree of coherence of the pulse ensemble. We report evidence of self-induced transparency random phase soliton formation for the relatively coherent incident pulses with sufficiently large average areas. We also show that random pulses lose their coherence on propagation in resonant media and we explain this phenomenon in qualitative terms. PMID:26698507

  12. Beat-induced fluctuations in auditory cortical beta-band activity: using EEG to measure age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Laura K; Bosnyak, Dan; Manning, Fiona C; Spinelli, Christina; Marie, Céline; Fujioka, Takako; Ghahremani, Ayda; Trainor, Laurel J

    2014-01-01

    People readily extract regularity in rhythmic auditory patterns, enabling prediction of the onset of the next beat. Recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) research suggests that such prediction is reflected by the entrainment of oscillatory networks in the brain to the tempo of the sequence. In particular, induced beta-band oscillatory activity from auditory cortex decreases after each beat onset and rebounds prior to the onset of the next beat across tempi in a predictive manner. The objective of the present study was to examine the development of such oscillatory activity by comparing electroencephalography (EEG) measures of beta-band fluctuations in 7-year-old children to adults. EEG was recorded while participants listened passively to isochronous tone sequences at three tempi (390, 585, and 780 ms for onset-to-onset interval). In adults, induced power in the high beta-band (20-25 Hz) decreased after each tone onset and rebounded prior to the onset of the next tone across tempo conditions, consistent with MEG findings. In children, a similar pattern was measured in the two slower tempo conditions, but was weaker in the fastest condition. The results indicate that the beta-band timing network works similarly in children, although there are age-related changes in consistency and the tempo range over which it operates. PMID:25071691

  13. Combined effects of flow-induced shear stress and electromagnetic field on neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mascotte-Cruz, Juan Uriel; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural phenotype has been induced by either flow-induced shear stress (FSS) or electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, procedures are still expensive and time consuming. In the present work, induction for 1 h with the combination of both forces showed the presence of the neural precursor nestin as early as 9 h in culture after treatment and this result lasted for the following 6 d. In conclusion, the use of a combination of FSS and EMF for a short-time renders in neurite-like cells, although further investigation is required to analyze cell functionality. PMID:26325339

  14. Self-Induced Transparency and Electromagnetic Pulse Compression in a Plasma or an Electron Beam under Cyclotron Resonance Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2010-12-30

    Based on analogy to the well-known process of the self-induced transparency of an optical pulse propagating through a passive two-level medium we describe similar effects for a microwave pulse interacting with a cold plasma or rectilinear electron beam under cyclotron resonance condition. It is shown that with increasing amplitude and duration of an incident pulse the linear cyclotron absorption is replaced by the self-induced transparency when the pulse propagates without damping. In fact, the initial pulse decomposes to one or several solitons with amplitude and duration defined by its velocity. In a certain parameter range, the single soliton formation is accompanied by significant compression of the initial electromagnetic pulse. We suggest using the effect of self-compression for producing multigigawatt picosecond microwave pulses.

  15. Effects of mixing-induced irradiance fluctuations on nitrogen uptake in size-fractionated coastal phytoplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguer, Jean-François; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Waeles, Matthieu

    2015-03-01

    In coastal waters subjected to strong tidal forcing, phytoplankton populations are exposed to highly variable light regimes. To grow under such fluctuating light environments, phytoplankton adjust their physiological properties. Here, we investigated nitrogen (N) uptake patterns in the western English Channel to determine whether phytoplankton modify their physiological processes involved in N uptake in response to changing irradiance conditions induced by spring-neap tidal cycles. Nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) uptake kinetics as a function of irradiance (VN-E curves) were assessed using 15N tracer techniques on two size fractions (<10 and >10 μm) of phytoplankton collected at 50% and 1% of surface irradiance during two spring-neap tidal cycles. Overall, the results showed that both small and large phytoplankton, whatever their vertical position in the water column, increased their maximum uptake capacity and their light utilization efficiency for the two N substrates following the decrease in vertical mixing intensity. Moreover, the improvement of irradiance conditions at neap tides was of greater benefit for the larger cells than for the smaller ones and was more favorable for NO3- uptake than for NH4+ uptake. These findings show that the light regime fluctuation resulting from the relaxation of tidal mixing during spring-neap tidal cycle leads to profound physiological adjustments of N uptake processes in phytoplankton communities. They suggest that the changes in NO3- uptake by large phytoplankton associated with the fortnightly spring-neap tidal cycle can account for most of the deviation in background productivity in the western English Channel which is based on NH4+ and is dominated by small cells. The dynamic light regime inherent to macrotidal coastal ecosystems could therefore determine, to a large extent, the importance of new vs. regenerated production as well as the size structure of the phytoplankton community.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot system: Effects of geometrical size and external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, Alaeddin Sayahian; Rezaei, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot system, under the influence of a uniform magnetic field, is theoretically investigated. In this regard, the effects of external magnetic field and the geometrical size of the pseudo-dot system on the absorption as well as refractive index and the group velocity of the probe light pulse are investigated. The results show that the electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system and its frequency, transparency window and group velocity of the probe field are affected by the external magnetic field and the geometrical size of the pseudo-dot system. Also, electromagnetically induced transparency and the group velocity of light can be controlled via the external magnetic field and geometrical size.

  17. Random Interface-Traps-Induced Electrical Characteristic Fluctuation in 16-nm-Gate High-κ/Metal Gate Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Device and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This work estimates electrical and transfer-characteristic fluctuations in 16-nm-gate high-κ/metal gate (HKMG) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and inverter circuit induced by random interface traps (ITs) at high-κ/silicon interface. Randomly generated devices with two-dimensional (2D) ITs at HfO2/Si interface are incorporated into quantum-mechanically corrected 3D device simulation. Device characteristics, as influenced by different degrees of fluctuation, are discussed in relation to random ITs near source and drain ends. Owing to a decreasing penetration of electric field from drain to source, the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of the edvice decreases when the number of ITs increases. In contrast to random-dopant fluctuation, the screening effect of device's inversion layer cannot effectively screen potential's variation; thus, devices still have noticeable fluctuation of gate capacitance (CG) under high gate bias. The cutoff frequency decreases as increasing the number of ITs owing to the decreasing transconductance and increasing CG. Decreasing on-state current and increasing CG further result in increasing intrinsic gate delay time (τ) when the number of ITs increases. The fluctuation magnitude of DIBL, cutoff frequency, and τ above is increased as the number of ITs increases. Even for cases with the same number of random ITs, noise margins (NMs) of the 16-nm-gate complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter circuit are still quite different due to the different distribution of random ITs. The NMs of inverter circuit increase as the number of random ITs increases; however, the NMs' fluctuations are increased due to the more sources of fluctuation at HfO2/Si interface of HKMG devices.

  18. Synergistic Modification Induced Specific Recognition between Histone and TRIM24 via Fluctuation Correlation Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinmai; Luo, Huajie; Liu, Hao; Ye, Wei; Luo, Ray; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Histone modification plays a key role in gene regulation and gene expression. TRIM24 as a histone reader can recognize histone modification. However the specific recognition mechanism between TRIM24 and histone modification is unsolved. Here, systems biology method of dynamics correlation network based on molecular dynamics simulation was used to answer the question. Our network analysis shows that the dynamics correlation network of H3K23ac is distinctly different from that of wild type and other modifications. A hypothesis of “synergistic modification induced recognition” is then proposed to link histone modification and TRIM24 binding. These observations were further confirmed from community analysis of networks with mutation and network perturbation. Finally, a possible recognition pathway is also identified based on the shortest path search for H3K23ac. Significant difference of recognition pathway was found among different systems due to methylation and acetylation modifications. The analysis presented here and other studies show that the dynamic network-based analysis might be a useful general strategy to study the biology of protein post-translational modification and associated recognition. PMID:27079666

  19. Fluctuations of electrical and mechanical properties of diamond induced by interstitial hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Chun-Qiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    While experimental evidence demonstrates that the presence of hydrogen (H) impurities in diamond films plays a significant role in determining their physical properties, the small radius of the H atom makes detecting such impurities quite a challenging task. In the present work, first-principles calculations were employed to provide an insight into the effects of the interstitial hydrogen on the electrical and mechanical properties of diamond crystals at the atomic level. The migrated pathways of the interstitial hydrogen are dictated by energetic considerations. Some new electronic states are formed near the Fermi level. The interstitial hydrogen markedly narrows the bandgap of the diamond and weakens the diamond crystal. The obvious decrement of the critical strain clearly implies the presence of an H-induced embrittlement effect. Project supported by the Project of Construction of Innovative Teams and Teacher Career Development for Universities and Colleges under Beijing Municipality, China (Grant No. IDHT20140504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51402009), and the Foundation for Young Scholars of Beijing University of Technology, China.

  20. Protein denaturants at aqueous-hydrophobic interfaces: self-consistent correlation between induced interfacial fluctuations and denaturant stability at the interface.

    PubMed

    Cui, Di; Ou, Shu-Ching; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The notion of direct interaction between denaturing cosolvent and protein residues has been proposed in dialogue relevant to molecular mechanisms of protein denaturation. Here we consider the correlation between free energetic stability and induced fluctuations of an aqueous-hydrophobic interface between a model hydrophobically associating protein, HFBII, and two common protein denaturants, guanidinium cation (Gdm(+)) and urea. We compute potentials of mean force along an order parameter that brings the solute molecule close to the known hydrophobic region of the protein. We assess potentials of mean force for different relative orientations between the protein and denaturant molecule. We find that in both cases of guanidinium cation and urea relative orientations of the denaturant molecule that are parallel to the local protein-water interface exhibit greater stability compared to edge-on or perpendicular orientations. This behavior has been observed for guanidinium/methylguanidinium cations at the liquid-vapor interface of water, and thus the present results further corroborate earlier findings. Further analysis of the induced fluctuations of the aqueous-hydrophobic interface upon approach of the denaturant molecule indicates that the parallel orientation, displaying a greater stability at the interface, also induces larger fluctuations of the interface compared to the perpendicular orientations. The correlation of interfacial stability and induced interface fluctuation is a recurring theme for interface-stable solutes at hydrophobic interfaces. Moreover, observed correlations between interface stability and induced fluctuations recapitulate connections to local hydration structure and patterns around solutes as evidenced by experiment (Cooper et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 2014, 118, 5657.) and high-level ab initio/DFT calculations (Baer et al., Faraday Discuss 2013, 160, 89). PMID:25536388

  1. Protein Denaturants at Aqueous–Hydrophobic Interfaces: Self-Consistent Correlation between Induced Interfacial Fluctuations and Denaturant Stability at the Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The notion of direct interaction between denaturing cosolvent and protein residues has been proposed in dialogue relevant to molecular mechanisms of protein denaturation. Here we consider the correlation between free energetic stability and induced fluctuations of an aqueous–hydrophobic interface between a model hydrophobically associating protein, HFBII, and two common protein denaturants, guanidinium cation (Gdm+) and urea. We compute potentials of mean force along an order parameter that brings the solute molecule close to the known hydrophobic region of the protein. We assess potentials of mean force for different relative orientations between the protein and denaturant molecule. We find that in both cases of guanidinium cation and urea relative orientations of the denaturant molecule that are parallel to the local protein–water interface exhibit greater stability compared to edge-on or perpendicular orientations. This behavior has been observed for guanidinium/methylguanidinium cations at the liquid–vapor interface of water, and thus the present results further corroborate earlier findings. Further analysis of the induced fluctuations of the aqueous–hydrophobic interface upon approach of the denaturant molecule indicates that the parallel orientation, displaying a greater stability at the interface, also induces larger fluctuations of the interface compared to the perpendicular orientations. The correlation of interfacial stability and induced interface fluctuation is a recurring theme for interface-stable solutes at hydrophobic interfaces. Moreover, observed correlations between interface stability and induced fluctuations recapitulate connections to local hydration structure and patterns around solutes as evidenced by experiment (Cooper et al., J. Phys. Chem. A2014, 118, 5657.) and high-level ab initio/DFT calculations (Baer et al., Faraday Discuss2013, 160, 89). PMID:25536388

  2. Twist phase-induced polarization changes in electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Korotkova, O.

    2009-08-01

    Electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam with twist phase (i.e., twisted EGSM beam) is introduced as an extension of its scalar version based on the unified theory of coherence and polarization. We show how analytical paraxial propagation formulae of isotropic and anisotropic EGSM beams passing through a general astigmatic ABCD optical system can be modified in the presence of the twist phase. Numerical examples demonstrate that the twist phase affects the spectral density, the state of coherence, and the degree of polarization of EGSM beams on propagation.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Upset-Inducing Disturbances for Digital Systems in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a modeling and simulation approach for disturbance patterns representative of the environment experienced by a digital system in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber. The disturbance is modeled by a multi-variate statistical distribution based on empirical observations. Extended versions of the Rejection Samping and Inverse Transform Sampling techniques are developed to generate multi-variate random samples of the disturbance. The results show that Inverse Transform Sampling returns samples with higher fidelity relative to the empirical distribution. This work is part of an ongoing effort to develop a resilience assessment methodology for complex safety-critical distributed systems.

  4. Chemoprotective action of lotus seedpod procyanidins on oxidative stress in mice induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoping; Chen, Meng; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Yin, Chunchun; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing use of electromagnetic technology, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on biological systems, central neurotransmitter systems, and human health have attracted extensive attention worldwide. In this study, lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) were evaluated for their protective effects on ELF-EMF induced oxidative stress injury in mice. Sixty male ICR mice were used for the experiment. The mice were randomly divided into five equal groups. The control group did not receive LSPCs or ELF-EMF but orally received normal saline. The ELF-EMF group received ELF-EMF exposure plus normal saline orally. The other three groups received ELF-EMF exposure plus LSPCs orally (60, 90, or 120mg kg(-1).bw, respectively). Each group exposed to ELF-EMF at 8 mT, 4h day(-1) for 28 consecutive days after administration daily of LSPCs or normal saline to mice for 15 consecutive days with the exception of the control group. Thereafter, blood and cerebral cortex of the mice were analyzed for antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA). LSPCs administration at different doses significantly inhibited oxidative stress damage of mice induced by ELF-EMF. LSPCs treatment augmented SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST activity. Furthermore, administration significantly lowered MDA level in LSPCs treatment groups LSPCs. All results indicated LSPCs can effectively prevent oxidative stress injury induced by ELF-EMF exposure, which may be related to its ability of scavenging free radicals and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27470407

  5. Zero field splitting fluctuations induced phase relaxation of Gd3+ in frozen solutions at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitsimring, A.; Dalaloyan, A.; Collauto, A.; Feintuch, A.; Meade, T.; Goldfarb, D.

    2014-11-01

    Distance measurements using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) and Gd3+ chelates for spin labels (GdSL) have been shown to be an attractive alternative to nitroxide spin labels at W-band (95 GHz). The maximal distance that can be accessed by DEER measurements and the sensitivity of such measurements strongly depends on the phase relaxation of Gd3+ chelates in frozen, glassy solutions. In this work, we explore the phase relaxation of Gd3+-DOTA as a representative of GdSL in temperature and concentration ranges typically used for W-band DEER measurements. We observed that in addition to the usual mechanisms of phase relaxation known for nitroxide based spin labels, GdSL are subjected to an additional phase relaxation mechanism that features an increase in the relaxation rate from the center to the periphery of the EPR spectrum. Since the EPR spectrum of GdSL is the sum of subspectra of the individual EPR transitions, we attribute this field dependence to transition dependent phase relaxation. Using simulations of the EPR spectra and its decomposition into the individual transition subspectra, we isolated the phase relaxation of each transition and found that its rate increases with |ms|. We suggest that this mechanism is due to transient zero field splitting (tZFS), where its magnitude and correlation time are scaled down and distributed as compared with similar situations in liquids. This tZFS induced phase relaxation mechanism becomes dominant (or at least significant) when all other well-known phase relaxation mechanisms, such as spectral diffusion caused by nuclear spin diffusion, instantaneous and electron spin spectral diffusion, are significantly suppressed by matrix deuteration and low concentration, and when the temperature is sufficiently low to disable spin lattice interaction as a source of phase relaxation.

  6. Influence of the Polysilicon Gate on the Random Dopant Induced Threshold Voltage Fluctuations in Sub 100 nm MOSFETS with Thin Gate Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Saini, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper for the first time we study the influence of the polysilicon gate on the random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations in sub 100 nm MOSFETs with tunnelling gate oxides. This is done by using an efficient 3D 'atomistic' simulation technique described elsewhere. Devices with uniform channel doping and with low doped epitaxial channels have been investigated. The simulations reveale that the polysilicon gate is responsible for a substantial fraction of the threshold voltage fluctuations in both devices when the gate oxide is scaled to tunnelling thickness in the range of 1 - 2 nm.

  7. Effect of disorder on temporal fluctuations in drying-induced cracking.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Gabriel; Kun, Ferenc; Muñoz, José D

    2011-10-01

    We investigate by means of computer simulations the effect of structural disorder on the statistics of cracking for a thin layer of material under uniform and isotropic drying. For this purpose, the layer is discretized into a triangular lattice of springs with a slightly randomized arrangement. The drying process is captured by reducing the natural length of all springs by the same factor, and the amount of quenched disorder is controlled by varying the width ξ of the distribution of the random breaking thresholds for the springs. Once a spring breaks, the redistribution of the load may trigger an avalanche of breaks, not necessarily as part of the same crack. Our computer simulations revealed that the system exhibits a phase transition with the amount of disorder as control parameter: at low disorders, the breaking process is dominated by a macroscopic crack at the beginning, and the size distribution of the subsequent breaking avalanches shows an exponential form. At high disorders, the fracturing proceeds in small-sized avalanches with an exponential distribution, generating a large number of microcracks, which eventually merge and break the layer. Between both phases, a sharp transition occurs at a critical amount of disorder ξ(c)=0.40±0.01, where the avalanche size distribution becomes a power law with exponent τ=2.6±0.08, in agreement with the mean-field value τ=5/2 of the fiber bundle model. Moreover, good quality data collapses from the finite-size scaling analysis show that the average value of the largest burst ⟨Δ(max)⟩ can be identified as the order parameter, with β/ν=1.4 and 1/ν≃1.0, and that the average ratio ⟨m(2)/m(1)⟩ of the second m(2) and first moments m(1) of the avalanche size distribution shows similar behavior to the susceptibility of a continuous transition, with γ/ν=1, 1/ν≃0.9. These results suggest that the disorder-induced transition of the breakup of thin layers is analogous to a continuous phase transition

  8. Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenko, F.; Dorland, W.

    2001-12-01

    One of the central physics issues currently targeted by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is the role of finite-β effects. The latter change the MHD equilibrium, introduce new dynamical space and time scales, alter and enlarge the zoo of electrostatic microinstabilities and saturation mechanisms, and lead to turbulent transport along fluctuating magnetic field lines. It is shown that the electromagnetic effects on primarily electrostatic microinstabilities are generally weakly or moderately stabilizing. However, the saturation of these modes and hence the determination of the transport level in the quasi-stationary turbulent state can be dominated by nonlinear electromagnetic effects and yield surprising results. Despite this, the induced transport is generally electrostatic in nature well below the ideal ballooning limit.

  9. Functional brain measurements within the prefrontal area on pseudo-"blindsight" induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic stimulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ueno, Shoogo

    2015-05-01

    For evaluating the effects of phosphene as pseudo-blindsight closely, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate whether or not the phosphene appearance itself substantially affects the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal area. Seven healthy volunteers ranging in age from 22 to 72 participated in the visual stimulation experiments. First, we examined the influences of electromagnetic stimulations at around the threshold (10 mT) for a blindsight-like phosphene on the responses. According to the results of the aged volunteers, we found the possibility that the delay in the phosphene perception might be caused by aging beyond a certain age. In the results of our measurements using the stimulation of 50 mT, no significant difference in the perception delay for all the volunteers could be detected. When the field strength was decreased from 50 mT to the threshold in steps of 10 mT, the results obtained at the threshold are equivalent to that obtained at 50 mT. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that pseudo-blindsight induced by electromagnetic stimulation of above 50 mT is able to excite all the volunteers' retinal photoreceptor cells provisionally. Hence the continuous stimulations for a long period of time might gradually activate synaptic plasticity on the neural network of the retina.

  10. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, W. C.; Ford, B. D.; Roane, L.; Haynie, D. T.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra–wideband (UWB) technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR) could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM) cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5–20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8–24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM) -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma. PMID:16705798

  11. A new theoretical model for transmembrane potential and ion currents induced in a spherical cell under low frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yang; Chen, Ruijuan; Wang, Huiquan; Dong, Lei; Dou, Junrong

    2016-10-01

    Time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMF) can induce some physiological effects in neuronal tissues, which have been explored in many applications such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. Although transmembrane potentials and induced currents have already been the subjects of many theoretical studies, most previous works about this topic are mainly completed by utilizing Maxwell's equations, often by solving a Laplace equation. In previous studies, cells were often considered to be three-compartment models with different electroconductivities in different regions (three compartments are often intracellular regions, membrane, and extracellular regions). However, models like that did not take dynamic ion channels into consideration. Therefore, one cannot obtain concrete ionic current changes such as potassium current change or sodium current change by these models. The aim of the present work is to present a new and more detailed model for calculating transmembrane potentials and ionic currents induced by time-varying EMF. Equations used in the present paper originate from Nernst-Plank equations, which are ionic current-related equations. The main work is to calculate ionic current changes induced by EMF exposure, and then transmembrane potential changes are calculated with Hodgkin-Huxley model. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:481-492, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27438778

  12. Neuroprotective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunchun; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF)-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons and the underlying molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, morphological observation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays showed that compared with control, incubating neurons under ELF-EMF exposure significantly decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells, whereas LSPCs evidently protected the hippocampal neurons against ELF-EMF-induced cell damage. Moreover, a certain concentration of LSPCs inhibited the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) level, as well as prevented the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ELF-EMF exposure. In addition, supplementation with LSPCs could alleviate DNA damage, block cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibit apoptosis and necrosis of hippocampal neurons under ELF-EMF exposure. Further study demonstrated that LSPCs up-regulated the activations of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl proteins and suppressed the expressions of Bad, Bax proteins caused by ELF-EMF exposure. In conclusion, these findings revealed that LSPCs protected against ELF-EMF-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27470406

  13. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement. PMID:26072700

  14. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2015-01-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement. PMID:26072700

  15. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-06-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement.

  16. Zero to π Continuously Controllable Cross Phase Modulation in Doppler Broadened N-Type Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Medium

    PubMed Central

    Li, R. B.; Zhu, C. J.; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an observation of zero to π continuously controllable cross-phase-modulation based on N-type electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in a room-temperature 87Rb vapor. We theoretically and experimentally show that the signal field acquires a π phase shift compared with the reference light in the presence of the phase-control field. Using the method of the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we demonstrate that a zero to π continuously controllable phase gate can be built by modulating the phase-control field. In addition, our theoretical calculation agrees well with the experimental observation, and the results presented in this work hold the potential applications for the orthogonal polarization/vector gate in the quantum information processing.

  17. Efficient reflection via four-wave mixing in a Doppler-free electromagnetically-induced-transparency gas system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hai-Tao; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2011-11-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the high-efficiency reflection of a probe field in {Lambda}-type three-level atoms of cesium vapor driven by two counterpropagating coupling fields. More than 60% of reflection efficiency is observed at the phase-matching angle. The underlying mechanism theoretically is investigated as the four-wave mixing is enhanced by the electromagnetically-induced transparency. Both of the two Doppler-free two-photon resonances (one for the probe and co-propagating fields, the other for the reflected and the counterpropagation fields) play an important role in satisfying the phase matching in the reflection direction. The phase compensation due to the anomalous dispersion and the decrease of effective absorption length in the atomic system allow the efficient reflection to be observed in a wide range of incident angles of the probe field and detunings of the coupling field.

  18. Effect of buffer gas on an electromagnetically induced transparency in a ladder system using thermal rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, Armen; Sarkisyan, David; Krohn, Ulrich; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles

    2010-10-15

    We report on the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a ladder system in the presence of a buffer gas. In particular, we study the 5S{sub 1/2}-5P{sub 3/2}-5D{sub 5/2} transition in thermal rubidium vapor with a neon buffer gas at a pressure of 6 Torr. In contrast to the line-narrowing effect of buffer gas on {Lambda} systems, we show that the presence of the buffer gas leads to an additional broadening of (34{+-}5) MHz, which suggests a cross section for Rb(5D{sub 5/2})-Ne of {sigma}{sub k}{sup (D)}=(23{+-}4)x10{sup -19} m{sup 2}. However, in the limit where the coupling Rabi frequency is larger than the collisional dephasing, a strong transparency feature can still be observed.

  19. Direct measurement of excited-state dipole matrix elements using electromagnetically induced transparency in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Daniel J.; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S.; Hughes, Ifan G.

    2016-04-01

    Applying large magnetic fields to gain access to the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime can isolate three-level systems in a hot alkali metal vapors, thereby simplifying usually complex atom-light interactions. We use this method to make the first direct measurement of the |<5 P ||e r ||5 D >| matrix element in 87Rb. An analytic model with only three levels accurately models the experimental electromagnetically induced transparency spectra and extracted Rabi frequencies are used to determine the dipole matrix element. We measure |<5 P3 /2||e r ||5 D5 /2>| =(2.290 ±0 .002stat±0 .04syst) e a0 , which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations of Safronova, Williams, and Clark [Phys. Rev. A 69, 022509 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.022509].

  20. Weak-light rogue waves, breathers, and their active control in a cold atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to demonstrate the existence of optical Peregrine rogue waves and Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers and realize their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we suggest is a cold, Λ -type three-level atomic gas interacting with a probe and a control laser fields and working under EIT condition. We show that, based on EIT with an incoherent optical pumping, which can be used to cancel optical absorption, (1+1)-dimensional optical Peregrine rogue waves, Akhmediev breathers, and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers can be generated with very low light power. In addition, we demonstrate that the Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers in (2+1)-dimensions obtained can be actively manipulated by using an external magnetic field. As a result, these breathers can display trajectory deflections and bypass obstacles during propagation.

  1. Dual-band infrared perfect absorber for plasmonic sensor based on the electromagnetically induced reflection-like effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ying Qiao; Jin, Xing Ri; Zhang, Shou; Lee, Young Pak

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme for realizing a narrow-dual-band perfect absorber based on the plasmonic analogy of the electromagnetically induced reflection (EIR)-like effect. In our scheme, two short gold bars are excited strongly by incident plane wave serving as the bright mode. The middle gold bar is excited by two short gold bars. Due to the strong hybridization between the two short gold bars and the middle gold bar, two absorption peaks occur. The corresponding absorption rates are both over 99%. The quality factors of the two absorption peaks are 41.76 (198.47 THz) and 71.42 (207.79 THz), respectively, and the narrow-distance of the two absorption peaks is 9.32 THz. Therefore, they are narrow enough for the absorber to be a filter and a dual-band plasmonic sensor.

  2. Transformation of electromagnetically induced transparency into absorption in a thermal potassium optical cell with spin preserving coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozzini, S.; Lucchesini, A.; Marinelli, C.; Marmugi, L.; Gateva, S.; Tsvetkov, S.; Cartaleva, S.

    2016-03-01

    We report a new experimental approach where an order of magnitude enhancement of the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) resonance contrast, thus making it similar to that of the EIT resonance contrast is observed under the same conditions. The EIA signal results from the interaction of a weak probe beam with a ground state that has been driven by the pump (counter-propagating) beam. Probe absorption spectra are presented where the laser frequency is slowly detuned over the D1 line of 39K vapor contained in a cell with a PDMS antirelaxation coating. In addition to the frequency detuning, a magnetic field orthogonal to the laser beams is scanned around zero value at a higher rate. With both laser beams linearly polarized, an EIT resonance is observed. However, changing the pump beam polarization from linear to circular reverses the resonance signal from EIT to EIA.

  3. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaojun, Jiang; Haichao, Zhang; Yuzhu, Wang

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-type system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space. We use the Zeeman substates of the hyperfine energy states 52S1/2, F = 2 and 52P3/2, F‧ = 2 of 87Rb D2 line to form a Λ-type EIT scheme. The EIT signal is obtained by scanning the probe light over 1 MHz in 4 ms with an 80 MHz arbitrary waveform generator. More than 97% transparency and 100 kHz EIT window are observed. This EIT scheme is suited for an application of pulsed coherent storage atom clock (Yan B, et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 063820). Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91536107).

  4. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Christopher L. Gordon, Joshua A.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  5. Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a T-shaped metallic nanohole array and its sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ming Li; Sun, Xiao Jun; Song, Yue Li; Li, Yong; Zhou, Feng Qun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is demonstrated theoretically in a T-shaped silver nanohole array. A sharply narrow reflectance transparency window is clearly observed within the background spectrum of the broad dipole-like resonance at optical frequencies when structural asymmetry is introduced. Furthermore, the transparency peak exhibits highly sensitive response to the refractive index of surrounding medium and yield a sensitivity of 725 nm/refractive index unit (RIU), which ensures our proposed nanohole array as an excellent plasmonic sensor. In addition, the dependence of figure of merit (FOM) on structural asymmetry is investigated numerically to optimize the sensing performance of the EIT-based sensor.

  6. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels

    2009-02-01

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  7. The response of short-scale density fluctuations to the activity of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes during strong tearing modes on EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, G. M.; Li, Y. D.; Li, Q.; Sun, P. J.; Wu, G. J.; Hu, L. Q.; the EAST Team

    2015-08-01

    Beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) during strong tearing modes (TMs) have been frequently observed in fast-electron plasmas of EAST tokamak. The dynamics of the short-scale ({k}\\perp {ρ }s~{1.5-4.3}) density fluctuations during the activity of BAEs with strong TMs has been preliminarily investigated by a tangential CO2 laser collective scattering system. The results suggest the active, but different, response of short-scale density fluctuations to the TMs and BAEs. In the low-frequency (0-10 kHz) part of density fluctuations, there are harmonic oscillations totally corresponding to those of TMs. In the medium-high frequency (10-250 kHz) part of density fluctuations, with the appearance of the BAEs, the medium-high frequency density fluctuations begin to be dominated by several quasi-coherent (QC) modes, and the frequencies of the QC modes seem to be related to the changes of both TMs and BAEs. These results would shed some light on the understanding of the multi-scale interaction physics.

  8. Assay conditions in laboratory experiments: is the use of constant rather than fluctuating temperatures justified when investigating temperature-induced plasticity?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Kölzow, Nadine; Höltje, Henriette; Karl, Isabell

    2011-05-01

    Temperature is an important selective agent in nature. Consequently, temperature-induced plasticity which may help buffering detrimental effects of temperature variation has received considerable attention over recent decades. Laboratory studies have almost exclusively used constant temperatures, while in nature, temperature typically shows pronounced daily fluctuations. Using a factorial design with constant versus fluctuating temperatures and a higher versus a lower mean temperature, we here investigate in the butterfly Lycaena tityrus whether the use of constant temperatures is justified. Fluctuating compared to constant temperatures caused shorter development times, increased heat but decreased cold stress resistance, decreased heat-shock protein expression, and increased immunocompetence. Thus, overall, fluctuating temperatures were more beneficial to the butterflies compared to constant ones. However, despite substantial variation across temperature regimes, the ranking of trait values among treatments remained largely unaffected (e.g. lower constant as well as fluctuating temperatures caused increased pupal mass). Thus, we tentatively conclude that there is no general reason for concern about using constant temperatures in studies investigating phenotypic plasticity, which seem to comprise a fair proxy. However, substantial differences in mean values as well as interactive effects suggest that one needs to be cautious. We further demonstrate negative effects of high temperatures on butterfly immune function, which seem to result from a trade-off between the latter and the heat shock response. PMID:21286923

  9. Pulsed electromagnetic wave exposure induces ultrastructural damage and upregulated expression of heat shock protein 70 in the rat adenohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Ren, Dong-Qing; Yi, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Wen-Qing; Chen, Yong-Bin; Li, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Gui-Ying

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural damage and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the rat adenohypophysis following pulsed electromagnetic wave (PEMW) exposure. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(4) pulses of PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure. Whole body radiation of 1 x 10(4) pulses, 1 x 10(5) pulses and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW were delivered with a field strength of 100 kV/m. The rats in each group (n=6 in each) were sacrificed 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after PEMW exposure. Transmission electron microscopy was then used to detect the ultrastructural changes and immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of HSP70. Cellular damage, including mitochondrial vacuolation occurred as early as 12 h after PEMW exposure.More severe cellular damages, including cell degeneration and necrosis, occurred 24 and 48 h after PEMW exposure. The PEMW-induced cellular damage increased as the number of PEMW pulses increased. In addition, the expression of HSP70 significantly increased following PEMW exposure and peaked after 12 h. These findings suggested that PEMW induced ultrastructural damages in the rat adenohypophysis and that HSP70 may have contributed to the PEMW-induced adenohypophyseal damage. PMID:25891763

  10. Ultra-high sensitive and high resolution optical coherence tomography using a laser induced electromagnetic dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoneya, Shin

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing an optical coherence tomography measurement, we have developed a technique that actively uses a dielectric response due to an induced dipole moment caused by a mode-locked pulsed laser light source. Irradiated laser light in the material induces a photo-induced electric dipole resulting in a refractive index change for its strong electric field. Using this technique, we obtained a highly sensitive fundus retina tomogram of a human eye in vivo with a resolution of 1.3 μm by single scanning for 20 ms using 8 fs mode-locked pulse laser light with a 350 nm spread spectrum.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in growth and fecundity induced by strong population fluctuations affects reproductive traits of female fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Juha; Urpanen, Olli; Keskinen, Tapio; Huuskonen, Hannu; Sarvala, Jouko; Valkeajärvi, Pentti; Marjomäki, Timo J

    2016-02-01

    Fish are known for their high phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental variability, and this is particularly pronounced among salmonids in the Northern Hemisphere. Resource limitation leads to trade-offs in phenotypic plasticity between life-history traits related to the reproduction, growth, and survival of individual fish, which have consequences for the age and size distributions of populations, as well as their dynamics and productivity. We studied the effect of plasticity in growth and fecundity of vendace females on their reproductive traits using a series of long-term incubation experiments. The wild parental fish originated from four separate populations with markedly different densities, and hence naturally induced differences in their growth and fecundity. The energy allocation to somatic tissues and eggs prior to spawning served as a proxy for total resource availability to individual females, and its effects on offspring survival and growth were analyzed. Vendace females allocated a rather constant proportion of available energy to eggs (per body mass) despite different growth patterns depending on the total resources in the different lakes; investment into eggs thus dictated the share remaining for growth. The energy allocation to eggs per mass was higher in young than in old spawners and the egg size and the relative fecundity differed between them: Young females produced more and smaller eggs and larvae than old spawners. In contrast to earlier observations of salmonids, a shortage of maternal food resources did not increase offspring size and survival. Vendace females in sparse populations with ample resources and high growth produced larger eggs and larvae. Vendace accommodate strong population fluctuations by their high plasticity in growth and fecundity, which affect their offspring size and consequently their recruitment and productivity, and account for their persistence and resilience in the face of high

  12. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:24665905

  13. Electromagnetic detection and monitoring of creep induced damage in high temperature resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polar, Alberto

    Monitoring and remaining life assessment of ferritic-martensitic alloys exposed to creep was addressed using electromagnetic evaluation. In order to determine the correlation between the creep damage and the change in magnetic properties, two steels were exposed to different extent of creep and magnetic properties were evaluated for each sample. A close evaluation of the creep damage was performed in each sample using optical microscopy, as well as SEM and TEM techniques. It was found that the microstructural changes occurring during the creep progress have a correlation with variations in the magnetic response at the different levels of creep damage. Saturation decreases as creep damage progress due to the increases of demagnetized sites. Remanence shows the characteristic behavior of isotropic materials and coercivity changes as a function of the progress of the creep damage. Even though this established correlation may be used to directly monitoring the creep damage evolution, a magnetically determined damage factor was defined using the relationship of the hysteretic Jiles-Atherton factors with the extent pf creep damage. On the base of existing Continuous Damage Mechanics (CDM) models for creep, a model has been proposed for the monitoring and assessment of creep damage using the described magnetic damage factor.

  14. Quantum fluctuations of radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Ford, L. H.

    2001-08-15

    Quantum fluctuations of electromagnetic radiation pressure are discussed. We use an approach based on the quantum stress tensor to calculate the fluctuations in velocity and position of a mirror subjected to electromagnetic radiation. Our approach reveals that radiation pressure fluctuations in the case of a coherent state are due to a cross term between vacuum and state dependent terms in a stress tensor operator product. Thus observation of these fluctuations would entail experimental confirmation of this cross term. We first analyze the pressure fluctuations on a single, perfectly reflecting mirror, and then study the case of an interferometer. This involves a study of the effects of multiple bounces in one arm, as well as the correlations of the pressure fluctuations between arms of the interferometer. In all cases, our results are consistent with those previously obtained by Caves using different methods. We argue that the agreement between the different methods supports the reality of the cross term and justifies the methods used in its evaluation.

  15. Investigation and optimization of intraband electromagnetically induced transparency in strained InAs quantum dot/wetting layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvizi, R.; Rezaei, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, effects of the shape and size on the optical properties and optimization of the intersubband electromagnetically induced transparency in the Infra-red region of three-dimensional strained truncated pyramid-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) were investigated in detail. More precisely, within the density matrix approach, the probe absorption and group velocity along with the refractive index of the medium were studied with respect to their dependence on the dephasing rates and the Rabi frequencies of the probe and coupling fields for different QD heights and wetting layer (WL) thicknesses. It is found that the slow-down factors, group index, and absorption coefficient are inversely proportional to the width of the transparency window and proportional to the depth of the transparency window. The optimized transparency window can be achieved by varying the dot height and the WL thickness such that the tall dots with thin WL thickness induce significant enhancements at a fixed resonant peak position of Rabi frequency of the coupling field. The physical reasons behind these interesting phenomena were also explained based on the polarized features of intersubband transitions.

  16. Strong Pitch-Angle Diffusion of the Ring Current Ions Induced by Electromagnetic ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2005-12-01

    Deep and intense circulation of the magnetospheric plasma during geomagnetic storm is building up an energy content of the terrestrial ring current (RC) to an unusually high level, and the RC intensity strongly influence the storm-time space weather. The recovery of Dst index takes place hours or days after Dst minimum, and is caused by the decay of magnetopause and magnetotail current systems, and removal of the RC ions due to charge exchange, convection through the dayside magnetopause, Coulomb scattering, RC interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and scattering by field-line curvature. During the early recovery phase, the RC loss rate is about one hour or less, and it is more rapid than charge exchange can support. Ion scattering into the loss cone by EMIC waves is believed to be responsible for such fast RC decay during this storm stage. However, most RC-EMIC wave interaction models do not predict the strong pitch-angle diffusion that is theoretically discussed and observed in the Earth magnetosphere (particularly by SEPS detectors on board of the POLAR satellite). In present work, we employ our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model in order to study systematically the occurrence of the RC strong pitch-angle diffusion caused by interaction with waves during the May 1998 storm. Most of cases of the strong diffusion and of the intense EMIC waves are located in the afternoon-premidnight MLT sector at 3 < L < 6, and exhibit significant linear correlation. During the early recovery phase (at about 08 UT on May 4), the entire RC energy range (less than 450 keV) is subject to strong pitch-angle diffusion. Although the flux transitions between trapped zone and loss cone are steeper for higher energy RC protons than for main body of the distribution function, the pitch-angle distributions are highly isotropic for all energies both inside and outside of the loss cone.

  17. Electromagnetic Gauge Study of Laser-Induced Shock Waves in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyre, P.; Fabbro, R.

    1995-12-01

    The laser-shock behaviour of three industrial aluminum alloys has been analyzed with an Electromagnetic Gauge Method (EMV) for measuring the velocity of the back free surface of thin foils submitted to plane laser irradiation. Surface pressure, shock decay in depth and Hugoniot Elastic Limits (HEL) of the materials were investigated with increasing thicknesses of foils to be shocked. First, surface peak pressures values as a function of laser power density gave a good agreement with conventional piezoelectric quartz measurements. Therefore, comparison of experimental results with computer simulations, using a 1D hydrodynamic Lagrangian finite difference code, were also in good accordance. Lastly, HEL values were compared with static and dynamic compressive tests in order to estimate the effects of a very large range of strain rates (10^{-3} s^{-1} to 10^6 s^{-1}) on the mechanical properties of the alloys. Cet article fait la synthèse d'une étude récente sur la caractérisation du comportement sous choc-laser de trois alliages d'aluminium largement utilisés dans l'industrie à travers la méthode dite de la jauge électromagnétique. Cette méthode permet de mesurer les vitesses matérielles induites en face arrière de plaques d'épaisseurs variables par un impact laser. La mise en vitesse de plaques nous a permis, premièrement, de vérifier la validité des pressions d'impact superficielles obtenues en les comparant avec des résultats antérieurs obtenus par des mesures sur capteurs quartz. Sur des plaques d'épaisseurs croissantes, nous avons caractérisé l'atténuation des ondes de choc en profondeur dans les alliages étudiés et mesuré les limites d'élasticité sous choc (pressions d'Hugoniot) des alliages. Les résultats ont été comparés avec succès à des simulations numériques grâce à un code de calcul monodimensionnel Lagrangien. Enfin, les valeurs des pressions d'Hugoniot mesurées ont permis de tracer l'évolution des contraintes d

  18. The effect of heating and cooling on the velocity fluctuations in the ISM induced by the system of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiss, B. M.; Kegel, W. H.

    1986-06-01

    Dissipative thermal effects are taken into account in the expressions for interstellar gas velocity fluctuations (due to the gravitational interaction with stars) derived by Kegel and Volk (1983), with application to the interpretation of interstellar lines, the large scale flow of the interstellar matter, and the collapse of interstellar clouds. Results indicate a decrease in the critical wavelength for gravitational instability, which value is prevented by thermal effects from becoming zero when the relative velocity approaches the velocity of sound, in contradiction with the results of Kegel and Volk, and of Niimi (1970). The velocity fluctuations in the gas derived by Kegel and Volk are shown to be reduced considerably, though velocity fluctuations many times the velocity of sound, which increase with increasing relative motion between gas and stars, are found, principally in molecular clouds.

  19. Blast-induced electromagnetic fields in the brain from bone piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka Yan Karen; Nyein, Michelle K; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, J D; Socrate, Simona; Imholt, Timothy; Radovitzky, Raul; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that bone piezoelectricity-a phenomenon in which bone polarizes electrically in response to an applied mechanical stress and produces a short-range electric field-may be a source of intense blast-induced electric fields in the brain, with magnitudes and timescales comparable to fields with known neurological effects. We compute the induced charge density in the skull from stress data on the skull from a finite-element full-head model simulation of a typical IED-scale blast wave incident on an unhelmeted human head as well as a human head protected by a kevlar helmet, and estimate the resulting electric fields in the brain in both cases to be on the order of 10 V/m in millisecond pulses. These fields are more than 10 times stronger than the IEEE safety guidelines for controlled environments (IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 28, 2002) and comparable in strength and timescale to fields from repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) that are designed to induce neurological effects (Wagner et al., 2006a). They can be easily measured by RF antennas, and may provide the means to design a diagnostic tool that records a quantitative measure of the head's exposure to blast insult. PMID:20547228

  20. Binary black holes' effects on electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Neilsen, David

    2009-08-21

    In addition to producing gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as a possible enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves. PMID:19792706

  1. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, P O

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium. PMID:18517590

  2. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  3. A new analytical approach to estimate the hydraulic parameters of a coastal phreatic aquifer from tidally induced water table fluctuations and its application at the Niijima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Shiokari, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new perturbation solution of the Boussinesq equation for tidally induced water table fluctuations in a coastal phreatic aquifer was derived under the condition of multiple tidal constituents. Then, the obtained solution was applied to estimate hydraulic parameters of the Shiro-mama formation at the Niijima Island, Japan, by fitting the solution to the results of continuous measurements of water table fluctuations in the frequency space. The estimated hydraulic transmissivities from both the amplitudes and the phase-shifts were comparable and consistent with the results of analyses based on the Dupuit-Ghyben-Herzberg model, suggesting that the proposed approach performed well and the obtained values, i.e., transmissivity to be 0.12-1.7 m2/s were reasonable.

  4. Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency of driven-three-level atoms: A transparent window narrowing below a natural width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Cleo L.; Liu, Jiaren; Liao, Yan

    2000-02-01

    Steady-state dynamics of a Λ atom in a ring cavity driven by two coherent fields are studied for arbitrary detunings, arbitrary incoherent pumping, and coherent driving intensities. Effects of both cavity and effective atom number on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) are pointed out. New physical pictures for cavity EIT are given in terms of collective cooperative coefficients and dispersion experienced by the probe. In the regime of smaller collective cooperative coefficients, an absorption-gain profile is reduced to that of a general EIT estimated by the imaginary part of a corresponding dipole moment, and its transparency window is directly proportional to power broadening, if the total Rabi frequency is large enough. But in the region of larger collective cooperative coefficients which means a dense atomic medium, longer optical path, or high-Q cavity, EIT is determined not only by the imaginary part but also by the real part of the corresponding dipole moment, which results in the possibility of observing an EIT central peak with a subnatural width, while there may be nearly no power broadening.

  5. Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, H; Singh, N P

    1997-01-01

    Effects of in vivo microwave exposure on DNA strand breaks, a form of DNA damage, were investigated in rat brain cells. In previous research, we have found that acute (2 hours) exposure to pulsed (2 microseconds pulses, 500 pps) 2450-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) (power density 2 mW/cm2, average whole body specific absorption rate 1.2 W/kg) caused an increase in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in brain cells of the rat when assayed 4 hours post exposure using a microgel electrophoresis assay. In the present study, we found that treatment of rats immediately before and after RFR exposure with either melatonin (1 mg/kg/injection, SC) or the spin-trap compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) (100 mg/kg/injection, i.p.) blocks this effects of RFR. Since both melatonin and PBN are efficient free radical scavengers it is hypothesized that free radicals are involved in RFR-induced DNA damage in the brain cells of rats. Since cumulated DNA strand breaks in brain cells can lead to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer and an excess of free radicals in cells has been suggested to be the cause of various human diseases, data from this study could have important implications for the health effects of RFR exposure. PMID:9261542

  6. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2010-06-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SARwb) and 58% (SAR10g) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SARwb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  7. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorptionmore » loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.« less

  8. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.

  9. Dynamics of slow light and light storage in a Doppler-broadened electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium: A numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Horng, Tzyy-Leng; Yu, Ite A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme to study the dynamics of slow light and light storage in an electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) medium at finite temperatures. Allowing for the motional coupling, we derive a set of coupled Schrödinger equations describing a boosted closed three-level EIT system according to the principle of Galilean relativity. The dynamics of a uniformly moving EIT medium can thus be determined by numerically integrating the coupled Schrödinger equations for atoms plus one ancillary Maxwell-Schrödinger equation for the probe pulse. The central idea of this work rests on the assumption that the loss of ground-state coherence at finite temperatures can be ascribed to the incoherent superposition of density matrices representing the EIT systems with various velocities. Close agreements are demonstrated in comparing the numerical results with the experimental data for both slow light and light storage. In particular, the distinct characters featuring the decay of ground-state coherence can be well verified for slow light and light storage. This warrants that the current scheme can be applied to determine the decaying profile of the ground-state coherence as well as the temperature of the EIT medium.

  10. A theoretical study of the coupling between a vortex-induced vibration cylindrical resonator and an electromagnetic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu-Xu, J.; Barrero-Gil, A.; Velazquez, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the coupling between a vortex-induced vibration (VIV) cylindrical resonator and its associated linear electromagnetic generator. The two-equation mathematical model is based on a dual-mass formulation in which the dominant masses are the stator and translator masses of the generator. The fluid-structure interaction implemented in the model equations follows the so-called ‘advanced forcing model’ whose closure relies on experimental data. The rationale to carry out the study is the fact that in these types of configurations there is a two-way interaction between the moving parts in such a way that their motions influence each other simultaneously, thereby affecting the energy actually harvested. It is believed that instead of mainly resorting to complementary numerical simulations, a theoretical model can shed some light on the nature of the interaction and, at the same time, provide scaling laws that can be used for practical design and optimization purposes. It has been found that the proposed configuration has a maximum hydrodynamic to mechanical to electrical conversion efficiency (based on the VIV resonator oscillation amplitude) of 8%. For a cylindrical resonator 10 cm long with a 2 cm diameter, this translates into an output power of 20 to 160 mW for water stream velocities in the range from 0.5 to 1 m s-1.

  11. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2010-06-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR(wb)) and 58% (SAR(10g)) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR(wb) is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR(10g) values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning. PMID:20463374

  12. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure. PMID:21772085

  13. Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Leman; Zhou Lan

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present a method to generate continuous-variable-type entangled states between photons and atoms in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The proposed method involves an atomic BEC with three internal states, a weak quantized probe laser, and a strong classical coupling laser, which form a three-level {lambda}-shaped BEC system. We consider a situation where the BEC is in electromagnetically induced transparency with the coupling laser being much stronger than the probe laser. In this case, the upper and intermediate levels are unpopulated, so that their adiabatic elimination enables an effective two-mode model involving only the atomic field at the lowest internal level and the quantized probe laser field. Atom-photon quantum entanglement is created through laser-atom and interatomic interactions, and two-photon detuning. We show how to generate atom-photon entangled coherent states and entangled states between photon (atom) coherent states and atom-(photon-) macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) states, and between photon-MQS and atom-MQS states.

  14. GRADFLEX: Fluctuations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailati, A.; Cerbino, R.; Mazzoni, S.; Giglio, M.; Nikolaenko, G.; Cannell, D. S.; Meyer, W. V.; Smart, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of experimental investigations of gradient driven fluctuations induced in a liquid mixture with a concentration gradient and in a single-component fluid with a temperature gradient. We also describe the experimental apparatus being developed to carry out similar measurement under microgravity conditions.

  15. Noise-induced resonance-like phenomena in InP crystals embedded in fluctuating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persano Adorno, D.; Pizzolato, N.; Spagnolo, B.

    2016-05-01

    We explore and discuss the complex electron dynamics inside a low-doped n-type InP bulk embedded in a sub-THz electric field, fluctuating for the superimposition of an external source of Gaussian correlated noise. The results presented in this study derive from numerical simulations obtained by means of a multi-valley Monte Carlo approach to simulate the nonlinear transport of electrons inside the semiconductor crystal. The electronic noise characteristics are statistically investigated by calculating the correlation function of the velocity fluctuations, its spectral density and the integrated spectral density, i.e. the total noise power, for different values of both amplitude and frequency of the driving oscillating electric field and for different correlation times of the field fluctuations. Our results show that the nonlinear response of electrons is strongly affected by the field fluctuations. In particular, crucially depending on the relationship between the correlation times of the external Gaussian noise and the timescales of complex phenomena involved in the electron dynamical behavior: (i) electrons self-organize among different valleys, giving rise to intrinsic noise suppression; (ii) this cooperative behavior causes the appearance of a resonance-like phenomenon in the noise spectra.

  16. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF. PMID:27470374

  17. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-08-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H{sub {alpha}} and the H{sub {beta}} lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  18. Observation of an electromagnetically induced change of absorption in multilevel rubidium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Qing; Jin, Shao-Zheng; Xiao, Min

    1995-03-01

    A 64.4% reduction in absorption at the rubidium D2 line is observed when a pumping field at 775.8 nm is tuned on resonance to the transition between the excited states 5P3/2 and 5D5/2. As the pumping field is tuned off resonance, an absorption peak appears at the side of the Doppler-broadened D2 line. This modification in absorption is related to pumping-induced atomic coherence in this three-level ladder-type system. This experiment is done in a Rb vapor cell at room temperature and with cw diode lasers for both pumping and probe beams in a Doppler-free configuration.

  19. Optical Control of Magnetic Feshbach Resonances by Closed-Channel Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannathan, A.; Arunkumar, N.; Joseph, J. A.; Thomas, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    We control magnetic Feshbach resonances in an optically trapped mixture of the two lowest hyperfine states of a 6Li Fermi gas, using two optical fields to create a dark state in the closed molecular channel. In the experiments, the narrow Feshbach resonance is tuned by up to 3 G. For the broad resonance, the spontaneous lifetime is increased to 0.4 s at the dark-state resonance, compared to 0.5 ms for single-field tuning. We present a new model of light-induced loss spectra, employing continuum-dressed basis states, which agrees in shape and magnitude with loss measurements for both broad and narrow resonances. Using this model, we predict the trade-off between tunability and loss for the broad resonance in 6Li, showing that our two-field method substantially reduces the two-body loss rate compared to single-field methods for the same tuning range.

  20. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28

  1. Switching from "absorption within transparency" to "transparency within transparency" in an electromagnetically induced absorption dominated transition.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Katrin; Molella, Luca Spani; Rinkleff, Rolf-Hermann; Danzmann, Karsten

    2008-05-01

    The absorption of a resonant coupling laser driving a closed degenerate two-level system in an atomic cesium beam was investigated as a function of the detuning of a second laser probing the same transition. The measurements were performed for four different polarization combinations of the two laser beams. Except for the beams of counterrotating polarizations all coupling-laser absorption profiles showed "absorption within transparency," i.e., the absorption in the region around the two-photon resonance was smaller than the absorption corresponding to the one-photon transition induced by the coupling laser, and an extra absorption peak was observed on this curve at the two-photon resonance. With regard to the beams of counterrotating polarizations we observed a switch from absorption within transparency to "transparency within transparency" when the probe-laser power exceeded the constant coupling-laser power. In other words, the cesium ensemble became mostly transparent to the coupling-laser beam at the two-photon resonance. PMID:18451960

  2. Parallel magnetic field-induced conductance fluctuations in GaAs/AlGaAs ballistic quantum dots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Melinte, S.; Hackens, B.; Bayot, V.; Shayegan, M.

    2004-03-01

    We present magnetotransport measurements in ballistic quantum dots under a parallel magnetic field. The dots were fabricated on two different GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with thicknesses of 15 and and 45 nm and with one and two subbands occupied, respectively. The samples were patterned using e-beam lithography and wet etching. A Cr/Au electrostatic top gate was used in order to tune the width of the dot openings. The measurements were performed down to 300 mK with the magnetic field applied strictly parallel to the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas. For both dots, we observe universal conductance fluctuations and, in the case of the wide quantum well, a reduction of their amplitude at large magnetic field. We discuss these conductance fluctuations in terms of orbital effect(V.I. Fal'ko and T. Jungwirth, Phys Rev B 65), 081306 (2002) and magnetic subband depopulation.

  3. The Norton-Simon hypothesis and the onset of non-genetic resistance to chemotherapy induced by stochastic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Gandolfi, Alberto; Gattoni, Sara

    2012-12-01

    By studying a simple but realistic biophysical model of tumor growth in the presence of a constant continuous chemotherapy, we show that if an extended Norton-Simon hypothesis holds, the system may have multiple equilibria. Thus, the stochastic bounded fluctuations that affect both the tumor carrying capacity and/or the drug pharmacodynamics (and/or the drug pharmacokinetics) may cause the transition from a small equilibrium to a far larger one, not compatible with the life of the host. In particular, we mainly investigated the effects of fluctuations that involve parameters nonlinearly affecting the deterministic model. We propose to frame the above phenomena as a new and non-genetic kind of resistance to chemotherapy.

  4. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Chng, Brenda; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Turbulence-Induced Fluctuations In In-Cloud Saturation Ratio and Rates of Cloud Droplet Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, R. L.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2014-12-01

    We develop methods that determine the influence of turbulence on the distribution of in-cloud water vapor saturation ratio and growth rates of cloud droplets. For this purpose, a moment-based cloud parcel model is used to translate Doppler cloud radar vertical velocity spectra and radiosonde measurements into a statistical distribution of in-cloud saturation ratio, S. Because cloud droplet growth/evaporation rates are proportional to S-1, the statistical analysis of fluctuations in S yields, among other quantities, direct information on the time correlation function of droplet growth rate. From this information a Green-Kubo relation is used to determine the diffusion coefficient for fluctuations along the coordinate of cloud droplet size, D, a key turbulence parameter used in the kinetic potential theory of drizzle formation. Measurements from the Azores, SGP, and TCAP sites are analyzed and compared. A significant finding is that the probability distribution function for fluctuations in S tends to be both highly symmetric about the equilibrium saturation ratio (S=1) and non-Gaussian. Indeed the distribution has much broader tails than the Gaussian and, for the cases we have studied, turns out to be in excellent agreement with the Voight lineshape.

  6. Hydration-induced anisotropic spin fluctuations in NaxCoO2 · 1.3H2O superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matano, K.; Lin, C. T.; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2008-12-01

    We report 59Co NMR studies in single crystals of the cobalt oxide superconductor Na0.42CoO2·1.3H2O (Tc=4.25 K) and its parent compound Na0.42CoO2. We find that both the magnitude and the temperature (T) dependence of the Knight shifts are identical in the two compounds above Tc. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) is also identical above T0~60 K for both compounds. Below T0, the unhydrated sample is found to be a non-correlated metal that well conforms to the Fermi liquid theory, while spin fluctuations develop in the superconductor. These results indicate that water intercalation does not change the density of states at the Fermi level or the carrier density but its primary role is to bring about spin fluctuations. Our result shows that, in the hydrated superconducting compound, the electron correlation is anisotropic. Namely, the spin fluctuation around the finite wave vector is much stronger along the a-axis direction than that along the c-axis direction.

  7. Electromagnetic wave reflection from irregular plasma layers. Final report, 31 August 1989-2 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, D.; Shanny, R.; Short, R.D.

    1993-08-31

    The general theory describing reflection of electromagnetic waves from irregular reflectors was formulated by using path integral techniques (Dashen, 1979; Flatte, 1979). The general formulae reproduce the well known reflection coefficients for wave scattering from random rough surfaces derived by using Kirchhoff's theory or perturbation theory (Ogilvie, 1991). The theory was used to determine the degradation of an OTH radar signal scattered from irregular Artificial Ionospheric Mirrors (AIM). The cases of density irregularities induced by fluctuations in the ambient neutral density and by fluctuations in the heater power were separately examined. Scaling laws and bounds for minimal signal loss were derived.

  8. Influence of environment induced correlated fluctuations in electronic coupling on coherent excitation energy transfer dynamics in model photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengfei; Coker, David F.

    2012-03-01

    Two-dimensional photon-echo experiments indicate that excitation energy transfer between chromophores near the reaction center of the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides occurs coherently with decoherence times of hundreds of femtoseconds, comparable to the energy transfer time scale in these systems. The original explanation of this observation suggested that correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies, driven by large scale protein motions could result in long lived coherent energy transfer dynamics. However, no significant site energy correlation has been found in recent molecular dynamics simulations of several model light harvesting systems. Instead, there is evidence of correlated fluctuations in site energy-electronic coupling and electronic coupling-electronic coupling. The roles of these different types of correlations in excitation energy transfer dynamics are not yet thoroughly understood, though the effects of site energy correlations have been well studied. In this paper, we introduce several general models that can realistically describe the effects of various types of correlated fluctuations in chromophore properties and systematically study the behavior of these models using general methods for treating dissipative quantum dynamics in complex multi-chromophore systems. The effects of correlation between site energy and inter-site electronic couplings are explored in a two state model of excitation energy transfer between the accessory bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin in a reaction center system and we find that these types of correlated fluctuations can enhance or suppress coherence and transfer rate simultaneously. In contrast, models for correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies show enhanced coherent dynamics but necessarily show decrease in excitation energy transfer rate accompanying such coherence enhancement. Finally, for a three state model of the Fenna-Matthews-Olsen light

  9. Influence of environment induced correlated fluctuations in electronic coupling on coherent excitation energy transfer dynamics in model photosynthetic systems.

    PubMed

    Huo, Pengfei; Coker, David F

    2012-03-21

    Two-dimensional photon-echo experiments indicate that excitation energy transfer between chromophores near the reaction center of the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides occurs coherently with decoherence times of hundreds of femtoseconds, comparable to the energy transfer time scale in these systems. The original explanation of this observation suggested that correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies, driven by large scale protein motions could result in long lived coherent energy transfer dynamics. However, no significant site energy correlation has been found in recent molecular dynamics simulations of several model light harvesting systems. Instead, there is evidence of correlated fluctuations in site energy-electronic coupling and electronic coupling-electronic coupling. The roles of these different types of correlations in excitation energy transfer dynamics are not yet thoroughly understood, though the effects of site energy correlations have been well studied. In this paper, we introduce several general models that can realistically describe the effects of various types of correlated fluctuations in chromophore properties and systematically study the behavior of these models using general methods for treating dissipative quantum dynamics in complex multi-chromophore systems. The effects of correlation between site energy and inter-site electronic couplings are explored in a two state model of excitation energy transfer between the accessory bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin in a reaction center system and we find that these types of correlated fluctuations can enhance or suppress coherence and transfer rate simultaneously. In contrast, models for correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies show enhanced coherent dynamics but necessarily show decrease in excitation energy transfer rate accompanying such coherence enhancement. Finally, for a three state model of the Fenna-Matthews-Olsen light

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  11. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist reduces L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lu; Yang, Xinxin; Ma, Yaping; Wu, Na; Liu, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) has been used as an effective drug for treating dopamine depletion-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, long-term administration of L-DOPA produces motor complications. L-DOPA has also been found to modify the two key signaling cascades, protein kinase A/dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), in striatal neurons, which are thought to play a pivotal role in forming motor complications. In the present study, we tested the possible effect of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist on L-DOPA-stimulated abnormal behavioral and signaling responses in vivo. Intermittent L-DOPA administration for 3 weeks induced motor fluctuation in a rat model of PD induced by intrastriatal infusion of dopamine-depleting neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). A single injection of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 had no effect on L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation. However, chronic injections of WIN-55,212-2 significantly attenuated abnormal behavioral responses to L-DOPA in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Similarly, chronic injections of WIN-55,212-2 influence the L-DOPA-induced alteration of DARPP-32 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation status in striatal neurons. These data provide evidence for the active involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of L-DOPA action during PD therapy. PMID:25395834

  12. Electromagnetic Meissner-Effect Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic Meissner-effect launching apparatus differs from previous electromagnetic launchers; no need for electromagnet coil on projectile. Result, no need for brush contacts and high-voltage commutation equipment to supply current directly to projectile coil, or for pulse circuitry to induce current in projectile coil if brush contacts not used. Compresses magnetic field surrounding rear surface of projectile, creating gradient of magnetic pressure pushing projectile forward.

  13. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  14. Forward solution of the electromagnetic field induced by tsunamis using non-uniform thin-sheet approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, I.; Toh, H.; Satake, K.

    2013-12-01

    A seafloor geomagnetic observatory in the northwest Pacific detected clear electromagnetic (EM) variations associated with tsunami passage from two earthquakes that occurred along the Kuril Trench (Toh et al., 2011). Previous seismological analyses indicated that the M8.3 earthquake on 15 November 2006 was an underthrust type on the landward slope of the trench, while the M8.1 earthquake on 13 January 2007 was a normal fault type on the seaward side (Ammon et al., 2008). Here we report the simulation results on the frequency dependence of those tsunami-induced EM signals observed at the seafloor, using a three-dimensional (3-D) non-uniform thin-sheet approximation by Dawson and Weaver (1979) and McKirdy, Weaver, & Dawson (1985), which can accommodate not only the inducing non-uniform source fields caused by particle motions of conducting seawater at the time of tsunami passage but also the self-induction effect within the ocean and its conductive substrata. Horizontal particle motions were calculated by Fujii and Satake (2008) with two types of hydrodynamic approximation, viz., the Boussinesq approximation and the long-wave approximation. Because the dispersion effect of each tsunami was more remarkable in the 2007 event, the observed EM variations were expected to be more compatible with the simulated EM signals using the Boussinesq approximation than the long-wave approximation. We calculated EM variations after we confirmed that synthetic plane waves in a flat ocean produced theoretically predicted harmonic EM variations well. In both approximations, the calculated EM variations associated with the initial wave of the tsunami at the time of the 2006 event are consistent with the observed ones, but the agreement became worse for the subsequent tsunami phases. As for the 2007 event, the calculated EM variations were less consistent compared with the 2006 event irrespective to the hydrodynamic approximations used. This can be due to the current limitation of thin

  15. Probing Nanoscale Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Fluctuation Dynamics using Correlated AFM and Confocal Ultramicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Yung D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Zhu, Leyun; Lu, H PETER.

    2003-10-01

    We have studied the laser-excitation-intensity-dependent and Ag-nanocluster interstitial-site-dependent SERS intensity fluctuations under low molecule surface coverage of rhodamine 6G and cytochrome c. a new two-channel photon time-stamping system coupled with atomic force microscopic (AFM), Raman spectroscopic, and imaging microscopy was developed and applied to record Raman intensity fluctuation trajectories at sub-microsecond resolution correlated with in-situ characterization of the nanoparticle clusters. Our experimental results suggest that the nanoconfinement of the local electromagnetic-field enhancement and the interaction of the local field with the molecules, presumably under rotational motions, result in nano-Raman fluctuations. The SERS spectral fluctuation was pertinent to the nanoscale local enhancement and local interaction of the molecules with the surface when the number of molecules to contribute the microscopic Raman signal collected from a diffraction-limited focus spot. The SERS fluctuation dynamics were both photo-induced and spontaneous for rhodamine 6G, but only the photo-induced interstitial sites with heterogeneous geometries. To interpret the observed nano-SERS fluctuation dynamics, we used computer simulation of optical multiple scattering, based on multi-sphere scattering Mie theory, and rotational diffusion of molecules at an interstitial site, based on a random walk in orientation space.

  16. Phase speed saturation of Farley-Buneman waves due to stochastic, self-induced fluctuations in the background flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, E. L.; Young, M. A.; Hysell, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    The phase speed saturation of Farley-Buneman waves is studied as an interaction with the random turbulent fluctuations in the background. We used the formalism of stochastic differential equations to model the complex interactions with a linearized system plus a stochastic term. Applying an averaging technique, we can obtain an augmented linear system that depends on the random behavior of the waves. The results show that following this approach we can obtain phase velocities that saturate close to the ion acoustic speed (Cs). This approach seems promising for the study of the influence of plasma turbulence generated by different kinds of instabilities on the mean state of the ionosphere.

  17. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  18. On the unsteady wake-induced lift on a slotted airfoil, part II: The influence of displacement thickness fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1981-02-01

    In the preceding companion paper [1] a theoretical model for determining the influence of a slot in a thin airfoil on the unsteady lift/radiated sound caused by vortices shed into the wake was presented. The unsteady motion produces additional vorticity at the upstream edge of the slot, and it was shown that, at sufficiently low reduced frequencies based on the width of the slot, this vorticity can prevent penetration by the flow, so that the airfoil behaves as if the slot were absent. At higher frequencies, however, both the lift and the sound power were predicted to be significantly reduced relative to their respective levels for the unslotted airfoil. The analysis is extended in this paper to include the effects of displacement thickness fluctuations of the boundary layers on the "flap" downstream of the slot. These fluctuations arise as a result of the periodic ejection of vorticity from the slot. It is concluded that the earlier predictions of a reduction in the lift/sound pressure level are enhanced by the displacement thickness effects.

  19. On the Coupling Between Gravity and Electromagnetism Through Quantum Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxmilian Caligiuri, Luigi

    The possible unification between electromagnetism and gravity is one of greatest challenges in Physics. According to the so-called "Zero-Point Field Inertia Hypothesis" inertia and gravity could be interpreted, through a semi-classical approach, as the electromagnetic reaction force to the interaction between charged elementary particles contained in a body and quantum vacuum fluctuating electromagnetic modes interacting with them. In a late paper this author, sharing this idea as a starting point but moving within the framework of QFT, proposed a novel model in which inertia emerges from a superradiant phase transition of quantum vacuum due to the coherent interaction between matter-wave and em fields quanta. In both the approaches a resonant-type mechanism is involved in describing the dynamic interaction between a body and ZPF in which it is "immersed". So it is expected that if a change in the related resonance frequency is induced by modifying the boundary conditions as, for example, through the introduction of a strong electromagnetic field of suitable frequency, the inertial and gravitational mass associated to that body will also be modified. In this paper we have shown, also basing on previous results and starting from the assumption that not only inertia but also gravitational constant G could be truly a function of quantum vacuum energy density, that the application of an electromagnetic field is able to modify the ZPF energy density and, consequently, the value of G in the region of space containing a particle or body. This result particularly suggests a novel interpretation of the coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational interaction ruled by the dynamical features of ZPF energy. Apart from its theoretical consequences, this model could also proposes new paths towards the so-called ZPF-induced gravitation with very interesting applications to advanced technology.

  20. Variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Nelson C.; Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, Son V.; Fleischman, Jack G.; Ayasli, Serpil; Shin, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    As an electromagnetic wave propagates through a random scattering medium, such as a forest, its energy is attenuated and random phase fluctuations are induced. The magnitude of the random phase fluctuations induced is important in estimating how well a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image objects within the scattering medium. The two-layer random medium model, consisting of a scattering layer between free space and ground, is used to calculate the variance of the phase fluctuations induced between a transmitter located above the random medium and a receiver located below the random medium. The scattering properties of the random medium are characterized by a correlation function of the random permittivity fluctuations. The effective permittivity of the random medium is first calculated using the strong fluctuation theory, which accounts for large permittivity fluctuations of the scatterers. The distorted Born approximation is used to calculate the first-order scattered field. A perturbation series for the phase of the received field in the Rytov approximation is then introduced and the variance of the phase fluctuations is also calculated assuming that the transmitter and receiver are in the paraxial limit of the random medium, which allows an analytic solution to be obtained. Results are compared using the paraxial approximation, scalar Green's function formulation, and dyadic Green's function formulation. The effects studied are the dependence of the variance of the phase fluctuations on receiver location in lossy and lossless regions, medium thickness, correlation length and fractional volume of scatterers, depolarization of the incident wave, ground layer permittivity, angle of incidence, and polarization.

  1. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  2. Protein-fluctuation-induced water-pore formation in ion channel voltage-sensor translocation across a lipid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajapaksha, Suneth P.; Pal, Nibedita; Zheng, Desheng; Lu, H. Peter

    2015-11-01

    We have applied a combined fluorescence microscopy and single-ion-channel electric current recording approach, correlating with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to study the mechanism of voltage-sensor domain translocation across a lipid bilayer. We use the colicin Ia ion channel as a model system, and our experimental and simulation results show the following: (1) The open-close activity of an activated colicin Ia is not necessarily sensitive to the amplitude of the applied cross-membrane voltage when the cross-membrane voltage is around the resting potential of excitable membranes; and (2) there is a significant probability that the activation of colicin Ia occurs by forming a transient and fluctuating water pore of ˜15 Å diameter in the lipid bilayer membrane. The location of the water-pore formation is nonrandom and highly specific, right at the insertion site of colicin Ia charged residues in the lipid bilayer membrane, and the formation is intrinsically associated with the polypeptide conformational fluctuations and solvation dynamics. Our results suggest an interesting mechanistic pathway for voltage-sensitive ion channel activation, and specifically for translocation of charged polypeptide chains across the lipid membrane under a transmembrane electric field: the charged polypeptide domain facilitates the formation of hydrophilic water pore in the membrane and diffuses through the hydrophilic pathway across the membrane; i.e., the charged polypeptide chain can cross a lipid membrane without entering into the hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane but entirely through the aqueous and hydrophilic environment to achieve a cross-membrane translocation. This mechanism sheds light on the intensive and fundamental debate on how a hydrophilic and charged peptide domain diffuses across the biologically inaccessible high-energy barrier of the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer: The peptide domain does not need to cross the hydrophobic core to move across a

  3. Polarized electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1974-01-01

    The strong anisotropy in Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) signals resulting from electromagnetic induction in the moon, forced by fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field, is shown to result from intense polarization of the induced field. Arguments are given to show that the anisotropy cannot be explained wholly by asymmetric lunar induction in the presence of the diamagnetic cavity, but must be related to a regional influence. The weaker Apollo 12 anisotropy may also be associated with a regional influence. The site of Apollo 15 LSM at the edge of the Imbrium Basin suggests a preliminary model for calculations based on the possibility that Imbrium and perhaps Serenitatis are sources of the regional effect. Lastly, since the very low frequency induction seems free of the anisotropy, our earlier estimate of deep conductivity remains unchanged.

  4. Impact of environmentally induced fluctuations on quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in photosynthetic energy transfer and 2D electronic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Fleming, Graham R.; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2015-06-01

    Recently, nuclear vibrational contribution signatures in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy have attracted considerable interest, in particular as regards interpretation of the oscillatory transients observed in light-harvesting complexes. These transients have dephasing times that persist for much longer than theoretically predicted electronic coherence lifetime. As a plausible explanation for this long-lived spectral beating in 2D electronic spectra, quantum-mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states (vibronic excitons) were proposed by Christensson et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 7449 (2012)] and have since been explored. In this work, we address a dimer which produces little beating of electronic origin in the absence of vibronic contributions, and examine the impact of protein-induced fluctuations upon electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures by calculating the electronic energy transfer dynamics and 2D electronic spectra in a numerically accurate manner. It is found that, at cryogenic temperatures, the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures are rather robust, even under the influence of the fluctuations and despite the small Huang-Rhys factors of the Franck-Condon active vibrational modes. This results in long-lasting beating behavior of vibrational origin in the 2D electronic spectra. At physiological temperatures, however, the fluctuations eradicate the mixing, and hence, the beating in the 2D spectra disappears. Further, it is demonstrated that such electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures do not necessarily play a significant role in electronic energy transfer dynamics, despite contributing to the enhancement of long-lived quantum beating in 2D electronic spectra, contrary to speculations in recent publications.

  5. Impact of environmentally induced fluctuations on quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in photosynthetic energy transfer and 2D electronic spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-06-07

    Recently, nuclear vibrational contribution signatures in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy have attracted considerable interest, in particular as regards interpretation of the oscillatory transients observed in light-harvesting complexes. These transients have dephasing times that persist for much longer than theoretically predicted electronic coherence lifetime. As a plausible explanation for this long-lived spectral beating in 2D electronic spectra, quantum-mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states (vibronic excitons) were proposed by Christensson et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 7449 (2012)] and have since been explored. In this work, we address a dimer which produces little beating of electronic origin in the absence of vibronic contributions, and examine the impact of protein-induced fluctuations upon electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures by calculating the electronic energy transfer dynamics and 2D electronic spectra in a numerically accurate manner. It is found that, at cryogenic temperatures, the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures are rather robust, even under the influence of the fluctuations and despite the small Huang-Rhys factors of the Franck-Condon active vibrational modes. This results in long-lasting beating behavior of vibrational origin in the 2D electronic spectra. At physiological temperatures, however, the fluctuations eradicate the mixing, and hence, the beating in the 2D spectra disappears. Further, it is demonstrated that such electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures do not necessarily play a significant role in electronic energy transfer dynamics, despite contributing to the enhancement of long-lived quantum beating in 2D electronic spectra, contrary to speculations in recent publications.

  6. Expectations induced by natural-like temporal fluctuations are independent of attention decrement: evidence from behavior and early visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Derosiere, Gerard; Farrugia, Nicolas; Perrey, Stéphane; Ward, Tomas; Torre, Kjerstin

    2015-01-01

    Temporal expectations and attention decrement affect human behavior in opposing ways: the former positively, the latter negatively yet both exhibit similar neural signatures - i.e., reduction in the early event-related potential components' amplitude - despite different underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a significant and growing debate in the literature regarding the putative role of attention in the encoding of expectations in perception. The question then arises as to what are the behavioral and neural consequences, if any, of attention decrement on temporal expectations and related enhancement of sensory information processing. Here, we investigated behavioral performance and visual N1a, N1p and P1 components during a sustained attention reaction time task inducing attention decrement under two conditions. In one condition, the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) were randomly distributed to impede expectation effects while for the other, the ISI exhibited natural-like long-term correlations supposed to induce temporal expectations. Behavioral results show that natural-like fluctuations in ISI indeed induced faster RT due to temporal expectations. These temporal expectations were beneficial even under attention decrement circumstances. Further, temporal expectations were associated with reduced N1a amplitude while attention decrement was associated with reduced N1p amplitude. Our findings provide evidence that the effects of temporal expectations and attention decrement induced in a single task can be independent at the behavioral level, and are supported at separate information processing stages at the neural level in vision. PMID:25224996

  7. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed.

  8. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-11-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  9. Electromagnetic fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  10. CR1Dinv: A Matlab program to invert 1D spectral induced polarization data for the Cole-Cole model including electromagnetic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Camerlynck, Christian; Florsch, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    An inversion code has been constructed using Matlab, to recover 1D parameters of the Cole-Cole model from spectral induced polarization data. In a spectral induced polarization survey, impedances are recorded at various frequencies. Both induced polarization and electromagnetic coupling effects occur simultaneously over the experimental frequency bandwidth, and these become progressively more dominant when the frequency increases. We used the CR1Dmod code published by Ingeman-Nielsen and Baumgartner [2006]. This code solves for electromagnetic responses, in the presence of complex resistivity effects in a 1D Earth. In this paper, a homotopy method has been designed by the authors to overcome the local convergence problem of normal iterative methods. In addition, in order to further condition the inverse problem, we incorporated standard Gauss-Newton (or quasi-Newton) methods. Graphical user interfaces enable straightforward entering of the data and the a priori model, as well as the cable configuration. Two synthetic examples are presented, showing that the spectral parameters can be recovered from multifrequency, complex resistivity data.

  11. Identification of LAMBDA-like systems in Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and observation of electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Baldit, E.; Bencheikh, K.; Monnier, P.; Briaudeau, S.; Levenson, J. A.; Crozatier, V.; Lorgere, I.; Bretenaker, F.; Le Goueet, J. L.; Guillot-Noeel, O.; Goldner, Ph.

    2010-04-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is reported in a solid-state material doped with erbium ions. In this paper we introduce the spectroscopic investigations we have conducted in order to identify the adequate LAMBDA-like three-level systems in Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal, relevant for the demonstration of EIT. These results pave the way for nonlinear and quantum optics applications based on EIT at the telecom wavelength around 1.5 mum.

  12. Velocity-selective effect and its use in refractive index control by an incoherent pumping in a V-type electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium

    SciTech Connect

    Li Luming; Tang Wenzhuo; Guo Hong

    2007-11-15

    Refractive index control and its relevance to the velocity-selective effect generated by the propagation direction of the incoherent pumping field are studied in an open V-type atomic system. The velocity-selective effect on electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) is presented in theory and verified in the experiment. It shows that, in contrast to the case of copropagation, counter-propagation of the incoherent pumping field has an absolutely opposite effect on the dispersion of the V-type EIT system. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  13. Animal magnetocardiography using superconducting quantum interference device gradiometers assisted with magnetic nanoparticle injection: A sensitive method for early detecting electromagnetic changes induced by hypercholesterolemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. C.; Hong, B. F.; Wu, B. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Horng, H. E.; Yang, H. C.; Tseng, W. Y. Isaac; Tseng, W. K.; Liu, Y. B.; Lin, L. C.; Lu, L. S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the authors used a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetocardiography (MCG) system consisted of 64-channel low-transition-temperature SQUID gradiometers to detect the MCG signals of hepercholesterolemic rabbits. In addition, the MCG signals were recorded before and after the injection of magnetic nanoparticles into the rabbits' ear veins to investigate the effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the MCG signals. These MCG data were compared to those of normal rabbits to reveal the feasibility for early detection of the electromagnetic changes induced by hypercholesterolemia using MCG with the assistance of magnetic nanoparticle injection.

  14. Bose-Einstein Condensation and Asymmetry induced by Quantum Fluctuations in NiCl2-4SC(NH 2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Vivien

    2011-03-01

    I will review Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl 2 -4SC(NH2)2 . This compound exhibits field-induced XY antiferromagnetism of the S = 1 Ni system for magnetic fields along the tetragonal c-axis between Hc 1 = 2.1 and Hc 2 = 12.6 T, and the axial symmetry of the spin environment allows us to understand the quantum phase transitions at Hc 1 and Hc 2 in terms of BEC of the spin system. Here the tuning parameter for the BEC transition is the magnetic field and not the temperature. It turns out that mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly suppressed by quantum fluctuations, resulting in a remarkable asymmetry between the properties at Hc 1 and Hc 2 . Here I will present magnetization, thermal conductivity and specific heat data to probe BEC and in particular the effect of quantum fluctuations on the boson mass. We acknowledge the National Science Foundation, US Dept of Energy and the state of Florida, as well as the LANL LDRD program and the Brazillian agency CNPq.

  15. Analysis of liquid sodium purity by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Modeling and correction of signal fluctuation prior to quantitation of trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Cécile; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Tabarant, Michel; L'Hermite, Daniel; Courouau, Jean-Louis; Gallou, Catherine; Caron, Nadège; Moutiers, Gilles; Cabuil, Valérie

    2013-04-01

    Liquid sodium is used as coolant in sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors. Among many parameters to monitor to ensure the safe operation of the reactor, the coolant chemical purity is a relevant indicator of several undesirable situations, like corrosion of structural materials or sodium contamination, which may release different elements in the coolant. Several techniques have already been implemented to measure the sodium purity, but their response time is long and not suited for continuous monitoring. Therefore, as a complement to them, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is considered as a promising technique for real-time analysis of the coolant purity. In this paper we report on the first LIBS quantitative measurements performed in liquid sodium at 150 °C. Calibration curves were traced for lead and indium using the standard addition method. Important intensity drifts and fluctuations were observed, mostly due to pressure variations in the sodium oven. Background subtraction and/or normalization was used to compensate for those intensity fluctuations. To describe the effect of these corrections on the analytical signal noise, a simple model was proposed and its results were found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data. Using this approach, the best detection limits were obtained for the background-subtracted and normalized data, and were found to be 6 ppm for lead and 5 ppm for indium.

  16. Superfluid helium sloshing dynamics induced oscillations and fluctuations of angular momentum, force and moment actuated on spacecraft driven by gravity gradient or jitter acceleration associated with slew motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The generalized mathematical formulation of sloshing dynamics for partially filled liquid of cryogenic superfluid helium II in dewar containers driven by the gravity gradient and jitter accelerations associated with slew motion for the purpose to perform scientific observation during the normal spacecraft operation are investigated. An example is given with the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility-Spectroscopy (AXAF-S) for slew motion which is responsible for the sloshing dynamics. The jitter accelerations include slew motion, spinning motion, atmospheric drag on the spacecraft, spacecraft attitude motions arising from machinery vibrations, thruster firing, pointing control of spacecraft, crew motion, etc. Explicit mathematical expressions to cover these forces acting on the spacecraft fluid systems are derived. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the non-inertia frame spacecraft bound coordinate, and solve time-dependent, three-dimensional formulations of partial differential equations subject to initial and boundary conditions. The explicit mathematical expressions of boundary conditions to cover capillary force effect on the liquid-vapor interface in microgravity environments are also derived. The formulations of fluid moment and angular moment fluctuations in fluid profiles induced by the sloshing dynamics, together with fluid stress and moment fluctuations exerted on the spacecraft dewar containers have also been derived. Examples are also given for cases applicable to the AXAF-S spacecraft sloshing dynamics associated with slew motion.

  17. Frequency fluctuations in silicon nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansa, Marc; Sage, Eric; Bullard, Elizabeth C.; Gély, Marc; Alava, Thomas; Colinet, Eric; Naik, Akshay K.; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Duraffourg, Laurent; Roukes, Michael L.; Jourdan, Guillaume; Hentz, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    Frequency stability is key to the performance of nanoresonators. This stability is thought to reach a limit with the resonator's ability to resolve thermally induced vibrations. Although measurements and predictions of resonator stability usually disregard fluctuations in the mechanical frequency response, these fluctuations have recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. However, their existence is very difficult to demonstrate experimentally. Here, through a literature review, we show that all studies of frequency stability report values several orders of magnitude larger than the limit imposed by thermomechanical noise. We studied a monocrystalline silicon nanoresonator at room temperature and found a similar discrepancy. We propose a new method to show that this was due to the presence of frequency fluctuations, of unexpected level. The fluctuations were not due to the instrumentation system, or to any other of the known sources investigated. These results challenge our current understanding of frequency fluctuations and call for a change in practices.

  18. Frequency fluctuations in silicon nanoresonators.

    PubMed

    Sansa, Marc; Sage, Eric; Bullard, Elizabeth C; Gély, Marc; Alava, Thomas; Colinet, Eric; Naik, Akshay K; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Duraffourg, Laurent; Roukes, Michael L; Jourdan, Guillaume; Hentz, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    Frequency stability is key to the performance of nanoresonators. This stability is thought to reach a limit with the resonator's ability to resolve thermally induced vibrations. Although measurements and predictions of resonator stability usually disregard fluctuations in the mechanical frequency response, these fluctuations have recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. However, their existence is very difficult to demonstrate experimentally. Here, through a literature review, we show that all studies of frequency stability report values several orders of magnitude larger than the limit imposed by thermomechanical noise. We studied a monocrystalline silicon nanoresonator at room temperature and found a similar discrepancy. We propose a new method to show that this was due to the presence of frequency fluctuations, of unexpected level. The fluctuations were not due to the instrumentation system, or to any other of the known sources investigated. These results challenge our current understanding of frequency fluctuations and call for a change in practices. PMID:26925826

  19. Experimental test of a fluctuation-induced first-order phase transition: The nematic-smectic-A transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, M. A.; Cladis, P. E.; Gorodetskii, E. E.; Huse, David A.; Podneks, V. E.; Taratuta, V. G.; van Saarloos, Wim; Voronov, V. P.

    1990-06-01

    In 1974, Halperin, Lubensky, and Ma (HLM) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 292 (1974)] predicted that the nematic-smectic-A transition of pure compounds and their mixtures should be at least weakly first order. One way to obtain such a prediction is to treat the smectic order parameter as a constant and integrate out the director fluctuations. The coupling between the director fluctuations and the smectic order parameter then generates a cubic term in the effective free energy for the nematic-smectic-A(N-Sm-A) transition, which tends to drive the transition first order. So far, however, there has not been clear experimental evidence in support of this prediction: Some materials appear to exhibit a first-order transition but others a second-order transition. In this paper we introduce two new approaches to test the predictions of HLM. First, we note that if a cubic term in the effective free energy for the smectic order parameter is present, its effect is dominant near the Landau tricritical point (LTP), where the quartic term in the free energy vanishes. In a mean-field approximation, a universal scaling form of the latent heat can then be derived close to the LTP. Its form depends sensitively on the presence of the cubic term. By reanalyzing earlier calorimetric measurements near the LTP, we find that these data yield evidence for the presence of the cubic term predicted by HLM. The second new approach to experimentally determine whether a transition is weakly first order or second order is a dynamical method. This general method is based on the observation that when a transition is (weakly) first order, the dynamics of interfaces are symmetric about Tc, so that an interface can propagate into both phases, depending on whether the sample is undercooled or overheated (corresponding to ``melting'' and ``freezing''). For a weakly first-order transition, a simple scaling relation for the interface speed can be derived. In contrast, the dynamics of propagating fronts close to a

  20. Electromagnetic Fields

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer. They give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. Scientists need to do more research on this ...

  1. Evolution of magnetic fluctuations through the Fe-induced paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in Cr2B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arčon, D.; Schoop, L. M.; Cava, R. J.; Felser, C.

    2016-03-01

    In itinerant ferromagnets, the quenched disorder is predicted to dramatically affect the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic quantum phase transition driven by external control parameters at zero temperature. Here we report a study on Fe-doped Cr2B , which, starting from the paramagnetic parent, orders ferromagnetically for Fe-doping concentrations x larger than xc=2.5 % . In parent Cr2B , 11B nuclear magnetic resonance data reveal the presence of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic fluctuations. The latter are suppressed with Fe doping, before the ferromagnetic ones finally prevail for x >xc . Indications for non-Fermi-liquid behavior, usually associated with the proximity of a quantum critical point, were found for all samples, including undoped Cr2B . The sharpness of the ferromagneticlike transition changes on moving away from xc, indicating significant changes in the nature of the magnetic transitions in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Our data provide some constraints for understanding quantum phase transitions in itinerant ferromagnets in the limit of weak quenched disorder.

  2. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  3. Differential equations governing slip-induced pore-pressure fluctuations in a water-saturated granular medium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Macroscopic frictional slip in water-saturated granular media occurs commonly during landsliding, surface faulting, and intense bedload transport. A mathematical model of dynamic pore-pressure fluctuations that accompany and influence such sliding is derived here by both inductive and deductive methods. The inductive derivation shows how the governing differential equations represent the physics of the steadily sliding array of cylindrical fiberglass rods investigated experimentally by Iverson and LaHusen (1989). The deductive derivation shows how the same equations result from a novel application of Biot's (1956) dynamic mixture theory to macroscopic deformation. The model consists of two linear differential equations and five initial and boundary conditions that govern solid displacements and pore-water pressures. Solid displacements and water pressures are strongly coupled, in part through a boundary condition that ensures mass conservation during irreversible pore deformation that occurs along the bumpy slip surface. Feedback between this deformation and the pore-pressure field may yield complex system responses. The dual derivations of the model help explicate key assumptions. For example, the model requires that the dimensionless parameter B, defined here through normalization of Biot's equations, is much larger than one. This indicates that solid-fluid coupling forces are dominated by viscous rather than inertial effects. A tabulation of physical and kinematic variables for the rod-array experiments of Iverson and LaHusen and for various geologic phenomena shows that the model assumptions commonly are satisfied. A subsequent paper will describe model tests against experimental data. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. Electromagnetically induced generation, gain in delayed wave mixing, and measuring coherent states using quantum-interference windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, I.; Moorman, L.

    1999-07-01

    A three-level atom interacting with classical electromagnetic fields is coherently excited by a two-photon transition near resonance and subsequently makes a second transition driven at resonance by a weak ir field at the noise level. Our calculation predicts generation of an electromagnetic field at a third frequency in the uv from zero field. Calculations show a gain of the uv radiation with propagation through the medium, though the populations of the two levels involved are never inverted. Other calculations produce a pulsed amplifier, two-photon optical nutation, and free induction memory. An effective susceptibility is defined and its imaginary part is found to be a good indicator of mode specific absorption and emission by the atomic state, and its real part a good indicator of dispersion. These calculations exemplify the possibility of coherent control over an atomic vapor and the production of a superradient macroscopic ensemble of states in the retarded frame for realistic parameters.

  5. Electromagnetically induced grating via coherently driven the n-doped In0.47Ga0.53As semiconductor quantum well nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Tayebeh

    2016-06-01

    A new scheme for investigating electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) in the vanishing two-photon absorption condition in a three-level ladder-configuration n-doped semiconductor quantum well is presented. By applying a standing-wave field interacting with the system, the absorption and dispersion of the probe field will change with the spatial periodical modulation. It is shown that the first-order diffraction intensity sensitively depends on the intensity of coupling fields, detuning of applied laser fields and interaction length. Moreover, it can reach its maximum on varying the system parameters. A novel result shows the considerable efficiency of higher order diffractions is significantly improved via relative phase between applied laser fields. Furthermore, it is found that the intensity of the switching and coupling fields can increase the efficiency of the phase grating in the present model. Such a unique feature of the cooperative Electromagnetic Induced Grating may be extended to further develop diffraction based new photonic devices in quantum information networks and new photonic devices in all-optical switching and optical imaging.

  6. Suppression of stimulated Raman scattering by an electromagnetically-induced-transparency-like scheme and its application for super-resolution microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Li; Wang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    We theoretically investigate a scheme in which stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) can be suppressed by coherently controlling the coupling between molecular states. In conventional SRS, two laser beams at different frequencies interact resonantly with molecular vibration to induce a gain and a loss for the two beams, respectively. In our scheme, a third beam is introduced to couple the vibrational state to another coupling state. As a result, SRS is suppressed in a way analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency. We calculated the SRS signal analytically by the density matrix approach, and investigated the feasibility of this scheme for real molecular imaging. In SRS microscopy, a donut-shaped coupling laser can be used to suppress the SRS signal from the rim part of the focal spot, leading to super-resolution. Based on our numerical studies, the lateral resolution starts to be enhanced when the coupling laser intensity exceeds 0.1 TW /c m2 at picosecond pulse duration.

  7. Experimental Demonstration of the Effectiveness of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Enhancing Cross-Phase Modulation in the Short-Pulse Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, Greg; Feizpour, Amir; Hallaji, Matin; Zhuang, Chao; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2016-04-01

    We present an experiment using a sample of laser-cooled Rb atoms to show that cross-phase modulation schemes continue to benefit from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) even as the transparency window is made narrower than the signal bandwidth (i.e., for signal pulses much shorter than the response time of the EIT system). Addressing concerns that narrow EIT windows might not prove useful for such applications, we show that while the peak phase shift saturates in this regime, it does not drop, and the time-integrated effect continues to scale inversely with EIT window width. This integrated phase shift is an important figure of merit for tasks such as the detection of single-photon-induced cross-phase shifts. Only when the window width approaches the system's dephasing rate γ does the peak phase shift begin to decrease, leading to an integrated phase shift that peaks when the window width is equal to 4 γ .

  8. Wave-function analysis of dynamic cancellation of ac Stark shifts in optical lattice clocks by use of pulsed Raman and electromagnetically-induced-transparency techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2007-07-15

    We study analytically the dynamic cancellation of ac Stark shift in the recently proposed pulsed electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT-)Raman optical lattice clock based on the wave-function formalism. An explicit expression for the time evolution operator corresponding to the effective two-level interaction Hamiltonian has been obtained in order to explain the atomic phase shift cancellation due to the ac Stark shift induced by the time-separated laser pulses. We present how to determine an optimum value of the common detuning of the driving fields at which the atomic phase shift cancels completely with the parameters for the practical realization of the EIT-Raman optical lattice clock with alkaline-earth-metal atoms.

  9. Experimental Demonstration of the Effectiveness of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Enhancing Cross-Phase Modulation in the Short-Pulse Regime.

    PubMed

    Dmochowski, Greg; Feizpour, Amir; Hallaji, Matin; Zhuang, Chao; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M

    2016-04-29

    We present an experiment using a sample of laser-cooled Rb atoms to show that cross-phase modulation schemes continue to benefit from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) even as the transparency window is made narrower than the signal bandwidth (i.e., for signal pulses much shorter than the response time of the EIT system). Addressing concerns that narrow EIT windows might not prove useful for such applications, we show that while the peak phase shift saturates in this regime, it does not drop, and the time-integrated effect continues to scale inversely with EIT window width. This integrated phase shift is an important figure of merit for tasks such as the detection of single-photon-induced cross-phase shifts. Only when the window width approaches the system's dephasing rate γ does the peak phase shift begin to decrease, leading to an integrated phase shift that peaks when the window width is equal to 4γ. PMID:27176519

  10. Can the Gulf Stream induce coherent short-term fluctuations in sea level along the US East Coast? A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, Tal

    2016-02-01

    Much attention has been given in recent years to observations and models that show that variations in the transport of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and in the Gulf Stream (GS) can contribute to interannual, decadal, and multi-decadal variations in coastal sea level (CSL) along the US East Coast. However, less is known about the impact of short-term (time scales of days to weeks) fluctuations in the GS and their impact on CSL anomalies. Some observations suggest that these anomalies can cause unpredictable minor tidal flooding in low-lying areas when the GS suddenly weakens. Can these short-term CSL variations be attributed to changes in the transport of the GS? An idealized numerical model of the GS has been set up to test this proposition. The regional model uses a 1/12° grid with a simplified coastline to eliminate impacts from estuaries and small-scale coastal features and thus isolate the GS impact. The GS in the model is driven by inflows/outflows, representing the Florida Current (FC), the Slope Current (SC), and the Sargasso Sea (SS) flows. Forcing the model with an oscillatory FC transport with a period of 2, 5, and 10 days produced coherent CSL variations from Florida to the Gulf of Maine with similar periods. However, when imposing variations in the transports of the SC or the SS, they induce CSL variations only north of Cape Hatteras. The suggested mechanism is that variations in GS transport produce variations in sea level gradient across the entire GS length and this large-scale signal is then transmitted into the shelf by the generation of coastal-trapped waves (CTW). In this idealized model, the CSL variations induced by variations of ˜10 Sv in the transport of the GS are found to resemble CSL variations induced by ˜5 m s-1 zonal wind fluctuations, though the mechanisms of wind-driven and GS-driven sea level are quite different. Better understanding of the relation between variations in offshore currents and CSL will help

  11. Electromagnetic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The design and development of an Electromagnetic Propulsion is discussed. Specific Electromagnetic Propulsion Topics discussed include: (1) Technology for Pulse Inductive Thruster (PIT), to design, develop, and test of a multirepetition rate pulsed inductive thruster, Solid-State Switch Technology, and Pulse Driver Network and Architecture; (2) Flight Weight Magnet Survey, to determine/develop light weight high performance magnetic materials for potential application Advanced Space Flight Systems as these systems develop; and (3) Magnetic Flux Compression, to enable rapid/robust/reliable omni-planetary space transportation within realistic development and operational costs constraints.

  12. Long-term electromagnetic pulse exposure induces Abeta deposition and cognitive dysfunction through oxidative stress and overexpression of APP and BACE1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Da-Peng; Li, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Sheng-Long; Kuang, Fang; Lang, Hai-Yang; Wang, Ya-Feng; An, Guang-Zhou; Li, Jing; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    A progressively expanded literature has been devoted in the past years to the noxious or beneficial effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) to Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). This study concerns the relationship between electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure and the occurrence of AD in rats and the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the role of oxidative stress (OS). 55 healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used and received continuous exposure for 8 months. Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted to test the ability of cognitive and memory. The level of OS was detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. We found that long-term EMP exposure induced cognitive damage in rats. The content of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein in hippocampus was increased after long-term EMP exposure. OS of hippocampal neuron was detected. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay showed that the content of Aβ protein and its oligomers in EMP-exposed rats were higher than that of sham-exposed rats. The content of Beta Site App Cleaving Enzyme (BACE1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) in EMP-exposed rats hippocampus were also higher than that of sham-exposed rats. SOD activity and GSH content in EMP-exposed rats were lower than sham-exposed rats (p<0.05). Several mechanisms were proposed based on EMP exposure-induced OS, including increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) aberrant cleavage. Although further study is needed, the present results suggest that long-term EMP exposure is harmful to cognitive ability in rats and could induce AD-like pathological manifestation. PMID:26972535

  13. Orientation-induced enhancement in electromagnetic properties of ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI core/shell/shell nanostructured disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI (ZSP) core/shell/shell nanostructured disks are prepared and fabricated into paraffin-bonded ZSP composite rings with random, vertical, and horizontal orientations of the easy magnetization planes of the ZSP disks in the paraffin binder in order to study the effect of directional orientation of the easy magnetization planes on their electromagnetic properties. The easy magnetization planes induced by shape anisotropy and oriented by a magnetic field in the vertically oriented ring result in a general enhancement in permeability of 7-60% in the broad UHF-Ku (0.1-18 GHz) bands, while those in the horizontally oriented ring lead to a significant enhancement of 58-1100% in the low-frequency L and S (1-4 GHz) bands, in comparison with the randomly oriented ring. The observed permeability agrees with the theoretical prediction based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman's effective medium theory. The horizontal and vertical arrangements of dipolar polarizations in the vertically and horizontally oriented rings give rise to 3-11% enhancement and weakening in permittivity, respectively, compared to the randomly oriented ring. The enhancement in permeability also improves and broadens the electromagnetic wave absorption in both vertically and horizontally oriented rings, especially in the L and S bands for the horizontally oriented ring.

  14. DIRECT CURRENT ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, A.H.

    1957-11-01

    An improved d-c electromagnetic pump is presented in which the poles, and consequently the magetic gap at the poles, are tapered to be wider at the upstream end. In addition, the cross section of the tube carryiQ the liquid metal is tapered so that the velocity of the pumped liquid increases in the downstream direction at a rate such that the counter-induced voltage in the liquid metal remains constant as it traverses the region between the poles. This configuration compensates for the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the induced voltage that would otherwise result in the lowering of the pumping capacity. This improved electromagnetic pump as practical application in the pumping of liquid metal coolants for nuclear reactors where conventional positive displacement pumps have proved unsatisfactory due to the high temperatures and the corrosive properties of the liquid metals involved.

  15. Damage effect and mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Wen, Xi; Chang-Chun, Chai; Gang, Zhao; Yin-Tang, Yang; Xin-Hai, Yu; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The damage effect and mechanism of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) are investigated in this paper. By using the device simulation software, the distributions and variations of the electric field, the current density and the temperature are analyzed. The simulation results show that there are three physical effects, i.e., the forward-biased effect of the gate Schottky junction, the avalanche breakdown, and the thermal breakdown of the barrier layer, which influence the device current in the damage process. It is found that the damage position of the device changes with the amplitude of the step voltage pulse. The damage appears under the gate near the drain when the amplitude of the pulse is low, and it also occurs under the gate near the source when the amplitude is sufficiently high, which is consistent with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  16. Societal Impacts of Solar Electromagnetic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J. L.

    2000-05-01

    Changes in solar electromagnetic radiation, which occur continuously and at all wavelengths of the spectrum, can have significant societal impacts on a wide range of time scales. Detection of climate change and ozone depletion requires reliable specification of solar-induced processes that mask or exacerbate anthropogenic effects. Living with, and mitigating, climate change and ozone depletion has significant economic, habitat and political impacts of international extent. As an example, taxes to restrict carbon emission may cause undue economic stress if the role of greenhouse gases in global warming is incorrectly diagnosed. Ignoring solar-induced ozone changes in the next century may lead to incorrect assessment of the success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting the ozone layer by limiting the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Societal infrastructure depends in many ways on space-based technological assets. Communications and navigation for commerce, industry, science and defense rely on satellite signals transmitted through, and reflected by, electrons in the ionosphere. Electron densities change in response to solar flares, and by orders of magnitude in response to EUV and X-ray flux variations during the Sun's 11-year activity cycle. Spacecraft and space debris experience enhanced drag on their orbits when changing EUV radiation causes upper atmosphere densities to increase. Especially affected are spacecraft and debris in lower altitude orbits, such as Iridium-type communication satellites, and the International Space Station (ISS). Proper specification of solar-induced fluctuations in the neutral upper atmosphere can, for example, aid in tracking the ISS and surrounding space debris, reducing the chance of ISS damage from collisions, and maximizing its operations. Aspects of solar electromagnetic radiation variability will be briefly illustrated on a range of time scales, with specific identification of the societal impacts of different

  17. Using frequency detuning to improve the sensitivity of electric field measurements via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Raithel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an approach for improved sensitivity in weak radio frequency (RF) electric-field strength measurements using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. This is accomplished by varying the RF frequency around a resonant atomic transition and extrapolating the weak on-resonant field strength from the resulting off-resonant Autler-Townes (AT) splittings. This measurement remains directly traceable to SI compared to previous techniques, precluding any knowledge of experimental parameters such as optical beam powers as is the case when using the curvature of the EIT line shape to measure weak fields. We use this approach to measure weak RF fields at 182 GHz and 208 GHz demonstrating improvement greater than a factor of 2 in the measurement sensitivity compared to on-resonant AT splitting RF electric field measurements.

  18. Phase shift multiplication effect of all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in two micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Boyun; Wang, Tao Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Chuanbo

    2014-01-14

    We propose phase shift multiplication effect of all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in two photonic crystal micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system through external optical pump beams. With dynamically tuning the propagation phase of the line waveguide, the phase shift of the transmission spectrum in two micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system is doubled along with the phase shift of the line waveguide. π-phase shift and 2π-phase shift of the transmission spectrum are obtained when the propagation phase of the line waveguide is tuned to 0.5π-phase shift and π-phase shift, respectively. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and the coupled-mode formalism. These results show a new direction to the miniaturization and the low power consumption of microstructure integration photonic devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  19. A non-resonant, frequency up-converted electromagnetic energy harvester from human-body-induced vibration for hand-held smart system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Miah A.; Park, Jae Y.

    2014-03-01

    We present a non-resonant, frequency up-converted electromagnetic energy harvester that generates significant power from human-body-induced vibration, e.g., hand-shaking. Upon excitation, a freely movable non-magnetic ball within a cylinder periodically hits two magnets suspended on two helical compression springs located at either ends of the cylinder, allowing those to vibrate with higher frequencies. The device parameters have been designed based on the characteristics of human hand-shaking vibration. A prototype has been developed and tested both by vibration exciter (for non-resonance test) and by manual hand-shaking. The fabricated device generated 110 μW average power with 15.4 μW cm-3 average power density, while the energy harvester was mounted on a smart phone and was hand-shaken, indicating its ability in powering portable hand-held smart devices from low frequency (<5 Hz) vibrations.

  20. All-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer switching based on the phase-shift multiplication effect of an analog on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Boyun; Xiong, Liangbin; Zeng, Qingdong; Chen, Zhihong; Lv, Hao; Ding, Yaoming; Du, Jun; Yu, Huaqing

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate all-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer switching based on the phase-shift multiplication effect of an all-optical analog on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect. The free-carrier plasma dispersion effect modulation method is applied to improve the tuning rate with a response time of picoseconds. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and coupled-mode formalism. Compared with no phase-shift multiplication effect, the average pump power of all-optical switching required to yield the π-phase shift difference decreases by 55.1%, and the size of the modulation region is reduced by 50.1% when the average pump power reaches 60.8 mW. This work provides a new direction for low-power consumption and miniaturization of microstructure integration light-controlled switching devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.